erysipelas in two captive diana monkeys. 1977411775
sequence divergence, polymorphism and evolution of the middle-wave and long-wave visual pigment genes of great apes and old world man, the spectral shift between the middle-wave (mw) and long-wave (lw) visual pigments is largely achieved by amino acid substitution at two codons, both located in exon 5. a third amino acid site coded by exon 3 is polymorphic between pigments. we have studied the equivalent regions of the cone opsin genes in two members of the hominidea (the gorilla, gorilla gorilla and the chimpanzee, pan troglodytes) and in three members of the cercopithecoidea family of old world primates (the diana mon ...19947975287
referential labelling in diana monkeys.animal semantic communication has received considerable theoretical and empirical attention because of its relevance to human language. advances have been made by studies of alarm-call behaviour in nonhumans. in monkeys, for example, there is evidence that recipients have a fairly sophisticated understanding of a call's meaning; that is, the predator type usually associated with a certain alarm call. little is known, however, about the mental mechanisms that drive call production in nonhuman pri ...200010860519
[medical treatment of dystocia in zoo animals].kasuistics of zoo animals with dystocia (anoa, giraffe, snow goat, scimitar horned antelope, bactrian camel, tiger, diana monkey) treated with special pharmaceuticals (glukokortikoids, cienbuterol, denaverine, carbetocin) and distance injections by blow darts are introduced. these procedures are described as very effective and save methods of obstetrics especially in zoo animals.200011155524
mating system of an exceptional primate, the olive colobus (procolobus verus).in the olive colobus (procolobus verus), many groups have multiple males and the males have large testes. this indicates that even though this species lives in small groups, single males do not monopolize the groups. we investigated the strategies employed by males to secure their mating success, and sought to determine whether the lack of male monopolization was a result of female mating strategies, as indicated by the exaggerated sexual swellings of the females. four study groups were monitore ...200415085531
hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. however, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. diana monkeys (cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (panthera pardus). yellow-casqued hornbills (ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and mig ...200415209110
polyspecific associations of cercopithecus campbelli and c. petaurista with c. diana: what are the costs and benefits?polyspecific associations (psa) are common in many african primate communities, including the diurnal primates at taï forest, côte d'ivoire. in this paper i use data on the psa of two forest guenons, campbell's (cercopithecus campbelli) and lesser spot-nosed monkeys (c. petaurista), with diana monkeys (c. diana) and other primates to clarify interspecific relationships during 17 months including a 3-month low-fruit period. i analyzed association in relation to fruit availability and measured for ...201020535628
Context-related call combinations in female Diana monkeys.Non-human primates possess species-specific repertoires of acoustically distinct call types that can be found in adults in predictable ways. Evidence for vocal flexibility is generally rare and typically restricted to acoustic variants within the main call types or sequential production of multiple calls. So far, evidence for context-specific call sequences has been mainly in relation to external disturbances, particularly predation. In this study, we investigated extensively the vocal behaviour ...201121947942
identification of mycobacterium genavense in a diana monkey (cercopithecus diana) by polymerase chain reaction and high-performance liquid chromatography.a 25-yr-old diana monkey (cercopithecus diana) with a 1.5-yr history of chronic colitis and diarrhea was found to have disseminated granulomatous disease with intralesional acid fast bacilli. bacilli were identified as mycobacterium genavense by polymerase chain reaction, sequencing of the 16s-23s ribosomal rna intergenic spacer (its) gene, and mycolic acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. mycobacterium genavense is a common cause of mycobacteriosis in free-ranging and captive ...201526056890
anterior cruciate ligament: an anatomical exploration in humans and in a selection of animal species.many anatomical anterior cruciate ligament (acl) studies have indicated that the human acl is composed of two functional bundles: the antero-medial (am) and postero-lateral (pl). the purpose of this study is to compare the acl anatomy among human and assorted animal species.201423471530
first detection of echinococcus multilocularis infection in two species of nonhuman primates raised in a zoo: a fatal case in cercopithecus diana and a strongly suspected case of spontaneous recovery in macaca nigra.the causative parasite of alveolar echinococcosis, echinococcus multilocularis, maintains its life cycle between red foxes (vulpes vulples, the definitive hosts) and voles (the intermediate hosts) in hokkaido, japan. primates, including humans, and some other mammal species can be infected by the accidental ingestion of eggs in the feces of red foxes. in august 2011, a 6-year-old zoo-raised female diana monkey (cercopithecus diana) died from alveolar echinococcosis. e. multilocularis infection w ...201424780141
diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the taï national park, côte d'ivoire.parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. the main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting côte d'ivoire's taï national park. seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: cercopithecus diana, cercopithecus campbelli, cercopithecus petaurista, procolobus badius, procolobus verus, colobus polykomos, and cercocebus atys. we collected 3142 monkey stool samples betw ...201525619957
