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[description of the adult stage of staphylocystis biliarius villot, 1877 (cestoda: hymenolepididae), a parasite of crocidura russula hermann, 1780 (insectivora: soricidae) (author's transl].the parasitological study of the shrew crocidura russula from catalonia (spain) allowed to collect several mature hymenolepididae, the scolex framework of which corresponding perfectly to that of the larva staphylocytis biliarius villot, 1877. the anatomy of the adult stage of this species, which has to be denominated as hymenolepis biliarius (villot, 1877) n. comb., is described for the first time.1977613963
[a new typhloceras from catalonia (author's transl)].t. favosus claramuntae, parasitic on the shrew crocidura russula russula is described from isle meda gran, girona (spain). this subspecies can be separated by morphology and chaetotaxy of sternit viii. only the male is actually known.1978697291
[helminths of birds and mammals from israel. vi. the taxonomy and ecology of trichostrongylid nematodes (author's transl)].thirteen species of trichostronglyloid nematodes have so far been recorded from wild birds and mammals in israel and surrounding territories. three species were found in birds: amidostomum fulicae (rudolphi, 1819) in fulica atra l., 1758, a. acutum (lundahl, 1848) in anas crecca l., 1758 and amidostomum sp. in ceryle rudis l., 1758. ten species, 3 of which are new, were found in small mammals: trichostrongylus colubriformis (giles, 1892) in hystrix indica kerr, 1792; tenorastrongylus josephi n. ...1975776059
the effect of pmsg on ovulation in the shrew, crocidura russula monacha. 1977902979
[metastrongylidae parasites of european soricidae. description of paracrenosoma combesi n. sp., from crocidura russula hermann, 1780 (author's transl)].description of paracrenosoma combesi n. sp. (skrjabingylinae), a lung parasite from the common white-toothed shrew crocidura russula hermann, 1780 in spain, and differentiation from the only european species of the same genus, paracrenosoma skrajabini (pologentsev, 1935). description of stefanskostrongylus soricis (soltys, 1954) (angiostrongylinae) from the bronches of the pygmy shrew sorex minutus linnaeus, 1766, in spain and comparison with the data of the same species in oriental europe.1977931322
lung and hearth nematodes in some spanish mammals.thirteen host species belonging to the orders rodentia, insectivora and carnivora from various localities in galicia (nw spain) were examined for heart and lung parasites. the following species were found: parastrongylus dujardini (5.5%) in apodemus sylvaticus, crenosoma striatum in erinaceus europaeus (83%), angiostrongylus vasorum, crenosoma vulpis and eucoleus aerophilus in vulpes vulpes (3, 3.46 and 0.50%, respectively), crenosoma taiga in putorius putorius (100%) and crenosoma sp. in meles ...19911844789
erve virus, a probable member of bunyaviridae family isolated from shrews (crocidura russula) in france.an apparently new agent, provisionally named erve virus, was isolated in 1982 from tissues of three white toothed shrews, crocidura russula, trapped near saulges village in western france. results of virological and ultrastructural studies suggest that this virus belongs to the bunyaviridae family and is a bunyavirus-like agent. serosurveys indicate that erve virus had apparently a large geographical distribution in france and infects rodents, insectivores, wild boars (sus scrofa), red deer (cer ...19892570514
[description of hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (cestoda: hymenolepididae) and first general considerations on the fauna of cestode parasites of the pygmy shrew suncus etruscus (savi, 1822) (insectivora: soricidae)].description and differentiation of the adult stage of hymenolepis cerberensis n. sp. (cestoda: hymenolepididae), an intestinal parasite of the pygmy white-toothed shrew, suncus etruscus (savi, 1822) (insectivora: soricidae: crocidurinae) in the region of banyuls-sur-mer and cerbère (oriental pyrenees, france). the new species is characterized by the size of the gravid specimens and by the presence of 18-21 rostellar hooks of 18.5-20 micron and of filaments around the embryophore. the general com ...19863813424
[studies of the ecology of some blood protozoa of wild small mammals in north germany (author's transl)].in 1977 and 1978, 696 small mammals of 9 different species were surveyed for protozoal blood parasites. the following parasites were found: hepatozoon sylvatici in apodemus flavicollis, h. erhardovae and trypanosoma evotomys in clethrionomys glareolus, t. microti and babesia microti in microtus agrestis and t. croicidurae in crocidura russula. h. erhardovae showed regularly high infection-rates (more than 70%) during all the years in 1977 and 1978. h. sylvatici was found only in 5.6% of the yell ...19806104423
[adiaspiromycosis in small wild mammals caught in tunisia].the authors examine the lungs of 125 small mammals caught in different provinces of tunisia and belonging to 12 species; 4 apodemus sylvaticus, 1 mus spretus and 1 crocidura russula possess one adiaspore of emmonsia crescens = chrysosporium parvum or more hundred. they find adiaspiromycosis only in damp biotopes.19846541531
[arbovirus infections in spain: serological survey on small mammals].sera of 386 small mammals (rodents, insectivora, small carnivora and cheiroptera) trapped in spain in 1978 and 1979 were studied for antibody against 10 arboviruses. positive reactions were found against flaviviruses: west nile (3.1%), dengue type 2 (0.5%), tick-borne encephalitis, european type (0.2%), together with tahyna (6.5%), uukuniemi (2%) and bhanja (1%) viruses. the animal species concerned by positive reactions were essentially mus spretus and apodemus sylvaticus which were also the mo ...19807460127
[erve and eyach: two viruses isolated in france, neuropathogenic for man and widely distributed in western europe].two arboviruses have been isolated from mayenne, western france, in 1981-1982, during systematic field surveys: eyach virus, a cultivirus from ixodes ricinus and i. ventalloi ticks, and erve virus, a nairovirus from the tissues of white-toothed shrews, crocidura russula. for many years, these two viruses were considered as "orphan viruses" without pathogenic power for man, since it became evident that they circulate actively in europe among populations of wild small and large mammals. moreover, ...19989673063
the occurrence of cryptosporidium parvum and c. muris in wild rodents and insectivores in spain.five rodent and two insectivore species were investigated for cryptosporidium at seven sites in north-eastern spain. of the 442 animals studied, 82 apodemus sylvaticus, 1 a. flavicollis, 5 mus spretus, 1 rattus rattus, 8 clethrionomys glareolus and 13 crocidura russula were infected with only c. parvum. eleven a. sylvaticus and 2 c. glareolus were infected with only c. muris and 16 a. sylvaticus, 1 m. spretus and 2 c. glareolus showed mixed infections. both cryptosporidial species were found in ...200010996736
