[studies on growth of the fungus strain mucor circinelloides (1 m). i. forms of the growth (author's transl)].the fungus strain mucor circinelloides (1 m) grew polymorphic with the three forms hyphae, gemmae, and budding cells in nutrition substrate with glucose or n-alkanes as c- and energy source. the forms of the growth were differentiated in the size and colour of the cells and in the mode of formation of biomass. the results were discussed.1979543349
transformation of a leu- mutant of rhizopus niveus with the leua gene of mucor circinelloides. 19921368957
microbial degradation of amygdalin of bitter apricot seeds (prunus armeniaca).amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside occurring among others in almonds and bitter apricot seeds with interesting levels of dietary protein. utilization of seeds for human or animal nutrition requires adequate detoxification. in the present paper, selected filamentous fungi (mucor circinelloides, penicillium nalgiovense) and yeasts (hanseniaspora valbyensis, endomyces fibuliger) were tested for their in-situ ability to decompose amygdalin. the latter (endomyces fibuliger) was best able to grow on ...19957710917
isolation, characterization and transformation, by autonomous replication, of mucor circinelloides ompdecase-deficient mutants.pyrimidine auxotrophs of mucor circinelloides were isolated after mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine and selected for resistance to 5-fluoroorotate. these mutants were genetically and biochemically characterized and found to be deficient either in orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ompdecase) activity or in orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (oprtase) activity. different circular dna molecules containing the homologous pyrg gene were used to transform a representative ompdecase-deficient s ...19957651335
microflora of murcha: an amylolytic fermentation starter.murcha is a traditional starter, used commonly in darjeeling hills and sikkim in india to ferment a variety of starchy substrates in order to produce sweet-sour alcoholic beverages, called jnards. murcha cakes are mildly acidic (ph 5.2) and contain 13% w/w moisture and 0.7% w/w ash (dry weight basis). a total of 194 bacterial, 190 yeast and 80 mould strains were isolated from 30 samples of murcha. the counts (cfu/g fresh weight) of micro-organisms in the samples were 2.0 x 10(7) to 4.2 x 10(8) f ...19957476555
effects of pentachlorophenol and some of its known and possible metabolites on fungi.the fungicidal activity of pentachlorophenol and its derivatives against 16 species of fungi representing 14 genera was tested. in relation to pentachlorophenol, no increase in fungistatic activity was found for pentachloroanisole, pentachloronitrobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenyl acetate, o- and p-chloranil, the three isomeric chlorophenols, 2,6-dichlorophenol, the three isomeric tetrachlorobenzenediols, the three isomeric tetrachlorodimethoxybenzenes, the three isomeric tetrachloro ...19863729403
a case of pseudoparacoccidioidomycosis: detection of the yeast phase of mucor circinelloides in a clinical specimen.a case is presented in which yeastlike cells resembling the yeast phase of paracoccidioides brasiliensis were observed by microscopic examination of a urine sample. a mold identified as mucor circinelloides was isolated from the specimen. it was converted to the yeast form by cultivation on sabouraud agar incubated in a gaspak jar at 37 degrees c. the isolate was eventually shown not to be related to the patient's illness; however, the superficial resemblance of the yeast phase to p. brasiliensi ...19873574440
microbial transformation of 6-o-methylerythromycin derivatives.mucor circinelloides f. griseo-cyanus ifo 4563 was found to convert 6-o-methylerythromycin a (te-031, a-56268) to (14r)-14-hydroxy-6-o-methylerythromycin a [14r)-14-hydroxy te-031). the tlc and spectral data of the conversion product were perfectly identical with those of an active major metabolite of te-031 in humans (m-5). a related antibiotic, 6-o-methylerythromycin b (tb-010), was able to be similarly transformed to its c-14 hydroxy analogue [14r)-14-hydroxy-6-o-methylerythromycin b, (14r)-1 ...19882971032
cytological effects of fungal metabolites produced by fungi isolated from egyptian poultry feedstuffs.the cytogenetic effects of fungal metabolites produced by 113 strains belonging to 36 fungal species and isolated form 5 substrates of commercial poultry feedstuffs were tested for their effect on the growing root meristems of allium cepa. the fungal metabolites of paecilomyces canescens, aspergillus fumigatus, syncephalastrum racemosum, aspergillus terreus and mucor hiemalis strongly suppressed cell division. metabolites from other strains had less effect on cell division but permitted the appe ...19892746472
characterization of a leua gene and an ars element from mucor circinelloides.a 4.4-kb psti restriction endonuclease fragment of mucor circinelloides dna has previously been shown to both complement a leua- mutation, and to enable the autonomous replication of plasmids within this organism. the complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of this fragment has been determined and an open reading frame of 1935 bp with no introns has been identified, which exhibits significant similarity (75% at the nt level) with 114 bp of the 5' coding region of the saccharomyces cerevisiae leu1 gene ...19892693214
hydroxylation and n-demethylation of clarithromycin (6-o-methylerythromycin a) by mucor circinelloides. 19892529234
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of molds in cheese and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the detection of molds in dairy products. new zealand white female rabbits were immunized with .45 mg of partially purified extracellular antigen from freeze-dried culture filtrates of aspergillus versicolor, cladosporium herbarum, geotrichum candidum, mucor circinelloides, and penicillium chrysogenum. blood was drawn at various intervals, and antibodies were separated and purified. antibody-peroxidase conjugates were prepared with the follo ...19902099362
integrative transformation by homologous recombination in the zygomycete mucor circinelloides.transformation of a mucor circinelloides leu- strain with the plasmid pad45, harbouring the wild-type allele (leua+) and a chymosin gene, led to the identification of mitotically stable transformants after one to three vegetative growth cycles on non-selective medium. southern analysis of the stable transformed strains demonstrated that the vector is integrated, as an intact molecule, into the resident mucor leua locus. retransformation of escherichia coli with genomic dna restricted with enzyme ...19912005861
transformation of a methionine auxotrophic mutant of mucor circinelloides by direct cloning of the corresponding wild type gene.a transformation system has been developed for mucor circinelloides, by direct cloning of a wild-type methionine gene that complements the auxotrophic mutation. the marker gene isolated was associated with an autonomous replication sequence (ars) functional in this zygomycete. southern hybridisation analyses of transformants showed sequence homology both with vector dna and with mucor wild-type dna. the transformation frequency (up to 6000 per microgram dna) and the mitotic instability of the tr ...19911766440
