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purification and properties of heat-resistant exotoxin produced by macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid in culture.a partially purified preparation of a water-soluble, heat-resistant, nonspecific exotoxin produced by a strain of macrophomina phaseolina, isolated from phaseolus mungo l. could reduce cu++ ions and produced a red colour with 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine reagent. it caused inhibition of seed germination, wilting of cult seedlings, stunted growth of young seedlings and loss of permeability of the cell membrane. seedlings of p. mungo, grown in presence of the toxin showed a slight increase in the c ...1979488287
phosphatase activity in susceptible and resistant cultivars of brassica juncea inoculated with isolates of macrophomina phaseolina and sclerotinia sclerotiorum.inoculations with isolates of macrophomina phaseolina and sclerotinia sclerotiorum resulted in a significant increase in the acid phosphatase activity of susceptible and resistant cultivars of brassica juncea, which appeared to be related to the disease reaction of different host-pathogen combinations. after an increase on the 6th day of inoculation there was usually a fall in activity on the 12th and 18th days. resistant cultivars showed very poor activity in comparison to their susceptible cou ...1979542131
effect of volatile inhibitors from natural and amended soils on germination of sclerotia of macrophomina phaseolina.studies on volatile soil fungistasis showed that sclerotia of macrophomina phaseolina are not sensitive to volatiles liberated by natural soils with varying ph values. soil amended with alfalfa hay (1%, w/w) liberated volatiles fungistatic to sclerotia only when the assay was performed 2 weeks or less after amendment. chitin-amended soils liberated fungistatic volatiles from 1 to 3 weeks after amendment. indirect evidence indicated that ammonia may be the active volatile in amended soil. it was ...1976963611
an enzyme immunoassay of phaseolinone and its application in estimation of the amount of toxin in macrophomina phaseolina-infected seeds.a microtiter plate-based enzyme immunoassay has been developed for phaseolinone, a phytotoxin isolated from the culture filtrate of the plant-pathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid. the smallest amount of phaseolinone detectable by the method is 5 pg per well. the method is validated by comparison with high-performance liquid chromatography and used to confirm and estimate phaseolinone production in seeds infected with the fungus. the degree of seed inhibition correlated well wit ...19921622272
effect of some antibiotics on macrophomina phaseolina, a charcoal rot fungus of soybean.effect of agrimycin-100, ampicillin, griseofulvin and tetracycline on colony growth of macrophomina phaseolina, incitant of charcoal rot of soybean has been studied in vitro. amongst them tetracycline posed most effective inhibiting the growth by 73.9% at 1000 micrograms/ml concentration. on the basis of effectiveness antibiotics have been listed as tetracycline greater than ampicillin greater than griseofulvin greater than agrimycin-100.19892613540
purification and properties of a carboxymethylcellulase from phytopathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina.from the culture filtrate of macrophomina phaseolina, two forms of carboxymethylcellulase were separated by ion-exchange chromatography and designated as cmcase-i and cmcase-ii. cmcase-i was purified following a four-step procedure involving gel filtration on sephadex g-75, con-a sepharose 4b affinity chromatography, fast protein liquid chromatography on mono q anion-exchanger and on superose 12 gel filtration. the final preparation was homogeneous by sds-page, isoelectric focussing in thin laye ...19892628258
mutagenic action of phaseolinone, a mycotoxin isolated from macrophomina phaseolina.phaseolinone was mutagenic to excision-repair-deficient strains of escherichia coli wp2 and also to salmonella typhimurium ta 100. the repair test was indicative of covalent binding of the toxin to dna. the side-chain epoxide and the hydroxy groups of the molecule were found to be essential for mutagenic activity.19873330928
mycotoxicological investigations on maize and groundnuts from the endemic area of mseleni joint disease in kwazulu.samples of home-grown maize and groundnuts from the endemic area of mseleni joint disease (mjd) during four seasons (1980-1983) were examined mycologically. the mycoflora of these dietary staples included fusarium poae and f. oxysporum, which have been implicated in the aetiology of kashin-beck or urov disease, another osteo-arthrosis endemic in siberia and china. two other species of fusarium, i.e. f. moniliforme and f. equiseti, implicated in syndromes of abnormal bone development in animals, ...19863961620
production of cellulases by macrophomina phaseolina: effect of different cellulosic carbon sources. 19826184962