findings of mycobacteria in insectivores and small rodents.the organs of 30 insectivorous mammals and 62 rodents from areas inhabited by people or livestock where cattle paratuberculosis or mycobacterial infections of swine had been found to occur were examined by cultivation during the monitoring of occurrence and spread of mycobacterioses in cattle and swine. mycobacteria were found in the organs of 3 insectivores (10%) and 6 rodents (9.7%). mycobacterium chelonae was isolated from the organs of the lesser white-toothed shrew (crocidura suaveolens) an ...200011271823
on the development of the shoulder girdle in crocidura russula (soricidae) and other placental mammals: evolutionary and functional aspects.the development of the shoulder girdle was studied in embryonic stages and a neonate of crocidura russula using histological sections and 3-d reconstructions. neonatal stages of suncus etruscus and mesocricetus auratus, both altricial placentals, were also studied. the earliest stage of c russula, in which the scapula is still partially blastematous, has already a supraspinous fossa. the dorsal portion of the scapular spine does not develop from the anterior margin of the scapula. its mode of de ...200212448772
helminth associations in white-toothed shrews crocidura russula (insectivora: soricidae) from the albufera natural park, spain.the helminths of 218 white-toothed shrews from 29 sites in 2 biotopes in the albufera natural park (valencia, spain) were examined from july 1990 to august 1991. an association analysis of helminths occurring at a prevalence of more than 4% was carried out for 4 species of cestodes located in the intestine (hymenolepis pistillum, h. scalaris, h. tiara, and pseudhymenolepis redonica) and 3 species of nematodes (pseudophysaloptera sp. located in the stomach, stammerinema rhopocephala larvae in the ...200415270101
neotrombicula autumnalis (acari, trombiculidae) as a vector for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?larvae of the trombiculid mite neotrombicula autumnalis were collected at 18 sites in and around bonn, germany, to be screened for infection with borrelia burgdorferi s.l. by means of pcr. questing larvae numbering 1380 were derived from the vegetation and 634 feeding ones were removed from 100 trapped micromammals including voles, mice, shrews and hedgehogs. in a laboratory infection experiment, a further 305 host-seeking larvae from the field were transferred onto borrelia-positive mice and ge ...200415285141
nonshivering thermogenesis capacity associated to mitochondrial dna haplotypes and gender in the greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula.a selection gradient was recently suggested as one possible cause for a clinal distribution of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) haplotypes along an altitudinal transect in the greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula (ehinger et al. 2002). one mtdna haplotype (h1) rare in lowland, became widespread when approaching the altitudinal margin of the distribution. as h1 differs from the main lowland haplotype by several nonsynonymous mutations (including on atp6), and as mitochondria play a crucial rol ...200515660955
shrews as reservoir hosts of borna disease virus.borna disease virus (bdv) is the causative agent of severe t-cell-mediated meningoencephalitis in horses, sheep, and other animal species in central europe. here we report the first unequivocal detection of a bdv reservoir species, the bicolored white-toothed shrew, crocidura leucodon, in an area in switzerland with endemic borna disease.200616704819
tick-borne zoonotic bacteria in wild and domestic small mammals in northern spain.the prevalence and diversity of tick-borne zoonotic bacteria (borrelia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, coxiella burnetii, and spotted fever group rickettsiae) infecting 253 small mammals captured in the basque country (spain) were assessed using pcr and reverse line blot hybridization. trapping sites were selected around sheep farms (study 1, 2000 to 2002) and recreational parks (study 2, 2003 to 2005). the majority of the studied mammals (162) were wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus), but six othe ...200717693556
[localization of larvae of neotrombicula (n) monticola (trombiculidae) ticks on the vertebrates].the specific features of distribution of neotrombicula (n) monticola schluger et davidov, 1967 on small mammals were studied in the tien shan montains (kirghiz ridge). n. (n ) monticola was found to occur in all the places under study. nine species of mammals (pigmy white-toothed shrew, dwarf hamster, tamarisk gerbil, turkestan rat, long-tailed mouse, tien shan, kirghiz, and silver voles, and wood mouse) were established to be feeders of larvae of the ticks. n. (n) monticola larvae were detected ...200717912838
lawsonia intracellularis in rodents from pig farms with the occurrence of porcine proliferative enteropathy.lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterium causing proliferative enteropathy in certain species of domestic, laboratory and captive animals. the aim of our study was to detect l. intracellularis in free-living rodents from pig farms in the czech republic.200818673433
mass effects mediate coexistence in competing shrews.recent developments in metacommunity theory have raised awareness that processes occurring at regional scales might interfere with local dynamics and affect conditions for the local coexistence of competing species. four main paradigms are recognized in this context (namely, neutral, patch-dynamics, species-sorting, and mass-effect), which differ according to the role assigned to ecological or life-history differences among competing species, as well as to the relative time scale of regional vs. ...200818705388
the role of rodents and shrews in the transmission of toxoplasma gondii to pigs.inadequate rodent control is considered to play a role in toxoplasma gondii infection of pigs. this issue was addressed in the current study by combining a 4-month rodent control campaign and a 7-month longitudinal analysis of t. gondii seroprevalence in slaughter pigs. three organic pig farms with known rodent infestation were included in the study. on these farms, presence of t. gondii in trapped rodents was evaluated by real-time pcr. all rodent species and shrews investigated had t. gondii d ...200818606498
characterization of imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the ussuri white-toothed shrew (crocidura lasiura).until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was thottapalayam virus (tpmv), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the asian house shrew (suncus murinus). robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated imjin virus (mjnv), isolated from the lung tissues of ussuri white-toothed s ...200919357167
cornea, retina, and lens morphology in five soricidae species (soricomorpha: mammalia).we analyzed the cornea, retina, and lens of five species of soricidae (pygmy shrew, sorex minutus; common shrew, sorex araneus; millet's shrew, sorex coronatus; water shrew, neomys fodiens; greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula) by light and electron microscopy. in all of these species, the corneal epithelium showed a dead cell layer, which may increase the refractive power of the cornea, thereby reducing the hypermetropy that would be expected in a small eye. moreover, the anterior sur ...200919367448
