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corynebacterium bovis as a cause of human disease.corynebacterium bovis is a gram-positive rod which can cause bovine mastitis and rancidity in cream. on only one occasion has this organism been reported to cause human disease. six further cases are described in which infections were caused by c. bovis. in two patients the nervous system was involved; two patients had bacterial endocarditis; one had chronic otitis media; and one had a persistent leg ulcer. five patients recovered completely from the infection; the other died from endocarditis.197771496
isoprenoid quinones in the classification of coryneform and related bacteria.menaquinones were the only isoprenoid quinones found in 85 of the 95 coryneform bacteria examined. dihydromenaquinones having nine isoprene units were the main components isolated from corynebacterium bovis, from other glutamic acid-producing strains, and from arthrobacter globiformis and related species. dihydromenaquinones with eight isoprene units were found in brevibacterium linens, the remaining corynebacterium species and strains probably belonging to the genus rhodococcus. tetrahydromenaq ...1979107269
tetrahydrofolate-dependent biosynthesis of ribothymidine in transfer ribonucleic acids of gram-positive bacteria.trimethoprim, an inhibitor that prevents tetrahydrofolate-dependent transmethylation reactions inbacteria, was used in a comparative study to discriminate between two possible biosynthetic pathways, either the s-adenosylmethionine or the tetrahydrofolate-dependent formation of ribothymidine (rt) in transfer ribonucleic acids (trna's) of several strains of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. rt-deficient trna's accumulate in trimethoprim-treated gram-positive streptococcus faecium, st ...1977318638
induced staphylococcal infections in the bovine mammary gland.in a study to develop and define a practical model of bovine mastitis caused by staphylococcus aureus, induced infections were attempted in 203 bovine mammary glands of 41 cows, using 12 strains of s aureus. approximately 100 colony-forming units of s aureus in saline solution were injected after milking, and milk samples were collected daily from test glands for 14 days to monitor the progress of infections and inflammatory responses. relationships were examined for cow-related factors and for ...1978629447
selective adhesion of microorganisms to the ductular epithelium of the bovine mammary gland.streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus faecalis, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, and corynebacterium bovis were examined for their ability to adhere to the ductular epithelial cells of the bovine udder. s. agalactiae and s. aureus adhered readily and in large numbers, whereas the other organisms adhered poorly or not at all. the organisms showing the ability to adhere are those which frequently cause mastitis. these data suggest that selective adherence to the ductular epithelium may b ...1975811566
distribution of menaquinones in actinomycetes and corynebacteria.menaquinones were the only isoprenoid quinones found in 48 corynebacteria and actinomycete strains examined. dihydromenaquinones having nine isoprene units were the main components isolated from gordona, mycobacterium, corynebacterium bovis, corynebacterium glutamicum and a strain labelled nocardia farcinica, but dihydromenaquinones having eight isoprene units were characteristic of other corynebacterium species and representatives of the 'rhodochrous' complex. tetrahydromenaquinones having six ...1977894261
prevalence of corynebacterium bovis in bovine milk samples. 1976982768
corynebacterium bovis as a pathogen in rabbits.a corynebacterium identified as corynebacterium bovis has been isolated from a chronic testicular abscess and the lung of a laboratory rabbit. the strain, on intravenous injection, reproduced a similar disease in the inguinal and vulval region of an experimental rabbit. sera from both animals showed increasing titres of agglutinating antibody for the isolated corynebacterium and for kaolin particles sensitised with the phosphatide antigen of mycobacterium tuberculosis. it is suggested that the p ...19751129540
ventriculojugular shunt nephritis with corynebacterium bovis. successful therapy with antibiotics.a patient with hydrocephalus and a ventriculojugular shunt presented with acute nephritis, nephrotic syndrome (proteinuria 10 g/24 hours), decreased complement levels, circulating immune complexes and diminished creatinine clearance (41 ml/min). seven blood cultures grew corynebacterium bovis. a renal biopsy specimen revealed mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis by light microscopy, and thickened glomerular basement membranes with areas of increased granular density by electron microscopy. immun ...19751163549
effects of estrus and exogenous estrogen on circulating neutrophils and milk somatic cell concentration, neutrophil phagocytosis, and occurrence of clinical mastitis in cows.in a study involving 56 quarters (14 cows), it was seen that standing estrus did not affect circulating neutrophil and milk somatic cell concentrations, neutrophil phagocytosis, milk production, or occurrence of clinical mastitis. the subcutaneous injection of 17beta-estradiol (e2) (0.05 mg/kg of body weight 2 times daily for 2 consecutive days) did not affect neutrophil phagocytosis or milk somatic cell values. however, a significant increase in circulating neutrophils and a significant decreas ...19751238041
intramammary response to modified intramammary devices.twenty-five cows in three experiments were used to evaluate the following intramammary devices: abraded surfaces; abraded and sulfur hexafluoride-coated; abraded, sulfur hexafluoride-coated, and weighted; and smooth surfaces and weighted. the objectives of the experiments were 1) to determine whether coating the abraded intramammary devices prevented amorphous deposits and bacterial adherence on the devices, 2) to determine whether addition of weight to devices increased the concentration of som ...19921541746
mastitis in beef cows and its effects on calf weight gain.quarter milk samples from 51 purebred (angus, polled hereford, and simmental) and 69 crossbred (angus x simmental x charolais three-way cross) beef cows were collected aseptically at three times during lactation to determine the prevalence of intramammary infection, milk somatic cell counts (scc), and effects of infection on calf weight gain. quarter infection prevalence was 13.1, 14.9, and 27.5% in early, mid, and late lactation; corresponding cow infection prevalence was 25.8, 29.2, and 54.4%. ...19911752802