role of rhizobitoxine in protecting soybean roots from macrophomina phaseolina infection.bacterization of soybean seeds or roots with rhizobium japonicum significantly reduced charcoal rot disease caused by macrophomina phaseolina . rhizobium japonicum inhibited the growth of m. phaseolina on both liquid and solid media. replacement of nutrient medium with culture filtrate of r. japonicum significantly reduced mycelial growth of m. phaseolina . whole culture extracts of r. japonicum yielded a toxic substance which was identified as rhizobitoxine after chromatographic, ultraviolet, a ...19846539157
induction of carboxymethylcellulase in macrophomina phaseolina.macrophomina phaseolina, the well-known jute pathogenic fungus produces very low levels of both extra- and intracellular carboxymethylcellulase even in the absence of any cellulose as carbon source in the medium. however, the production of these enzymes is greatly induced by soluble carboxymethylcellulose. the carboxymethylcellulase in m. phaseolina is repressed by glucose.19816790386
mycoparasitism of sclerotial fungi by teratosperma oligocladum.sclerotia of sclerotinia minor were parasitized by teratosperma oligocladum, a recently described dematiaceous hyphomycete. the mycoparasite was cultured on living sclerotia placed on water agar and on sclerotia in moist sand. it grew poorly on several common laboratory media but growth in vitro was enhanced by supplements of soil extract and, especially, by aqueous extracts of sclerotia. sclerotia of s. minor, s. sclerotiorum, s. trifoliorum, sclerotium cepivorum, and botrytis cinerea were para ...19817198002
in vitro evaluation of fungicides and antibiotics against macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid, the incitant of leaf spot of soybean (glycine max.). 19817309555
carbon and nitrogen nutrition of plant pathogenic fungi associated with basal stem rots of cowpeas, vigna unguiculata (l) walp in nigeria.pythium aphanidermatum, rhizoctonia bataticola (syn. = macrophomina phaseolina), botryodiplodia theobromae, and two strains of sclerotium rolfsii readily utilized for growth the monosaccharides glucose, fructose and mannose, the disaccharides sucrose and maltose and the polysaccharides dextrin and starch. in addition, s. rolfsii grew appreciably well on carboxymethylcellulose (cmc). when filter paper (nature cellulose) was supplied as sole carbon source, it was decomposed by b. theobromae, s. ro ...19807376690
a unique endoglucanase-encoding gene cloned from the phytopathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina.the deduced amino acid sequence derived from a macrophomina phaseolina beta-1,4-endoglucanase-encoding gene revealed 48% identity (over 119 amino acids) with egl1 from the phytopathogen pseudomonas solanacearum. its similarity to saprophyte endoglucanases was not significant. its minimum substrate size, unlike that of any known saprophyte endoglucanase, was cellopentaose. the unique characteristics of m. phaseolina egl1-encoded endoglucanase suggest that it is phytopathogen specific.19957646037
cloning, characterization and functional expression of an endoglucanase-encoding gene from the phytopathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina.an endoglucanase-encoding clone (egl2) was isolated from the phytopathogenic soilborne deuteromycete fungus macrophomina phaseolina (mp). clones were obtained from a cdna library by functional expression in escherichia coli. the egl2 clone hybridized to a 1.3-kb mrna. expression is induced by carboxymethylcellulose (cmc) and repressed by glucose. the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence revealed strong similarity to the egl3 from trichoderma reesei (tr) (72% for identical residues and 81% with conse ...19957789795
antifungal activity of new compounds from nepeta leucophylla and nepeta clarkei.iridodial beta-monoenol acetate, isolated from the essential oil of nepeta leucophylla benth, and actinidine from n. clarkei benth were screened for antifungal activities against aspergillus flavus, aspergillus ochraceus, penicillium citrinum, and penicillium viridicatum, all known mycotoxin-producing taxa, and sclerotium rolfsii and macrophomina phaseolina, potential soybean pathogens. iridodial beta-monoenol acetate was most effective against s. rolfsii, while actinidine was highly active agai ...19968593072
site-directed mutagenesis of a fungal beta-1,4-endoglucanase increases the minimum size required for the substrate.conserved regions within a family-5 beta-1,4,-endoglucanase (eg11), produced by the fungus macrophomina phaseolina, have been modified through site-directed mutagenesis, resulting in production of an enzyme with novel substrate requirements. the engineered form was generated through mutagenesis of d232a, which lies within the substrate-binding cleft of eg11. wild-type eg11 requires a minimum substrate size of five glucosyl units, while the engineered form requires a minimum of six glucosyl units ...19979299781
