toxicological approaches to the metabolites of fusaria. v. neosolaniol, t-2 toxin and butenolide, toxic metabolites of fusarium sporotrichioides nrrl 3510 and fusarium poae 3287. 19724539211
[sensitivity of the skin of the rabbit to extracts of a culture of fusarium poae (peck) wollenweber].toxic metabolites from some fusarium poae (peck) wollenweber strains can produced alimentary toxic aleukia in man. in order to establish the toxicity of a f. poae strain isolated in our country, a skin test was performed in a depilated area of the flank of non-pigmented skin and white hair rabbits. the toxicity of culture extracts, measured according to the intensity of the lesions, was evidenced by the cellular degenerative processes induced. rats fed with the same fungus strain cultured on ste ...19846336359
isoelectric focusing isozyme profiles and taxonomic distances among fusarium species of the sections arthrosporiella and sporotrichiella.isozymes from 18 isolates representing seven species of the fusarium sections arthrosporiella and sporotrichiella were compared by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. of the six enzyme systems tested esterase and malate dehydrogenase showed the largest variation. a numerical analysis of the pi values determined for acid phosphatase, esterase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucose isomerase and phosphoglucomutase resulted in a dendrogam demonstrating the ...19938304009
fusarium poae and fusarium sporotrichioides in cereal grains of the slovak republic.the occurrence of fusarium poae and f. sporotrichioides was examined in 37,172 cereal grains of 229 samples from the slovak republic. in an area where strains of fusarium parasitized. 40% of grains on average, owing to unfavourable weather, 5 strains of f. poae were isolated (0.5% out of 1,015 strains of fusarium). in an area where the situation was less unfavourable, fusarium spp. contaminated on average 4.1% of grains, f. poae were present in 6.1% out of 82 strains of fusarium. when cereal rip ...19938480454
genetic interrelationships and genome organization of double-stranded rna elements of fusarium poae.the similar sized double-stranded rna (dsrna) elements present in vegetatively compatible strains of fusarium poae were always genetically related, while vegetatively incompatible strains of the fungus contained either homologous or non-homologous dsrnas of the same size. electron microscopic observations revealed the co-existence of encapsidated and naked dsrna elements in the same host. a mycovirus, named fupo-1 was purified from strain a-11 and was found to contain two kinds of dsrna segments ...199910334037
molecular characterization of the genome of a partitivirus from the basidiomycete rhizoctonia solani.the bisegmented genome of a double-stranded (ds) rna virus from the fungus rhizoctonia solani isolate rhs 717 was characterized. the larger segment, dsrna 1, is 2363 bases long whereas the smaller segment, dsrna 2, has 2206 bases. the 5' ends of the coding strands of dsrna 1 and dsrna 2 are highly conserved (100% identity over 47 bases), and contain inverted repeats capable of forming stable stem-loop structures. analysis of the coding potential of each of the two segments showed that dsrnas 1 a ...200010644855
[microflora of the farming work environment as an occupational risk factor].the paper presents the results of the studies concerning the air mould fungi concentration in the work environment during grain threshing, flax breaking and thyme cleaning. a high level of fungi was observed in the air at all workplaces with the highest concentrations during grain threshing. of the total number of 12 farms, in 8 the air mould fungi concentration exceeded the proposed standard of 50,000 cfu/m3. among the species containing cereals, flax and thyme, mould fungi of alternaria altern ...200011059408
[effect of alcoholic extracts of wild plants on the inhibition of growth of aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, penicillium chrysogenum, penicillium expansum, fusarium moniliforme and fusarium poae moulds].fungicidal activity of wild plants larrea tridentata, karwinskia humboldtiana, ricinus communis, eucalyptus globulus, ambrosia ambrosioides, nicotiana glauca, ambrosia confertiflora, datura discolor, baccharis glutinosa, proboscidea parviflora, solanum rostratum, jatropha cinerea, salpianthus macrodonthus y sarcostemma cynanchoides was evaluated against the moulds species aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, penicillium chrysogenum, penicillium expansum, fusarium poae y fusarium moniliforme mo ...200212828509
igs-rflp analysis and development of molecular markers for identification of fusarium poae, fusarium langsethiae, fusarium sporotrichioides and fusarium kyushuense.the intergenic spacer (igs) regions of the rdna of several fusarium spp. strains obtained from the collaborative researchers (int. j. food microbiol. (2003)) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and an igs-rflp analysis was performed. restriction digestion with alui, mspi and psti allowed differentiation between the related fusarium poae and fusarium kyushuense species. fusarium langsethiae was also separated from fusarium sporotrichioides (including var. minus) on the basis of the ...200415337596
specific detection of fusarium langsethiae and related species by dgge and arms-pcr of a beta-tubulin (tub1) gene fragment.fusarium langsethiae was recently described as a new toxigenic fusarium species, which morphologically resembles fusarium poae, but exhibits a mycotoxin pattern related to fusarium sporotrichioides. to develop tools for early and specific detection of f. langsethiae and distinguishing it from related species of section sporotrichiella and discolor (f. poae, f. sporotrichioides, fusarium kyushuense, fusarium robustum, fusarium sambucinum and fusarium tumidum) sequence variations in their beta-tub ...200415337597
swine refusal factors elaborated by fusarium strains and identified as trichothecenes.fusarium poae (peck) wollenw. nrrl 3287, f. nivale (fr.) ces. nrrl 3289, and f. moniliforme sheldon nrrl 3197, each grown on cracked corn (13 days at 28 degrees c), produced refusal factors in pig bioassays. substantial quantities of trichothecenes were detected in the refused corn: t-2 toxin (30 micrograms/g) was detected in corn fermented with the f. poae strain; the level of vomitoxin (1 microgram/g) in corn cultured with f. nivale did not account for the 48% refusal response in the pigs test ...19817224625
lesions induced in rodents by extracts from cultures of fusarium poae and f. sporotrichioides. 19744835338
pcr detection assays for the trichothecene-producing species fusarium graminearum, fusarium culmorum, fusarium poae, fusarium equiseti and fusarium sporotrichioides.contamination of small-grain cereals with the fungal species fusarium graminearum, f. culmorum, f. poae, f. sporotrichioides and f. equiseti is an important source of trichothecenes, zearalenone and other mycotoxins which cause serious diseases in human and animals. additionally, these species contribute to fusarium head blight, a disease which produces important losses in cereal yield. early detection and control of these fusarium species is crucial to prevent toxins entering the food chain and ...200516104354