changes in the bovine udder quarters naturally infected by corynebacterium bovis.of 272 bovine udder quarters studied for mastitis, 19 of them naturally infected with corynebacterium bovis alone, were compared with 16 others infected by c. bovis together with other bacteria and another 36 non-infected quarters. while there was no significant difference in milk somatic cell counts between the quarters infected by c. bovis alone and those affected by c. bovis together with other bacteria (33.37 +/- 20.28 x 10(3) and 33.86 +/- 23.18 x 10(3)/ml of milk, respectively), there was ...19911959018
[milk chloride level as an indicator of bovine mastitis].the aim of this study was to determine an influence of udder infection on milk chloride level and on milk productivity of cows of black and white race. bacteriological analysis was performed by bacterial isolation from milk collected in sterile conditions from single lobes of mammary gland. the study was aimed to detect the following bacteria: streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus uberis, streptococcus agalactiae, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, actinomyces pyogenes, enterob ...19902084451
efficacy of chlorhexidine as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis during lactation.a natural exposure trial was conducted for 12 mo in a herd of 150 lactating jersey cows to determine efficacy of a .35% chlorhexidine teat dip containing a glycerine emollient for the prevention of bovine intramammary infections. right teats of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal and left teats were not dipped. the herd was free of streptococcus agalactiae and had a low prevalence of staphylococcus aureus. most new major pathogen intramammary infections re ...19902229606
growth of corynebacterium bovis in mammary secretions during physiological transitions of the bovine mammary gland.an in vitro microassay was used to evaluate growth of five strains of corynebacterium bovis in mammary secretions collected from quarters of five holstein cows at 0, 14, and 28 d of involution, at parturition, and 14 d after parturition. variation in growth among different strains of corynebacterium bovis was observed. corynebacterium bovis grew well in mammary secretions obtained at the last milking of lactation, at parturition, and 14 d after parturition. however, growth of four strains of cor ...19902329201
whipple's disease with unusual clinical, bacteriologic, and immunologic findings.a middle-aged man was found to have whipple's disease after episodes of nephritis and arthralgia. while on antibiotic therapy, and in the absence of worsening of the histologic appearances of the jejunum, aortic valve endocarditis developed, presumably due to whipple's disease. observations during the course of his illness included the isolation of corynebacterium bovis from an inguinal lymph node, and detection of circulating antibodies against material within the characteristic abnormal macrop ...19862420678
prevalence of minor udder pathogens after intramammary dry treatment.a total of 156 dairy cows was randomly assigned to one of four groups at drying off over an 18-mo period: untreated control or intramammary treatment of each mammary quarter with either 400 mg novobiocin, 300 mg cephapirin, or 1 g dihydrostreptomycin with 1 million units penicillin. quarter foremilk samples were aseptically collected from each cow within 1 mo of drying off and within 1 mo after parturition for bacteriological analysis. prior to drying off, 28.7% of quarters were positive of whic ...19862423568
comparison of the effect of antibiotic dry cow teat canal and intramammary dry cow therapy of dairy cows on the prevalence of teat canal and intramammary infections at calving.the specific therapy of bacterial colonization of the teat canals of dried-off dairy cows by means of small amounts (33 mg/0.25 ml and 14 mg/0.1 ml) of a procain benzyl penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin sulphate combination has been investigated. of 36 teat canals treated with 0.25 ml antibiotic preparation each, 24 (66.6%) were infected at the beginning of the dry period, whereas at its termination only 7 (19.4%) showed bacteriologically positive swab cultures. by treating a further 43 quarters wi ...19852425091
prevention of bovine mastitis by a postmilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel.a natural exposure study was conducted in a herd of 150 lactating dairy cows for 18 mo to determine the effectiveness of chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide in a soluble polymer gel as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis. right quarters of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal. left quarters were not dipped and served as within-cow negative controls. the experimental teat dip reduced staphylococcus aureus infections 67.4%, st ...19892625499
influence of corynebacterium bovis on constituents of milk and dynamics of mastitis. 19892635007
intramammary infections and risk factors for clinical mastitis in herds with low somatic cell counts in bulk milk.ten herds with low somatic cell counts in bulk milk had an incidence of clinical mastitis of only 2.2 per 100 cows whereas 10 other herds with similarly low cell counts had an incidence of 53.6 per 100 cows. the major pathogens in the herds with a high incidence were escherichia coli, streptococcus uberis, staphylococcus aureus and the coagulase-negative staphylococci. the percentage of uninfected quarters in the herds with a high incidence of clinical mastitis was 21.4 per cent compared with 12 ...19892683341
different species of corynebacteria in human investigations in cairo.in investigations undertaken in cairo of ocular smears the following corynebacteria were isolated: corynebacterium a4, corynebacterium a5, corynebacterium bovis, corynebacterium aquaticum, corynebacterium diphtheriae, corynebacterium equi, corynebacterium f2, corynebacterium kutscheri, corynebacterium minutissimi, corynebacterium renale, corynebacterium xerosis, corynebacterium group i, corynebacterium spec. (at present not classified). in this study the hitherto isolated species and possible hu ...19892689286
duration of experimentally induced corynebacterium bovis colonization of bovine mammary glands during the lactating, nonlactating, and peripartum periods.bovine mammary glands were inoculated intracisternally with a streptomycin-resistant (sr) strain of corynebacterium bovis to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu) required to induce colonization and to maintain persistence of c bovis colonization throughout lactation and involution. streptomycin resistance was used as a strain marker. uninfected quarters in cows during midlactation were challenge exposed with successively higher numbers of sr c bovis until all quarters became coloni ...19892719392
