intestinal carriage of yersinia pseudotuberculosis by wild birds and mammals in japan.fecal specimens were obtained from wild birds and mammals in the eastern part of shimane prefecture, japan, an area where serotype 1b, 2b, 3, and 4b strains of yersinia pseudotuberculosis were found to be prevalent in humans. each of 869 animals, including 259 wild birds and 610 wild mammals, was screened for yersiniae. a total of 37 strains of y. pseudotuberculosis were isolated from 34 (5.6%) mammals, including 23 raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides), eight deer (cervus nippon), two hares ( ...19912059038
epizootiological survey of trichinella spp. infection in carnivores, rodents and insectivores in hokkaido, order to evaluate the present epidemiological situation of trichinella infection in wild animals in hokkaido, japan, red foxes (vulpes vulpes), raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides) , brown bears (ursus arctos) , martens (martes melampus), rodents and insectivores captured in hokkaido were examined for muscle larvae by the artificial digestion method from 2000 to 2006. foxes (44/319, 13.8%), raccoon dogs (6/77, 7.8%) and brown bears (4/126, 3.2%) were found to be infected with trichinella l ...200717405354
independent nonframeshift deletions in the mc1r gene are not associated with melanistic coat coloration in three mustelid lineages.sequence variation within the 5' flanking (about 240 bp) and exon regions (426 bp) of the melanocortin-1 receptor (mc1r) gene was examined to determine the potential role of this protein in the melanistic coat coloration of 17 mustelid species in four genera: gulo (wolverines), martes (martens), mustela (weasels), and meles (badgers). members of the genera mustela and meles, together with martes flavigula and martes pennanti, were shown to have intact gene sequences. however, several "in frame" ...200616135707
detection and molecular characterization of babesia, theileria, and hepatozoon species in hard ticks collected from kagoshima, the southern region in reveal the distribution of tick-borne parasites, we established a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) system to detect the most common agents of tick-borne parasitic diseases, namely babesia, theileria, and hepatozoon parasites. we collected host-seeking or animal-feeding ticks in kagoshima prefecture, the southernmost region of kyusyu island in southwestern japan. twenty of the total of 776 tick samples displayed a specific band of the appropriate size (approximately 1.4-1.6kbp) for ...201728501503
morphology of the lingual papillae of the asian short-clawed otter.we examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult asian short-clawed otter (aonyx cinerea) by using scanning electron microscopy. the filiform papilla on the lingual apex had some pointed processes. the connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of several rod-like processes, and the connective tissue core with a long process was rarely observed. the filiform papilla on the lingual body had several pointed processes and the fungiform papilla had smooth surface. the connective tis ...201628216538
ticks (acari: ixodidae) from medium-sized to large mammals in ehime prefecture, japan.ixodid ticks were collected from medium-sized to large mammals in ehime prefecture, shikoku, japan. ten species of ticks (amblyomma testudinarium, dermacentor taiwanensis, haemaphysalis flava, h. formosensis, h. hystricis, h. longicornis, h. megaspinosa, ixodes nipponensis, i. ovatus, and i. tanuki) were collected from a total of 29 mammals comprising 11 species. haemaphysalis hystricis, a possible vector of japanese spotted fever in ehime prefecture, was collected from canis lupus familiaris (d ...201323242932
isolation and phylogenetic analysis of bartonella species from wild carnivores of the suborder caniformia in japan.the prevalence of bartonella species was investigated among wild carnivores of the suborder caniformia, including 15 japanese badgers (meles anakuma), 8 japanese martens (martes melampus), 2 japanese weasels (mustela itatsi), 1 siberian weasel (mustela sibirica), 171 raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides), and 977 raccoons (procyon lotor) in japan. bartonella bacteria were isolated from one japanese badger (6.7%) and from one japanese marten (12.5%); however, no bartonella species was found in ...201222841404
distribution of wild mammal assemblages along an urban-rural-forest landscape gradient in warm-temperate east asia.urbanization may alter mammal assemblages via habitat loss, food subsidies, and other factors related to human activities. the general distribution patterns of wild mammal assemblages along urban-rural-forest landscape gradients have not been studied, although many studies have focused on a single species or taxon, such as rodents. we quantitatively evaluated the effects of the urban-rural-forest gradient and spatial scale on the distributions of large and mid-sized mammals in the world's larges ...201323741495