characterization of fusarium spp. isolates by pcr-rflp analysis of the intergenic spacer region of the rrna gene (rdna).in the present study, 44 fusarium spp. isolates (5 fusarium culmorum, 7 fusarium graminearum, 1 fusarium cerealis, 1 fusarium poae, 26 fusarium oxysporum, and 4 gibberella fujikuroi species complex) were characterized morphologically, physiologically and genetically. all except one (dutch collection: cbs 620.72) were isolated from different hosts grown in various spanish localizations. morphological characterization was made according to macroscopic and microscopic aspects. physiological charact ...200616246443
[the effect of propyl gallate on the activity of various antifungal drugs against filamentous fungi in vitro].the influence of an antioxidant, propyl gallate (pg), on the activity of amphotericin b (amb), terbinafine (tbf), butenafine (btf) and ketoconazole (kcz) against ocular pathogenic filamentous fungi in vitro was investigated to determine whether pg could increase the antifungal activity.200616762206
immunosuppressive activity of fusarium toxins. effects on antibody synthesis and skin grafts of crude extracts, t2-toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol.the inhibitory effect of crude fusarium poae extracts, t2-toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol on synthesis of antibody to sheep red blood cells was investigated, as well as the effect of t2-toxin on skin graft rejection. fusarium crude extracts, t2-toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol cause a significant reduction in thymus weight and inhibit responsiveness to sheep red blood cells. the effect on antibody synthesis was critically dependent on the drug doses used. the effect of an immunosuppressive dose of t2-t ...1979369993
incidence and distribution of fusarium species associated with feeds and seeds from spain.samples of seeds and feeds (corn-based and mixed) were collected during surveys in 1991-92 and 1992-93 from two regions of spain, one in northern spain where the annual rainfall is over 900 mm, and the other in southeastern spain where the annual rainfall is about 400 mm. the level of fusarium contamination was determined in the 657 samples analysed, and results were analysed statistically to assess the effects of type of sample and meteorological conditions on fusarium proliferation. the predom ...199817655403
toxicity of some fusarium section sporotrichiella strains in relation to mycotoxin production.the relationship between the toxicities of crude extracts and purified toxins of fusarium spp. belonging to the section sporotrichiella has been assessed. toxicity was determined on the basis of death of artemia salina larvae and of viability and blastogenic response of bovine and human lymphocytes. trichothecene-producing strains of fusarium sporotrichioides and fusarium poae were toxic to a. salina and to lymphocyte blastogenesis. a strain of fusarium tricinctum, producing visoltricin and chla ...19921610205
identification of mycotoxins produced by species of fusarium and stachybotrys obtained from eastern europe.isolates of fusarium and stachybotrys spp. and crude extracts from these fungi were obtained from hungary and the u.s.s.r. and used for the evaluation of the mycotoxins they produced. the cultures were grown on millet and oats and extracted in budapest, hungary (veterinary medical research institute) and chemically analyzed at the university of minnesota using thin-layer chromatography (tlc), gas-liquid chromatography (glc), gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (gc-ms), and the rat skin bioassay. ...1976988785
an oligonucleotide microarray for the identification and differentiation of trichothecene producing and non-producing fusarium species occurring on cereal grain.cereal grain may be infected with a number of fusarium species some of which are producers of highly toxic compounds such as the trichothecenes. correct identification of these species is essential for risk assessment of cereal grain for human or animal consumption. most of the available methods for identification are either time consuming or aimed at only one or a few target species. microarray technology offers parallel analysis of a high number of dna targets. in this study 57 capture oligonu ...200515823394
genetic fusarium chemotyping as a useful tool for predicting nivalenol contamination in winter wheat.fusarium graminearum [teleomorph gibberella zeae] and fusarium culmorum together with fusarium poae are the main species known to produce nivalenol (niv). the niv content in wheat (triticum aestivum l.) harvested in luxembourg was investigated in 2007 and 2008 at 17 different locations. species determination and genetic chemotyping of f. graminearum and f. culmorum were used to understand the spatial distribution of niv producers in wheat from luxembourg. three hundred thirteen f. graminearum, 1 ...201020004994
antifungal effects of the bioactive compounds enniatins a, a(1), b, b(1).to produce enniatin (ens), fusarium tricinctum cect 20150 was grown in a liquid medium of potato (pdb), being mycotoxin purified by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with a reverse phase semipreparative column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile/water using gradient condition. the purity of the ens fractions was verified by analytical hplc and lc/ms-ms. the pure fractions of ens were utilized to study the biological activity on several mycotoxigenic moulds as fusarium verticilloides ...201020417654
limiting mycotoxins in stored wheat.the quality of harvested wheat grain can deteriorate markedly during the post-harvest management stages. biotic factors, such as grain type and ripeness, coupled with the prevailing abiotic factors, such as water content and temperature, and also preservative concentration will influence the safe storage life and the level of contamination with mycotoxins. these mycotoxins include deoxynivalenol (don) produced pre-harvest and zearalenone (zea) produced post-harvest by fusarium graminearum and fu ...201020455159
structure of fusarium poae virus 1 shows conserved and variable elements of partitivirus capsids and evolutionary relationships to picobirnavirus.filamentous fungus fusarium poae is a worldwide cause of the economically important disease fusarium head blight of cereal grains. the fungus is itself commonly infected with a bisegmented dsrna virus from the family partitiviridae. for this study, we determined the structure of partitivirus fusarium poae virus 1 (fpv1) to a resolution of 5.6å or better by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. the main structural features of fpv1 are consistent with those of two oth ...201020599510
distribution of trichothecene and zearalenone producing fusarium species in grain of different cereal species and cultivars grown under organic farming conditions in lithuania.fusarium infection level, dna quantity of the fusarium poae, f. sporotrichioides, f. langsethiae, f. culmorum, f. graminearum and f. equiseti as well as deoxynivalenol (don), zearalenone (zen ) and t-2 toxin (t-2) content were investigated in grain from cultivars of different cereal species grown on organic farming sites during 2005-2006. the fusarium infection level was examined by agar plating of single grains, fusarium spp. dna content was determined by real-time pcr and the mycotoxins were a ...201020684484