relationships of basal metabolic rate, relative testis size and cycle length of spermatogenesis in shrews (mammalia, soricidae).the aim of the present study was to determinate the cycle length of spermatogenesis in three species of shrew, suncus murinus, sorex coronatus and sorex minutus, and to assess the relative influence of variation in basal metabolic rate (bmr) and mating system (level of sperm competition) on the observed rate of spermatogenesis, including data of shrew species studied before (sorex araneus, crocidura russula and neomys fodiens). the dynamics of sperm production were determined by tracing 5-bromod ...200818402763
evaluation of some sources of variability in using small mammals as pollution biomonitors.in the present study the effects of gender, age and nutritional status on tissue concentrations of some trace elements (zn, cu, mn, and cr) in wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), spanish shrew (sorex granarius), and great white-toothed shrew (crocidura russula) were investigated. four sampling stations were selected for the study: a restored mine dump, an area characterised by ultrabasic soil and two sites in oak woods in the vicinity of a power plant. gender had no effect on the tissue concentrat ...200818313721
heavy-metal concentrations in small mammals from a diffusely polluted floodplain: importance of species- and location-specific characteristics.the soil of several floodplain areas along large european rivers shows increased levels of heavy metals as a relict from past sedimentation of contaminants. these levels may pose risks of accumulation in food webs and toxicologic effects on flora and fauna. however, for floodplains, data on heavy-metal concentrations in vertebrates are scarce. moreover, these environments are characterised by periodical flooding cycles influencing ecologic processes and patterns. to investigate whether the sugge ...200717387425
estimating sex-specific dispersal rates with autosomal markers in hierarchically structured populations.a recent study suggests that sex-specific dispersal rates can be quantitatively estimated on the basis of sex- and state-specific (pre- vs. postdispersal) f-statistics. in the present paper, we extend this approach to account for the hierarchical structure of natural populations, and we validate it through individual-based simulations. the model is applied to an empirical data set consisting of 536 individuals (males, females, and predispersal juveniles) of greater white-toothed shrews (crocidur ...200415154563
ectoparasites (sucking lice, fleas and ticks) of small mammals in southeastern kenya.during 1998-2000, at least 14 species (n = 309) of small mammals were live-trapped and examined for ectoparasites in moist forests of the taita and shimba hills and drier savannah habitats of nguruman, southeastern kenya. ectoparasites were recorded from 11 species of mammals. five species of sucking lice [hoplopleura inexpectans johnson, h. intermedia kellogg & ferris, polyplax reclinata (nitzsch), p. waterstoni bedford and schizophthirus graphiuri ferris], six species of fleas (ctenophthalmus ...200919941604
studies on the parasitic helminths of korea: iii. nematodes and cestodes of rodents.a survey for nematode and cestode parasites of rodents in korea has been carried out at the areas of chulwon, kumwha, pochon, paju and chungpyong, kyunggi-do. a total of 300 rodents of seven species was examined, comprising of 219 a. agrarius, 33 r. norvegicus, 8 r. alexandrinus, 14 mus musculus yamashinai, microtus fortis pellceus, 21 crocidura russula and a cricetulus trition nester. the following fifteen species belonging to thirteen genera were identified. nematoda: heterakis spumosa, syphac ...196812913546
genetic diversity of imjin virus in the ussuri white-toothed shrew (crocidura lasiura) in the republic of korea, 2004-2010.recently, imjin virus (mjnv), a genetically distinct hantavirus, was isolated from lung tissues of the ussuri white-toothed shrew (crocidura lasiura) captured near the demilitarized zone in the republic of korea. to clarify the genetic diversity of mjnv, partial m- and l-segment sequences were amplified from lung tissues of 12 of 37 (32.4%) anti-mjnv igg antibody-positive ussuri white-toothed shrews captured between 2004 and 2010. a 531-nucleotide region of the m segment (coordinates 2,255 to 2, ...201121303516
mitochondrial dna variation along an altitudinal gradient in the greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula.the distribution of mitochondrial control region-sequence polymorphism was investigated in 15 populations of crocidura russula along an altitudinal gradient in western switzerland. high-altitude populations are smaller, sparser and appear to undergo frequent bottlenecks. accordingly, they showed a loss of rare haplotypes, but unexpectedly, were less differentiated than lowland populations. furthermore, the major haplotypes segregated significantly with altitude. the results were inconsistent wit ...200211975709
molecular evolution of azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the west african pygmy shrew (crocidura obscurior) in cote d'ivoire.abstract: background: tanganya virus (tgnv), the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-saharan africa, is harbored by the therese's shrew (crocidura theresae), and is phylogenetically distinct from thottapalayam virus (tpmv) in the asian house shrew (suncus murinus) and imjin virus (mjnv) in the ussuri white-toothed shrew (crocidura lasiura). the existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in eurasia and north america would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses ...201121798050
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue of feral rodents and insectivores caught on farms in the netherlands.we investigated the presence of both neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii in 250 brain tissue samples from 9 species of feral rodents and insectivores caught on 10 organic farms in the netherlands in 2004. collected samples were conserved in 4% paraformaldehyde solution and analysed by real-time pcr. for n. caninum, 31 samples originating from 6 species tested positive (12.4%): common shrews (33.3%), wood mice (17.6%), harvest mice (16.7%), house mice (15.4%), white-toothed shrews (10.8%) and ...201121958437
nmr spectroscopy based metabonomic studies on the comparative biochemistry of the kidney and urine of the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), white toothed shrew (crocidura suaveolens) and the laboratory rat.the metabolic profiles of three wild mammals that vary in their trophic strategies, the herbivorous bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), the granivorous wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), and the insectivorous white-toothed shrew (crocidura suaveolens), were compared with that of a widely used strain of laboratory rat (sprague dawley). in conjunction with nmr spectroscopic investigations into the urine and blood plasma composition for these mammals, high resolution magic angle spinning (hrmas) 1h ...200011126766