cloning and sequence analysis of the mucor circinelloides pyrg gene encoding orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase: use of pyrg for homologous transformation.a 3.2-kb bamhi genomic dna fragment containing the pyrg gene of mucor circinelloides was isolated by heterologous hybridization using a pyrg cdna clone of phycomyces blakesleeanus as the probe. the complete nucleotide sequence of the m. circinelloides pyrg gene encoding orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ompd) was determined and the transcription start points (tsp) were mapped by primer extension analysis. the predicted amino acid sequence showed homology with the ompd sequences reported ...19921628845
[fungal flora in chicken stalls and its etiopathogenic importance for humans and animals].in order to find out the mycoflora prevailing in chicken pens, and to appreciate the health hazards for employees (incl. veterinarians) and animals, twenty litter samples and 6 sedimented dust trials were analysed mycologically. the following results were found: bedding and dust samples all contained between 3.57 and 1.30 x 10(7) c.f.u./g dw. the commonest fungus is a. fumigatus with 3.41 x 10(4) - 1.30 x 10(7) c.f.u./g dw in bedding and 2.70 x 10(5) - 3.30 x 10(6) c.f.u./g dw in sedimented dust ...199910209909
heterologous transformation of mucor circinelloides with the phycomyces blakesleeanus leu1 gene.the leu1 gene of phycomyces blakesleeanus was isolated within a hindiii-hindiii genomic dna fragment by heterologous hybridization screening of a cosmid library, making use of the mucor circinelloides leua gene as a probe. the complete nucleotide sequence of this fragment reveals a single 2070 bp orf with no introns, which presents at least 68% homology with that of the leua gene. the p. blakesleeanus leu1 gene has also been expressed in the m. circinelloides mutant r7b (leu-), which was used to ...19921563047
desaturation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in mucor circinelloides and the involvement of a novel membrane-bound malic enzyme.1. the component fatty acids of the endogenous phospholipids of microsomal preparations of mucor, when shaken at 30 degrees c, increased in both chain length and in degree of unsaturation. the net effect was the production of gamma-linolenic acid which, over 2 h, increased from 17% to 32% of total fatty acids present. no further significant changes occurred after this time. 2. the major site for desaturation/elongation reactions was at the sn-2 position of ptdins. ptdcho and ptdetn were not impl ...19921425673
oligounsaturated fatty acid production by selected strains of micromycetes.fifteen strains of filamentous fungi from the culture collection of fungi (charles university, prague) were tested for their lipid production, fatty acid composition with emphasis on accumulation of oligounsaturated fatty acids. all cultures contained palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2) and gamma-linolenic (18:3) acid (gla). the mycelium of cunninghamella elegans, rhizopus arrhizus, mortierella parvispora, m. elongata and m. alpina contained arachid ...19921337332
overexpression of the crga gene abolishes light requirement for carotenoid biosynthesis in mucor circinelloides.this work describes the isolation and characterization of crga, a mucor circinelloides gene, which has a dominant-positive effect on light-regulated carotenogenesis. the crga gene was originally identified in a transformation experiment as a 3'-truncated open reading frame which caused carotenoid overaccumulation in the dark. the complete cloning and sequencing of crga revealed that its putative product presented several recognizable structural domains: a ring-finger zinc binding domain near the ...200010651817
a biochemical explanation for lipid accumulation in candida 107 and other oleaginous micro-organisms.the biochemical explanation for lipid accumulation was investigated principally in candida 107 and, for comparison, in the non-oleaginous yeast candida utilis. there were no significant differences between these two yeasts in their control of glucose uptake; in both yeasts, the rates of glucose uptake were independent of the growth rate and were higher in carbon-limited chemostat cultures than in nitrogen-limited cultures. there was no lipid turnover in either yeast, as judged from [14c]acetate ...197944315
mcchs1, a member of a chitin synthase gene family in mucor circinelloides, is differentially expressed during dimorphism.a complete chitin synthase gene and one chitin synthase gene fragment of the zygomycete mucor circinelloides have been cloned and analyzed. both genes encode zymogenic class ii chitin synthases. hybridization analysis showed that there must exist at least another class ii chitin synthase gene in m. circinelloides highly homologous to the cloned mcchs1 and mcchs2. the expression of these genes during the dimorphic growing stages was analyzed. northern hybridizations showed that mcchs1 transcript ...200010679048
integrative transformation of the zygomycete rhizomucor pusillus by homologous recombination.for development of a homologous transformation system for the zygomycete fungus, rhizomucor pusillus, the isopropylmalate isomerase (leua) gene was cloned from r. pusillus ifo 4578 by the dna-probing method with the leua sequence of mucor circinelloides as probe. the nucleotide sequence revealed that leua of r. pusillus encoded a 755-amino-acid protein of 82.5 kda with no intron. the leua gene on puc19 (plasmid prpleu10) was introduced by polyethyleneglycol-assisted transformation into protoplas ...19968766701
blue-light regulation of phytoene dehydrogenase (carb) gene expression in mucor circinelloides.the carb gene, encoding the phytoene dehydrogenase of mucor circinelloides, was isolated by heterologous hybridisation with a probe derived from the corresponding gene of phycomyces blakesleeanus. the cdna and genomic copies complemented phytoene dehydrogenase defects in escherichia coli and in carb mutants of m. circinelloides, respectively. fluence-response curves for transcript accumulation were constructed after different blue-light pulses. the level of carb mrna accumulation reached values ...200010872226
cloning and sequence analysis of a putative transcription factor (mtf1) gene from mucor circinelloides.we describe here the fortuitous cloning of a putative transcription factor gene (mtf1) from the dimorphic fungus mucor circinelloides. sequence analysis of mtf1 revealed an open reading frame (orf) of 1059 nucleotides encoding a protein of m(r) 39601. the deduced amino acid sequence from the orf imparts two glutamine-rich stretches which are homologous to a number of transcription factors characterized previously from various organisms. a southern blot analysis of mucor genomic dna digested with ...19968728109
carotenoid biosynthesis in wild type and mutant strains of mucor circinelloides.carotenoid biosynthesis in wild type mucor circinelloides has been investigated and the biochemical characterisation of the ms1 and ms9 mutant strains, impaired in carotenoid formation, carried out. in liquid cultures, all strains produced carotenoids (mainly beta-carotene, but also xi-carotene, lycopene and gamma-carotene) at the onset of stationary phase of growth. carotenogenesis was light dependent. in liquid cultures carotenoid formation in wild type was affected by diphenylamine, which pre ...19968600974