phylogenetic relationships of fusarium poae based on ef-1 alpha and mtssu sequences.a molecular phylogenetic analysis of fusarium poae isolates from south america (argentina) and europe (mainly england, germany, italy) was performed using 98 f. poae, four fusarium culmorum, two fusarium sporotrichioides and one fusarium langsethiae isolates. phylogenetic analyses were performed using nuclear (translation elongation factor 1-alpha, ef-1 alpha) and mitochondrial (mitochondrial small subunit rdna, mtssu) sequences. partitioned (each dataset separately) and combined (ef-1 alpha+mts ...201020965066
[xylanase activity of phytopathogenic and endophytic strains of ceratocystis sp].a comparative analysis of xylanase activity of 36 phytopathogenic and endophytic ceratocystis sp. strains was conducted. the rate of their linear growth on the medium with xylan was studied. the rate of linear growth of phytopathogenic strains was 0.003-0.004 mm/h that was almost 70 times less than in endophytic ones. there were no correlation between levels of xylanase activity of studied strains and rates of their linear growth. xylanase activity ofendophytic ceratocystis sp. strains varied fr ...201021117291
mouldy feed, mycotoxins and shiga toxin - producing escherichia coli colonization associated with jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in beef cattle.abstract: background: both o157 and non-o157 shiga toxin - producing escherichia coli (stecs) cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how stecs affect mature animals. neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for stec infections causing severe enteritis. in an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and stecs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with jejunal hemorrhage sy ...201121639911
accumulation kinetics of three scirpentriol-based toxins in oats inoculated in vitro with isolates of fusarium sporotrichioides and fusarium poae.autoclaved oats were inoculated with a strain of fusarium sporotrichioides or fusarium poae. moisture content of oats after inoculation was at 38%, incubation took place in standing culture at 28 °c. the a-type trichothecenes, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol (4,15-das), 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol (15-mas), and scirpentriol (scirp) were analyzed by gc/ms. for each strain, three culture flasks were harvested at 2-3 day intervals starting immediately after inoculation. total incubation time was 42 days (f. po ...201122069718
t-2 toxin as an emetic factor in moldy corn.extracts of fusarium poae (nrrl 3287) grown either on sterile corn at 8 c or in richards solution at room temperature were shown to have emetic activity in pigeons at nonlethal concentration under conditions of oral and intravenous administration. the causative agent was found to be t-2 toxin (3-hydroxy-4,15-diacetoxy-8-[3-methylbutyryloxy]-12,13-epoxy-delta(9)-trichothecene). oral and intravenous mean toxic dose values for this compound were found to be 0.72 and 0.15 mg/kg, respectively, as com ...20154751800
production of t-2 toxin by a fusarium resembling fusarium poae.a fusarium species with a micro morphology similar to f. poae and a metabolite profile resembling that of f. sporotrichioides has been identified. like typical f. poae, the microconidia have a globose to pyriform shape, but the powdery appearance, especially on czapek-dox iprodione dichloran agar (czid), less aerial mycelium and the lack of fruity odour on potato sucrose agar (psa) make it different from f. poae. the lack of macroconidia, polyphialides and chlamydospores differentiates it from f ...199910967967
screening of fungi for the presence of the trichodiene synthase encoding sequence by hybridization to the tri5 gene cloned from fusarium poae.a trichodiene synthase gene (tri5) was amplified from f. poae by polymerase chain reaction using synthetic primers constructed on the basis of the coding portion of the same gene from f. sporotrichioides. sequence analysis showed a high degree of similarity with other trichodiene synthase genes. a 378 bp hindiii fragment of the gene that contains the genetic information for the putative active site of the trichodiene synthase enzyme was radiolabelled and used for dot blot analysis. this probe co ...19979433809
[polygalacturonase activity of microscopic fungi of different trophic groups].a comparative study of polygalacturonase activity of 85 saprophytic, plant pathogenic and endophytic strains of fusarium poae, alternaria alternata, penicillium funiculosum and mycelia sterilia was conducted. it was established that in general polygalacturonase activity of mycelia sterilia and p. funiculosum strains was significantly higher than that of a. alternata and f. poae strains. the majority of the studied strains showed a middle level of polygalacturonase activity. high activity was cha ...201323720965
nivalenol in swedish cereals--occurrence, production and toxicity towards chickens.nivalenol has been analysed in swedish cereals between 1987 and 1990 and it was found in oats (35% of all samples), barley (13%) and wheat (4%), with a high yearly variation. the highest concentration was 4700 micrograms/kg. nivalenol-producing strains of fusarium poae were isolated from contaminated samples. feeding nivalenol to chicks produced no toxic effects at concentrations below 5 mg/kg and only small effects at 6 and 12 mg/kg.19957664930
kinetics of mould growth in the stored barley ecosystem contaminated with aspergillus westerdijkiae, penicillium viridicatum and fusarium poae at 23-30 °c.owing to the lack of a rapid method for determining fungi on cereals, the best way to enhance the safety and nutritive value of stored grain is to develop prognostic tools based on the relationship between easily measurable online parameters, e.g. water activity (a(w)) and temperature (t) of grain, and fungal growth. this study examined the effect of unfavourable temperature (23 and 30 °c) and humidity (0.80-0.94 a(w)) storage conditions on mould growth in the stored barley ecosystem with its ad ...201322903624
taxonomic study of fusaria of the sporotrichiella section used in recent toxicological work.eight isolates of fusarium of the sporotrichiella section were critically studied as to their taxonomic position. most of these isolates had been used for comprehensive toxicological work on mycotoxin effects on animals, chiefly in the united states and japan. isolates nrrl 3299 and nrrl 3287, supplied from the united states, were determined to be fusarium poae. isolates nrrl 3249, nrrl 5908, 2061-c, and yn-13 from the united states and isolate t-2 from south africa belonged to fusarium sporotri ...19751147600
[toxic metabolites from fusarium causing alimentary toxic aleukia (author's transl)].the toxicity of extracts from fusarium poae and f. sporotrichioides, incriminated as agents of alimentary toxic aleukia, is attributed to the presence of 12-13-epoxytrichothecenes. this is specially the case of t2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol.1977931257
comparative study of the yield of t-2 toxic produced by fusarium poae, f. sporotrichioides and f. sporotrichioides var. tricinctum strains from different sources.eleven strains of fusarium poae and f. sporotrichioides from the u.s.s.r. and 7 strains of these species and one of f. sporotrichioides var. tricinctum from u.s.a. and france have been compared as to their capacity to yield t-2 toxin. the presence of this toxin was confirmed by thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. the strains which came from the u.s.s.r. and were originally involved in causing alimentary toxic aleukia (ata), produced several times more t-2 ...1977846559