pseudomonas aeruginosa (grc1) as a strong antagonist of macrophomina phaseolina and fusarium oxysporum.a plant growth promotory bacterial strain, isolated from the potato rhizosphere, was characterized as pseudomonas aeruginosa (grc1). the isolate produced an hydroxamate type of siderophore after 48 h of incubation on tryptic soy medium under iron deficient conditions. the in vitro antifungal activity of p. aeruginosa was tested against two soil-borne plant pathogens, macrophomina phaseolina and fusarium oxysporum. the antagonistic behaviour of the isolate was tested by dual culture technique. th ...199910581709
properties of the macrophomina phaseolina endoglucanase (egl 1) gene product in bacterial and yeast expression systems.functional expression of a beta-d-1,4 glucanase-encoding gene (egl1) from a filamentous fungus was achieved in both escherichia coli and saccharomyces cerevisiae using a modified version of prs413. optimal activity of the e. coli-expressed enzyme was found at incubation temperatures of 60 degrees c, whereas the enzyme activity was optimal at 40 degrees c when expressed by s. cerevisiae. enzyme activity at different ph levels was similar for both bacteria and yeast, being highest at 5.0. yeast ex ...199910652782
influence of growth and environmental conditions on cell surface hydrophobicity of pseudomonas fluorescens in non-specific adhesion.the relative cell surface hydrophobicity (csh) of 18 soil isolates of pseudomonas fluorescens, determined by phase exclusion, hydrophobic interaction chromatography (hic), electrostatic interaction chromatography (esic), and contact angle, revealed large degrees of variability. variation in the adhesion efficiency to macrophomina phaseolina of the hyphae/sclerotia of these isolates was also examined. two such isolates with maximum (32.8%; isolate 12-94) and minimum (12%; isolate 30-94) csh were ...200010696469
avirulent mutants of macrophomina phaseolina and aspergillus fumigatus initiate infection in phaseolus mungo in the presence of phaseolinone; levamisole gives protection.to evaluate the role of phaseolinone, a phytotoxin produced by macrophomina phaseolina, in disease initiation, three nontoxigenic avirulent mutants of the fungus were generated by uv-mutagenesis. two of them were able to initiate infection in germinating phaseolus mungo seeds only in the presence of phaseolinone. the minimum dose of phaseoli-none required for infection in 30% seedlings was 2 5 mg/ml. a human pathogen, aspergillus fumigatus was also able to infect germinating seeds of p. mungo in ...200010824201
field assessment of plant derivative compounds for managing fungal soybean diseases.natural plant-derived compounds are currently being explored as alternatives for pest control in sustainable agriculture. this study explored the use of two compounds, sesamol and carbenoxolone, in the management of the fungal soybean disease charcoal rot (macrophomina phaseolina). previous studies have determined that sesamol and carbenoxolone compounds significantly inhibited fungal pathogen growth and plant disease in vitro. in order to assess the field efficacy of these compounds for fungal ...200011171257
suppression of maize root diseases caused by macrophomina phaseolina, fusarium moniliforme and fusarium graminearum by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.a plant growth-promoting isolate of a fluorescent pseudomonas sp. em85 and two bacilli isolates mr-11(2) and mrf, isolated from maize rhizosphere, were found strongly antagonistic to fusarium moniliforme, fusarium graminearum and macrophomina phaseolina, causal agents of foot rots and wilting, collar rots/stalk rots and root rots and wilting, and charcoal rots of maize, respectively. pseudomonas sp. em85 produced antifungal antibiotics (afa+), siderophore (sid+), hcn (hcn+) and fluorescent pigme ...200111716210
motility and chemotactic response of pseudomonas fluorescens toward chemoattractants present in the exudate of macrophomina phaseolina.pseudomonas fluorescens strains (lam1-hydrophilic) and (lam2-hydrophobic) showed positive chemotaxis towards attractants (sugars, amino acids, polyols and organic acids) present in the exudate of macrophomina phaseolina (a soil-borne plant pathogenic fungus). the varied response of motility traits such as speed, rate of change in direction (rcdi) and net to gross displacement ratio (ngdr) was observed for different chemoattractants. swimming speed of the strains was highest in 10-fold diluted ex ...200111770852
dominance relationships of bean pathogens at lake balaton.dominance relationships of different bean pathogens were examined during 1999-2000 in small plot trials at lake balaton in hungary. in 1999 the dominant pathogen species were xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. the main cause of the stock decay was due to the infection of fusarium spp. bean plants were infected also by alternaria, colletotrichum, macrophomina and sclerotinia, species part from viruses. among of thirty-eight examined bean cultivars and genotypes the variety "díszbab" and the gen ...200112425043