molecular detection and characterization of zoonotic and veterinary pathogens in ticks from northeastern china.tick-borne diseases are considered as emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals in china. in this study, ixodes persulcatus (n = 1699), haemaphysalis concinna (n = 412), haemaphysalis longicornis (n = 390), dermacentor nuttalli (n = 253), and dermacentor silvarum (n = 204) ticks were collected by flagging from northeastern china, and detected for infection with anaplasma, ehrlichia, babesia, and hepatozoon spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays and sequencing analysis. an ...201627965644
identification of euryhelmis costaricensis metacercariae in the skin of tohoku hynobiid salamanders (hynobius lichenatus), northeastern honshu, japan.since 2000, cutaneous nodular lesions were observed in tohoku hynobiid salamanders (hynobius lichenatus) in the northern abukuma mountains, northeastern honshu, japan. the distribution of diseased salamanders has expanded, along with the increasing severity of the disease. samples (foreleg, hindleg, and tail) from five diseased salamanders caught in the spring of 2009 contained 11 to 383 metacercarial cysts (0.43-0.48 mm in diameter) per individual. experimental inoculations of the metacercariae ...201020688689
muscular sarcocystosis in wild carnivores in honshu, japan.a total of 65 free-living carnivores collected on honshu island, japan were examined for muscular sarcocystis species infections. among them, 12 japanese raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), one japanese red fox (vulpes vulpes japonica), three japanese martens (martes melampus melampus), and two japanese badgers (meles meles anakuma) were found to have sarcocysts in their muscles. no inflammatory reactions associated with sarcocysts were observed. ultrastructurally, the sarcocysts ...200919841942
genetic diversity of the japanese marten (martes melampus) and its implications for the conservation unit.molecular phylogenetic analyses of combined mitochondrial dna sequences (2814 bp; cytochrome b gene, displacement loop region, and nadh dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene) identified nine groups among 49 individual japanese martens, martes melampus, collected from several areas in japan. the grouping was not correlated with winter coat color, but was consistent with geography. in particular, the monophyly of 29 tsushima martens, m. m. tsuensis, was supported by strong clade support and topological tes ...200919663640
parasitological and molecular features of the hepatozoon species in the myocardium of japanese martens (martes melampus melampus).the hepatozoon species in the myocardium of japanese martens (martes melampus melampus) was characterized by histological and molecular methods. histologically, granulomatous nodules with hepatozoon sp. merozoites/gametocytes, or schizonts, or both were observed in the hearts of japanese martens. the most frequently observed forms were merozoites/gametocytes within phagocytes; each host cell included a zoite, which was not microscopically identifiable as a merozoite or gametocyte. schizonts were ...200919575543
epidemiology, histopathology, and muscle distribution of trichinella t9 in feral raccoons (procyon lotor) and wildlife of japan.the prevalences of trichinella t9 in trapped raccoons (procyon lotor) and several other potential mammalian reservoirs in hokkaido, wakayama, and nagasaki prefectures were investigated. muscle samples were collected from 2003 to 2006 from 1,080 raccoons, 113 raccoon dogs including 2 species (nyctereutes procyonoides albus and n. p. viverrinus), 41 wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax), 14 martens (martes melampus), 10 badgers (meles meles), 5 siberian weasels (martes sibirica coreana), 7 mink (mus ...200717310398
a comparative histological study on the distribution of striated and smooth muscles and glands in the esophagus of wild birds and mammals.musculature and glands of the esophagus in various wild birds and mammals were examined histologically. cervical and thoracic esophagi of all birds used (mallard, spot-billed duck, ural owl and hodgson's hawk-eagle) were comprised of smooth muscle fibers only. in contrast, esophagi of the nutria, japanese raccoon dog, common raccoon and japanese marten consisted largely of striated muscle fibers. in the masked palm civet, japanese macaque and bottlenose dolphin, esophageal muscle layers consiste ...200515699607
mitochondrial dna variation in the japanese marten martes melampus and japanese sable, martes zibellina.genetic relationship among japanese sables, martes zibellina and the introduced japanese martens, martes melampus in northern japan was revealed by analyzing a 521-524bp dna sequence from the cytochrome b (112bp)/transfer rna-threonine (67bp)/trna-proline (65bp) and control region (277-280bp) of the mitochondrial genome. intraspecific differences in sequences of m. zibellina and m. melampus (3.8-15.0% and 1.9-16.4%, respectively) were similar to interspecific differences between these two specie ...200415070038