leukocytic infiltration of bovine mammary parenchymal tissue in response to corynebacterium bovis colonization.morphological changes and local leukocyte response to prolonged corynebacterium bovis colonization were studied in lactating bovine mammary glands. morphometric analysis of parenchymal tissue demonstrated no adverse effects of colonization on the synthetic and secretory activity of mammary epithelium. numbers of macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were higher in tissue from c. bovis-colonized quarters. however, there were no differences in numbers of neutrophils between colonized and unin ...19892745807
frequency of isolation of environmental mastitis-causing pathogens and incidence of new intramammary infection during the nonlactating period.quarter samples (n = 6,328) of mammary secretions were collected from 160 cows during physiologic transitions of the udder to determine the frequency of isolation of mastitis-causing pathogens and the incidence of new intramammary infections (imi) during the nonlactating period. none of the cows in the herd was infected with streptococcus agalactiae, and the prevalence of staphylococcus aureus was low. cows were not treated with antibiotics at cessation of milking. a threefold increase in the pe ...19883073674
health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls.holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of aroclor 1254. control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. the following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and re ...19873114032
physiological and pathological factors influencing bovine immunoglobulin g2 concentration in milk.bovine igg2 concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion in 355 milk samples of uninfected quarters, 101 milk samples of infected quarters, and 118 blood serum samples from 42 holstein-friesian cows taken at 30, 150, and 270 d. concentration of igg2 in blood serum (11.3 mg/ml) was highest at the beginning of lactation (30 d). immunoglobulin g2 concentration in milk (16.81 micrograms/ml) from cows with uninfected quarters was not affected by quarter location but was correlated with igg2 ...19883170863
rate of environmental mastitis in quarters infected with corynebacterium bovis and staphylococcus species.rates of environmental streptococcal and coliform intramammary infections were compared among quarters uninfected and infected with either corynebacterium bovis or staphylococcus species. rate of environmental streptococcal intramammary infections was 3.9 times greater in c. bovis-infected quarters than in uninfected quarters. rate of environmental streptococcal infections was 2.6 times greater in quarters infected with staphylococcus species than in uninfected quarters. rate of coliform intrama ...19883183146
humoral immune response of bovine mammary glands colonized with corynebacterium bovis: enumeration of plasma cell populations in tissue and immunoglobulin concentrations in milk. 19883195262
effects of source and washing of erythrocytes on growth of bacterial pathogens from the bovine mammary gland.effects of source and washing of rbc on quantitative growth and hemolytic zone sizes of common bacterial pathogens of the bovine mammary gland were evaluated. blood samples used to prepare the blood agar media were obtained from 10 adult dairy cows, 10 dairy calves, and 10 sheep. hemolytic zone sizes produced by staphylococcus aureus were significantly (p less than 0.01) larger on blood agar prepared with washed rbc than on blood agar prepared with nonwashed rbc, regardless of rbc source. with t ...19883279872
effect of naturally occurring intramammary infections by minor pathogens on new infections by major pathogens in cattle.new mammary infections were recorded in 3 dairy herds during a lactation period by bacteriologic examination of milk samples at 3-week intervals. influences of the infection status of quarters at the time of new infection and of microorganisms responsible for bacterial invasion were analyzed. the new infection rate in uninfected quarters was about 3 times the rate in quarters already harboring bacterial considered minor pathogens (coagulase-negative staphylococci and corynebacterium bovis) or ma ...19883282458
growth inhibition of mastitis pathogens by long-chain fatty acids.staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus hyicus, streptococcus agalactiae, and corynebacterium bovis were tested for sensitivity to long-chain fatty acids predominant in teat canal keratin. antibacterial activity of free fatty acids on each bacterial species was measured after 12 and 24 h in chemically defined media. polyene c18:2 and c18:3 acids were bactericidal to each species at less than or equal to 10(5) ng/ml-1. the most bacteriostatic saturated fatty acids were c12 and c14. streptococcus ag ...19873298342
growth responses of staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae to corynebacterium bovis metabolites.staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae growth responses to metabolites of corynebacterium bovis cultured in media containing polyoxyethylenesorbitan monolaurate, monooleate, or trioleate and milk were determined. filter sterilized metabolites of 48-h c. bovis cultures in synthetic media were added to cultures of staph. aureus and strep. agalactiae. staphylococcus aureus and strep. agalactiae were inoculated into 12-h c. bovis milk cultures. growth responses of staph. aureus and strep ...19873301930
[endocarditis with unusual causative agents].in the period 1947-1985, 601 patients with infective endocarditis were seen at the university hospital zurich and the kantonsspital lucerne. streptococci, enterococci and staphylococci were the predominant causative organisms in two-thirds of all cases. in more than 25% of the patients blood cultures remained negative. in 6 patients endocarditis was caused by very rare organisms, viz. coxiella burnetii (2 cases), hemophilus parainfluenzae, corynebacterium bovis (diphtheroids), brucella melitensi ...19873324331
[should mammary infections caused by corynebacterium bovis and coagulase-negative staphylococci be eliminated?].role of minor pathogens in resistance to infections: analysis of epidemiological surveys, information obtained by use of experimental infections (role of coagulase-negative staphylococci, and corynebacterium bovis). scope of the phenomenon of mammary infections interference. mechanisms underlying the interference of infections: hypotheses. consequences for mastitis control.19873330412