suffixation influences receivers' behaviour in non-human primates.compared to humans, non-human primates have very little control over their vocal production. nonetheless, some primates produce various call combinations, which may partially offset their lack of acoustic flexibility. a relevant example is male campbell's monkeys (cercopithecus campbelli), which give one call type ('krak') to leopards, while the suffixed version of the same call stem ('krak-oo') is given to unspecific danger. to test whether recipients attend to this suffixation pattern, we carr ...201525925101
social familiarity affects diana monkey (cercopithecus diana diana) alarm call responses in habitat-specific ways.male diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other's calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. here, we tested whether male diana monkeys responding to each other's alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in taï for ...201626998336
convergence and divergence in diana monkey vocalizations.individually distinct vocalizations are widespread among social animals, presumably caused by variation in vocal tract anatomy. a less-explored source of individual variation is due to learned movement patterns of the vocal tract, which can lead to vocal convergence or divergence in social groups. we studied patterns of acoustic similarity in a social call produced by 14 female diana monkeys (cercopithecus diana) in two free-ranging groups. calls showed variability in fundamental frequency conto ...201222237503
pulse register phonation in diana monkey alarm calls.the adult male diana monkeys (cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. the acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. first, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. second, diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this ...200312765409
causal cognition in a non-human primate: field playback experiments with diana monkeys.crested guinea fowls (guttera pucherani) living in west african rainforests give alarm calls to leopards (panthera pardus) and sometimes humans (homo sapiens), two main predators of sympatric diana monkeys (cercopithecus diana). when hearing these guinea fowl alarm calls, diana monkeys respond as if a leopard were present, suggesting that by default the monkeys associate guinea fowl alarm calls with the presence of a leopard. to assess the monkeys' level of causal understanding, i primed monkeys ...200010913576
causal knowledge of predators' behaviour in wild diana monkeys.wild diana monkeys, cercopithecus diana, of taï forest, ivory coast, are preyed upon by leopards, panthera pardus, and chimpanzees, pan troglodytes. these two predators differ in their main hunting tactic and diana monkeys attempt to avoid predation with two distinct antipredator strategies: conspicuous alarm-calling behaviour to leopards and silent, cryptic behaviour to chimpanzees. however, the diana monkeys' choice of the appropriate antipredator strategy is complicated by the fact that chimp ...200010640383
detecting gene conversion: primate visual pigment genes.the effects of gene conversion can be detected in the dna sequences of multigene families. we develop a permutation test of the significance of patterns of sequence mismatches, and apply it to the sequences of the red- and green-sensitive visual pigment genes of human and the diana monkey. whereas conventional tests of the rate of sequence divergence are equivocal, the permutation test convincingly excludes divergence in the absence of gene conversion (p = 10(-6)).19921359557
the influence of leaping frequency on secondary bone in cercopithecid primates.bone remodeling is at least partially mediated by the mechanical environment created by an animal's behavior. here, we test the hypothesis that bone remodeling is primarily induced by high magnitude loads, likely encountered during leaping/bounding behaviors. osteon population density (opd), osteon cross-sectional area (, and relative osteonal area (%hav) were measured from femoral and humeral midshaft thin sections of four cercopithecids (n = 5 per species) from taï forest, côte d'ivoire: ...201930369075
predation increases acoustic complexity in primate alarm calls.according to most accounts, alarm calling in non-human primates is a biologically hardwired behaviour with signallers having little control over the acoustic structure of their calls. in this study, we compared the alarm calling behaviour of two adjacent populations of diana monkeys at taï forest (ivory coast) and tiwai island (sierra leone), which differ significantly in predation pressure. at taï, monkeys regularly interact with two major predators, crowned eagles and leopards, while at tiwai, ...200818818146
red colobus and diana monkeys provide mutual protection against predators.we tested the hypothesis that red colobus monkeys, procolobus badius and diana monkeys, cercopithecus diana in taï national park, ivory coast, associate to increase safety from predation. we recorded stratum use, exposure and vigilance of each species in the presence and in the absence of the partner species. in the presence of diana monkeys, red colobus used lower strata more often, were more exposed to the forest floor and looked down less often while foraging. this suggests that red colobus r ...19979794772
cercopithecid locomotion, support use, and support availability in the tai forest, ivory coast.habitat heterogeneity is widely theorized to be important in the evolution of old world monkeys, yet the impact of architecturally distinct forest types on the positional repertoires of african monkeys is largely unknown. as part of a wider project, this study investigates how the locomotor behavior of five sympatric cercopithecids varies in structurally distinct forest areas. fieldwork took place in the tai forest, ivory coast, from june 1993 to august 1994. data were collected on colobus badiu ...19968842324