helminth fauna of carnivores distributed in north-western tohoku, japan, with special reference to mesocestoides paucitesticulus and brachylaima the winter of 1998-1999, we collected parasitological data from 54 wild carnivores in the north-western part of tohoku region, japan. these consisted of 38 martens (martes melampus melampus), 14 raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) and 2 foxes (vulpes vulpes japonica). collected helminth parasites were 11 nematode, 10 trematode, 3 cestode, and a single acanthocephalan species, including 5 hitherto unknown species for this research area or the mainland of japan (honshu). mesocest ...199910651058
parasitological survey on wild carnivora in north-western tohoku, the winter of 1997-1998, we collected parasitological data from 60 wild carnivora in the north-western part of tohoku region, japan. these included 7 foxes (vulpes vulpes japonica), 20 raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), 29 martens (martes melampus melampus), 3 weasels (two mustela sibirica itatsi and one m. nivalis namiyei), and one japanese badger (meles meles anakuma). roundworms (toxocara canis in foxes and toxocara tanuki in raccoon dogs), hookworms (ancylostoma kusimaens ...199910535507
histopathologic features of naturally occurring hepatozoonosis in wild martens (martes melampus) in japan.nodular lesions containing hepatozoon sp. schizonts or merozoite-gametocytes were found in the tissues of 67 (96%) of 70 wild-caught martens (martes melampus) examined in gifu, japan, 1991 and 1992. the heart was the most commonly parasitized organ (96%), followed by the perirenal adipose tissue (36%); the diaphragm, mesentery, tongue, omentum and perisplenic adipose tissue generally had a prevalence of 10 to 15%. in the heart, two types of nodular lesions were differentiated based on developmen ...19958583643
the japanese marten favors actinidia arguta, a forest edge liane as a directed seed disperser.this study demonstrates the potential of the japanese marten (martes melampus) to serve as a directed seed disperser of actinidia arguta, a representative forest edge liane. fecal compositions of the japanese marten in a western part of tokyo, japan were analyzed by the point-frame method. it fed on fruits in autumn (73.1%) and winter (63.0%), and the seeds of a. arguta were most frequently eaten (47.4%). although the vegetation in the study area was dominated by forest (95.5%), seeds found in t ...201526003980
genetic distinctness and variation in the tsushima islands population of the japanese marten, martes melampus (carnivora: mustelidae), revealed by microsatellite analysis.a carnivoran mammal endemic to japan, the japanese marten (martes melampus) is native in forested regions on honshu, shikoku, kyushu (main islands of japan), and the tsushima islands. the tsushima population is classified as a different subspecies (m. m. tsuensis) from populations on the main islands (m. m. melampus). to elucidate the genetic structure of the tsushima population, we genotyped 101 individuals from the tsushima islands and 43 individuals from honshu and kyushu using 10 microsatell ...201223215974
a comparison of visual and genetic techniques for identifying japanese marten scats - enabling diet examination in relation to seasonal food availability in a sub-alpine area of japan.we compared the reliability of visual diagnostic criteria to dna diagnostic techniques, including newly designed primers, to discriminate japanese marten (martes melampus) feces from those of other sympatric carnivore species. visual criteria proved > 95% reliable for fresh, odoriferous scats in good condition. based upon this verification, we then examined if and how japanese marten diet differs among seasons at high elevation study site (1500-2026 m). we also considered how intra-specific comp ...201728397597
involvement of two genetic lineages of sarcoptes scabiei mites in a local mange epizootic of wild mammals in japan.similar to wild mammals on the continents, mange caused by the mange mite, sarcoptes scabiei (acari: sarcoptidae) is spreading in wild mammals in most of japan. we collected crusted or alopetic skin from 120 raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), three raccoons (procyon lotor), six japanese badgers (meles anakuma), one japanese marten (martes melampus), one stray dog (canis lupus familiaris), four wild boars (sus scrofa leucomystax), and one japanese serow (capricornis crispus), mai ...201525397999
new methods for species and sex determination in three sympatric mustelids, mustela itatsi, mustela sibirica and martes melampus.we developed novel species and sex determination methods for three japanese mustelid species. we used ddx3y to determine sex and generated a primer set to amplify both ddx3x and ddx3y dna in mustela itatsi, m. sibirica and martes melampus. to determine species and sex simultaneously, we generated fluorescence-labelled primers that give different fragment lengths at d-loop, ddx3x and ddx3y of these three species using a dna sequencer.201021565122