quadricuspid aortic valve and single coronary artery in a greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula.an adult greater white-toothed shrew (crocidura russula) had both a quadricuspid aortic valve and a single coronary artery arising from the aorta. the shrew was caught on 10 may 1994 in the environs of málaga, southern spain. both congenital anomalies may be potential causes of cardiac dysfunction, but apparently produced no significant cardiac complication in the shrew. this is the first report of a quadricuspid aortic valve in a wild-living mammal.19969359065
modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in rhine-delta floodplains.in the rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. to investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (crocidura russula, sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil o ...19957794009
emerging infectious disease implications of invasive mammalian species: the greater white-toothed shrew (crocidura russula) is associated with a novel serovar of pathogenic leptospira in ireland.the greater white-toothed shrew (crocidura russula) is an invasive mammalian species that was first recorded in ireland in 2007. it currently occupies an area of approximately 7,600 km2 on the island. c. russula is normally distributed in northern africa and western europe, and was previously absent from the british isles. whilst invasive species can have dramatic and rapid impacts on faunal and floral communities, they may also be carriers of pathogens facilitating disease transmission in poten ...201627935961
quantitative cytoarchitecture of the liver of the shrew crocidura russula (fam. soricidae). ultrastructural and morphometric comparison with rat liver.the livers of two groups of the shrew crocidura russula, kept under standardized physiological conditions, were investigated with electron microscopy and morphometry. the adaptations to the extremely high basal metabolism of these small mammals are reflected in the architectural characteristics of the hapatocytes, which, in comparison with those of the rat, show a smaller cell volume of the mononuclear hepatocytes (3,800 micrometers3), and increased number of cells per cm3 of liver tissue (250 x ...19827105142
screening red foxes (vulpes vulpes) for possible viral causes of encephalitis.next to various known infectious and non-infectious causes, the aetiology of non-suppurative encephalitis in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) often remains unclear. known causes in foxes imply rabies, canine distemper, toxoplasmosis, aujeszky's disease, as well as parvovirus, adenovirus, circovirus and flavivirus infections. in this study, particular attention was paid on bornaviruses, since red foxes are predators of bicoloured white-toothed shrews, a reservoir of borna disease virus 1 (bodv-1). in ad ...201627590473
crocidura russula, a hitherto unknown carrier of leptospires. 19724655308
ventricular myosin of the shrew crocidura russula, correlation with contractile properties.the present study demonstrates that in the shrew ventricular muscle the speed of tension development and relaxation, as well as twitch duration, are much shorter than in the guinea-pig. it also shows that ventricular myosin of the shrew has a high ca2+-activated atpase activity and that it is composed of alpha-type heavy chains. namely, the native molecule is a v1 variety of myosin. these findings advance our knowledge on an as yet uncharacterized mammalian heart and further demonstrate the corr ...19882976845
metal and metalloid accumulation in shrews (soricomorpha, mammalia) from two protected mediterranean coastal sites.although ecotoxicological data on heavy metals are abundant, information on other potentially toxic elements with attributed deficiency and/or toxic disturbances is scarce. here we quantify zinc, copper, iron, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, strontium, barium, and boron in bones of greater white-toothed shrews, crocidura russula, inhabiting two protected mediterranean coastal sites: the ebro delta, a wetland impacted by human activities, and the medas islands, a reference site. natural and anth ...200919144455
metals in liver and kidneys and the effects of chronic exposure to pyrite mine pollution in the shrew crocidura russula inhabiting the protected wetland of doñana.historically impacted by anthropogenic activities, the nature reserve of doñana (sw spain) was affected by an unprecedented spillage of mud and acidic water from the aznalcóllar pyrite mine in april 1998. although several studies have addressed the influence of this spill on soils, water, and biota, there is little information on mammals, especially carnivorous species. we measured the concentrations of fe, mg, pb, hg, cd, zn, cu, mn, mo, co, and cr in specimens of the greater white-toothed shre ...200919394996
echinostome infections in the striped-field mouse, apodemus agrarius, and the ussuri white-toothed shrew, crocidura lasiura, caught near the demilitarized zone, gyeonggi-do (province), republic of korea.a total of 1,498 small mammals (rodents and insectivores), including apodemus agrarius (n = 1,366), crocidura lasiura (54), mus musculus (32), micronytus fortis (28), eothenomys regulus (9), micronys minutes (6), and cricetulus triton (3), were live-trapped in gyeonggi-do (province) (paju-si, pocheon-gun, and yeoncheon-gun) near the demilitarized zone (dmz) from december 2004 to september 2005. a. agrarius was found to be infected with 3 species of echinostomes (echinostoma hortense, echinostoma ...200919724709
biodiversity and evolution of imjin virus and thottapalayam virus in crocidurinae shrews in zhejiang province, china.the recent discovery of numerous hantaviruses in insectivores has provided a new view of hantavirus biodiversity and evolution. to determine the presence and genetic diversity of imjin virus (mjnv) and thottapalayam virus (tpmv) in insectivores in zhejiang province, china, we captured and performed virus screening of 32 ussuri white-toothed shrews (crocidura lasiura) and 105 asian house shrews (suncus murinus) in different coastal regions. hantavirus genome (s, m, and l segments) sequences were ...201424874196
bioaccumulation of metals and effects of a landfill in small mammals part iii: structural alterations.the leachates from the garraf landfill located in a protected site (ne spain) contain several potentially toxic substances such as heavy metals. here we report the histopathological alterations produced by this pollution in wild specimens of an omnivorous species, the wood mouse, apodemus sylvaticus, and an insectivorous species, the greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula. hepatic tissue presented the most severe alterations in both the species, namely cell cycle arrest (apoptosis and ne ...200919758588
tissue, age, and sex distribution of thallium in shrews from doñana, a protected area in sw spain.in 1998, the protected area of doñana, an important natural region in sw europe, was affected with great amount of acidic waters and sludge from a pyrite mine loaded with toxic metals such as thallium (tl). since this ecological catastrophe, several studies have addressed the effects of this pollution on the flora and fauna in this protected area. however, in contrast to other non-essential metals, scarce information on tl was available after this disaster, especially in terrestrial environments ...200717570462