secretion composition during bovine mammary involution and the relationship with mastitis.1. bacteriological analysis revealed that 30% of quarters contained coagulase-negative staphylococci, staphylococcus aureus, corynebacterium bovis, or streptococci. 2. as involution progressed, somatic cell counts, percent protein, ph, and concentrations of serum albumin, lactoferrin, and immunoglobulin g increased while percent fat, concentrations of citrate, and the citrate to lactoferrin molar ratio decreased. 3. mammary secretion from infected quarters had significantly higher numbers of som ...19873436479
experimental infection of lactating bovine mammary glands with streptococcus uberis in quarters colonized by corynebacterium bovis.twenty-seven quarters of 18 lactating dairy cows were inoculated intramammarily with 3.6 x 10(4) colony-forming units (cfu) of a strain of streptococcus uberis isolated from a cow with clinical mastitis. before quarters were inoculated, 22 were considered as naturally colonized with corynebacterium bovis, and 5 were considered bacteriologically negative. streptococcus uberis was isolated from all quarters within 2 days after inoculation, and all quarters developed clinical mastitis by 3 days aft ...19873592374
examination of intramammary devices from infected and uninfected mammary quarters by scanning electron microscopy.polyethylene intramammary devices were removed from six infected and four uninfected mammary quarters of seven lactating cows and examined by scanning electron microscopy. infecting organisms included corynebacterium bovis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and an unidentified fungus. intramammary devices from infected quarters had amorphous material adhering to large areas of the polyethylene. large numbers of inflammatory cells and microorganisms were found concentrated within the material. de ...19873597930
evaluation of .5% and 1% iodophor teat dips on commercial dairies.two postmilking teat dips containing .5 and 1% iodine were evaluated for approximately 8 mo under conditions of natural exposure to mastitis pathogens on four commercial dairy farms. in the two herds using .5% iodophor, incidence of intramammary infection with staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae was reduced 68.3 and 46.2%, respectively. when numbers of new infections with both pathogens were combined, efficacy for the .5% iodophor was 62.3%. in the two herds using 1% iodophor, inc ...19863745576
the pathogenesis of a high-virulence and a low-virulence strain of corynebacterium bovis in the mammary gland of the mouse.a comparison was made of the pathogenesis of experimental mastitis in mice caused by a strain of corynebacterium bovis (p3) isolated from clinical mastitis in the cow and a strain (ncdo 1930) isolated from the teat of a symptomless carrier cow. strain ncdo 1930 elicited a neutrophil response which controlled the infection so that, after 6 to 8 days, 9 of 10 glands were sterile and one abscess was found. in contrast, the neutrophil response to strain p3 failed to control the infection and, by 6 t ...19853837793
physiological and pathological factors influencing bovine alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin concentrations in milk.bovine alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion in 354 milk samples from uninfected and 98 samples from infected quarters from 42 holstein-friesian cows taken at 30, 150, and 270 days of lactation. alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin concentrations were not affected by quarter location. the alpha-lactalbumin decreased at the end of lactation and in samples collected beyond second lactation. the beta-lactoglobulin concentration increas ...19853842846
effects of corynebacterium bovis infection on susceptibility to major mastitis pathogens.experimental challenge procedures were used to study infectivity and virulence of corynebacterium bovis. challenge procedures using staphylococcus aureus (newbould 305) and streptococcus agalactiae (mcdonald 44) were used to study effects of corynebacterium bovis infections on superinfection with major pathogens. rate of infection under experimental challenge conditions was significantly greater with corynebacterium bovis than previously observed for staphylococcus aureus or streptococcus agalac ...19853905890
analysis of cellular fatty acids by gas chromatography as a tool in the identification of medically important coryneform bacteria.the fatty acid methyl esters of nineteen unidentified pathogenic coryneform bacteria were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography and the resulting profiles were compared with those of type or reference strains of possibly related species, namely caseobacter polymorphus, corynebacterium bovis, c. diphtheriae, c. xerosis and rhodococcus equi. all of the strains had distinct fatty acid profiles but most of them conformed to a general pattern, with high levels of octadecanoic acids and only trace amo ...19853924876
analysis of cellular components, biochemical reactions, and habitat of human cutaneous lipophilic diphtheroids.the cutaneous distribution of lipophilic diphtheroids was determined in normal human volunteers. the organisms were found to be plentiful in moist regions (scalp, nares, axilla, groin, and toe web) and scarce in dry and purely oily regions. the lipid requirement, cellular fatty acids, mycolic acid and cell wall diaminopimelic acid content of these lipophilic diphtheroids was compared to those of strains of corynebacterium bovis, c. xerosis, c. diphtheriae, and c. minutissimum. only lipophilic di ...19853930617
effect of automatic backflushing on number of new intramammary infections, bacteria on teatcup liners, and milk iodine.effect of an automatic iodine (15 ppm) backflushing system on incidence of new intramammary infections, teatcup liner bacterial populations, and milk iodine was tested in a herd free of streptococcus agalactiae and with a low prevalence of staphylococcus aureus. in an 11-mo trial, backflushing was applied to teatcups that milked the right half of the udder; the left half served as control. clawpieces were divided into left and right halves with each having a milk outlet. postmilking teat dipping ...19853989082
the virulence of strains of corynebacterium bovis in the mammary gland of the mouse and the effect of corynebacterial mastitis on subsequent infection with staphylococcus aureus. 19854063778
