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genes encoding the vacuolar na+/h+ exchanger and flower coloration.vacuolar ph plays an important role in flower coloration: an increase in the vacuolar ph causes blueing of flower color. in the japanese morning glory (ipomoea nil or pharbitis nil), a shift from reddish-purple buds to blue open flowers correlates with an increase in the vacuolar ph. we describe details of the characterization of a mutant that carries a recessive mutation in the purple (pr) gene encoding a vacuolar na+/h+ exchanger termed innhx1. the genome of i. nil carries one copy of the pr ( ...200111382810
japanese morning glory dusky mutants displaying reddish-brown or purplish-gray flowers are deficient in a novel glycosylation enzyme for anthocyanin biosynthesis, udp-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-o-glucoside-2''-o-glucosyltransferase, due to 4-bp insertions in the gene.bright blue or red flowers in the japanese morning glory (ipomoea nil) contain anthocyanidin 3-o-sophoroside derivatives, whereas the reddish-brown or purplish-gray petals in its dusky mutants accumulate anthocyanidin 3-o-glucoside derivatives. the dusky gene was found to encode a novel glucosyltransferase, udp-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-o-glucoside-2''-o-glucosyltransferase (3ggt), which mediates the glucosylation of anthocyanidin 3-o-glucosides to yield anthocyanidin 3-o-sophorosides. ipomoea nil ...200515842621
fate of radioactive gibberellin a(1) in maturing and germinating seeds of peas and japanese morning glory.radioactive gibberellin a(1) ((3)h-ga(1)) was injected into excised fruits of peas and japanese morning glory. these were then grown in sterile culture to maturity and the label was followed in the seeds during further development and subsequent germination. during development of both pea and morning-glory seeds a large part of the radioactivity became associated with the aqueous fraction, while another part of the (3)h-ga(1) was converted into 2 new, acidic, biologically active compounds, desig ...196816656845
brassinosteroid deficiency due to truncated steroid 5alpha-reductase causes dwarfism in the lk mutant of pea.the endogenous brassinosteroids in the dwarf mutant lk of pea (pisum sativum) were quantified by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. the levels of castasterone, 6-deoxocastasterone, and 6-deoxotyphasterol in lk shoots were reduced 4-, 70-, and 6-fold, respectively, compared with those of the wild type. the fact that the application of brassinolide restored the growth of the mutant indicated that the dwarf mutant lk is brassinosteroid deficient. gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring ...200415286289
detection of phytochrome-like genes from rhazya stricta (apocynaceae) using de novo genome assembly.phytochrome-like genes in the wild plant species rhazya stricta decne were characterized using a de novo genome assembly of next generation sequence data. rhazya stricta contains more than 100 alkaloids with multiple pharmacological properties, and leaf extracts have been used to cure chronic rheumatism, to treat tumors, and in the treatment of several other diseases. phytochromes are known to be involved in the light-regulated biosynthesis of some alkaloids. phytochromes are soluble chromoprote ...201324296076
allelopathic activity of extracts from different brazilian peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) cultivars on lettuce (lactuca sativa) and weed plants.peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. in this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (lactuca sativa) and two weed plants (commelina bengh ...201728396881
carotenoid composition and carotenogenic gene expression during ipomoea petal development.japanese morning glory (ipomoea nil) is a representative plant lacking a yellow-flowered cultivar, although a few wild ipomoea species contain carotenoids in their petals such as ipomoea sp. (yellow petals) and i. obscura (pale-yellow petals). in the present study, carotenoid composition and the expression patterns of carotenogenic genes during petal development were compared among i. nil, i. obscura, and ipomoea sp. to identify the factors regulating carotenoid accumulation in ipomoea plant pet ...201019933319
seasonal characterization of antioxidant responses in plants of ipomoea nil cv. scarlet o'hara.reactive oxygen species can be produced in leaf cells during normal aerobic metabolism or in a variety of exogenous factors, which may cause oxidative damage to plants, unless they have an efficient antioxidant defense system, consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic substances. this work raised the hypothesis that plants of ipomoea nil cv. scarlet o'hara, a native species and ornamental vine of the tropics, might tolerate oxidative stress factors imposed by natural fluctuations in weather cond ...201223295511
climatic factors influence leaf structure and thereby affect the ozone sensitivity of ipomoea nil 'scarlet o'hara'.phenotypic plasticity of the leaves can interfere with the plant sensitivity to ozone (o3) toxic effect. this study aimed to assess whether the leaf structure of ipomoea nil changes due to climatic variations and whether these changes affect the species' sensitivity. field exposures, in different seasons (winter and spring) were made. the leaves that developed during the winter were thinner, with a lower proportion of photosynthetic tissues, higher proportion of intercellular spaces and lower de ...201425078660