microbial hydroxylation of (-)-eburnamonine by mucor circinelloides and streptomyces violens.(6r)-6-hydroxy-, (6s)-6-hydroxy- and (18s)-18-hydroxyeburnamonines were obtained by microbial conversion of (-)-eburnamonine using mucor circinelloides and streptomyces violens. their structures were determined by analyses of the mass, 1h- and 13c-nmr spectra. (-)-eburnamonine and the three hydroxylated compounds showed cerebral protecting effects against potassium cyanide intoxication in mice.19938477514
gene replacement and ectopic integration in the zygomycete mucor circinelloides.transformation of mucor circinelloides with plasmid ptl42 led to the identification of different integrative events. analysis of eight transformed strains allowed the detection of three classes of transformants: integrative types derived from either homologous (exclusively at the leua locus) or heterologous recombination and a class which originated by gene replacement. no autonomous replication of the vector was observed.19938319313
electrophoretic karyotype of mucor circinelloides.contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (chef) gel electrophoresis was used to separate chromosomal size dna molecules of two mucor circinelloides strains. electrophoretic karyotypes revealed the presence of eight distinct bands for the m. circinelloides f. lusitanicus strain, and four, presumably multiple, bands for the m. circinelloides f. gryseo-cyanus strain. the approximate sizes of the resolved chromosomal dna bands ranged from 2.3 to 8.1 mb, giving estimated genome sizes of 38.7 and 32 ...19947954895
zygomycosis due to mucor circinelloides in a neutropenic patient receiving chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia.mucor circinelloides form circinelloides has rarely been associated with human disease, even in immunocompromised patients. we report a case of cutaneous zygomycosis caused by m. circinelloides in a 23-year-old neutropenic woman receiving consolidation chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia. the organism was exquisitely susceptible to amphotericin b. despite the fact that the patient was profoundly neutropenic for an additional 3 weeks, the lesions began to resolve during therapy, and no su ...19947948514
zygospores: the last word in identification of rare or atypical zygomycetes isolated from clinical specimens.three zygomycetes (order mucorales), isolated from clinical specimens, whose generic or species identification were uncertain, were definitively identified on the basis of the production of zygospores resulting from mating studies. these three isolates were identified as mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides, rhizomucor pusillus, and absidia corymbifera. the production of true zygospores, the "last word" in zygomycete taxonomy, should be considered as a diagnostic tool for the definitive identi ...19957751398
mutants of the carotene cyclase domain of al-2 from neurospora crassa.phytoene synthase and carotene cyclase, two key enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis, are encoded by two separate genes in bacteria and plants, but by a single bifunctional gene in fungi. the cyclase function has been demonstrated for the products of the genes crtyb from the basidiomycete xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, and for carra and carrp from the zygomycetes phycomyces blakesleeanus and mucor circinelloides, respectively. these three genes are highly similar to al-2 from neurospora crassa. ta ...200211862485
cloning and characterization of the rhizopus niveus leu1 gene and its use for homologous transformation.the rhizopus niveus leul gene was cloned using a 2-kb hindiii fragment of the leua gene of mucor circinelloides as a hybridization probe. the coding region of this gene comprises 1890 bp that encode a putative protein of 630 amino acids. the predicted amino acid sequence is similar to those of other alpha-isopropylmalate isomerases (alpha-ipmis), showing 79.4%, 71.7%, and 60.6% identity with the mucor circinelloides leua, phycomyces blaskesleeanus leu1, and ustilago maydis leu1, respectively. th ...19968901103
physiological properties and fatty acid composition in mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides.sporangiospores of mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides cbs108.16 could germinate and grow on a wide variety of carbon sources in synthetic liquid media. growth was supported by aldoses which have the same configuration at carbon atom number two as glucose. di- and trisaccharides consisting of d-glucopyranosyl moieties were assimilated, while polysaccharides like inuline and starch were also utilised. various alcohols and organic acids could be assimilated, while the phenolic compounds tested ...19979111913
two-step hydrolysis of amygdalin in molds.mucor circinelloides lu m40 and penicillium aurantiogriseum p 35, characterized by extracellular beta-glucosidase activity on cyanogenic glycosides, hydrolyse amygdalin by a two-step reaction mechanism being the first step of hydrolysis, from amygdalin to prunasin, very rapid (15 min) and the second one, from prunasin to mandelonitrile, much slower (120 min).19969122587
sesamol as an inhibitor of growth and lipid metabolism in mucor circinelloides via its action on malic enzyme.sesamol, a nonoil component of sesame seed oil, inhibited growth, fatty acid synthesis, and desaturation by mucor circinelloides in vivo. although sesamol also inhibited the growth of other fungi and yeasts, its effect on the lipid metabolism of m. circinelloides was exceptional. an enzymological study demonstrated that sesamol affected lipid synthesis primarily by the inhibition of malic enzyme activity, thereby limiting the nadph supply for fatty acid synthesis and desaturation. sesamol itself ...19979208389
fungi associated with post-harvest rot of black plum (vitex doniana) in nigeria.the fungi associated with rot of vitex doniana fruits (blackplum) were isolated and identified. aspergillus niger, botryodiplodia theobromae, candida spp. penicillium chrysogenum, rhizopus stolonifer, fusarium pallidoroseum f. oxysporum and mucor mucedo were the primary rot causing fungi in contrast to cladosporium herbarum and mucor circinelloides which were just present as secondary colonizers. the rot fungi penetrated mainly through wounds and bruises on the surface of fruits. mature green fr ...19969208478
complementation analysis of carotenogenic mutants of mucor circinelloides.mutants of the filamentous fungus mucor circinelloides altered in the synthesis of beta-carotene (genotype car) have been isolated by direct inspection of the color shown by the colonies derived from mutagenized spores. the mutants were analyzed for the carotenoid content in darkness and light and studied with respect to complementation in heterokaryons made by spheroplast fusion. the results revealed the existence of at least four complementation groups. the carb mutants are white and accumulat ...19979344628
expression of the carg gene, encoding geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, is up-regulated by blue light in mucor circinelloides.a new structural gene, carg, involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids in the fungus mucor circinelloides was isolated by heterologous hybridisation, using a probe derived from the gibberella fujikuroi ggs1 gene. functional analyses in escherichia coli showed that the encoded protein has geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (ggpp) synthase activity. a comparison of the deduced protein with other ggpp synthases suggested that the carg gene might have evolved from other larger genes present in some fung ...200312695851