effects of natural intramammary corynebacterium bovis infection on milk yield and composition.the objective was to assess effect of corynebacterium bovis infection of the bovine mammary gland on milk yield and composition. yield and composition of milk from 53 corynebacterium bovis-infected quarters of 44 cows at four consecutive milkings were compared with those of the contralateral uninfected quarters. differences between infected and uninfected quarters in milk, fat, and protein yield and in fat and protein content were small and statistically nonsignificant. numbers of somatic cells ...19854093527
locus of mammary gland infections of corynebacterium bovis. 19724111906
california mastitis test reactivity and bacterial invasions in quarters infected with corynebacterium bovis. 19725064451
[role of corynebacterium bovis in mastitis and its biochemical activity]. 19725081757
cell wall composition in corynebacterium bovis and some other corynebacteria.the cell wall compositions of two strains of corynebacterium bovis were found to differ: one contained lysine, rhamnose, mannose, and glucose, the other meso-alpha, epsilon, diaminopimelic acid (dap), arabinose, galactose, and mannose. the walls of a strain of c. nephridii were characterized by l-dap and galactose. those of a strain of c. paurometabolum and of two strains of "lipophilic diphtheroids" contained meso-dap, arabinose, galactose, and mannose as did walls of a reference strain of c. x ...19715547985
the nutritional requirements and biochemical reactions of corynebacterium bovis. 19665974835
within herd comparison of teat dipping and dry cow therapy with only selective dry cow therapy in six herds.a within herd comparison of teat dipping and dry cow therapy (full treatment) with only selective dry cow therapy (partial treatment) was carried out in six commercial dairy herds for a two year period. in four herds, the incidence of clinical mastitis was 2 to 12 per cent higher in the partial treatment group. in another herd, in which the pattern of clinical mastitis isolates was unusual in that minor pathogens were isolated from 30 per cent of mastitis cases, the incidence was 43 per cent hig ...19836190299
susceptibility of bovine mammary gland to infections during the dry period.quarter foremilk samples (1,574) were collected for bacteriological analysis from 40 cows during late lactation, early involution, prior to parturition, parturition, and during early lactation. six of 160 quarters were infected with major pathogens during late lactation. twelve new infections occurred during early involution. twenty-two quarters were infected at parturition. of these infections, 12 occurred after early involution, and 10 infections that originated during early involution persist ...19836348108
intramammary infections in primigravid heifers near parturition.mammary secretion from 32 primigravid heifers was obtained aseptically to determine frequency of bacterial isolation and incidence of intramammary infection near parturition. quarter samples were collected 14 and 7 days prior to expected parturition, at parturition, and 7 and 14 days postparturition. analysis of culture data indicated that 77.1% of samples were bacteriologically negative, and 15.7% contained coagulase negative staphylococci, 4.4% streptococci other than streptococcus agalactiae, ...19836348109
germicidal teat dip in a herd with low prevalence of streptococcus agalactiae and staphylococcus aureus mastitis.effectiveness of an iodophor teat dip in reducing new intramammary infection and clinical mastitis was tested in a herd free of streptococcus agalactiae and with a low prevalence of staphylococcus aureus infections. in this 6-mo study with an average of 152 lactating cows on trial on sampling dates, right rear and left front teats were dipped after each milking while right front and left rear teats were undipped controls. teat dipping significantly reduced new infections by staphylococcus aureus ...19836350391
the susceptibility of bovine udder quarters colonized with corynebacterium bovis to experimental infection with staphylococcus aureus or streptococcus agalactiae.twenty bovine udder quarters colonized with corynebacterium bovis sr6 and 20 uncolonized quarters were challenged by inoculation of staphylococcus aureus newbould 305 (atcc 29740) into the teat cistern. the percentage of infection in quarters colonized with c. bovis (50%) was significantly lower than that in controls (100%). by similar challenge no significant difference was observed between the percentage of infection with streptococcus agalactiae atcc 27956 in 33 quarters colonized with c. bov ...19846372969
observations on corynebacterium bovis infection of the bovine mammary gland. ii. experimental infection.experiments are described in which lactating cows were exposed to corynebacterium bovis either by dipping the teats in a suspension of the bacteria or by inoculating the bacteria into the teat duct or the teat sinus. all three methods readily led to 'infection' being established. the effect of these infections on somatic cell count was minor and no clinical mastitis resulted during the course of the experiments although some cases occurred subsequently. there was evidence that 44% of these infec ...19846381561
gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of mycolic acids as a tool in the identification of medically important coryneform bacteria.the mycolic acid derivatives of 11 unidentified pathogenic coryneform bacteria were examined by tlc, glc and glc-mass spectrometry. the resulting mycolic acid profiles of the unidentified isolates were compared with those of type or reference strains of possibly related coryneform species, namely corynebacterium bovis, c. diphtheriae, c. xerosis and rhodococcus equi. it was apparent that most of the unidentified strains showed a distinctive mycolic acid profile, with predominant amounts of relat ...19846427401
antibiotic susceptibility patterns of mastitis pathogens isolated from bloemfontein dairy herds.the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in bloemfontein fresh milk dairy herds were determined. a total of 141 bacterial strains tested, consisted of staphylococcus aureus (93 strains), coagulase negative staphylococci (17), streptococci (12), corynebacterium bovis (8), pseudomonas aeruginosa (7) and enterobacteria (4). antibiotic susceptibility was determined qualitatively using the kirby-bauer disc diffusion method and quantitatively by determini ...19846442736
observations on corynebacterium bovis infection of the bovine mammary gland. i. natural infection.data from experiments in 55 commercial herds have been examined to study the patterns of corynebacterium bovis infection. such infections are most common in herds that are not subjected to regular control methods but their commercial significance appears to be small. in herds using teat disinfection and dry cow therapy levels of infection with this organism are low. there is no evidence from these data to suggest that c. bovis infections protect the udder against invasion by a major pathogen. on ...19846470274