intoxication produced by toxic fungi fusarium poae and f. sporotrichioides on chicks. 1978653754
an integrated taxonomic study of fusarium langsethiae, fusarium poae and fusarium sporotrichioides based on the use of composite integrated systematic study was carried out to clarify the taxonomical position and relationship of fusarium langsethiae to other taxa within the fusarium section sporotrichiella. strains of this species were compared with strains of the closely related species fusarium poae and fusarium sporotrichioides using a composite dataset. this set consisted of dna sequences derived from the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (its) regions, partial sequences of the ribosomal intergenic spacer (igs) ...200415337598
the use of tri5 gene sequences for pcr detection and taxonomy of trichothecene-producing species in the fusarium section sporotrichiella.purified dna from isolates of fusarium poae, fusarium sporotrichioides, fusarium kyushuense and fusarium langsethiae was used as a template to amplify a 658-bp fragment from the trichodiene synthase (tri5) gene of these fungi with the gene-specific pcr primer pair tox5-1/tox5-2. fragments obtained were isolated and sequenced. dna sequence alignments revealed high similarity between the sequences derived from f. sporotrichioides and f. langsethiae (98.7%) and less similarity between the latter sp ...200415337595
aflp analysis of fusarium species in the section sporotrichiella-evidence for fusarium langsethiae as a new species.amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) was applied to compare 100 isolates of fusarium poae, fusarium sporotrichioides, and fusarium langsethiae. comparison of fingerprints revealed several markers specific for each group of isolates. cluster analysis showed a clear separation of f. poae from f. sporotrichioides and f. langsethiae. f. langsethiae isolates formed a rather homogeneous group separated from f. sporotrichioides. the aflp data obtained support f. langsethiae as a new fusarium s ...200415337594
phylogenetic analyses of the fusarium poae, fusarium sporotrichioides and fusarium langsethiae species complex based on partial sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene.phylogenetic relationships between four fusarium species were studied using parts of the nuclear translation elongation factor-1 alpha (ef-1alpha) gene as a phylogenetic marker. sequences from 12 isolates of fusarium poae, 10 isolates of fusarium sporotrichioides and 12 isolates of fusarium langsethiae yielded 4, 5 and 5 haplotypes, respectively. in addition, we included one isolate of fusarium kyushuense. the aligned sequences were subjected to neighbor-joining (nj), maximum parsimony and maxim ...200415337593
phylogenetic relationship of fusarium langsethiae to fusarium poae and fusarium sporotrichioides as inferred by igs, its, beta-tubulin sequences and up-pcr hybridization analysis.fusarium langsethiae was recently described to accommodate "powdery" isolates of fusarium poae, which morphologically resemble f. poae, but whose metabolite profile is similar to that of fusarium sporotrichioides. in order to investigate the phylogenetic relationship of f. langsethiae to closely related species, we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (its) regions 1 and 2 and part of the intergenic spacer (igs) region of the rdna cluster and part of the beta-tubulin gene from 109 strains o ...200415337592
diversity in metabolite production by fusarium langsethiae, fusarium poae, and fusarium sporotrichioides.the production of mycotoxins and other metabolites by 109 strains of fusarium langsethiae, fusarium poae, fusarium sporotrichioides, and f. kyushuense was investigated independently in four laboratories by liquid or gas chromatography analyses of cultural extracts with uv diode array, electron capture, or mass spectrometric detection systems. from the compiled results, it was found that f. langsethiae consistently produced the trichothecenes diacetoxyscirpenol (das), t-2 toxin (t-2), ht-2 toxin ...200415337591
identification of different fusarium spp. in allium spp. in 2013 allium cepa bulbs from different fields in northern and southern germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with fusarium species. the same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible allium spp. from local markets. different fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different fusarium spp. were identified. the diversity of fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to t ...201527141742
lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis strain si3 produces a broad-spectrum proteinaceous antifungal compound.the antifungal activity spectrum of lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis strain si3 was investigated. the strain had strong inhibitory activity in dual-culture agar plate assays against the molds aspergillus fumigatus, a. nidulans, penicillium roqueforti, mucor hiemalis, talaromyces flavus, fusarium poae, f. graminearum, f. culmorum, and f. sporotrichoides. a weaker activity was observed against the yeasts debaryomyces hansenii, kluyveromyces marxianus, and saccharomyces cerevisiae. th ...200111133421
the characterization of chicken antibodies raised against fusarium spp. by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting.immunoassays for the detection of three fusarium species have been developed. chickens were immunized with the soluble antigens from within the mycelia (mycelia-soluble antigens) and the exoantigens of fusarium sporotrichioides, fusarium poae and fusarium graminearum and the antigens were characterized using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunoblotting and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). the cross-reactivities of antisera with eleven species of fusari ...19979506284
chirality of the gamma-lactones formed by fusarium poae inra 45.a filamentous fungus, fusarium poae inra 45, was grown in two liquid czapek-type media (a czapek medium, and a yeast extract plus casaminoacids-enriched czapek medium). eight gamma-lactones, i.e., gamma-penta-, gamma-octa-, gamma-nona-, gamma-deca-, and gamma-dodecalactone, (6z)-gamma- and (6e)-gamma-dodecenolactones, and a di-unsaturated gamma-dodecalactone, were tentatively, or conclusively, identified by capillary gas chromatography (gc) and coupled gc-ms, in the volatile fractions of the cul ...19938398595
species-specific pcr-based assays for the detection of fusarium species and a comparison with the whole seed agar plate method and trichothecene analysis.species-specific pcr was used for the identification of nine fusarium species in pure mycelial culture. a pcr-based method was compared with the whole seed agar plate method and trichothecene analysis for three toxin-producing fusarium species using 85 grain samples of wheat, barley, oat, corn and rye. a simple sds-based dna extraction system followed by potassium acetate precipitation resulted in consistent pcr amplification of dna fragments from cultures and grain samples. the species-specific ...200516099312
levels of fungi and mycotoxins in the samples of grain and grain dust collected from five various cereal crops in eastern poland.during combine harvesting of 5 various cereal crops (rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, corn) 24 samples of grain and 24 samples of settled grain dust were collected on farms located in the lublin province of eastern poland. the samples were examined for the concentration of total microfungi, fusarium species, deoxynivalenol (don), nivalenol (niv), and ochratoxin a (ota). microfungi able to grow on malt agar were present in 79.2% of grain samples and in 91.7% of grain dust samples in the concentratio ...200717655194