a circadian rhythm set by dusk determines the expression of ft homologs and the short-day photoperiodic flowering response in pharbitis.seasonal control of flowering through responsiveness to daylength shows extreme variation. different species flower in response to long days or short days (sds), and this difference evolved several times. the molecular mechanisms conferring these responses have been compared in detail only in arabidopsis thaliana and rice (oryza sativa) and suggest that a conserved pathway confers daylength responses through regulation of flowering locus t (ft) transcription by constans (co). we studied pharbiti ...200717965272
the putative mir172 target gene inapetala2-like is involved in the photoperiodic flower induction of ipomoea nil.the mir172 gene is involved in the regulation of flowering time and floral organ identity in arabidopsis thaliana through regulation of apetala2 (ap2)-like genes' activity. ap2 plays critical roles in establishing meristem and organ identity during floral development. additionally, the ap2-like genes including target of eat1 (toe1), toe2, smz, snz are involved in the timing of flowering in arabidopsis thaliana. in our study, a full-length cdna encoding inap2-like transcription factor was isolate ...200919560230
salicylic acid and the flowering gene flowering locus t homolog are involved in poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering of pharbitis nil.the short-day plants pharbitis nil (synonym ipomoea nil), var. violet and tendan were grown in a diluted nutrient solution or tap water for 20 days under long-day conditions. violet plants were induced to flower and vegetative growth was inhibited, whereas tendan plants were not induced to flower, although vegetative growth was inhibited under these conditions. the violet plants induced to flower by poor-nutrition stress produced fertile seeds and their progeny developed normally. defoliated vio ...201019906461
quantitative analysis of regulatory flexibility under changing environmental conditions.the circadian clock controls 24-h rhythms in many biological processes, allowing appropriate timing of biological rhythms relative to dawn and dusk. known clock circuits include multiple, interlocked feedback loops. theory suggested that multiple loops contribute the flexibility for molecular rhythms to track multiple phases of the external cycle. clear dawn- and dusk-tracking rhythms illustrate the flexibility of timing in ipomoea nil. molecular clock components in arabidopsis thaliana showed c ...201021045818
the involvement of inmir167 in the regulation of expression of its target gene inarf8, and their participation in the vegetative and generative development of ipomoea nil plants.the plant hormone auxin plays a critical role in regulating plant growth and development. recent advances have been made that having improved our understanding of auxin response pathways, primarily by characterizing the genes encoding auxin response factors (arfs) in arabidopsis. in addition, the expression of some arfs is regulated by micrornas (mirnas). in arabidopsis thaliana, arf6 and arf8 are targeted by mir167, whereas arf10, arf16 and arf17 are targeted by mir160. nevertheless, little is ...201424094462
the petal-specific inmyb1 promoter functions by recognizing petaloid cells.the inmyb1 gene in japanese morning glory (ipomoea nil) is a member of the myb transcription factor family. the promoter of inmyb1 has been reported to induce petal-specific gene expression in arabidopsis and eustoma, and has the same function in several other dicotyledonous plants. most flowers consist of sepals, petals, stamens and a carpel, whose identity establishment is explained by the abc model. the establishment of the identity of petals is determined by the expression of class a and b g ...201626858281
characterization of a member of the an subfamily, ian, from ipomoea nil.angustifolia (an) is the first c-terminal binding protein (ctbp) gene from plants and controls leaf width and pattern of trichome branching in arabidopsis thaliana (l.) heynh. we characterized an ortholog of an from ipomoea nil (l.) roth (japanese morning glory) and designated it ipomoea nil's an (ian). ian is a single-copy gene in the genome and is expressed ubiquitously in various organs of i. nil. ian contains not only a d2-hdh motif, which is highly conserved within the ctbp family, but also ...200515659438
the helper component-proteinase of sweet potato feathery mottle virus facilitates systemic spread of potato virus x in ipomoea nil.abstract when ipomoea nil was coinfected with sweet potato feathery mottle virus (spfmv), a member of the genus potyvirus, and potato virus x (pvx) typical symptoms caused by pvx were observed on those by spfmv on the first upper true leaves at 14 days postinoculation (dpi). on the other hand, no pvx-induced symptoms were observed on the first upper true leaves at 14 dpi when plants were infected with pvx alone. in the case of coinfection with pvx and spfmv, pvx rna was detected not only in the ...200018944517