the influence of mineral and carbon sources on biological control of charcoal rot fungus, macrophomina phaseolina by fluorescent pseudomonads in tomato.to determine the influence of various trace minerals and carbon source on the biocontrol performance of pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ie-6s+ and p. fluorescens strain cha0 against macrophomina phaseolina.200312753248
molecular characterization of macrophomina phaseolina and fusarium species by a single primer rapd technique.charcoal root rot and wilt, are two economically important diseases of many crop plants in north and south america, asia and africa and some parts of europe. genetic variation in 43 isolates of macrophomina phaseolina and 22 isolates of fusarium species, collected from geographically distinct regions over a range of hosts, was studied using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers. initially, 210 arbitrary nucleotide (10-mer) primers were tested for amplification of genomic dna of one m. ...200314521235
feeding and maturation by soybean looper (lepidoptera: noctuidae) larvae on soybean affected by weed, fungus, and nematode pests.feeding and maturation by the soybean looper, pseudoplusia includens (walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae), were investigated in a 2-yr study on 'davis' soybean, glycine max (l.) merr., grown alone and combined with the weed hemp sesbania, sesbania exaltata (raf.) rybd. ex. a. w. hill, the root-knot nematode, meloidogyne incognita (kofoid & white) chitwood, and the charcoal rot fungus, macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid. of the three pests, hemp sesbania had the greatest effects on plant growth an ...200414998122
antagonistic effect of fluorescent pseudomonads against macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut.maximum colony growth inhibition was observed due to pseudomonas ps2 (74%) as compared to ps1 (71%) on trypticase soy agar (tsm) plates after 5 days of incubation. light and scanning electron microscopic examination showed hyphal coiling, vacuolation, coagulation and granulation of cytoplasm resulting in lysis of hyphae of m. phaseolina by pseudomonads. cell free culture filtrates of strains ps1 and ps2 restricted the growth of mycelium of m. phaseolina. ps1 and ps2 caused maximum colony growth ...200315320499
ssr-based detection of genetic variability in the charcoal root rot pathogen macrophomina phaseolina.macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal root or collar rot, is an important plant pathogen especially in soybean and cotton. single primers of simple sequence repeats (ssr) or microsatellite markers have been used for the characterization of genetic variability of different populations of m. phaseolina obtained from soybean and cotton grown in india and the usa. genetic similarity between isolates was calculated, and cluster analysis was used to generate a dendrogram showing relati ...200515736865
genetic differentiation of charcoal rot pathogen, macrophomina phaseolina, into specific groups using urp-pcr.forty isolates of macrophomina phaseolina, a pathogen causing charcoal dry root rot of soybean, cotton, and chickpea, were genetically characterized with universal rice primers (urp; primers derived from dna repeat sequences in the rice genome) using polymerase chain reaction (urp-pcr). out of 12 urps used in this study, 5 primers were effective in producing polymorphic fingerprint patterns from the dna of m. phaseolina isolates. three primers (urp-2f, urp-6r, and urp-30f) were quite informative ...200516091774
biodegradation of crude petroleum and petroleum products by fungi isolated from two oil seeds (melon and soybean).crude petroleum oil degrading fungi were isolated from two oil seeds, cucumeropsis mannii (melon) and glycine max (soybean) seeds in the presence and absence of petroleum fumes. an assessment of the relative ability of each fungus to degrade crude petroleum, diesel and kerosene on minimum salt solution was done using change in optical density read on spectrophotometer. twenty-one fungal species (14 genera) were isolated altogether during this experiment. these include eight species of aspergillu ...200516114459
biological activity of spatoglossum asperum: a brown alga.chloroform and methanol fractions of an ethanol extract of spatoglossum asperum showed antifungal activity against the highly destructive plant pathogen, macrophomina phaseolina while the n-hexane fraction showed activity against rhizoctonia solani and fusarium solani. n-hexane and methanol fractions also showed nematicidal activity against the plant parasitic nematode, meloidogyne javanica. column chromatography of the ethanol extract of seaweed yielded oily fractions named sa-i to sa-vi. gc-ms ...200516161033