amygdalin degradation by mucor circinelloides and penicillium aurantiogriseum: mechanisms of hydrolysis.mucor circinelloides lu m40 and penicillium aurantiogriseum p 35 produce extracellular beta-glycosidases that are active on the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin. from the culture broths of m. circinelloides, only one beta-glycosidase could be identified, while two different enzymes - both having amygdalase activity - were found in culture broths of p. aurantiogriseum. the study of the mechanism of hydrolysis of the beta-bis-glycoside amygdalin with purified enzymes from the two organisms indicated ...19989446681
fungal flora of poultry feedstuff hundred and ten samples representing five types of poultry feed ingredients were mycologically examined. these samples included soybean meal, ground maize, cotton-seed cake, wheat bran and fish meal (22 samples each). among the 73 mesophilic fungal species, aspergillus flavus, a. niger and a. fumigatus were the most dominant. a. terreus, a. flavipes, mucor circinelloides, scopulariopsis brevicaulis, penicillium chrysogenum, fusarium moniliforme and rhizopus stolonifer were found to be common ...19892621568
biosynthesis of c18 polyunsaturated fatty acids in microsomal membrane preparations from the filamentous fungus mucor circinelloides.the biosynthesis of c18 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been studied in the fungus mucor circinelloides. microsomal membrane preparations contained delta9, delta12 and delta6 desaturase activities. the delta9 desaturase exhibited characteristics similar to those of the animal and yeast delta9 desaturases in being membrane bound and utilising stearoyl-coa as substrate. cytochrome b5 (a soluble form lacking the 20-amino-acid hydrophobic c-terminus) stimulated desaturation and was identified as a m ...19989546668
biosynthesis of triacylglycerol in the filamentous fungus mucor circinelloides.lipid metabolism was studied in 2-d-old liquid cultures of mucor circinelloides grown at 25 degrees c. under these conditions, oil accumulated to 0.5 g l-1 with a gamma-linolenic acid content (gamma 18:3) of 60 mg l-1. the major labelled lipids in cultures incubated with [14c]acetate were triacylglycerol (tag), phosphatidylcholine (pc) and phosphatidylethanolamine (pe). the proportion of label declined in the phospholipids and increased in tag with time. [14c]18:1 and [14c]18:2 rapidly appeared ...19989782513
interallelic complementation at the pyrf locus and the homodimeric nature of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (oprtase) in mucor circinelloides.using 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-foa) as a positive selection system we isolated mutants of mucor circinelloides altered in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. these mutants were found to be deficient either in orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ompdecase), or in orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (oprtase) activity. complementation tests among mutants lacking oprtase activity classified them into three groups, thus suggesting the possibility of interallelic complementation. to investigate th ...19989862479
variable expression of glutathione s-transferase isoenzymes in the fungus, mucor circinelloides.mucor circinelloides (previously m. javanicus) variably expresses two isoenzymes of glutathione s-transferases. glutathione s-transferases 1 and 2 were purified by affinity chromatography and found to be dimers with subunit m(r) values of 25.5 and 28. while glutathione s-transferase 1 immunoblotted with rat glutathione s-transferase t 5-5, n-terminal sequencing indicated that this enzyme was distinct from recently characterised bacterial and fungal glutathione s-transferases and did not readily ...19999919647
isolation of mucor circinelloides from a case of ulcerative mycosis of platypus (ornithorhynchus anatinus), and a comparison of the response of mucor circinelloides and mucor amphibiorum to different culture temperatures.the fungus mucor circinelloides was isolated from a platypus (ornithorhynchus anatinus) suffering from ulcerative mycosis. on horse blood agar at 20, 25 and 30 degrees c, the fungus formed sphaerule-like bodies, a morphology previously associated with mucor amphibiorum, the species thought to be responsible for the disease in platypus. a biopsy taken from the ulcer was fixed, cut and stained. the sections were compared with sections taken from other platypuses suffering from ulcerative mycosis, ...199910421852
heterologous expression of the phycomyces blakesleeanus phytoene dehydrogenase gene (carb) in mucor circinelloides.a phytoene dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of mucor circinelloides accumulating only phytoene was transformed with the gene encoding the corresponding enzyme (carb gene) of phycomyces blakesleeanus. carotenoids derived from phytoene were detected in the transformants showing that the p. blakesleeanus carb gene complements the m. circinelloides carb mutation. these newly formed carotenoids accumulated in low quantities, indicating that functional complementation was poor. carb mrna molecules corre ...199910489434
a bifunctional enzyme with lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase activities is encoded by the carrp gene of mucor circinelloides.using functional analyses in escherichia coli and mucor circinelloides, it has been shown that a single m. circinelloides gene (carrp) codes for a protein with two different enzymatic activities, lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase, which are encoded by independent genes in organisms other than fungi. this gene was identified using complementation tests among different classes of carotenoid mutants of m. circinelloides. the carrp gene product contains two domains: the r domain is located at t ...200010951210
oral supplementation with gamma-linolenic acid extracted from mucor circinelloides improves the deformability of red blood cells in hemodialysis patients.the development of abnormalities in red blood cell (rbc) deformability in patients undergoing hemodialysis remains a major problem, because it is related to peripheral microcirculation, oxygen supply, and various complications in such patients. gamma-linolenic acid (gla; 18:3n-6), one of the polyunsaturated fatty acids and a precursor of prostaglandin e(1), is reported to have a favorable effect on the deformability of circulating blood cells in diabetic patients.200011014980
characterisation of the mucor circinelloides regulated promoter gpd1p.the promoter of the mucor circinelloides gpd1 gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd1p) was recently cloned and used for the production of recombinant proteins, such as the aspergillus niger glucose oxidase 1 (gox). this represents the first example of the application of a strong and regulated promoter from this fungus for recombinant protein production. the original 741-bp gpd1p promoter fragment conferred hexose-dependent expression of gox in m. circinelloides. to understa ...200414735314
a novel fungal prenyl diphosphate synthase in the dimorphic zygomycete mucor circinelloides.two mucor circinelloides structural genes involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis were isolated and characterised. the isoa gene encodes a typical eukaryotic farnesyl diphosphate synthase (ec, whereas the isob gene deduced amino acid sequence shows similarity to fungal medium-chain prenyl diphosphate synthases. by functional complementation in escherichia coli, the isob gene product was shown to be a solanesyl diphosphate synthase (ec, which is the first fungal enzyme reported ha ...200415024605