characterization of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (slpal5) from tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.).phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequence of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (slpal5) cdna from tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.) revealed high sequence similarity to pal genes in nicotiana tabacum (92%), ipomoea nil (87%), manihot esculenta (84%), and catharanthus roseus (84%). the slpal5 gene exists as multiple copies in the tomato plant, and its transcription was strongly expressed in old leaves and flowers. from 5 days post-anthesis to the onset of ripening, slpal5 expre ...200918791854
gene expression in opening and senescing petals of morning glory (ipomoea nil) flowers.we isolated several senescence-associated genes (sags) from the petals of morning glory (ipomoea nil) flowers, with the aim of furthering our understanding of programmed cell death. samples were taken from the closed bud stage to advanced visible senescence. actinomycin d, an inhibitor of transcription, if given prior to 4 h after opening, suppressed the onset of visible senescence, which occurred at about 9 h after flower opening. the isolated genes all showed upregulation. two cell-wall relate ...200717221229
comparison of endogenous gibberellins and of the fate of applied radioactive gibberellin a(1) in a normal and a dwarf strain of japanese morning glory.the effect of application of ga(3) on hypocotyl growth, the endogenous gas, and the metabolism of applied (3)h-ga(1) were investigated in relation to dwarfism and light-mediated growth inhibition in the normal (tall) strain violet and the dwarf strain kidachi of japanese morning glory (pharbitis nil). ga(3) applied in a wide concentration range (10(-9) to 10(-3)m) to 4-day-old seedlings caused great extension of the hypocotyls in light-grown plants of both the normal and the dwarf strain. howeve ...197216658057
gibberellin induces alpha-amylase gene in seed coat of ipomoea nil immature seeds.two full-length cdnas encoding gibberellin 3-oxidases, inga3ox1 and inga3ox2, were cloned from developing seeds of morning glory (ipomoea nil (pharbitis nil) choisy cv. violet) with degenerate-pcr and races. the rna-blot analysis for these clones revealed that the inga3ox2 gene was organ-specifically expressed in the developing seeds at 6-18 days after anthesis. in situ hybridization showed the signals of inga3ox2 mrna in the seed coat, suggesting that active gibberellins (gas) were synthesized ...200415056897
a petal-specific inmyb1 promoter from japanese morning glory: a useful tool for molecular breeding of floricultural crops.production of novel transgenic floricultural crops with altered petal properties requires transgenes that confer a useful trait and petal-specific promoters. several promoters have been shown to control transgenes in petals. however, all suffer from inherent drawbacks such as low petal specificity and restricted activity during the flowering stage. in addition, the promoters were not examined for their ability to confer petal-specific expression in a wide range of plant species. here, we report ...201625923400
The efficiency of tobacco Bel-W3 and native species for ozone biomonitoring in subtropical climate, as revealed by histo-cytochemical techniques.We aimed to verify whether hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation and cell death are detected early in three bioindicators of ozone (O(3)), Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3', Ipomoea nil 'Scarlet O'Hara' and Psidium guajava 'Paluma', and whether environmental factors also affect those microscopic markers. The three species were exposed to chronic levels of O(3) in a subtropical area and a histo-cytochemical technique that combines 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) with Evans blue staining was used in the ...201121917365
dynamics of mobile element activity in chalcone synthase loci in the common morning glory (ipomoea purpurea).mobile element dynamics in seven alleles of the chalcone synthase d locus (chs-d) of the common morning glory (ipomoea purpurea) are analyzed in the context of synonymous nucleotide sequence distances for chs-d exons. by using a nucleotide sequence of chs-d from the sister species ipomoea nil (japanese morning glory [johzuka-hisatomi, y., hoshino, a., mori, t., habu, y. & iida, s. (1999) genes genet. syst. 74, 141-147], it is also possible to determine the relative frequency of insertion and los ...200111309503
the redox state of ipomoea nil 'scarlet o'hara' growing under ozone in a subtropical area.the occurrence of visible leaf injury caused by ozone in ipomoea nil 'scarlet o'hara' may be regulated by their redox state, affecting its bioindicator efficiency. thus, this study aimed to determine whether the redox state of i. nil plants in a subtropical area (são paulo, se-brazil) contaminated by ozone oscillates, and to identify the environmental factors behind these variations. we comparatively evaluated indicators of redox state (ascorbic acid, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate ...201121741708
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