fungal deterioration of melon seeds stored in jute sacks and polyethylene bags in ago-iwoye, southwestern nigeria.laboratory studies were carried out in the department of biological sciences, ogun state university, ago-iwoye, southwestern nigeria, to determine the extent of fungal deterioration of melon seeds stored in two types of storage bags viz; jute and polyethylene bags. melon seeds of varieties tc139 and v2 were stored in jute and polyethylene bags under ambient conditions using the 2 x 2 factorial design (variety vs type of bag) for 12 months. the moisture content (mc), incidence of visible mouldine ...199916284865
post harvest spoilage of sweetpotato in tropics and control measures.sweetpotato storage roots are subjected to several forms of post harvest spoilage in the tropical climate during transportation from farmers' field to market and in storage. these are due to mechanical injury, weight loss, sprouting, and pests and diseases. sweetpotato weevil is the single most important storage pest in tropical regions for which no control measures or resistant variety are yet available. several microorganisms (mostly fungi) have been found to induce spoilage in stored sweetpot ...200516371331
antifungal activity of 4-methyl-6-alkyl-2h-pyran-2-ones.a number of 4-methyl-6-alkyl-alpha-pyrones were synthesized and characterized on the basis of 1h nmr and mass spectroscopy. these compounds were tested in vitro against pathogenic fungi, namely, sclerotium rolfsii saccardo, rhizoctonia bataticola (taub.) butler, pythium aphanidermatum (edson) fitz., macrophomina phaseolina (tassi), pythium debaryanum (hesse), and rhizoctonia solani nees. lower homologues were less effective, whereas compounds such as 4-methyl-6-butyl-alpha-pyrone, 4-methyl-6-pen ...200616536586
reaction of selected soybean cultivars to rhizoctonia root rot and other damping-off disease agents.eight soybean cultivars; giza 21. giza 22, giza 35, giza 82, giza 83, crawford, holladay and toamo were evaluated to rhizoctonia root rot using agar plate and potted plant techniques. data cleared that, in agar plate assay all soybean cultivars were moderately susceptible (ms), although the differences between them were significant (p=0.05). generally, in potted assay, the reactions were resistant (r) or moderately resistant (mr) to root rots. also, the differences between cultivars were signifi ...200516637203
rapd cluster analysis and chlorate sensitivity of some indian isolates of macrophomina phaseolina from sorghum and their relationships with pathogenicity.charcoal rot caused by macrophomina phaseolina is an economically important disease in sorghum grown during the post rainy season in india. variations in random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) polymorphisms, chlorate sensitivity and pathogenicity were studied among sorghum isolates of m. phaseolina collected from different parts of india. rapd data based on 14 random primers of kit a and c (opa and opc) on 20 isolates showed a high degree of polymorphism (98.1%) in different isolates. upgma den ...200816809028
a direct observation technique for evaluating sclerotium germination by macrophomina phaseolina and effects of biocontrol materials on survival of sclerotia in soil.germination of sclerotia of macrophomina phaseolina was quantified by direct microscopic observation following application of experimental treatments in vitro and incubation of sclerotia in soil. to assay germination, pieces of agar containing sclerotia were macerated in dilute, liquid cornmeal agar on glass slides; thinly spread; and incubated in a saturated atmosphere for 18-22 h. germinated sclerotia then were identified by morphological features of germ hyphae. frequencies of germination wer ...200616897591
antifungal properties of haem peroxidase from acorus calamus.plants have evolved a number of inducible defence mechanisms against pathogen attack, including synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins. the aim of the study was to purify and characterize antifungal protein from leaves of acorus calamus.200617056613
evaluation of chenopodium ambrosioides oil as a potential source of antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity.essential oil extracted from the leaves of chenopodium ambrosioides linn. (chenopodiaceae) was tested against the aflatoxigenic strain of test fungus aspergillus flavus link. the oil completely inhibited the mycelial growth at 100 microg/ml. the oil exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against aspergillus niger, aspergillus fumigatus, botryodiplodia theobromae, fusarium oxysporum, sclerotium rolfsii, macrophomina phaseolina, cladosporium cladosporioides, helminthosporium oryzae and pythium debary ...200717174000
soybean charcoal rot disease fungus macrophomina phaseolina in mississippi produces the phytotoxin (-)-botryodiplodin but no detectable phaseolinone.research on charcoal rot disease in soybeans, and approximately 500 other plant diseases caused by the fungus macrophomina phaseolina, has been severely hampered by unavailability of phaseolinone (1), an eremophilane sesquiterpenoid phytotoxin proposed to facilitate initial infection. phytotoxin produced in cultures of disease-causing m. phaseolina isolated in mississippi, and purified in a manner similar to that reported for 1, was shown to be (-)-botryodiplodin (2), a readily synthesized mycot ...200717253865