effect of fungal strain and cereal substrate on in vitro mycotoxin production by fusarium poae and fusarium avenaceum.single conidia strains of fusarium poae and fusarium avenaceum were investigated for their ability to synthesise mycotoxins in vitro. in a first experiment, rice was inoculated with three strains of f. poae and three strains of f. avenaceum. in a second experiment, the same strains were cultivated on four different cereal substrates. for both experiments, the colonised substrates were analysed using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection (lc-ms/ms) for the content ...200818484302
[photodamage to spores of fusarium fungi, sensitized by protoporphyrin ix].the influence of photodynamic action with protoporphyrin ix as a sensitizer on the state of the components of hydrated spores of fusarium fungi and germination of conidia in growth medium was investigated. it was shown, that protoporphyrin ix in micromole concentrations sensitizes the photooxidation of proteins and lipids from hydrated spores of fusarium poae and fusarium culmorum under illumination of their suspensions in doses of 50 - 200 kj/m2. it was found that the photosensitized oxidation ...200818954007
screeing of toxic isolates of fusarium poae and fusarium sporotrichiodes involved in causing alimentary toxic aleukia.a total of 131 isolates of fusarium poae and f. sporotrichioides from overwintered cereals, which were associated with the alimentary toxic aleukia toxicoses in the soviet union, were tested for their ability to produce t-2 toxin [4 beta, 15 diacetoxy-8alpha-(3-methylbutyryloxy)-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-en 3alpha-ol]. the presence of t-2 toxin was determined by thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, spectroscopic analyses, and the rabbit skin test. a good correlation was demonstrat ...1976984817
trichothecenes and mycoflora in wheat harvested in nine locations in buenos aires province, argentina.a total of 120 freshly harvested wheat samples from the 2004 season in nine locations from northern buenos aires province, argentina, were analysed for trichothecene natural occurrence and associated mycoflora, and for determining the influence of commonly used fungicide field treatment and the cultivar type on trichothecene contamination. the trichothecenes t-2 tetraol, t-2 triol, ht-2 and t-2 toxin (ht-2, t-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (das), nivalenol (niv), deoxynivalenol (don), 3-acetyldeoxynival ...200818266077
[growth of micromycetes from different ecological niches on agar nutrient media].radial growth rate of (k(r)) 153 strains 6 species of micromycetes from different ecological niches was studied on 7 agar media: three standard (malt extract agar, potato-dextrose agar, czapek's agar), and on agar media with plant polymers (carboxymethylcellulose, xylan, soluble starch and apple pectin). endophytic and plant pathogenic strains (biotrophs) of all studied species did not differ significantly in their ability to grow on nutrient media of different composition--average values of k(r ...201526638483
characterization of double-stranded rna elements in the violet root rot fungus helicobasidium mompa.double-stranded (ds) rna of various types was detected by electrophoresis in 23 of 25 isolates of helicobasidium mompa. these dsrnas varied in size from ca. 2 kbp to more than 10 kbp. dsrnas from an isolate v1 had two distinct nucleotide sequences for putative rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp). their complete sequences revealed that v1 dsrna1 was 2247 bp in length, with a single orf that encoded a 706-amino acid residue polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 82.6 kda, and that v1 dsrna ...200415323245
grain dust originating from organic and conventional farming as a potential source of biological agents causing respiratory diseases in farmers.agricultural producers are exposed to a number of different health risks associated with their work environment.201324493998
a novel partitivirus that confers hypovirulence on plant pathogenic fungi.members of the family partitiviridae have bisegmented double-stranded rna (dsrna) genomes and are not generally known to cause obvious symptoms in their natural hosts. an unusual partitivirus, sclerotinia sclerotiorum partitivirus 1 (sspv1/wf-1), conferred hypovirulence on its natural plant-pathogenic fungal host, sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain wf-1. cellular organelles, including mitochondria, were severely damaged. hypovirulence and associated traits of strain wf-1 and sspv1/wf-1 were readily ...201424965462
interactions of fusarium species during prepenetration development.interspecies interactions between fusarium avenaceum, fusarium culmorum, fusarium graminearum, fusarium poae, and fusarium tricinctum were studied during early growth stages of isolates on model surfaces. additionally, germination and germ tube growth of the pathogens were studied on attached and detached wheat leaves at 10 °c and 22 °c. two-species interactions between fusarium isolates during germination and germ tube growth were assessed after 8 hours of incubation. all species except f. tric ...201222749170
development of taqman assays for the quantitative detection of fusarium avenaceum/fusarium tricinctum and fusarium poae esyn1 genotypes from cereal grain.fungi of the genus fusarium are important plant pathogens and contaminants of cereal grains producing different types of mycotoxins. enniatins are a group of mycotoxins with ionophoric properties frequently detected in north european grains. within the fusarium complex responsible for grain infection, fusarium avenaceum, fusarium poae and fusarium tricinctum are the most potential enniatins producers. this study presents the development of two quantitative taqman mgb (minor groove binder) assays ...201121059180
mutual exclusion between fungal species of the fusarium head blight complex in a wheat spike.fusarium head blight (fhb) is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat. fhb is caused by a species complex that includes two genera of ascomycetes: microdochium and fusarium. fusarium graminearum, fusarium culmorum, fusarium poae, and microdochium nivale are among the most common fhb species in europe and were chosen for these experiments. field studies and surveys show that two or more species often coexist within the same field or grain sample. in this study, we investigated the competitiven ...201525934622
real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for group specific detection of important trichothecene producing fusarium species in wheat.trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivaneol (don), nivalenol (niv) and t2-toxin are produced by a variety of fusarium spp. on cereals in the field and may be ingested by consumption of commodities and products made thereof. the toxins inhibit eukaryotic protein biosynthesis and may thus impair human and animal health. aimed at rapid and sensitive detection of the most important trichothecene producing fusarium spp. in a single analysis, a real-time duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplificatio ...201424631635