efficacy of an iodine backflush for preventing new intramammary infections.efficacy of an iodine backflush system for reducing new intramammary infection was tested in two 11-wk trials. forty cows in each trial were paired by breed, age, stage of lactation, and intramammary infection status. each pair was assigned randomly either to a group milked with clusters that were reverse flushed with water, 25 ppm iodine, water and air or to a group milked with clusters receiving no backflush treatment between cows. backflushing clusters reduced infections caused by corynebacte ...19846480966
prevalence and types of bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in bloemfontein dairy herds.bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis were isolated from machine-milked dairy herds in the bloemfontein area supplying fresh milk during the period july to december 1980. the 151 quarter milk samples examined, were also subjected to somatic cell counts. identification of the isolated bacterial strains showed that staphylococcus aureus was the dominant mastitis-associated organism, constituting 66,4% of all bacteria isolated. compared with other recent mastitis surveys a low prevalence of ...19846492054
effect of intramammary device on new infection rate, milk yield, and milk somatic cell counts in maryland dairy herds.effectiveness of a polyethylene intramammary device against naturally occurring infections was evaluated in three maryland herds over 2 yr. treated cows [62] were fitted with intramammary devices in all quarters of udders. control cows [62] were sham treated. rates of new intramammary infection over single lactation in treated and control quarters of primiparous cows averaged 18 and 27%. reduction of infection rate was due primarily to fewer corynebacterium bovis infections. infection rate betwe ...19846520267
physiological and pathological factors influencing bovine immunoglobulin g1 concentration in milk.bovine immunoglobulin g1 concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion in 349 milk samples of uninfected quarters, 95 of infected quarters, and 118 blood serum samples from 42 holstein-friesian cows taken at days 30, 150, and 270. in lactation, immunoglobulin g1 concentration in milk was not affected by immunoglobulin g1 concentration in blood serum or location of quarters. the immunoglobulin g1 concentrations increased at the end of lactation and in samples collected from cows beyond t ...19836685740
relationship between the level of n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (nagase) in bovine milk and the presence of mastitis pathogens.changes in the level of the tissue damage marker enzyme, n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (nagase) in quarter fore milks were found to be related to the presence and types of pathogenic bacteria present and to somatic cell counts (scc). minor pathogens (coagulase-negative staphylococci, corynebacterium bovis) elicited a mild scc increase (from a mean of 243 x 10(3)/ml in healthy quarters to 504 x 10(3)/ml in infected quarters) with marginal tissue damage (mean nagase activity increased from 21 in ...19846707293
experimental colonization of the bovine teat duct with corynebacterium bovis and the effect on milk somatic cell counts.colonization with corynebacterium bovis was established in 59 of 64 (92%), 58 of 59 (98%) and 19 of 34 (56%) of uninfected bovine mammary quarters following inoculation of 83.3 x 10(4) colony-forming units (cfu) of the organism into the teat cistern, 4.7 x 10(3) cfu 5 mm into the teat duct or by exposure of the teat orifice to a milk culture containing 1.6 x 10(7) cfu/ml respectively. mean somatic cell counts for foremilk samples from 122 quarters were significantly higher after colonization wit ...19846722643
characterization of strains of corynebacterium bovis.the biochemical and morphological characteristics of 104 strains of corynebacterium bovis isolated from bovine milk samples and the c. bovis reference strain were found to be uniform. valuable criteria for identification were presence of catalase and oxidase, production of acid from glucose and fructose and a requirement for enriched basal media. six strains of human and three strains of bovine origin were found to be inconsistent with the reference strain.19846722650
infections caused by nondiphtheria corynebacteria.after decades of confusion about their microbiologic classification and clinical significance, the nondiphtheria corynebacteria have emerged as important pathogens. although isolation of these organisms may represent contamination with skin flora, several species, including corynebacterium ulcerans, corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (corynebacterium ovis), corynebacterium haemolyticum, corynebacterium pseudodiptheriticum, corynebacterium equi, corynebacterium bovis, corynebacterium xerosis, and ...19826760340
an observational study of corynebacterium bovis in selected ontario dairy herds.an observational study of corynebacterium bovis was conducted in 74 ontario dairy herds. the levels of infection with c. bovis were 19.9, 36.2 and 85.6% at the quarter, cow and herd level, respectively. teat disinfection was found to be the variable best able to distinguish between herds with a high or low c. bovis quarter infection rate. mean total milk somatic cell counts for 1103 quarters and 107 cows infected with only c. bovis ranged between 150,000 and 200,000/ml and were significantly hig ...19836831308
the interference between coagulase negative staphylococci and corynebacterium bovis and the common udder pathogens in the lactating cow.in these experiments it was studied whether the presence of the low pathogenic coagulase negative staphylococci or corynebacterium bovis in the lactating bovine udder would have a protective effect against some of the common udder pathogens such as staphylococcus aureus, the streptococci and the gram negative bacteria.19807015267
a survey of the structures of mycolic acids in corynebacterium and related taxa.acid methanolysates of 104 strains of coryneform and related bacteria were examined for mycolic acids by thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry. the mycolic acids of corynebacterium sensu stricto strains were not uniform in size and structure, and considerable variation existed within the approximate limiting range of c22 to c36. two species, corynebacterium bovis and 'corynebacterium mycetoides', were particularly distinctive; the former had exceptionally low molecular weight mycolic a ...19827086391