characterization of a novel wood mouse virus related to murid herpesvirus 4.two novel gammaherpesviruses were isolated, one from a field vole (microtus agrestis) and the other from wood mice (apodemus sylvaticus). the genome of the latter, designated wood mouse herpesvirus (wmhv), was completely sequenced. wmhv had the same genome structure and predicted gene content as murid herpesvirus 4 (muhv4; murine gammaherpesvirus 68). overall nucleotide sequence identity between wmhv and muhv4 was 85 % and most of the 10 kb region at the left end of the unique region was particu ...201019940063
life cycle and description of a new species of brachylaimid (trematoda: digenea) in spain.the life cycle of brachylaima llobregatensis n. sp. (trematoda: brachylaimidae) is elucidated. embryonated, operculated, asymmetric eggs (30.9 x 18.2 microm) are eliminated with feces of natural hosts wood mouse mus spretus; white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula; and an experimental host, domestic mouse, mus musculus var. domesticus. the eggs are ingested by the helicid gastropod helix (cornu) aspersa, the only natural and experimental first intermediate host. the miracidium hatches from the eg ...200617304812
bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula, from the ebro delta (ne spain): sex- and age-dependent variation.we quantified bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in bones from 105 greater white-toothed shrews (crocidura russula) collected at the ebro delta, a polluted area, and the medas islands, a control site. lead and mercury levels varied with site, age, and sex, although statistical significances depended on each factor. globally, shrews from the polluted area exhibited significantly higher concentrations of pb and hg. increment of pb with age was particularly remarkable in wetland animals ...200716777291
pliocene and pleistocene diversification and multiple refugia in a eurasian shrew (crocidura suaveolens group).we sequenced 998 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial dna cytochrome b and 799 bp of nuclear gene brca1 in the lesser white-toothed shrew (crocidura suaveolens group) over its geographic range from portugal to japan. the aims of the study were to identify the main clades within the group and respective refugia resulting from pleistocene glaciations. analyses revealed the asian lesser white-toothed shrew (c. shantungensis) as the basal clade, followed by a major branch of c. suaveolens, subdivided se ...200616426868
sex-specific selective pressures on body mass in the greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula.the direction, intensity and shape of viability-, sexual- and fecundity selection on body mass were investigated in a natural population of the greater white-toothed shrew (crocidura russula), combining parentage assignment through molecular techniques and mark-recapture data over several generations. a highly significant stabilizing viability selection was found in both sexes, presumably stemming from the constraints imposed by their insectivorous habits and high metabolic costs. sexual selecti ...200515715835
distribution of borna disease virus antigen and rna in tissues of naturally infected bicolored white-toothed shrews, crocidura leucodon, supporting their role as reservoir host species.borna disease is a severe viral-induced disorder of the central nervous system of horses, sheep, and a few other animal species, occurring in certain areas of central europe. pathogenesis and epidemiology of natural borna disease virus (bdv) infections are still not fully understood; several unique epidemiologic features, however, point toward the existence of bdv reservoir populations other than the final hosts. in this study, 69 mice and 12 shrews were trapped and examined. the virus distribut ...201020133953
normal and aberrant mesocestoides tetrathyridia from crocidura spp. (soricimorpha) in corsica and spain.abstract tetrathyridia of mesocestoides sp. were collected from the body cavities of the shrews (soricimorpha), crocidura russula in valencia, spain, and crocidura suaveolens on the mediterranean island of corsica, france. specimens were processed by routine microscopical and histological techniques, including examination with brightfield, phase-contrast, and differential-interference-contrast optics. most tetrathyridia occurred both clustered together inside host-derived fibrotic capsules, but ...201121612421
taxonomic status and origin of the shrews (soricidae) from the canary islands inferred from a mtdna comparison with the european crocidura species.european island shrews are either relicts of the endemic pleistocene fauna, e.g.,. crocidura zimmermanni, or were introduced from continental source populations. in order to clarify the taxonomic status and the origin of the two shrew species from the canary islands, a 981bp fragment of cytochrome b gene was investigated in all european crocidura species and compared with the canary shrew (crocidura canariensis) and the osorio shrew (crocidura osorio). the first shares its karyotype with the sic ...200312695091
comparison of antihemorrhagic activities in skeletal muscle extracts from various animals against bothrops jararaca snake venom.antihemorrhagic activities of skeletal muscle extracts from various animals were compared in inhibiting the hemorrhagic activity of bothrops jararaca venom. the muscle extracts of the european hedgehog (erinaceus europaeus) exhibited the strongest activity, followed by those of other insectivores such as the shrew (crocidura russula) and mole (talpa europaea). the antihemorrhagic activities of muscle extracts from experimental animals such as mice, rats, guinea-pigs, hamsters and rabbits were ne ...19989620591
[contribution to the study of microphallidae travassos, 1920 (trematoda). xlv. description of maritrema feliui n. sp., parasite of shrews (mammals) in spain].the authors describe and illustrate the morphology of the adult stage of maritrema feliui n. sp. (trematoda microphallidae) obtained from the intestine of the shrew crocidura russula (hermann, 1780), definitive host of the fluke present in the estuary of the river llobregat (catalonia, spain). the larval stages are found in two hosts obtained from the area: 1) mercuria confusa (frauenfeld) [= pseudamnicola similis (draparnaud)] (mollusca: hydrobiidae), and 2) gammarus aequicauda (martynov) (crus ...19938215113
a herpesvirus from an european shrew (crocidura russula) 19947726008
small mammal studies in a sad baiting area.studies in the laboratory or in the field on the effect of sad virus on small rodents are reported. laboratory experiments by oral inoculation of sad strain in a wide variety of small mammals led to the conclusion that spontaneous sad transmission from rodent to rodent is a rare event. field experiments were conducted by live-trapping, sacrifice and analysis of 192 apodemus sylvaticus, 28 clethrionomys glareolus and 48 crocidura russula. they gave no indication that sad virus became established ...19827128065
comparative morphometry of the mitochondria and activity of some enzymes in the myocardium of small mammals.heart rate in mammals is inversely related to body weight. in the etruscan shrew it exceeds 960 beats/min. since the heart depends primarily on energy from aerobic sources, it was interesting to examine some morphological parameters of the mitochondria in some mammals with a high heart frequency. volume fraction and surface to volume ratio of the mitochondria in the myocardium were determined in the white rat (221 g), white mouse (36 g), white-toothed shrew (8 g) and the etruscan shrew (2 g) usi ...19854020880