morphology of the lingual papillae in the japanese marten.the dorsal lingual surfaces of two adult japanese marten (martes melampus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy (sem). filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae were observed. a small filiform papilla on the apical surface of the tongue had several pointed processes. a small filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting of several small processes. a large filiform papilla of the lingual body consisted of a main papilla and some secondary papillae. a large fili ...200717969997
pseudoparasitism of sypharista kamegaii quentin, 1971, found in japanese martens. 19761011400
genetic identification of mammalian carnivore species in the kushiro wetland, eastern hokkaido, japan, by analysis of fecal identify mammalian carnivore species distributed in the kushiro wetland, eastern hokkaido, japan, we developed molecular-genetic methods for identification of the species from fecal samples collected from the field. species-specific primers and pcr programs were established for five native and six alien species of carnivores: martes zibellina, mustela nivalis, mustela erminea, vulpes vulpes, and nyctereutes procyonoides as native species, and neovison vison, martes melampus, mustela itatsi, c ...200818828658
fecal dna analysis for identifying species and sex of sympatric carnivores: a noninvasive method for conservation on the tsushima islands, japan.fecal analysis is a useful tool for the investigation of food habits and species identity in mammals. however, it is generally difficult to identify the species based on the morphological features and contents of feces deposited by mammals of similar body size. therefore we developed noninvasive dna analysis methods using fecal samples for identification of the species and sex of four small sympatric carnivores living on the tsushima islands of japan: the leopard cat (felis bengalensis), japanes ...200516267168
species identification of mustelids by comparing partial sequences on mitochondrial dna from fecal samples.nucleotide sequences of cytochrome b/trna/d-loop region on mitochondrial dna of mustelids feces were compared to identify species. pcr amplification of target sequence for 47 (24.9%) feces and species identification of five feces (2.6%) out of 189 feces, collected at several study sites in hokkaido, were successful. species of three feces were martes zibellina and those of other two feces were martes melampus and mustela itatsi. the low success rate of identification appeared to be due to failur ...200212014576
seasonal and diel activity patterns of eight sympatric mammals in northern japan revealed by an intensive camera-trap survey.the activity patterns of mammals are generally categorized as nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular (active at twilight), and cathemeral (active throughout the day). these patterns are highly variable across regions and seasons even within the same species. however, quantitative data is still lacking, particularly for sympatric species. we monitored the seasonal and diel activity patterns of terrestrial mammals in hokkaido, japan. through an intensive camera-trap survey a total of 13,279 capture event ...201627732611
estimated seed shadow generated by japanese martens(martes melampus): comparison with forest-dwelling animals in evaluate the seed shadow generated by wild japanese martens (martes melampus), we combined data on their ranging behavior from the northern foot of mt. fuji, central japan (seven males and three females) with data on gut passage time obtained from martens in toyama municipal family park zoo (three males and one female). the movement distances varied, and mean distances for 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 h intervals were 152.4, 734.7, and 1,162.4 m, respectively, with no significant sex difference. the mea ...201627498794
application of molecular genetics method for differentiating martes zibellina l. heart from its adulterants in traditional chinese medicine based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.the use of martes zibellina l. heart as a famous kind of traditional chinese medicine has been documented for many years in china. identification of its authenticity as raw materials became a key in controlling of herbal preparations. in this study, the characteristics of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene from four species of martes were explored, and a specific molecular genetics technique for identifying the heart of m. zibellina l. in addition to some close relatives from their counterf ...201423919324
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