tri12 based quantitative real-time pcr assays reveal the distribution of trichothecene genotypes of f. graminearum and f. culmorum isolates in danish small grain cereals.quantitative real-time pcr assays, based on polymorphisms in the tri12 gene of the trichothecene pathway, were developed to identify and quantify the trichothecene genotypes producing 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3adon), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15adon) or nivalenol (niv) in the fusarium graminearum species complex, fusarium culmorum, fusarium cerealis and fusarium pseudograminearum. these assays were applied on a total of 378 field samples of cereal grain of wheat, barley, triticale, rye and oats ...201222781579
molecular characterization of hetrv8-ir1, a partitivirus of the invasive conifer pathogenic fungus heterobasidion irregulare.the heterobasidion annosum (fr.) bref. complex includes some of the most destructive conifer pathogenic fungi in the boreal forest region. h. irregulare, formerly known as the north american pine type of h. annosum, was introduced from north america into italy during the second world war and occurs as an invasive pathogen in pinus pinea stands together with the native european species h. annosum sensu stricto. we describe the complete nucleotide sequence of a new putative partitivirus from an it ...201323456423
insight into mycoviruses infecting fusarium species.most of the major fungal families including plant-pathogenic fungi, yeasts, and mushrooms are infected by mycoviruses, and many double-stranded rna (dsrna) mycoviruses have been recently identified from diverse plant-pathogenic fusarium species. the frequency of occurrence of dsrnas is high in fusarium poae but low in other fusarium species. most fusarium mycoviruses do not cause any morphological changes in the host but some mycoviruses like fusarium graminearum virus 1 (fgv1) cause hypovirulen ...201323498910
investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: secretomes and xylanolytic potential.the indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. to gain more insight into the grain surface-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains ...201728323242
toxicity and oxidative stress induced by t-2 toxin and ht-2 toxin in broilers and broiler hepatocytes.t-2 and ht-2 toxins belong to mycotoxins which are found in human foods and animal chow. we investigated the toxicity and oxidative stress induced by t-2/ht-2 in broilers and chicken hepatocytes. maize cultures of fusarium poae was fed to broilers for 42 d, and the physiological index, biochemical index and expression of mrnas related to oxidative stress were analyzed. chicken hepatocytes were treated with different levels of t-2/ht-2, and the following parameters were detected: cell viability, ...201626683309
[cellulase activity of ceratocystis sp. of different trophic groups].a comparative analysis of cellulase activity of 36 fungal strains of phytopathogenic and endophytic ceratocystis sp. was conducted. the rate of their linear growth on the media with carboxymethylcellulose was studied. it was shown that the rate of linear growth of phytopathogenic strains on the media with carboxymethylcellulose was lower than that in endophytic ones. there was no correlation between the levels of cellulase activity of studied strains and rates of their linear growth. the majorit ...201620455430
fusarium langsethiae sp. nov. on cereals in europe.a new species of fusarium, fusarium langsethiae, is described, illustrated and discussed. this species is isolated from kernels of oats, wheat and barley in several european countries. morphologically, the species resembles fusarium poae. it is differentiated from f. poae by slower growth, less aerial mycelium and absence of odour; its napiform or globose conidia are borne in the aerial mycelium on the agar surface on often bent phialides which exhibit sometimes more than one opening, whereas th ...200415337590
mycotoxicological investigations on maize and groundnuts from the endemic area of mseleni joint disease in kwazulu.samples of home-grown maize and groundnuts from the endemic area of mseleni joint disease (mjd) during four seasons (1980-1983) were examined mycologically. the mycoflora of these dietary staples included fusarium poae and f. oxysporum, which have been implicated in the aetiology of kashin-beck or urov disease, another osteo-arthrosis endemic in siberia and china. two other species of fusarium, i.e. f. moniliforme and f. equiseti, implicated in syndromes of abnormal bone development in animals, ...19863961620
effect of 5-n-alkylresorcinol extracts from durum wheat whole grain on the growth of fusarium head blight (fhb) causal an approach toward the identification of ecofriendly compounds for fusarium head blight biocontrol, the in vitro antifungal activity of 5-n-alkylresorcinol (ar) extracts, obtained from durum wheat intact kernels, was tested. in comparison with ethyl acetate and acetone extracts containing ar, total inhibition of fusarium graminearum spore germination was observed with cyclohexane extract, which also exhibited a significant fungistatic activity against f. graminearum, fusarium culmorum, fusari ...201525496267
biosynthesis of beauvericin and enniatins in vitro by wheat fusarium species and natural grain contamination in an area of central italy.contamination of wheat grain by beauvericin (bea) and enniatins (ens) is a global emerging mycotoxicological food problem. in this study, strains of fusarium avenaceum (fa), fusarium poae (fp), fusarium equiseti and fusarium sporotrichioides, all potential bea and en producers, isolated from 162 grain samples of durum and soft wheat harvested in 2009 and 2010 collected in an area of central italy, were preliminarily screened for the presence of the esyn1 gene, encoding the multifunctional enzyme ...201525475336
deoxynivalenol and other selected fusarium toxins in swedish wheat--occurrence and correlation to specific fusarium species.wheat is often infected by fusarium species producing mycotoxins, which may pose health risks to humans and animals. deoxynivalenol (don) is the most important fusarium toxin in swedish wheat and has previously been shown to be produced mainly by fusarium graminearum. however, less is known about the co-occurrence of don and f. graminearum with other toxins and fusarium species in sweden. this study examined the distribution of the most important toxigenic fusarium species and their toxins in wi ...201323962919
fusarium poae (peck) wollenw. - occurrence in maize ears, nivalenol production and mycotoxin accumulation in cobs.fusarium poae (peck) wollenw. occurred in maize ears with "pink rot" during 1985-1993 up to 18% of fusarium isolates, with maximum frequency in 1990. nivalenol and fusarenone x were produced under laboratory conditions by 13 out of 14 isolates up to 115 μg/g and 13.3 μg/g respectively. the same isolates produced diacetoxyscirpenol (das) up to 21.7 μg/g and 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol (mas) up to 12.3 μg/g. however, in none of the strain cultures were t-2 toxin and ht-2 toxin detected. in samples of ...199423605973