microbial transformation of (-)-guaiol and antibacterial activity of its transformed products.microbial transformation of the sesquiterpene (-)-guaiol (1) [1(5)-guaien-11-ol] was investigated using three fungi, rhizopus stolonifer, cunninghamella elegans, and macrophomina phaseolina. fungal transformation of 1 with rhizopus stolonifer yielded a hydroxylated product, 1-guaiene-9 beta,11-diol (2). in turn, cunninghamella elegans afforded two mono- and dihydroxylated products, 1-guaiene-3beta,11-diol (3) and 1(5)-guaiene-3beta,9 alpha,11-triol (4), while macrophomina phaseolina produced two ...200717385913
antagonistic potential of fluorescent pseudomonads and control of charcoal rot of chickpea caused by macrophomina phaseolina.the effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria especially pseudomonas fluorescens isolates were tested against charcoal rot of chickpea both in green house as well as in field conditions. most of the isolates reduced charcoal rot disease and promoted plant growth in green house. a marked increase in shoot and root length was observed in p. fluorescens treated plants. among all the p. fluorescens isolates pf4-99, was found most effective in the improvement of chickpea crop in green hou ...200717717979
newer emerging pathogens of ocular non-sporulating molds (nsm) identified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based dna sequencing technique targeting internal transcribed spacer (its) region.to apply polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based dna sequencing targeting internal transcribed spacer (its) region for identification of non-sporulating molds (nsm) to species level which formed 12% of ocular isolates of fungi in a tertiary eye hospital in south india.200818293184
identification and detection of macrophomina phaseolina by using species-specific oligonucleotide primers and probe. 200718333503
expression in escherichia coli, purification, refolding and antifungal activity of an osmotin from solanum nigrum.abstract:200818334031
evaluation of coumarin derivatives as anti-fungal agents against soil-borne fungal pathogens.development of new and safer pesticides that are target-specific is backed by a strong federal, public and commercial mandate. in order to generate a new generation of pesticides that are more ecologically friendly and safe, natural products are being evaluated for pesticidal activities. many plant-derived chemicals have proven pesticidal properties, including compounds like sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxyphenol), a lipid from sesame oil and coumarins (1,2-benzopyrone) found in a variety of plants s ...200718396811
effect of different temperature and culture media on the growth of macrophomina phaseolina.the charcoal root disease caused by macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goidanich may cause considerable damages in hot as well as in dry seasons. the effect of temperature and culture media were studied on the growing patterns of 35 m. phaseolina isolates, collected from different districts of hungary. the isolates were grown at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 degrees c temperatures respectively, and additionally at 25 degrees c on potato-dextrose-, malt-extract-, czapek-dox-, sabouraud-glucose-, mai ...200718396819
detection of phld gene in some fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from iran and its relative with antifungal activities.fluorescent pseudomonads that produce antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglocinol (2,4-dapg) are important group of pgrp that inhibit a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi. studying on genetic diversity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing fluorescent pseudomonads has been shown with special importance. the first step to investigate the genetic diversity of these bacteria is detecting of the genes required for the biosynthesis of this antibiotic. the objectives of the current study were detect ...200718396832
synthesis, characterization and electrochemistry of 4'-functionalized 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ruthenium(ii) complexes and their biological activity.the synthesis and characterization of ru(ii) terpyridine complexes derived from 4'-functionalized 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligands by a multi step procedure have been described. the complexes are redox-active, showing both metal-centred (oxidation) and ligand-centred (reduction) processes. the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the synthesized ruthenium(ii) complexes [ru(attpy)2](pf6)2 (attpy = 4'-(4-acryloyloxymethylphenyl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine); [ru(mttpy)2](pf6)2 (mttpy = 4'-(4-methac ...200818398539