factors associated with the prevalence and pathology of calodium hepaticum and c. splenaecum in periurban micromammals.calodium hepaticum (syn. capillaria hepatica) and calodium splenaecum (syn. capillaria splenaecum) are nematodes that infect the liver and spleen, respectively, of mammals. while the host range, distribution, pathology and zoonotic potential of c. hepaticum are well known, very little is known about c. splenaecum. the observed prevalence of these two parasites, the factors associated with prevalence, and the lesions resulting in the different host species were studied in 408 micromammals capture ...201424879015
the electrocardiogram of european shrews.a recording method of electrocardiograms in resting animals is described. the electrocardiograms of crocidura russula, crocidura leucodon, crocidura suaveolens, neomys fodiens and sorex araneus are similar to those of other small mammals. t-wave directly follows the qrs-complex. the duration of electrocardiograms depends on heart mass and body temperature. heart rate shows no influence on the duration of electrocardiograms.20072870871
shedding of infectious borna disease virus-1 in living bicolored white-toothed shrews.many rna viruses arise from animal reservoirs, namely bats, rodents and insectivores but mechanisms of virus maintenance and transmission still need to be addressed. the bicolored white-toothed shrew (crocidura leucodon) has recently been identified as reservoir of the neurotropic borna disease virus 1 (bodv-1).201526313904
the bicolored white-toothed shrew crocidura leucodon (hermann 1780) is an indigenous host of mammalian borna disease virus.borna disease (bd) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian borna disease virus (bdv). its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. it is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. all these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoi ...201424699636
bicolored white-toothed shrews as reservoir for borna disease virus, bavaria, germany. 201324274262
xenoma-like formations induced by soricimyxum fegati (myxosporea) in three species of shrews (soricomorpha: soricidae), including records of new hosts.in south bohemia, czech republic, 178 shrews, including 98 common shrews, sorex araneus l., 70 pygmy shrews, sorex minutus l., and 10 lesser white-toothed shrews, crocidura suaveolens (pallas), were examined for soricimyxum fegati prunescu, prunescu, pucek et lom, 2007 infections, using squash preparations of unfixed tissues, histological sections and molecular methods. the infection was found in 51 (52%) s. araneus, 14 (20%) s. minutus and 1 (10%) c. suaveolens. the records of the latter two sp ...201122263306
habitat-quality effects on metapopulation dynamics in greater white-toothed shrews, crocidura russula.the effects of patch size and isolation on metapopulation dynamics have received wide empirical support and theoretical formalization. by contrast, the effects of patch quality seem largely underinvestigated, partly due to technical difficulties in properly assessing quality. here we combine habitat-quality modeling with four years of demographic monitoring in a metapopulation of greater white-toothed shrews (crocidura russula) to investigate the role of patch quality on metapopulation processes ...200818959315
detection of imjin virus and seoul virus in crocidurine shrews in shandong province, china.recently, hantaviruses have been discovered in insectivores in europe, asia, africa, and north america. imjin virus (mjnv) was first isolated from the lung tissues of ussuri white-toothed shrew (crocidura lasiura) from south korea in 2009. we aim to detect the species and prevalence of insectivore- and rodent-borne hantaviruses in shrews and rodents.201728287930
differences in the ectoparasite fauna between micromammals captured in natural and adjacent residential areas are better explained by sex and season than by type of habitat.we compared the ectoparasite fauna in 608 micromammals (chiefly 472 wood mice apodemus sylvaticus, 63 algerian mice mus spretus, and 51 greater white-toothed shrews crocidura russula) captured in natural and adjacent residential areas in spring and autumn during three consecutive years in four areas in periurban barcelona (ne spain). we found little support for an association of urbanization with differences in infestation by ectoparasites. prevalence of rhipicephalus sp. tick in wood mice and s ...201626946133
responses of wild small mammals to arsenic pollution at a partially remediated mining site in southern france.partial remediation actions at a former gold mine in southern france led to a mosaic of contaminated and rehabilitated zones. in this study, the distribution of arsenic and its potential adverse effects on small mammals were investigated. the effectiveness of remediation for reducing the transfer of this element into wildlife was also discussed. arsenic levels were measured in the soil and in the stomach contents, livers, kidneys, and lungs of four small mammal species (the wood mouse (apodemus ...201424239822
taxonomic uncertainty and the loss of biodiversity on christmas island, indian ocean.the taxonomic uniqueness of island populations is often uncertain which hinders effective prioritization for conservation. the christmas island shrew (crocidura attenuata trichura) is the only member of the highly speciose eutherian family soricidae recorded from australia. it is currently classified as a subspecies of the asian gray or long-tailed shrew (c. attenuata), although it was originally described as a subspecies of the southeast asian white-toothed shrew (c. fuliginosa). the christmas ...201424283832
bones and genes: resolution problems in three vietnamese species of crocidura (mammalia, soricomorpha, soricidae) and the description of an additional new species.recent investigations of southeast asian white toothed shrews belonging to the genus crocidura have revealed discrepancies between the results of morphological and molecular studies. the following study concerns three species of crocidura occurring in vietnam, namely crocidura attenuata, crocidura tanakae and crocidura wuchihensis, and an undescribed fourth species revealed by molecular analysis. for many years crocidura attenuata has been known to occur in vietnam but, until very recently, the ...201323840165
white-toothed shrews (mammalia, soricomorpha, crocidura) of coastal islands of vietnam.new findings of the white-toothed shrews (crocidura spp.) from offshore islands of vietnam are reported. the species identifications have been confirmed by the analysis of complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). crocidura phuquocensis is the only species found in the phu quoc island. crocidura fuliginosa has been recorded from two islands of the con dao archipelago (con son and bai canh). the occurrence of crocidura fuliginosa in vietnam has been genetically confirmed for the first t ...201222855639