a pre-genetic study of the isoforms of malic enzyme associated with lipid accumulation in mucor circinelloides.the oleaginous fungus mucor circinelloides possesses at least six isoforms of malic enzyme (ec, a key lipogenic enzyme in filamentous fungi. these isoforms were detected using a specific stain for activity after native page of cell extracts. only one isoform (isoform iv) was associated with lipid accumulation, appearing only after n-exhaustion from the medium (which is a pre-requisite for lipid accumulation) in glucose-growing cells. isoforms i, ii, v and vi were involved in anaerobic ...200111390681
biochemical events leading to the diversion of carbon into storage lipids in the oleaginous fungi mucor circinelloides and mortierella alpina.the biochemical events associated with the onset of lipid accumulation in mucor circinelloides and mortierella alpina, under conditions of nitrogen-limited growth, have been elucidated; they differ in key aspects from those described in oleaginous yeasts. the nad+:isocitrate dehydrogenases of mc. circinelloides and mort. alpina were not absolutely dependent on amp for activity. furthermore, changes in the cellular adenine nucleotide pools and energy charge were different from those reported for ...200111577164
a negative regulator of light-inducible carotenogenesis in mucor circinelloides.mucor circinelloides responds to blue light by activating carotene biosynthesis. wild-type strains grown in darkness contain minimal amounts of beta-carotene because of the low levels of transcription of the structural genes for carotenogenesis. when exposed to a light pulse, the level of transcription of these genes increases strongly, leading to the formation of high concentrations of beta-carotene. the crga gene is involved in the regulation of light-induced carotenoid biosynthesis. this gene ...200111713676
microbial metabolism of partheniol by mucor circinelloides.six new partheniol metabolites were isolated from the biotransformation reaction with mucor circinelloides atcc 15242. these metabolites are: humula-1(10), 4, 7-trien-6alpha-ol 2, maali-3-en-8alpha-ol 3, aromadendrane-4alpha, 8alpha, 10alpha-triol 4, maaliane-4alpha, 8alpha, 9alpha-triol 5, maaliane-5alpha, 8alpha, 9alpha-triol 6, 5(9), 6-tricyclohumulane-4alpha, 8alpha, 10alpha-triol 7. the structural assignments of these metabolites were made possible by different spectroscopic means.200211754942
cloning of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding genes in mucor circinelloides (syn. racemosus) and use of the gpd1 promoter for recombinant protein production.three genes (gpd1, gpd2, and gpd3) encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were isolated from the dimorphic zygomycete mucor circinelloides by pcr using degenerated primers. transcription of gpd1 could be detected during vegetative growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, whereas neither gpd2 nor gpd3 transcription was detected, indicating that gpd1 is the major transcribed gpd gene. the transcription of gpd1 was regulated by carbon source. the gpd1 promoter was successfully ...200211860262
primary cutaneous zygomycosis due to mucor circinelloides.a 62-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome presented with a 4-week history of a large indurated ulcer with a black eschar on the forearm following trauma. on biopsy a diagnosis of zygomycosis was made as broad, sparsely septate, thin-walled hyphae were seen in the deep dermis and subcutaneous fat. the zygomycete fungus mucor circinelloides was cultured from tissue. further investigation confirmed that the infection was localized to the skin. the 6 x 4 cm lesion was excised and the defect ...200211869207
growth physiology and dimorphism of mucor circinelloides (syn. racemosus) during submerged batch cultivation.mucor circinelloides is being investigated as a possible host for the production of heterologous proteins. thus, the environmental conditions defining the physiology and morphology of this dimorphic fungus have been investigated in submerged batch cultivation. the optimal conditions for growth of each form have been defined. pure cultures of the multi-polar budding yeast form could be obtained under anaerobic conditions (with 70% n2/30% co2 or 100% n2 as the sparge gas and without aeration). the ...200211954797
a gene coding for ornithine decarboxylase (odca) is differentially expressed during the mucor circinelloides yeast-to-hypha transition.the differential display technique was used to identify genes from mucor circinelloides involved in the yeast-to-hypha transition. using a limited set of primer combinations, cdna fragments corresponding to mrnas differentially expressed during the dimorphic transition were isolated. northern analyses showed that the accumulation of the transcript detected by hybridisation with one of the cdna fragments increased during the transition and was undetectable at the mycelial stage. sequence analysis ...200212002565
cloning and sequence analysis of mucor circinelloides glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene.a genomic library of mucor circinelloides atcc 1216b has been constructed in lambda fix ii vector. the library has an average insert site of 10 kb and covers the genome 12 times. the m. circinelloides gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) was isolated from this library by hybridization of the recombinant phage clones with a gpd-specific gene probe generated by pcr reaction. the complete nucleotide sequence encodes a putative polypeptide chain of 339 amino acids interrupted ...200212109162
regulation of lipid accumulation in oleaginous micro-organisms.a small number of eukaryotic micro-organisms, the oleaginous species, can accumulate triacylglycerols as cellular storage lipids, sometimes up to 70% of the biomass. some of these lipids, particularly those containing high proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids of nutritional and dietary importance, are now in commercial production; these are known as single-cell oils. the biochemistry of lipid accumulation has been investigated in yeasts and filamentous fungi and can now be described in som ...200212440969
ciga, a light-inducible gene involved in vegetative growth in mucor circinelloides is regulated by the carotenogenic repressor crga.a strategy based on the differential-display technique has been applied to identify and to isolate potential target genes controlled by crga, a negative regulator of the light-inducible carotenogenesis in the fungus mucor circinelloides. this approach resulted in the identification and cloning of the gene ciga, whose expression is repressed by the crga gene. after a light pulse, there is an immediate though transient accumulation of transcripts of ciga gene. a similar result was obtained when my ...200312553942
identification and analysis of genes involved in the control of dimorphism in mucor circinelloides (syn. racemosus).mucor circinelloides (syn. racemosus) is a non-pathogenic dimorphic fungus belonging to the class of zygomycetes. we are developing a novel system for heterologous protein production exploiting the dimorphic growth characteristics of m. circinelloides. in order to identify potential genetic regulators of morphology we have initiated a characterisation of key genes involved in signal transduction in mucor. we have cloned and characterised pkar and pkac encoding the regulatory subunit (pkar) and t ...200212702308