locomotion and habitat use of stampflii's putty-nosed monkey (cercopithecus nictitans stampflii) in the taï national park, ivory coast.stampflii's putty-nosed monkeys cercopithecus nictitans stampflii are large, rare, poorly known guenons with a discontinuous distribution in west africa. putty-nosed monkeys occur at low densities in ivory coast's tai national park where they are believed to have migrated from less forested regions north of the park (eckardt and zuberbühler: behav ecol 15 (2004) 400-411). in this article, we compare the positional behavior of putty-nosed monkeys to that of three other guenon species in the tai f ...200717632798
sniffing behaviours in old world monkeys (owm), the olfactory sense is thought to be less important than in other primate taxa. however, during the last decade experimental studies have shown that owm possess much better olfactory capabilities than suspected. here, we investigate for the very first time sniffing behaviours in three guenon species (diana, de brazza's and owl-faced monkeys) held in the leipzig zoo, germany. we recorded frequencies and contexts of sniffing. the sniff index was used to allow comparison ...201425323457
scapular morphology and forelimb use during foraging in four sympatric cercopithecids.most investigations of primate scapular morphology use differences in locomotion to explain variation; less is known about how scapular geometry covaries with nonlocomotor behavior. we examined forelimb use during foraging in 4 cercopithecids ranging throughout the ivory coast's tai forest. during 5-min feeding bouts, we recorded the frequency individuals of piliocolobus badius, colobus polykomos, cercocebus atys and cercopithecus diana performed 5 forelimb behaviors involved in the acquisition ...201526745141
bone remodeling is reduced in high stress regions of the cercopithecoid mandible.independent lines of evidence suggest that osteonal bone remodeling is a function of both mechanical (i.e., changes in stress) and non-mechanical (i.e., metabolic needs related to calcium liberation) factors. the degree to which secondary bone reflects mechanical factors, however, is incompletely understood despite the common assumption that the stress environment mediates remodeling activity. here, we investigate whether there are remodeling differences between regions of primate mandibular bon ...201627348341
humeral correlates of forelimb elevation in four west african cercopithecid monkeys.we previously found that differing degrees of forelimb flexion, elevation, and abduction during nonlocomotor foraging activities covaried with scapular morphology among four sympatric cercopithecids. the purpose of this study is to investigate whether features of the proximal humerus are similarly related to forelimb elevation during foraging.201727804125
spatial variation in mandibular bone elastic modulus and its effect on structural bending stiffness: a test case using the taï forest monkeys.we investigated how heterogeneity in material stiffness affects structural stiffness in the cercopithecid mandibular cortical bone. we assessed (1) whether this effect changes the interpretation of interspecific structural stiffness variation across four primate species, (2) whether the heterogeneity is random, and (3) whether heterogeneity mitigates bending stress in the jaw associated with food processing.201727858979
persistent females and compliant males coordinate alarm calling in diana monkeys.sexual dimorphisms in animal vocal behavior have been successfully explained by sexual selection theory (e.g., mammals [1-5]; birds [6, 7]; anurans [8, 9]), but this does not usually include alarm calls, which are thought to be the product of kin or individual selection (e.g., [10, 11]). here, we present the results of playback experiments with wild diana monkeys, a species with highly dimorphic predator-specific alarms, to investigate the communication strategies of males and females during pre ...201628094027
revisiting play elements and self-handicapping in play: a comparative ethogram of five old world monkey behavior has been viewed as a mixture of elements drawn from "serious" behavior, interspersed by ritualized play signals. two other types of play behaviors have been overlooked: patterns that are dissimilar from any serious behavior and patterns with self-handicapping character, that is, those that put the animal into unnecessary disadvantageous positions or situations. here the authors show that these 2 types of patterns can constitute a major part of play repertoire. from our own videorec ...200919685966
cheek pouch use in relation to interspecific competition and predator risk for three guenon monkeys (cercopithecus spp.).forest guenons (cercopithecus spp.) are often found in polyspecific associations that may decrease predator risk while increasing interspecific competition for food. cheek pouch use may mitigate interspecific competition and predator risk by reducing the time spent in areas of high competition/predator risk. i investigated these ideas in three forest guenons: campbell's monkey (cercopithecus campbelli), spot-nosed monkey (c. petaurista), and diana monkey (c. diana). i present 13 months of scan s ...200616645704
vocal production mechanisms in a non-human primate: morphological data and a model.human beings are thought to be unique amongst the primates in their capacity to produce rapid changes in the shape of their vocal tracts during speech production. acoustically, vocal tracts act as resonance chambers, whose geometry determines the position and bandwidth of the formants. formants provide the acoustic basis for vowels, which enable speakers to refer to external events and to produce other kinds of meaningful communication. formant-based referential communication is also present in ...200415656937