phenotypic flexibility in the energetic strategy of the greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula.the balance between energetic acquisition and expenditure depends on the amount of energy allocated to biological functions such as thermoregulation, growth, reproduction and behavior. ambient temperature has a profound effect on this balance, with species inhabiting colder climates often needing to invest more energy in thermoregulation to maintain body temperature. this leads to local behavioral and physiological adaptations that increase energetic efficiency. in this study, we investigated th ...201626857972
invading and expanding: range dynamics and ecological consequences of the greater white-toothed shrew (crocidura russula) invasion in ireland.establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. the greater white-toothed shrew (crocidura russula) is an invasive species in ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (sorex minutus), previously ireland's only shrew species. because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data ...201424955824
the testis of greater white-toothed shrew crocidura russula in southern european populations: a case of adaptive lack of seasonal involution?males of all seasonal breeding mammals undergo circannual periods of testis involution resulting in almost complete ablation of the germinative epithelium. we performed a morphometric, histological, hormonal, and gene-expression study of the testes from winter and summer males of the greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula, in populations of the southeastern iberian peninsula. unexpectedly, we found no significant differences between the two study groups. surprisingly, female data confirm ...201424895181
non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of bartonella florenciae sp. nov.bartonella florenciae sp. nov. strain r4(t) is the type strain of b. florenciae sp. nov., a new species within the genus bartonella. this strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated in france from the spleen of the shrew crocidura russula. b. florenciae is an aerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and its annotation. the 2,010,844 bp-long genome contains 1,909 protein-coding and 46 rna gene ...201324501655
differential behavioural and endocrine responses of common voles (microtus arvalis) to nest predators and resource competitors.adaptive behavioural strategies promoting co-occurrence of competing species are known to result from a sympatric evolutionary past. strategies should be different for indirect resource competition (exploitation, e.g., foraging and avoidance behaviour) than for direct interspecific interference (e.g., aggression, vigilance, and nest guarding). we studied the effects of resource competition and nest predation in sympatric small mammal species using semi-fossorial voles and shrews, which prey on v ...201324010574
chronic exposure to environmental stressors induces fluctuating asymmetry in shrews inhabiting protected mediterranean sites.many ecotoxicological studies have addressed the effects of contaminant exposure at various levels of biological organization. however, little information exists on the effects of toxicants on wildlife populations. here we examined exposure of populations of the greater white-toothed shrew crocidura russula (soricomorpha, soricidae) occupying two protected mediterranean sites (a polluted area, the ebro delta, and a control site, garraf massif). bioaccumulation of selected elements (pb, hg, cd, z ...201323800592
complete mitochondrial genome of an asian lesser white-toothed shrew, crocidura shantungensis (soricidae).the complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced and annotated newly from an individual of crocidura shantungensis (soricidae) from korea. the total length of the c. shantungensis genome is 17,160 bp, with a base composition of 32.5% a, 32.7% t, 21.6% c, and 13.1% g.201223688267
[cellular aspects of aging in the pineal gland of the shrew, crocidura russula].the greater white-toothed shrew crocidura russula is short-lived species and the phase of senescence is greatly elongated in captivity. the loss of rhythmicity of biological functions that accompanies its aging is also well documented. c. russula is thus an excellent model to test the effects of aging on biological clocks. melatonin is a key hormone in the synchronization of behaviors, metabolisms and physiological regulations with environmental factors. in the present work we want to know if th ...201222226159
haematology, genotoxicity, enzymatic activity and histopathology as biomarkers of metal pollution in the shrew crocidura russula.haematological (wbc, rbc, hgb and hct) and genotoxicity (mnt) parameters, hepatic enzymatic activities (gst, gpx and gr), and a histopathological evaluation of liver, kidneys and gonads were assessed as general biomarkers of metal pollution in the shrew crocidura russula inhabiting a pyrite mining area. specimens exposed to metals presented a few significant alterations when compared with reference animals: gst activity decreased; micronuclei increased; and evident liver alterations related to m ...200818448220
spatially explicit analysis of metal transfer to biota: influence of soil contamination and landscape.concepts and developments for a new field in ecotoxicology, referred to as "landscape ecotoxicology," were proposed in the 1990s; however, to date, few studies have been developed in this emergent field. in fact, there is a strong interest in developing this area, both for renewing the concepts and tools used in ecotoxicology as well as for responding to practical issues, such as risk assessment. the aim of this study was to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of metal bioaccumulation in anima ...201121655187
prevalence and genotype allocation of pathogenic leptospira species in small mammals from various habitat types in germany.small mammals serve as most important reservoirs for leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, which is one of the most neglected and widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. the knowledge about leptospira spp. occurring in small mammals from germany is scarce. thus, this study's objectives were to investigate the occurrence of leptospira spp. and the inherent sequence types in small mammals from three different study sites: a forest in southern germany (site b1); a national park in ...201627015596
the timing of the shrew: continuous melatonin treatment maintains youthful rhythmic activity in aging crocidura russula.laboratory conditions nullify the extrinsic factors that determine the wild expected lifespan and release the intrinsic or potential lifespan. thus, wild animals reared in a laboratory often show an increased lifespan, and consequently an increased senescence phase. senescence is associated with a broad suite of physiological changes, including a decreased responsiveness of the circadian system. the time-keeping hormone melatonin, an important chemical player in this system, is suspected to have ...200919526053