differential response to low temperature of two delta6 fatty acid desaturases from mucor circinelloides.a recently identified delta6 fatty acid desaturase in mucor rouxii shows a low sequence homology (approximately 24% at the amino acid level) to that isolated from mortierella alpina, but is phylogenetically closer to a plant enzyme, suggesting the occurrence of delta6 desaturase isozymes in mucorales molds. in the present study, two types of delta6 desaturases, mcd6-1 ( mo. alpina type) and mcd6-2 ( m. rouxii type), were cloned from mucor circinelloides. when the cloned genes were expressed in t ...200312728343
morphology and physiology of the dimorphic fungus mucor circinelloides (syn. m. racemosus) during anaerobic growth.the dimorphic mucor circinelloides requires an anaerobic atmosphere and the presence of 30% co2 to grow as a multipolar budding yeast, otherwise hyphal growth predominates. establishing other means to control the morphology would be a distinct advantage in the development of a fermentation process for this organism for the production of heterologous proteins. thus, conditions suppressing polarised growth while at the same time abolishing the co2 requirement were investigated in submerged cultiva ...200312747334
cloning, characterization and heterologous expression of the blakeslea trispora gene encoding orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase.the pyrg gene of the fungus blakeslea trispora, encoding orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ompd) enzyme, was cloned by heterologous hybridization of a genomic library with the mucor circinelloides pyrg gene. the deduced amino acid sequence of the b. trispora pyrg gene is highly similar to the ompd from other organisms. hybridization analyses revealed that the only copy of this gene present in the genome of b. trispora is constitutively expressed. heterologous complementation of a mutant ...200312770712
functional expression of rat adenosine a1 receptor in the dimorphic zygomycete mucor circinelloides.we have produced the rat adenosine a1 receptor in mucor circinelloides using a translational fusion to the endogenous glucoamylase (glam) gene. the fusion protein produced from an episomal plasmid was correctly processed as judged by western blotting, since only a 33 kda band was detected in membrane preparations from m. circinelloides expressing the receptor. this corresponds to the mass of the full-length receptor released from the fused glam protein. the presence of a high affinity binding si ...200312856161
aerobic and anaerobic ethanol production by mucor circinelloides during submerged growth.the dimorphic organism mucor circinelloides is currently being investigated as a potential host for heterologous protein production. the production of ethanol on pentose and hexose sugars was studied in submerged batch cultivations to further the general knowledge of mucor physiology, with a view to the minimisation or elimination of the by-product ethanol for future process design. large amounts of ethanol were produced during aerobic growth on glucose under non-oxygen limiting conditions, whic ...200412879305
two classes of small antisense rnas in fungal rna silencing triggered by non-integrative transgenes.transformation of mucor circinelloides with self-replicative plasmids containing a wild-type copy of the carotenogenic gene carb causes silencing of the carb function in 3% of transformants. genomic analyses revealed a relationship between silenced phenotype and number of copies of plasmids. this phenotype results from a reduction of the steady-state levels of carb mrna, a reduction that is not due to differences in the level of transcription, indicating that silencing is post-transcriptional. s ...200312881432
the role of malic enzyme in the regulation of lipid accumulation in filamentous fungi.the hypothesis is advanced that nadp(+)-malic enzyme (me; ec is an important activity in regulating the extent of lipid accumulation in filamentous fungi. in mucor circinelloides, a fungus capable of accumulating only 25% (w/w, dry wt) lipid, even under the most propitious conditions, me disappears 15-20 h after nitrogen exhaustion, coincident with the cessation of lipid accumulation. in contrast, me in mortierella alpina, a fungus capable of accumulating 50% (w/w, dry wt) lipid, remai ...199910463157
complementary mating types of mucor circinelloides show electrophoretic karyotype heterogeneity.electrophoretic karyotypes of ten strains of mucor circinelloides f. lusitanicus were generated by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (chef) gel-electrophoresis. most of the strains analyzed showed polymorphisms, but a different main karyotype pattern could be correlated with each mating type. genome structure was further analyzed by gene assignment to the chromosome-sized dnas. nonradioactive hybridization techniques identified the chromosomal localization of seven cloned genes. the hyb ...199910654092
regio- and stereo-selective hydroxylation of abietic acid derivatives by mucor circinelloides and mortierella isabellina.mucor circinelloides and mortierella isabellina hydroxylated dehydroabietic acid (deha). deha was converted regio- and stereo-selectively by whole cells of mr. circinelloides to give 2alpha-hydroxydehydroabietic acid in a 75% molar conversion yield (11 mm from 14.7 mm deha) after 72 h in the cultivation medium containing 3% (v/v) tween 80. with cells of ma. isabellina, under the same conditions, 20.5 mm (6.5 g l(-1)) 2-hydroxydehydroabietic acid (alpha/beta=81/19) was formed from 26.4 mm deha.200516215830
central venous catheter-associated fungemia secondary to mucormycosis.mucormycosis can cause fatal infections in immuno-compromised persons. rhinocerebral and pulmonary disease predominate. diagnosis is challenging, dissemination frequent, and mortality high. positive blood cultures are rare. we report the first case of central venous catheter-associated mucormycosis fungemia (mucor circinelloides). early diagnosis and multi-modal therapy led to clinical and microbiological cure.200516308234
evaluation of the mycological status of luncheon meat with special reference to aflatoxigenic moulds and aflatoxin residues.the luncheon meat samples analyzed, which were produced locally by the two main luncheon meat producing companies in egypt were relatively highly contaminated either by moulds and yeasts in general, aflatoxigenic species and aflatoxin residues in particular. the most frequently encountered fungi from the samples were yeasts, aspergillus niger, a. flavus, penicillium chrysogenum, rhizopus stolonifer, mucor circinelloides. less common were cladosporium sphaerospermum, alternaria alternata, mycosph ...199910823186
protein kinase a is involved in the control of morphology and branching during aerobic growth of mucor circinelloides.the camp signal transduction pathway controls many processes in fungi. the mucor circinelloides pkar and pkac genes, encoding the regulatory (pkar) and catalytic (pkac) subunit of the camp-dependent protein kinase a (pka), have been cloned recently. expression analysis during the dimorphic shift and colony morphology suggested a role for pkar in the control of morphology and branching. here strain kfa121, which overexpresses the m. circinelloides pkar gene, was used to quantify growth and branch ...200414702407