dynamics of nonclinical bovine intramammary infections with major and minor pathogens.udder infections were recorded in 3 herds throughout a lactation period with bacteriologic examination being done at 3-week intervals. new infection rates and levels of infection at calving differed significantly (p less than 0.001) between herds, but persistence of infection did not. of the 324 infections, 80.5% lasted up to drying off. of quarters infected with major pathogens, 16.8% eliminated their infection (63% became reinfected); 20.8% of quarters infected with minor pathogens eliminated ...19827165160
outbreak of bovine mastitis associated with corynebacterium bovis. 19817303440
national cross-sectional study of mastitis in dairy cattle in jordan.between july 1991 and august 1992, 63 jordanian dairy farms selected by stratified random sample were visited to identify the major causes and prevalence of intramammary infections in dairy cows. of 773 cows examined 60% of all sampled quarters had > 283,000 cells/ml. the mean value of somatic cell count (scc) was positively associated with age in lactations and negatively with herd size. cows milked by bucket milking machines or in fully automatic parlours had a lower mean scc than those milked ...19947809990
efficacy of dry cow therapy and a propionibacterium acnes product in herds with low somatic cell count.dry cow therapy and a propionibaterium acnes product were evaluated in four commercial herds with low scc. cows were randomly assigned within herds to treatment groups of approximately 90 cows receiving dry cow therapy, p. acnes, dry cow therapy plus p. acnes, or no treatment in a factorial arrangement. each lactating quarter of cows that received dry cow therapy was infused via the teat duct with 300 mg of cephaprin at drying off. cows that received p. acnes were infused intravenously with .4 m ...19947814709
contagious mastitis.contagious mastitis is defined. the major mastitis pathogens are streptococcus agalactiae, staphylococcus aureus, corynebacterium bovis, mycoplasma sp, and streptococcus dysgalactiae. these pathogens are discussed relative to prevalence, virulence factors, pathology, and control. these control measures include milking time hygiene, segregation, culling, vaccination, and treatment.19938242453
numerical analysis of fatty and mycolic acid profiles of corynebacterium urealyticum and other related corynebacteria.the fatty and mycolic acid profiles of 52 strains of clinical origin belonging to corynebacterium urealyticum were subjected to numerical analysis along with those of representative members of corynebacterium ammoniagenes, corynebacterium bovis, corynebacterium glutamicum, corynebacterium jèikeium, corynebacterium minutissimum, corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, corynebacterium xerosis, corynebacterium renale, corynebacterium cystitidis, "corynebacterium ul ...19938397966
prevention of bovine mastitis by a premilking teat disinfectant containing chlorous acid and chlorine dioxide.the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a premilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of mastitis in dairy cows under natural exposure conditions. predipping was compared with a negative control using a split udder experimental design. all teats were dipped after milking with the same teat dip. percentage of quarters newly infected by major mastitis pathogens was 34% lower in quarters with teats predipped and postdipped than in quarters with teats postdipped only. new imi ...19938436679
failure of exit-race teat spraying to control corynebacterium bovis colonisation.when an automated exit-race teat sprayer replaced a conventional teat dip cup for the application of a disinfectant containing 0.5 per cent iodine, there was an increase in the level of intramammary infection by corynebacterium bovis at drying off from approximately 25 per cent of quarters to approximately 75 per cent of quarters. when the peak level of infection had been reached half of the clinical mastitis in the herd was caused by c bovis, and these were recurrent and chronic infections. the ...19958693673
effects of freezing on the viability of nine pathogens from quarters with subclinical mastitis.milk samples from 45 quarters containing mastitis pathogens were collected from lactating cows to determine the viability of those pathogens after freezing. an initial bacteria count was conducted, and samples were divided into 2-ml portions and frozen. weekly bacteria counts were conducted for 6 wk. viability after freezing was determined on five isolates of nine bacterial species: staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus hyicus, staphylococcus chromogenes, staphylococcus xylosus, streptococcus ag ...19968708092
field trial evaluation of two teat dips containing nisin or polyvinylpyrrolidone iodophor designed for use before and after milking.in a first trial involving six commercial dairy herds and 291 cows for a period of eight months, pre-milking udder sanitation by dipping teats in a 0.25% polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp) iodophor product followed by wiping with paper towels was compared in each herd with traditional teat washing and wiping with individual udder cloths. the incidence of new intramammary infections by staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus uberis and corynebacterium bovis were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced, respectivel ...19968767891
effect of natural infection with minor pathogens on susceptibility to natural infection with major pathogens in the bovine mammary gland.to evaluate the effect of natural udder infection with minor pathogens on subsequent natural infection with major pathogens.19978989490
association between management practices, dairy herd characteristics, and somatic cell count of bulk tank milk.to determine whether particular dairy management practices and herd characteristics were associated with somatic cell count (scc) of bulk tank milk.19979154205
outbreaks of hyperkeratotic dermatitis of athymic nude mice in northern italy.hyperkeratotic dermatitis of athymic nude mice is an infectious disease caused by a coryneform bacterium. during the spring of 1995, outbreaks of hyperkeratotic dermatitis were observed in several nude mice facilities in northern italy. in this report we describe the clinical, histopathological and microbiological features of the disease in two different animal facilities. affected animals showed a typical 'scaly' appearance with small white flakes of material adherent to the skin. in one of the ...19979230500