effect of light and incubation temperature on production by species of fusarium of metabolites toxic to larvae of tenebrio molitor l.larvae of tenebrio molitor l., gembloux strain, race f, having an initial weight of 10 mg were reared for 4 weeks at 27 +/- 0.25 degrees c 65 +/- 5% relative humidity on rye seed incubated with single isolates of four strains of fusarium. the fungi had been cultured in total darkness or in constant light at a temperature of 8, 14, 20 or 24 degrees c. two isolates of fusarium poae (peck). wollenw. (7450 and 7452) retarded growth more than the third isolate of this species or than the isolate of f ...19816166269
isolation of acetyl t-2 toxin from fusarium poae.acetyl t-2 toxin (3,4,15-triacetoxy-8-isovaleroxy-12,13-epoxy-delta9-trichothecene) was isolated and characterized as a naturally occurring emetic trichothecene from liquid cultures of fusarium poae (nrrl 3287). acetyl t-2 toxin was shown to be much less toxic than t-2 toxin in pigeon assays.19751180555
assay and relationship of ht-2 toxin and t-2 toxin formation in liquid culture.both t-2 toxin and ht-2 toxin can be conveniently quantitated in crude extracts by using a combination of thin-layer chromatography and fluorodensitometry. this technique was used to follow the production of these toxins by liquid cultures of fusarium poae (nrrl 3287). t-2 toxin was produced prior to ht-2 toxin and hexadeuterio-t-2 toxin was converted by the culture to trideuterio-ht-2 toxin.19751147617
deoxynivalenol and other selected fusarium toxins in swedish oats--occurrence and correlation to specific fusarium species.fusarium moulds frequently contaminate oats and other cereals world-wide, including those grown in northern europe. to investigate the presence of toxigenic fusarium species and their toxins in oats, samples were taken during 2010 and 2011 in three geographical regions of sweden (east, west, south). the samples were analysed by real-time pcr for the specific infection level of seven fusarium species associated with oats and other cereals (fusarium poae, fusarium graminearum, fusarium langsethiae ...201323962918
influence of selenium on the production of t-2 toxin by fusarium poae.the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium on the production of t-2 toxin by a fusarium poae strain cultured in a synthetic medium containing different concentrations of selenium. the t-2 toxin contents in fermentative products were evaluated by a high performance liquid chromatography (hplc). the results showed that the production of t-2 toxin was correlated with the concentration of selenium added to the medium. in all three treatments, the addition of 1 mg/l seleni ...201727885556
volatile metabolite profiling of durum wheat kernels contaminated by fusarium poae.volatile metabolites from mold contamination have been proposed for the early identification of toxigenic fungi to prevent toxicological risks, but there are no such data available for fusarium poae. f. poae is one of the species complexes involved in fusarium head blight, a cereal disease that results in significant yield losses and quality reductions. the identification of volatile organic compounds associated with f. poae metabolism could provide good markers to indicate early fungal contamin ...201425329776
toxicity induced by f. poae-contaminated feed and the protective effect of montmorillonite supplementation in broilers.the t-2 and ht-2 toxins, the main metabolites of fusarium poae, induce toxicity in broilers and accumulate in tissues. consequently, during the breeding process of broilers, diets are frequently supplemented with physical adsorbents to protect birds against the toxicity induced by mycotoxins. in the present research, t-2 and ht-2 were produced in maize inoculated with f. poae. mont, the strongest adsorbent based on in vitro adsorption ratios, was added to the contaminated diet. one-day-old chick ...201425296281
[growth characteristics of fusarium poae (peck) wollenw. and penicillium funiculosum thom strains].a comparative study of growth characteristics and peculiarities of glucose utilization by fusarium poae and penicillium funiculosum strains isolated from different habitats was conducted. it was found that f. poae and p. funiculosum strains differ as to their growth characteristics. specific growth rate of endophytic strain f. poae was maximal (0.38 h(-1)), lower for plant pathogenic one (0.30 h(-1)) and the lowest for soil strain (0.18 hr(-1)). in contrast, the level of biomass accumulation was ...201424479313
[trichothecene mycotoxins of fusarium poae from different habitats].comparative study of the ability of three strains of fusarium poae for the synthesis of trichothecen mycotoxins has been carried out. studied strains were isolated from different habitats: forest soil, wheat (plant pathogen) and cranberry root (endophytic strain). all three strains were able to synthesize t-2 toxin, ht-2 toxin and t-2 tetraol but they were in various amounts. the soil strain 50660 was characterized by high level of synthesis of both ht-2 toxin and t-2 tetraol; plant pathogenic 5 ...201324006781
the effect of tyrophagus putrescentiae on fusarium poae transmission and fungal community in stored barley in a laboratory experiment.the effect of tyrophagus putrescentiae on fusarium poae transmission and fungal community composition was studied in nonsterile barley grain. the experiments included following treatments: control barley without mites; barley containing 10 or 50 mites without preincubation on f. poae (tp10 and tp50); barley containing 10 or 50 mites after preincubation on f. poae (ftp10 and ftp50). the number of mites, successful transfer of f. poae, and changes in the fungal communities were examined after 21 d ...201423955921
multiple virus infection in a single strain of fusarium poae shown by deep sequencing.many bands were detected on an electrophoretic profile of double-stranded (ds) rna preparation from a single strain of fusarium poae isolated from wheat. when the purified dsrna sample was deep-sequenced by a next-generation sequencer, sixteen virus-like assembled contigs with predicted amino acid sequences showing homologies to respective viral rna-dependent rna polymerases (rdrps) were found by blast analysis. fourteen out of sixteen sequences showed homologies to rdrps of known mycoviruses, t ...201627550368
intra-strains diversity of expression of polymorphic pks4 gene in comparison in zearalenone production by fusarium graminearum during in vitro cultivation.filamentous fungi belonging to the fusarium genus are responsible for large economic losses due to their high pathogenicity and toxigenicity. fusarium sp. may produce variety of mycotoxins, one of them is zearalenone (zea). the presence of the pks4 gene shows the possibility of zearalenone biosynthesis by fusarium sp. in this study, in four fusarium graminearum and one fusarium poae strains the presence of pks4 genes and zea concentrations were determined. the presence of the pks4 gene was confi ...201626495440
living apart together: crosstalk between the core and supernumerary genomes in a fungal plant pathogen.eukaryotes display remarkable genome plasticity, which can include supernumerary chromosomes that differ markedly from the core chromosomes. despite the widespread occurrence of supernumerary chromosomes in fungi, their origin, relation to the core genome and the reason for their divergent characteristics are still largely unknown. the complexity of genome assembly due to the presence of repetitive dna partially accounts for this.201627552804