mucoraceous moulds involved in the commercial fermentation of sufu pehtze.sufu is a fermented cheese-like soybean product in china and vietnam, obtained by fungal solid-state fermentation of soybean curd (tofu), which results in moulded tofu or 'pehtze'. the final product sufu is obtained by maturing pehtze in a brine containing alcohol and salt during a period of several months. the present report deals with the identity and phylogenetic relationships of mould starter cultures used for the preparation ofpehtze. starter cultures used in commercial pehtze fermentation ...200415028872
a multicopy vector system for genetic studies in mucor circinelloides and other zygomycetes.transformation of mucor circinelloides is routinely achieved by using a plasmid containing the wild-type leua gene to complement the leucine requirement of an auxotrophic host strain. as is the case for other zygomycetes, the transforming dna is usually not integrated into the genome of m. circinelloides, but is maintained as an autonomously replicating plasmid. however, even under selective conditions, the plasmid is segregationally unstable, resulting in a rather low number of cells carrying t ...200415088140
the effect of dietary administration of the fungus mucor circinelloides on non-specific immune responses of gilthead seabream.the immunostimulant potential of the whole fungus mucor circinelloides administered in the diet to gilthead seabream (sparus aurata l.) was studied. three different lyophilised strains were used: the wild-type (r7b) and two mutant strains in the carotene-production pathway which are enriched in lycopene (mu224) or beta-carotene (t31). fish were fed diets containing 0 (control) or 10 g of one of the whole m. circinelloides strains per kg feed. after 2, 4 or 6 weeks of treatment the growth rate as ...200415123327
the ring-finger domain of the fungal repressor crga is essential for accurate light regulation of carotenogenesis.mucor circinelloides responds to blue light by activating the biosynthesis of carotenoids. gene crga acts as a repressor of this light-regulated process, as its inactivation leads to overaccumulation of carotenoids in both the dark and the light. the predicted crga protein contains different recognizable structural domains, including a ring-finger zinc-binding motif, several glutamine-rich regions, a putative nuclear localization signal and an isoprenylation domain. to gain insight into the spec ...200415165247
distinct white collar-1 genes control specific light responses in mucor circinelloides.light regulates many developmental and physiological processes in a large number of organisms. the best-known light response in the fungus mucor circinelloides is the biosynthesis of beta-carotene. here, we show that m. circinelloides sporangiophores also respond to light, exhibiting a positive phototropism. analysis of both responses to different light wavelengths within the visible spectrum demonstrated that phototropism is induced by green and blue light, whereas carotenogenesis is only induc ...200616879651
identification and characterization of a novel delta12-fatty acid desaturase gene from rhizopus arrhizus.based on the sequence information of delta12-fatty acid desaturase genes (from mucor circinelloides, mortierella alpina, mucor rouxii and aspergillus nidulans), which were involved in the conversion from c18:1 to c18:2, a cdna sequence putatively encoding a delta12-fatty acid desaturase was isolated from rhizopus arrhizus using the combination of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) methods. sequence analysis indicated that it had a ...200415327973
blakeslea trispora genes for carotene biosynthesis.we cloned the carb and carra genes involved in beta-carotene biosynthesis from overproducing and wild-type strains of blakeslea trispora. the carb gene has a length of 1,955 bp, including two introns of 141 and 68 bp, and encodes a protein of 66.4 kda with phytoene dehydrogenase activity. the carra gene contains 1,894 bp, with a single intron of 70 bp, and encodes a protein of 69.6 kda with separate domains for lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase. the estimated transcript sizes for carb and c ...200415345447
[moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. the contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. the methods of déak & beuchat and pitt & hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. the agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were debaryomyces hansenii, debaryomyces polymorphus, galactomyces geotrichum, metschnikowia pulcherrima, mucor circinelloides, ...200617037258
effect of medium components and time of cultivation on chitin production by mucor circinelloides (mucor javanicus ifo 4570) -- a factorial study.chitin production of mycelia from mucor circinelloides (mucor javanicus) was studied with a two-level factorial design in all combinations of the following factors in the culture medium: time of cultivation, concentration of d-glucose, l-asparagine and thiamine. chitin was characterised by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. the four factors showed statistically significant (95%) positive main effects on chitin production, without interactions between them. the highest chitin y ...200315456353
synergistic mixtures of fungitoxic monochloro and dichloro-8-quinolinols against five fungi.fourteen mono- and dichloro-8-quinolinols were tested against five fungi (aspergillus niger, a. oryzae, myrothecium verrucaria, trichoderma viride, and mucor circinelloides) and compared with the fungitoxicity of 8-quinolinol in yeast nitrogen base containing 1% d-glucose and 0.088% l-asparagine. all of the compounds were more fungitoxic than 8-quinolinol except for the surprising activity of 8-quinolinol against a. oryzae. mixtures of the mics of monochloro- and dichloro-8-quinolinols in which ...200415487331
screening of chitin deacetylase from mucoralean strains (zygomycetes) and its relationship to cell growth rate.chitin deacetylase (cda) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetamine groups of n-acetyl-d: -glucosamine in chitin, converting it to chitosan in fungal cell walls. in the present study, the activity in batch culture of cda from six mucoralean strains, two of them wild type, isolated from dung of herbivores of northeast brazil, was screened. among the strains tested, cunninghamella bertholletiae ifm 46114 showed a high intracellular enzyme activity of 0.075 u/mg protein after 5 days of ...200515668816
light induction of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in blakeslea trispora.a gene of blakeslea trispora has been cloned by heterologous hybridization with the mucor circinelloides crga gene, a repressor of light-inducible carotenogenesis. this gene is the ortholog of the m. circinelloides crga, since it was able to restore the wild-type phenotype of a null crga mutant of m. circinelloides. the expression of b. trispora crga gene is light-induced and photoadapted, as occurs for m. circinelloides crga. light induction and photoadaptation of b. trispora crga was also obse ...200415670712
modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds.the effect of ethanol (e) on the radial growth rate (mu) of food spoilage moulds (aspergillus candidus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, cladosporium cladosporioides, eurotium herbariorum, mucor circinelloides, mucor racemosus, paecilomyces variotii, penicillium chrysogenum, penicillium digitatum, rhizopus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum) was assessed in potato dextrose agar (pda) medium at a(w) 0.99, 25 degrees c. in order to model this effect, the monod type equation described previousl ...200515698687
