growth, cambial activity and phloem structure in compatible and incompatible peach/plum grafts.peach (prunus persica l. batsch) shoots grafted onto compatible or incompatible clones of rootstocks of myrobolan plum (prunus cerasifera l. ehrh. cv. myrobolan) were observed in a greenhouse for 100 days after grafting. the incompatible grafts showed foliar symptoms of incompatibility and reduced shoot growth about 60 days after grafting. light microscopic studies revealed that cambial activity stopped earlier in the rootstocks, than in the scions, of incompatible grafts. structural modificatio ...198814972805
comparative mapping and marker-assisted selection in rosaceae fruit crops.the development of saturated linkage maps using transferable markers, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and micro-satellites has provided a foundation for fruit tree genetics and breeding. a prunus reference map with 562 such markers is available, and a further set of 13 maps constructed with a subset of these markers has allowed genome comparison among seven prunus diploid (x = 8) species (almond, peach, apricot, cherry, prunus ferganensis, prunus davidiana, and prunus cerasifera); mar ...200415159547
resistance to root-knot nematodes meloidogyne spp. in woody plants.i. 42 ii. 43 iii. 44 iv. 47 v. 49 vi. 50 vii. 50 viii. 50 ix. 52 52 references 52 summary: root-knot nematodes (rkns) meloidogyne spp. cause major damage to cultivated woody plants. among them, prunus, grapevine and coffee are the crops most infested by worldwide polyphagous species and species with a more limited distribution and/or narrower host range. the identification and characterization of natural sources of resistance are important steps to develop rkn control strategies. in woody crops, ...201627128375
physiological and biochemical parameters controlling waterlogging stress tolerance in prunus before and after drainage.waterlogging is associated with poor soil drainage. as a consequence oxygen levels decrease in the root environment inducing root asphyxia and affecting plant growth. some plants can survive under these conditions triggering complex anatomical and biochemical adaptations, mostly in the roots. long and short-term responses to waterlogging stress were compared in two trials using a set of two myrobalans (p. cerasifera erhr), 'p.2175' and 'p.2980', as tolerant rootstocks, and two almond ⊆ peach [p. ...201222221115
rhizobium skierniewicense sp. nov. isolated from tumors on chrysanthemum and prunus in poland.three gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from galls on chrysanthemum (ch11(t), ch12) and on prunus cerasifera var. divaricata (al 9.3). all three isolates are able to cause crown gall on different plant species. on the basis of 16s rrna gene sequence similarity, the strains belong to the genus rhizobium and their closest relatives are rhizobium rubi (99.6%), rhizobium radiobacter (98.7%) and rhizobium larrymoorei (98.1%). phylogenetic analysis of the novel strain ...201121642489
the ma gene for complete-spectrum resistance to meloidogyne species in prunus is a tnl with a huge repeated c-terminal post-lrr region.root-knot nematode (rkn) meloidogyne species are major polyphagous pests of most crops worldwide, and cultivars with durable resistance are urgently needed because of nematicide bans. the ma gene from the myrobalan plum (prunus cerasifera) confers complete-spectrum, heat-stable, and high-level resistance to rkn, which is remarkable in comparison with the mi-1 gene from tomato (solanum lycopersicum), the sole rkn resistance gene cloned. we report here the positional cloning and the functional val ...201121482634
physiological responses and differential gene expression in prunus rootstocks under iron deficiency conditions.two prunus rootstocks, the myrobalan plum p 2175 and the interspecific peach-almond hybrid, felinem, were studied to characterize their biochemical and molecular responses induced under iron-deficient conditions. plants of both genotypes were submitted to different treatments using a hydroponic system that permitted removal of fe from the nutrient solution. control plants were grown in 90 µm fe (iii)-edta, deficient plants were grown in an iron free solution, and plants submitted to an inductor ...201121306783
differential induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression in response to in vitro callus unions of prunus spp.phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of phenolic compounds, which play a prominent role in graft union formation, including the marked effects of their accumulation in incompatibility response. the purpose of this study was to assess changes in the abundance of pal mrna during graft union development. partial cdna clones encoding the enzyme were isolated from in vitro callus tissue in the apricot (prunus armeniaca l.) cultivar moniqui and the plum rootstock marianna ...200817910896