autotransfusion--bacterial contamination during hip arthroplasty and efficacy of cefuroxime prophylaxis. a randomized controlled study of 40 patients.40 patients undergoing primary hip arthroplasty, given autologous processed blood transfusion, were randomized a receive no antibiotic prophylaxis (group a, n 20) or cefuroxime (1.5 g single injection; group b, n 20). bacterial contamination at various steps in the autotransfusion procedure was assessed in liquid and solid culture media. the operation field and the wound drainage blood were never contaminated either of the groups but some of the suction tips were. parts of the vacufix blood coll ...19979246981
estimation of interdependence among quarters of the bovine udder with subclinical mastitis and implications for analysis.interdependency among udder quarters with subclinical mastitis was evaluated on 150 farms using a total of 35,828 udder quarters. the occurrence of high somatic cell count (scc) (> 250,000 cells/ml) in 0, 3, and 4 quarters occurred at a higher rate than would be expected based on independence of the quarters. for all bacterial species, intramammary infection in 0, 2, 3, or 4 quarters of the same cow occurred at a higher rate than would be expected based on independence of the quarters. intramamm ...19979276797
influence of parity and stage of lactation on the somatic cell count in bacteriologically negative dairy cows.this study examines the influence of parity, stage of lactation, and single isolations (i.e., the isolation of a microorganism that could not be reisolated in the same quarter in the next sampling) of staphylococci other than staphylococcus aureus (coagulase-negative staphylococci), corynebacterium bovis, or esculin-positive cocci other than streptococcus uberis (referred to as esculin-positive cocci throughout) on the monthly log(e)-transformed somatic cell count (scc) for 180 first, second, an ...19979436102
clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in ontario: frequency of occurrence and bacteriological isolates.the objective of this study was to describe the frequency of occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds in ontario. the study group consisted of 65 dairy farms involved in a 2-year observational study, which included recording all clinical mastitis cases and milk sampling of quarters with clinical mastitis. lactational incidence risks of 9.8% for abnormal milk only, 8.2% for abnormal milk with a hard or swollen udder, and 4.4% for abnormal milk plus systemic signs of illness related to masti ...19989442950
efficacy of postmilking disinfection with benzyl alcohol versus lodophor in the prevention of new intramammary infections in lactating cows.five michigan dairy herds participated in a split-herd study to compare the efficacy of two postmilking teat dips in the prevention of new intramammary infections (imi) in lactating cows. three hundred seventy cows were assigned to 4% benzyl alcohol, and 387 cows were assigned to 1% iodophor germicidal teat dip. the teat dips were applied by directly immersing the teats immediately after milking. once a group was assigned to a teat dip, cows in that group maintained on that same teat dip through ...19989493086
hyperkeratosis-associated coryneform infection in severe combined immunodeficient mice.hyperkeratosis-associated coryneform (hac) is a coryneform bacterium, with a biochemical profile similar to corynebacterium bovis, that causes hyperkeratotic dermatitis in athymic nude mice. in the present study 28 severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice coming from six different animal facilities were submitted for bacteriological and pathological examination. hac was isolated from 10 scid mice belonging to two of these facilities. two of the hac-infected mice showed macroscopical lesions c ...19989718482
mastitis in a dairy herd associated with corynebacterium bovis. 19989725191
analysis of the 16s rrna gene sequence of the coryneform bacterium associated with hyperkeratotic dermatitis of athymic nude mice and development of a pcr-based detection assay.by 16s rdna sequencing the authors have characterized the coryneform bacteria associated with hyperkeratotic dermatitis (hd) of athymic nude mice isolated from six different outbreaks of the disease in northern italy. this analysis has allowed the authors to confirm the classification of the bacteria as corynebacterium bovis and to develop a 16s rdna-based polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detection assay. the test was performed directly on the dna extracted from epidermal swabs. the pcr primers w ...19989727194
mastitis in dairy herds associated with corynebacterium bovis. 19989746953
corynebacterium bovis infection in waltzing mice. 199910331539
corynebacterium bovis infection in immunocompetent hirsute mice. 199910331552
evaluation of a postmilking teat disinfectant containing a phenolic combination for the prevention of mastitis in lactating dairy cows.a trial was conducted for 12 months in a herd of 120 holstein cows in order to determine the efficacy of a teat disinfectant, which contained a phenolic combination, for the prevention of bovine intramammary infections during lactation. postmilking teat disinfection was compared to a negative control using a split-udder experimental design. the percentage of quarters newly infected by mastitis pathogens was 45% lower in mammary glands with teats that had been dipped in the experimental teat disi ...199910571330
experimental staphylococcus aureus intramammary challenge in late lactation dairy cows: quarter and cow effects determining the probability of infection.the purpose of this study was to identify factors at the quarter and cow level that determine whether a quarter remains infected after an intramammary challenge with staphylococcus aureus newbould 305. a total of 135 cows were studied. information on animal characteristics, cow-conformation, cow somatic cell count (scc), and bacteriology, blood vitamin e levels, serology for retro-viral infections, bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency-carrier status, and the presence of bovine lymphocyte antigen ...199910575606
udder health and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in organic dairy farms in switzerland.1+ were submitted for somatic cell counting (scc), bacteriological examination and to test for antibiotic susceptibility. the scc and germ-cell counts of monthly bulk-tank milk samples were available through dairy inspection and advisory services and milk production data of 567 herd-book cows were available from breeding associations. possible individual and environmental predictors of subclinical mastitis were identified using logistic models adjusted for clustering of the data at herd and cow ...200010760403
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