kestrel-prey dynamic in a mediterranean region: the effect of generalist predation and climatic factors.most hypotheses on population limitation of small mammals and their predators come from studies carried out in northern latitudes, mainly in boreal ecosystems. in such regions, many predators specialize on voles and predator-prey systems are simpler compared to southern ecosystems where predator communities are made up mostly of generalists and predator-prey systems are more complex. determining food limitation in generalist predators is difficult due to their capacity to switch to alternative p ...200919234618
inferring recent migration rates from individual genotypes.we present a novel and straightforward method for estimating recent migration rates between discrete populations using multilocus genotype data. the approach builds upon a two-step sampling design, where individual genotypes are sampled before and after dispersal. we develop a model that estimates all pairwise backwards migration rates (m(ij), the probability that an individual sampled in population i is a migrant from population j) between a set of populations. the method is validated with simu ...200919222755
cycle length of spermatogenesis in shrews (mammalia: soricidae) with high and low metabolic rates and different mating systems.the aim of the present study was to establish and compare the durations of the seminiferous epithelium cycles of the common shrew sorex araneus, which is characterized by a high metabolic rate and multiple paternity, and the greater white-toothed shrew crocidura russula, which is characterized by a low metabolic rate and a monogamous mating system. twelve s. araneus males and fifteen c. russula males were injected intraperitoneally with 5-bromodeoxyuridine, and the testes were collected. for cyc ...200717267697
metal bioaccumulation in the greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula, inhabiting an abandoned pyrite mine site.hepatic and renal concentrations of iron, magnesium, zinc, lead, copper, manganese, mercury, cadmium, molybdenum, chromium, and nickel were quantified in shrews (crocidura russula) inhabiting a pyrite mine site in portugal. several morphological parameters (body weight, residual index, and relative weights) were also examined to clarify the physiological effects of pollution. shrews from the mine showed increased bioavailability of fe, pb, hg, cd, mo, and ni in comparison with reference specimen ...200717107703
rate of metabolism during lactation in small terrestrial mammals (crocidura russula, mus domesticus and microtus arvalis).basal rate of metabolism (bmr) and resting maternal rate of metabolism around peak lactation (rmr(l)) were measured in crocidura russula, mus domesticus and microtus arvalis. these species have a moderate or high bmr relative to the scaling relationship of kleiber. one goal of the study was to check whether females of these species show elevated rates of metabolism during lactation. a second goal was to test for a possible intraspecific correlation between the level of bmr and the change in rate ...200616630734
disentangling reasons for low y chromosome variation in the greater white-toothed shrew (crocidura russula).y chromosome variation is determined by several confounding factors including mutation rate, effective population size, demography, and selection. disentangling these factors is essential to better understand the evolutionary properties of the y chromosome. we analyzed genetic variation on the y chromosome, x chromosome, and mtdna of the greater white-toothed shrew, a species with low variance in male reproductive success and limited sex-biased dispersal, which enables us to control to some exte ...200616582448
energy expenditure in crocidurinae shrews (insectivora): is metabolism a key component of the insular syndrome?a cascade of morphological, ecological, demographical and behavioural changes operates within island communities compared to mainland. we tested whether metabolic rates change on islands. using a closed circuit respirometer, we investigated resting metabolic rate (rmr) of three species of crocidurinae shrews: suncus etruscus, crocidura russula, and c. suaveolens. for the latter, we compared energy expenditure of mainland and island populations. our measurements agree with those previously report ...200516154371
evolutionary history of the greater white-toothed shrew (crocidura russula) inferred from analysis of mtdna, y, and x chromosome markers.we investigate the evolutionary history of the greater white-toothed shrew across its distribution in northern africa and mainland europe using sex-specific (mtdna and y chromosome) and biparental (x chromosome) markers. all three loci confirm a large divergence between eastern (tunisia and sardinia) and western (morocco and mainland europe) lineages, and application of a molecular clock to mtdna divergence estimates indicates a more ancient separation (2.25 m yr ago) than described by some prev ...200516098767
ultrastructural studies on oogenesis in the shrew (crocidura russula): i. the preantral follicle.ultrastructural analysis of the ovarian follicle prior to antrum formation in the shrew, crocidura russula, shows gradual differentiation of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complexes, vesicles, and multivescular bodies correlated with the growth of the oocyte from primordial to tertiary follicle and the development of the follicular wall. the growth rate of the follicle in relation to that of the oocyte was found to be biphasic.19846708111
the lung of shrews: morphometric estimation of diffusion capacity.the lungs of 16 shrews from 8 species (sorex minutus, neomys fodiens, suncus etruscus, crocidura russula, c. juvenetae, c. poensis, c. flavescens, c. giffardi) ranging in body weight from 2.2 to 100 g were studied by morphometry in order to compare the structural diffusion capacity for oxygen. dl02, with the oxygen consumption, vo2, measured on the same animals. vo2 was determined by short term measurements using a respirometer. dlo2 was estimated morphometrically. both parameters demonstrated g ...19807394364
phylogeographical footprints of the strait of gibraltar and quaternary climatic fluctuations in the western mediterranean: a case study with the greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula (mammalia: soricidae).we used mitochondrial cyt b sequences to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of crocidura russula (sensu lato) populations across the strait of gibraltar, western europe, maghreb, and the mediterranean and atlantic islands. this revealed very low genetic divergence between european and moroccan populations. the application of a molecular clock previously calibrated for shrews suggested that the separation of european from moroccan lineages occurred less than 60 000 bp, which is at least 5 ...200515773942
hand development and sequence of ossification in the forelimb of the european shrew crocidura russula (soricidae) and comparisons across therian mammals.hand development in the european shrew crocidura russula is described, based on the examination of a cleared and double-stained ontogenetic series and histological sections of a c. 20-day-old embryo and a neonate. in the embryo all carpal elements are still mesenchymal condensations, and there are three more elements than in the adult stage: the 'lunatum', which fuses with the scaphoid around birth; a centrale, which either fuses with another carpal element or just disappears later in ontogeny; ...200415291793
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