growth and the composition and transport of carbohydrate in compatible and incompatible peach/plum grafts.the growth of scions and rootstocks of compatible (prunus persica l. batsch cv. springtime/prunus cerasifera l. ehrh. cv. myrobolan p2032) and incompatible (prunus persica l. batsch cv. springtime/prunus cerasifera l. ehrh. cv. myrobolan p18) peach/plum grafts were compared. the composition of soluble carbohydrates in phloem and cortical tissues of both peach/plum grafts and ungrafted plums and the translocation of these compounds across the union of grafted plants were examined. sorbitol and su ...198714975918
arbuscular mycorrhizal induced changes to plant growth and root system morphology in prunus cerasifera.we compared root system morphogenesis of micropropogated transplants of prunus cerasifera l. inoculated with either of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi glomus mosseae or glomus intraradices or with the ericoid mycorrhizal species hymenoscyphus ericae. all plants were grown in sand culture, irrigated with a nutrient solution that included a soluble source of phosphorus, for 75 days after transplanting. arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization increased both the survival and growth (by over 100%) ...199514965952
influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae and phosphate fertilization on shoot apical growth of micropropagated apple and plum rootstocks.we studied the effects of phosphate fertilization and inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi glomus mosseae (nicol. and gerd.) gerdmann and trappe, glomus intraradices schenck and smith or glomus viscosum nicolson on shoot apical growth of plantlets that had been micropropagated from mm 106 apple (malus pumila l.) and mr.s. 2/5 plum (prunus cerasifera ehrh.) rootstocks. unfertilized and non-mycorrhizal plantlets showed no apical growth during the post in vitro acclimation phase, where ...199614871682
development of microsatellite markers in peach [ prunus persica (l.) batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( prunus avium l.).we report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a ct-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'merrill o'henry'. ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. for microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two prunus f(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate mendelian inheritance. microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet che ...200212582570
inheritance of resistance to the root-knot nematode meloidogyne arenaria in myrobalan plum.the inheritance of resistance of the self-incompatible myrobalan plum prunus cerasifera to the root-knot nematode meloidogyne arenaria was studied using first a diallel cross between five parents of variable host suitability (including two highly resistant clones p.1079 and p.2175, a moderate host p.2032, a good host p.2646 and an excellent host p.16.5), followed by the g2 crosses p.16.5 × (p.2646 × p.1079) and p.2646 × (p.16.5 × p.1079). a total of 355 g1 and 72 g2 clones obtained from hard-woo ...199624166553
agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of prunus as an alternative for gene functional analysis in hairy-roots and composite plants.resistant rootstocks offer an alternative to pesticides for the control of soil pests. in prunus spp., resistance loci to root-knot nematodes (rkn) have been mapped and a transformation method is needed to validate candidate genes. our efforts have focused on the generation of transformed hairy-roots and composite plants appropriate for nematode infection assays. an efficient and reliable method using the a4r strain of agrobacterium rhizogenes for the transformation of prunus roots with an egfp ...201121409553
cell-to-cell transport through plasmodesmata in tree callus factor that contributes to a successful fruit tree grafting is the establishment of symplasmic contacts in the graft interface to facilitate the transfer of compounds between scion and stock. using novel experimental and theoretical approaches we investigated whether the localized incompatibility, experienced in some prunus grafts, could be related to insufficient plasmodesmal coupling at an early stage of development within one of the partners. dye-coupling analysis using fluorescent tracer ...200919398772
the pin nematode, paratylenchus neoamblycephalus, on myrobalan plum and other hosts.elimination of paratylenchus neoamblvcephalus from soil by fumigation with 1,2-dibromoethane stimulated the growth of myrobalan seedlings grown in it. addition of a suspension of p. neoamblycephalus to myrobalan seedlings inhibited their growth as compared to noninoculated controls. when nematodes were removed from the suspension by settling, and the supernatant liquid was used as inoculum, no stunting occurred. roots of myrobalan seedlings inoculated with surface-sterilized p. neoamblycephalus ...197519308178