possible differences in pathogenicity between cane toad-, frog- and platypus-derived isolates of mucor amphibiorum, and a platypus-derived isolate of mucor circinelloides.platypuses (ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the north of the island state of tasmania, australia, suffer from a serious disease called ulcerative mycosis, which is responsible for high morbidity and, presumably, mortality rates in areas where it occurs. the disease is caused by the dimorphic fungus mucor amphibiorum, which is also found in queensland, new south wales and victoria. however, it does not cause disease in platypuses in those states. it has been previously reported that a closely relate ...200515832556
alternative splicing produces two endoglucanases with one or two carbohydrate-binding modules in mucor circinelloides.we previously cloned three endoglucanase genes, rce1, rce2, and rce3, that were isolated from rhizopus oryzae as the first cellulase genes from a member of the subdivision zygomycota. in this study, two cdnas homologous to the rce1 gene, designated the mce1 and mce2 cdnas, were cloned from mucor circinelloides, a member of the subdivision zygomycota. the mce1 cdna encoded an endoglucanase (family 45 glycoside hydrolase) having one carbohydrate-binding module (cbm), designated mce1, and the mce2 ...200515838031
cloning and characterization of a gene encoding a malic enzyme involved in anaerobic growth in mucor circinelloides.a 3193 bp contiguous sequence has been cloned from the oleaginous fungus mucor circinelloides, that contains a full-length gene encoding a putative nadp+: dependent malic enzyme (ec. the cloned dna contains a 2154 bp putative open reading frame containing five introns and encoding a protein of 616 amino acids. the gene encoded what appeared to be an anaerobic isoform of malic enzyme (isoform ii); this conclusion is supported by transcript analysis and by the fact that the orf contains ...200515912934
lycopene over-accumulation by disruption of the negative regulator gene crga in mucor circinelloides.lycopene has become one of the most interesting antioxidant compounds, especially in relation to human health. this work describes a genetic strategy to modify the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway to develop a lycopene-overproducing strain. the crga gene, a negative regulator of carotenogenesis, was disrupted in the mucor circinelloides strain mu202, which lacks the lycopene cyclase activity and accumulates lycopene instead of beta-carotene. the resultant strain, mu224, demonstrated increased tra ...200818060399
intracellular fate of hydrocarbons: possible existence of specific compartments for their previous work, purification procedures and zymogram analysis conducted with supernatants of crude extracts from aerobic mycelium of the yr-1 strain of mucor circinelloides isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils indicated the existence of only one soluble alcohol oxidase (sao) activity. in the present work enzymatic activity of alcohol oxidase (ao) was also detected in the mixed membrane fraction (mmf) of a high-speed centrifugation procedure after drastic ballistic cellular homogenization ...200515917600
detection of nad+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities in yr-1 strain of mucor circinelloides, a potential bioremediator of petroleum contaminated soils.different soluble nad+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) isozymes were detected in cell-free homogenates from aerobically grown mycelia of yr-1 strain of mucor circinelloides isolated from petroleum- contaminated soil samples. depending on the carbon source present in the growth media, multiple nad+-dependent adhs were detected when hexadecane or decane was used as the sole carbon source in the culture media. adh activities from aerobically or anaerobically grown mycelium or yeast cells, res ...200515917606
cloning of delta6-desaturase from mucor circinelloides and its high expression in saccharomyces cerevisiae.the aim of this study is to obtain saccharomyces cerevisiae engineering strain with high gamma-linolenic acid (gla, gamma-c18:3), which is a nutritionally important fatty acid that plays a vital role in biological structure and cell functions. as the first step,we cloned gamma6-desaturase gene from fungus mucor circinelloides by rt-pcr; delta6-desaturase is responsible for the transformation of linoleic acid into gla. the pcr product was subcloned into yeast expression vector pyes2 to generate a ...200515931792
in vitro susceptibility of 15 strains of zygomycetes to nine antifungal agents as determined by the nccls m38-a microdilution method.the in vitro susceptibility of 15 strains of six genera of zygomycetes including rhizopus oryzae (rhizopus arrhizus), rhizopus stolonifer, mucor circinelloides (three), absidia corymbifera (three), rhizomucor pusillus (three), cunninghamella bertholletiae (two), and syncephalastrum racemosum (two) to nine antifungal agents were determined by the nccls m38-a broth microdilution method. geometric means of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) were: amphotericin b 0.07 mg l(-1) (range 0.03-0. ...200515982206
heterologous expression of astaxanthin biosynthesis genes in mucor circinelloides.most mucor species accumulate beta-carotene as the main carotenoid. the crtw and crtz astaxanthin biosynthesis genes from agrobacterium aurantiacum were placed under the control of mucor circinelloides expression signals. expression vectors containing the bacterial genes were constructed, and peg-mediated transformations were performed on a selected m. circinelloides strain. transformants that exhibited altered carotene production were isolated and analyzed. southern analysis showed that all pla ...200616034557
cloning and characterisation of a glucoamylase gene (glam) from the dimorphic zygomycete mucor circinelloides.this article reports a novel strategy for the cloning of glucoamylase genes using conserved sequences and semi-nested pcr and its application in cloning the glam glucoamylase gene and cdna from the dimorphic zygomycete mucor circinelloides. the deduced 609-amino-acid enzyme (including signal peptide) is 63% identical to the rhizopus oryzae raw starch-degrading glucoamylase and is the third glucoamylase reported to have the putative starch-binding domain placed n-terminally. the c-terminal cataly ...200312883866
molecular analysis of an nad-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from the zygomycete mucor circinelloides.nad-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) activity was detected mainly in the cytosol of aerobically cultured mycelium and in anaerobically grown yeast cells of mucor circinelloides. adh levels were about 2.5-fold higher in yeast cells than in mycelium; zymogram analysis suggested that the same adh enzyme is produced in both developmental stages. the enzyme, named adh1, was purified to homogeneity from yeast cells, using ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. the active adh1 appears to be a h ...200516179992
characterization of the mucor circinelloides life cycle by on-line image analysis.the life cycle of the dimorphic fungus mucor circinelloides was studied in a temperature-controlled flow-through cell, which constitutes an ideal tool when following the development of individual cells, with a view to understanding the growth and differentiation processes occurring in and between the different morphological forms of the organism.200314633045
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