interspecies semantic communication in two forest primates.west african diana monkeys (cercopithecus diana) and campbell's monkeys (cercopithecus campbelli) frequently form mixed-species associations. males of both species produce acoustically distinct alarm calls to crowned eagles (stephanoaetus coronalus) and leopards (panthera pardus), two of their main predators. field playback experiments were conducted to investigate whether diana monkeys respond to campbell's alarm calls and whether they understand the calls' semantic content. diana monkeys respo ...200010821618
comparative locomotion and habitat use of six monkeys in the tai forest, ivory coast.the relationships between locomotion, body size, and habitat use in six sympatric old world monkeys are examined to test whether the associations found are consistent with those demonstrated in previous studies (fleagle and mittermeier [1980] am. j. phys. anthropol. 52:301-314; gebo and chapman [1995] am. j. phys. anthropol. 97:49-76). colobus polykomos, c. badius, c. verus, cercopithecus diana, c. campbelli, and cercocebus atys were studied for 14 months in the ivory coast's tai forest. analyse ...19989584891
limits on tongue deformation--diana monkey formants and the impossible vocal tract shapes proposed by riede et al. (2005). 200616376410
the formation of red colobus-diana monkey associations under predation pressure from is generally assumed that most primates live in monospecific or polyspecific groups because group living provides protection against predation, but hard evidence is scarce. we tested the antipredation hypothesis with observational and experimental data on mixed-species groups of red colobus (procolobus badius) and diana monkeys (cercopithecus diana) in the taï national park, ivory coast. red colobus, but not diana monkeys, are frequently killed by cooperatively hunting chimpanzees. associatio ...19979061972
cytomegaloviruses in a community of wild nonhuman primates in taï national park, côte d'ivoire.cytomegaloviruses (cmvs) are known to infect many mammals, including a number of nonhuman primates (nhps). however, most data available arose from studies led on captive individuals and little is known about cmv diversity in wild nhps. here, we analyzed a community of wild nonhuman primates (seven species) in taï national park (tnp), côte d'ivoire, with two pcr systems targeting betaherpesviruses. cmv dna was detected in 17/87 primates (4/7 species). six novel cmvs were identified in sooty manga ...201729286318
meaning and emotion in animal vocalizations.historically, a dichotomy has been drawn between the semantic communication of human language and the apparently emotional calls of animals. current research paints a more complicated picture. just as scientists have identified elements of human speech that reflect a speaker's emotions, field experiments have shown that the calls of many animals provide listeners with information about objects and events in the environment. like human speech, therefore, animal vocalizations simultaneously provid ...200314766619
the relationship between acoustic structure and semantic information in diana monkey alarm vocalization.mammalian vocal production mechanisms are still poorly understood despite their significance for theories of human speech evolution. particularly, it is still unclear to what degree mammals are capable of actively controlling vocal-tract filtering, a defining feature of human speech production. to address this issue, a detailed acoustic analysis on the alarm vocalization of free-ranging diana monkeys was conducted. these vocalizations are especially interesting because they convey semantic infor ...200312942990
oral processing behavior of diana monkeys (cercopithecus diana) in taï national park, côte d'ivoire.primates are hypothesized to "fall back" on challenging-to-process foods when preferred foods are less available. such dietary shifts may be accompanied by changes in oral processing behavior argued to be selectively important. here, we examine the oral processing behavior of diana monkeys (cercopithecus diana) in the taï forest across their dietary breadth, testing relationships among food intake, fruit availability, preference, and oral processing behaviors including those involved in food ing ...202032492683
does oxygen stable isotope composition in primates vary as a function of vertical stratification or folivorous behaviour?stable isotopes of oxygen often vary within a community of primates. for example, folivorous monkeys that forage in the upper reaches of the forest canopy tend to evince high δ18o values, whereas those that prefer the understory tend to have lower δ18o values. given that leaves also have high δ18o values, particularly higher in the canopy, there is uncertainty as to which behavioural variable - vertical stratification or folivory - is the primary determinant of variation in δ18o values. here, we ...202031574501
dietary variation in diana monkeys (cercopithecus diana): the effects of polyspecific associations.establishing dietary central tendencies and extremes remains an important goal of primate research. while habitat differences and spatial discontinuity are well-documented contributors to dietary variation, other factors including polyspecific associations may significantly impact diet through changes in strata use and/or increased feeding competition. here, we examine polyspecific association with closely related species as a source of dietary variation in a rain forest primate. diana monkeys ( ...201729275404
association between olive colobus (procolobus verus), diana guenons (cercopithecus diana), and other forest monkeys in sierra leone.close association between olive colobus (procolous verus) and other monkeys (especially cercopithecus species) has been observed throughout the range of p. verus in the forest zone of west africa. to investigate the basis of this association, we made new observations in sierra leone, concentrated at tiwai island. we obtained data on the association patterns of monkeys over a large area of the island from line-transect samples, and studied association behavior via long-term observational sampling ...199031963982
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