two novel relative double-stranded rna mycoviruses infecting fusarium poae strain sx63.two novel double-stranded rna (dsrna) mycoviruses, termed fusarium poae dsrna virus 2 (fpv2) and fusarium poae dsrna virus 3 (fpv3), were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus, fusarium poae strain sx63, and molecularly characterized. fpv2 and fpv3, with respective genome sequences of 9518 and 9419 base pairs (bps), are both predicted to contain two discontinuous open reading frames (orfs), orf1 and orf2. a hypothetical polypeptide (p1) and a rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) are encoded b ...201627144564
growth suppression of fusarium culmorum, fusarium poae and fusarium graminearum by 5-n-alk(en)ylresorcinols from wheat and rye bran.alk(en)ylresorcinols (ar), a class of phenolic lipids, are regarded as antifungal compounds showing high potential for the use in plant protection, especially against fusarium head blight (fhb). in view of the very limited knowledge of the activity of single ar against fusarium species, the antifungal effect of crude extracts, fractions and isolated homologues from wheat and rye bran was determined. it was shown that the saturated ar are the active compounds in the extracts, whereas the presence ...201728784549
fusarium poae and fusarium crookwellense, fungi responsible for the natural occurrence of nivalenol in determine the reasons for the natural occurrence of nivalenol in the northernmost area of japan, scabby wheat was harvested from 19 crop fields in hokkaido. mycological surveys and analysis for mycotoxin contamination were performed. among 13 wheat grain samples harvested in seven locations, 9, 2, and 6 samples were positive for deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone, respectively, at levels ranging from 0.03 to 1.28 mug/g, 0.04 to 1.22 mug/g, and 2 to 25 ng/g, respectively. the predomina ...199316349068
resistance of fusarium poae in arabidopsis leaves requires mainly functional ja and et signaling pathways.fusarium poae has been considered as a minor species among those that cause the fhb disease but in recent years several researchers have documented a high frequency of occurrence in several crops. we evaluated the ability of f. poae to produce symptoms in a. thaliana leaves. moreover, we analyzed the defense of a. thaliana against f. poae using sa, ja, and et mutants and we monitored the expression level of genes involved in the main signaling pathways related to plant defense. symptoms were obs ...201728889908
genetic divergence and chemotype diversity in the fusarium head blight pathogen fusarium poae.fusarium head blight is a disease caused by a complex of fusarium species. f. poae is omnipresent throughout europe in spite of its low virulence. in this study, we assessed a geographically diverse collection of f. poae isolates for its genetic diversity using aflp (amplified fragment length polymorphism). furthermore, studying the mating type locus and chromosomal insertions, we identified hallmarks of both sexual recombination and clonal spread of successful genotypes in the population. despi ...201728832503
production of phenolics and the emission of volatile organic compounds by perennial ryegrass (lolium perenne l.)/neotyphodium lolii association as a response to infection by fusarium poae.grasses very often form symbiotic associations with neotyphodium/epichloë endophytic fungi. these endophytes often allow the host grass to be protected from different pathogens. however, there is little known about the mechanisms of such endophyte influence on the host. thus, the purpose of this research was to examine the effect of the n. lolii endophyte on the total production of phenolic compounds, vocs emission and the resistance of three perennial ryegrass genotypes infected by pathogenic f ...201323566872
[utilization of carbon sources by fusarium poae (peck) wollenw. strains from different trophic groups].it was shown that saprophytic (soil), endophytic and plant pathogenic strains of f. poae under cultivation conditions in the media containing carbon sources from mono- to polysaccharides had different abilities to use them and to accumulate biomass. maltose, xylose, fructose, pectin were the most favorable carbon sources for the studied strains; less assimilated lactose, arabinose, and especially microcrystalline cellulose were less assimilated. it was found that endophytes and plant pathogens a ...201623516841
acute and chronic disease associated with naturally occurring t-2 mycotoxicosis in sheep.a flock of approximately 1,000 sheep were exposed intermittently to food contaminated with t-2 toxin (t-2), a potent type-a trichothecene mycotoxin produced primarily by fusarium sporotrichioides and fusarium poae. in the acute stage of the intoxication, affected sheep developed anorexia, decreased water consumption, ruminal atony, soft faeces and apathy. one hundred and ninety of the exposed sheep died. the main gross lesions observed in animals dying during the acute disease were rumenitis and ...201322819015
development of a pcr assay to detect the potential production of nivalenol in fusarium poae.fusarium species can produce mycotoxins, which can contaminate cereal-based food producing adverse effects for human and animal health. in recent years, the importance of fusarium poae has increased within the fusarium head blight complex. fusarium poae is known to produce trichothecenes, especially nivalenol, a potent mycotoxin able to cause a variety of toxic effects. in this study, a specific primer pair was designed based on the tri7 gene to detect potential nivalenol-producing f. poae isola ...201222536946
trichothecene and beauvericin mycotoxin production and genetic variability in fusarium poae isolated from wheat kernels from northern italy.the importance and widespread incidence of fusarium poae as a natural contaminant of wheat in different climatic areas warrants investigation into the genetic diversity and toxin profile of a northern italy population. eighty-one strains of f. poae isolated from durum wheat kernels, identified by species-specific polymerase chain reaction and translation elongation factor-1alpha gene sequence analysis, were genetically characterized by the amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) technique ...201020204912
quantification of fusarium poae dna and associated mycotoxins in asymptomatically contaminated wheat.recent surveys have identified increased predominance of fusarium poae causing fhb (fusarium head blight) of wheat in europe. several studies revealed a correlation between levels of f. poae dna and nivalenol (niv) and enniatins (enns) in highly contaminated cereal grain. in this study, f. poae specific taqman assays and mycotoxin analysis were performed on 48 asymptomatically contaminated wheat grain samples obtained from six different locations in northern poland in 2006 and 2007. taqman assay ...200919237220
relationship between the fungal complex causing fusarium head blight of wheat and environmental conditions.abstract over 4 years, the environmental conditions and the causal agents of fusarium head blight (fhb) disease of wheat were determined in field sites in four european countries: hungary, ireland, italy, and the united kingdom. polymerase chain reaction-based methods were used to detect each species causing fhb and quantify its dna (as a measurement of fungal abundance) in the samples. canonical correspondence analysis (cca) was used to determine the relationship of the incidence and abundance ...200818943240
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