pathogenicity of criconemoides xenoplax to prune and plum rootstocks.elimination of criconemoides xenoplax from a prune orchard soil by fumigation with ethylene dibromide at the rate of 42 muliter/liter of soil (equivalent to about 13 gal/acre) improved the growth of myrobalan plum, addition of this nematode to myrobalan seedlings or young 'marianna 2624' plants propagated from cuttings resulted in destruction of cortical root tissue, darkening of roots, alteration of water stress, lowering of nutrient levels in leaves, and reduction in plant weight. c. xenoplax ...197519308143
differential response to root-knot nematodes in prunus species and correlative genetic implications.responses of 17 prunus rootstocks or accessions (11 from the subgenus amygdalus and 6 from the subgenus prunophora) were evaluated against 11 isolates of meloidogyne spp. including one m. arenaria, four m. incognita, four m. javanica, one m. hispanica, and an unclassified population from florida. characterization of plant response to root-knot nematodes was based on a gall index rating. numbers of females and juveniles plus eggs in the roots were determined for 10 of the rootstocks evaluated aga ...199719274170
leaf morphological and physiological adjustments to the spectrally selective shade imposed by anthocyanins in prunus cerasifera.prunus domestica l. has green leaves, whereas prunus cerasifera ehrh. var. atropurpurea has red leaves due to the presence of mesophyll anthocyanins. we compared morphological and photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of these species, which were sampled from shoots grafted in pairs on p. domestica rootstocks, each pair comprising one shoot of each species. two hypotheses were tested: (1) anthocyanins protect red leaves against photoinhibition; and (2) red leaves display shade characteristics ...200717331903
microsatellite genetic linkage maps of myrobalan plum and an almond-peach hybrid--location of root-knot nematode resistance genes.inheritance and linkage studies were carried out with microsatellite [or simple sequence repeat (ssr)] markers in a f(1) progeny including 101 individuals of a cross between myrobalan plum ( prunus cerasifera ehrh) clone p.2175 and the almond (prunus dulcis mill.)-peach ( prunus persica l. batsch) hybrid clone gn22 ["garfi" (g) almond x "nemared" (n) peach]. this three-way interspecific prunus progeny was produced in order to associate high root-knot nematode (rkn) resistances from myrobalan and ...200415241595
carbon and nitrogen partitioning in peach/plum grafts.modifications in root-shoot relationships induced by graft incompatibility were studied in peach/plum graft combinations by means of carbohydrate and nitrogen analyses and isotope labeling. mobilization of stored carbon, phloem transport of carbon, and mobilization, assimilation and distribution of nitrogen were studied in one compatible peach/plum graft (prunus persica l. batsch cv. springtime grafted on prunus cerasifera l. ehrh cv. myrobalan p 2032) and one incompatible graft (prunus persica ...199214969877
location of independent root-knot nematode resistance genes in plum and peach.prunus species express different ranges and levels of resistance to the root-knot nematodes (rkn) meloidogyne spp. in myrobalan plum ( prunus cerasifera), the dominant ma gene confers a high-level and wide-spectrum resistance to the predominant rkn, meloidogyne arenaria, meloidogyne incognita, meloidogyne javanica and the isolate meloidogyne sp. florida which overcomes the resistance of the amygdalus sources. in japanese plum ( prunus salicina), a similar wide-spectrum dominant resistance gene, ...200414569426
histological mechanisms of the resistance conferred by the ma gene against meloidogyne incognita in prunus spp.the ma gene from myrobalan plum is a tnl gene that confers a high-level resistance to all root-knot nematodes of major economic importance, including meloidogyne incognita, m. javanica, m. arenaria, and m. enterolobii. the nematode behavior in the roots and the corresponding histological mechanisms of the ma resistance to m. incognita in the resistant (r) accessions of the plum 'p.2175' and the interspecific hybrid p.2175×almond-peach '35', carrying the ma1 allele (ma1/ma), were characterized in ...201121446787
development and practical use of rt-pcr for seed-transmitted prune dwarf virus in quarantine.among imported plants, seeds are the items that have many latent pathogens and are difficult to inspect. also, they are the import and export items whose market is expected to expand. the biggest problem with seeds is viruses. prune dwarf virus (pdv) is the virus that is commonly inspected in prunus cerasifera, p. persica, p. armeniaca, p. mandshurica, p. cerasus, p. avium or p. serotina seeds. in this study, two rt-pcr primer sets, which can promptly and specifically diagnose plant quarantine s ...201425289000
rhizobium nepotum sp. nov. isolated from tumors on different plant species.five gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from galls on different plant species in hungary: strain 39/7(t) from prunus cerasifera myrobalan, strain 0 from grapevine var. ezerjó, strain 7/1 from raspberry var. findus and in poland, strain c3.4.1 from colt rootstock (prunus avium × prunus pseudocerasus) and strain cp17.2.2 from prunus avium. only one of these isolates, strain 0, is able to cause crown gall on different plant species. on the basis of 16s rrna gene seq ...201222463808
agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.two plant-tumorigenic strains kfb 330(t) and kfb 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (rubus idaeus) in serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain al51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (prunus cerasifera) tumor in poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16s rdna placed them within the genus agrobacterium, with a. nepotum as their closest relative. multilocus sequence analysis (mlsa) based on the partial sequences of atpd, glna, gyrb, reca and rpob ...201526117193
draft genome sequences of agrobacterium nepotum strain 39/7t and agrobacterium sp. strain kfb 330.tumorigenic strains of agrobacterium spp. are responsible for crown gall disease of numerous plant species. we present here draft genome sequences of nonpathogenic agrobacterium nepotum strain 39/7(t) (cfbp 7436(t), lmg 26435(t)), isolated from crown gall tumor on prunus cerasifera, and tumorigenic agrobacterium sp. strain kfb 330 (cfbp 8308, lmg 28674), isolated from galls on raspberry.201525908139
effect of cutting age on the resistance of prunus cerasifera (myrobalan plum) to meloidogyne arenaria.the response of softwood cuttings of myrobalan plum infested after 50 and 105 days with 3,000 second-stage juveniles (j2) of meloidogyne arenaria was compared to 15-month-old hardwood cuttings in 13 genotypes ranging from highly resistant to susceptible. gall index and number of galls were recorded 30 days after infestation. fifty-day-old cuttings rooted in perlite developed many rootlets, but had only incipient galls after infestation. in sand, rooting of 50-day-old cuttings not treated with in ...199519277333
enhanced micropropagation response and biocontrol effect of azospirillum brasilense sp245 on prunus cerasifera l. clone mr.s 2/5 plants.inoculation with azospirillum brasilense sp245 exerts beneficial effects on micropropagated plants of prunus cerasifera l. clone mr.s 2/5, as seen in the results of a comparative analysis of inoculated and non-inoculated explants, during both the rooting and acclimatation phases. the presence of azospirillum brasilense sp245 increased root system, root hair biomass production and apical activity. although the presence of the bacteria had a positive effect on rooting, the addition of indolebutyri ...200818358553
high-resolution mapping and chromosome landing at the root-know nematode resistance locus ma from myrobalan plum using a large-insert bac dna library.the ma gene for root-knot nematode (rkn)resistance from myrobalan plum (prunus cerasifera l.)confers a complete-spectrum and a heat-stable resistance to meloidogvne spp., conversely to mi-i from tomato,which has a more restricted spectrum and a reduced efficiency at high temperature. this gene was identified from a perennial self-incompatible near-wild rootstock species and lies in cosegregation with the scar marker scaflp2 on the prunus linkage group 7 in a 2.3 cm interval between the scar scal ...200415322755
pararhizobium polonicum sp. nov. isolated from tumors on stone fruit rootstocks.five gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from galls on different stone fruit rootstocks in poland: strains f5.1(t) and f5.3 from prunus avium f12/1, strains cp3.5 and cp17.2.1 from prunus avium and strain al5.1.8 from prunus cerasifera. on the basis of 16s rdna phylogeny, the strains cluster together and belong to the genus pararhizobium with type strain of pararhizobium herbae (99.6-99.8%) as their closest relative. phylogenetic analysis of the novel strains usin ...201627026286
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the leaves of twelve plant species along an urbanization gradient in shanghai, china.plants, particularly their leaves, play an important role in filtering both gas-phase and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs). however, many studies have focused on the accumulation and adsorption functions of plant leaves, possibly underestimating the effects that plants have on air quality. therefore, eight tree species from different locations in shanghai were selected to assess pah filtering (via adsorption and capture) using washed and unwashed plant leaves. the differenc ...201728233205
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