disseminated fungal infection in a renal transplant recipient involving macrophomina phaseolina and scytalidium dimidiatum: case report and review of taxonomic changes among medically important members of the botryosphaeriaceae.we report the first case of human infection with the fungal plant pathogen macrophomina phaseolina in a sri lankan-born canadian man following a renal transplant in india. the patient subsequently succumbed to invasive infection with scytalidium dimidiatum. molecular sequence analysis confirmed the identification of both fungi and revealed that they are related species within the ascomycete family botryosphaeriaceae. we review the rationale for the recent reclassification of s. dimidiatum as neo ...200818404556
biocontrol potential and polyphasic characterization of novel native trichoderma strains against macrophomina phaseolina isolated from sorghum and common bean.native strains of trichoderma isolated from sorghum and common bean crop soils were investigated to assess their biocontrol potential over the phytopathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina, isolated from diseased plants. the trichoderma strains were characterized with a polyphasic approach, which combined the analysis of their morphological characteristics, enzymatic activity, macro- and microculture test results, rdna restriction patterns (aflp), its1-5.8s-its2 rdna sequences, and protein prof ...200818523764
butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase inhibiting and antifungal alkaloids from isatis tinctoria.phytochemical investigations on the alkaloidal fraction of the whole plant of the isatis tinctoria led to the isolation of the alkaloids 1-6. compounds 3, 2 were found to be potent butyrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase enzymes inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner with the ic(50) values 16.3 +/- 0.06 and 19.7 +/- 0.03 microm against bche and 30.6 +/- 0.02 and 33.7 +/- 0.05 microm against lox, respectively. the compounds (1-6) showed significant antifungal activity against trichophyton ...200818569333
study of optical properties of macrophomina phaseolina impregnated sol-gel derived silica matrices.in the present frame of work, macrophomina phaseolina is encapsulated in silica matrices at various concentrations by low temperature sol-gel technique using tetraethylorthosilicate (teos) as precursor. the optical and photophysical properties of these samples have been studied by second harmonics of nd:yag laser at 532 nm. uv-visible absorption spectra of samples have been recorded and it is found that the absorption increases with increase in concentration of fungus. further, a decrease in out ...200918668372
beneficial effects of fluorescent pseudomonads on seed germination, growth promotion, and suppression of charcoal rot in groundnut (arachis hypogea l.).rhizobacteria are used as inoculants to enhance crop yield and for biological control of fungal pathogens. fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from the rhizosphere of groundnut showed suppression of the phytopathogen macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut, an economically important agroproduct. two strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, designated as ps1 and ps2, were selected as a result of in vitro antifungal activity. after 5 days of incubation at 28+/-1 degrees , both ps1 ...200818852515
host specialization in the charcoal rot fungus, macrophomina phaseolina.abstract to investigate host specialization in macrophomina phaseolina, the fungus was isolated from soybean, corn, sorghum, and cotton root tissue and soil from fields cropped continuously to these species for 15 years in st. joseph, la. chlorate phenotype of each isolate was determined after growing on a minimal medium containing 120 mm potassium chlorate. consistent differences in chlorate sensitivity were detected among isolates from different hosts and from soil versus root. to further expl ...200118944384
biocontrol potential of soybean bacterial endophytes against charcoal rot fungus, rhizoctonia bataticola.a total of 137 bacterial isolates from surface sterilized root, stem, and nodule tissues of soybean were screened for their antifungal activity against major phytopathogens like rhizoctonia bataticola, macrophomina phaseolina, fusarium udam, and sclerotium rolfsii. nine bacterial endophytes suppressed the pathogens under in vitro plate assay. these were characterized biochemically and identified at the genus level based on their partial sequence analysis of 16s rdna. eight of the isolates belong ...200919067044
antagonism of microsporum species by soil fungi.eighteen fungi isolated from soil by hair bating method were tested against soil inhabiting microsporum equinum, microsporum fulvum, microsporum gypseum and microsporum racemosum for their antagonistic interactions. colony inhibition during dual cultures showed inhibition of all the four microsporum species. the maximum inhibition of m. equinum, m. fulvum, m. gypseum and m. racemosum was caused by chrysosporium keratinophilum, chrysosporium tropicum, curvularia lunata and chrysosporium lucknowen ...201019207833
aflp analysis of genetic diversity in charcoal rot fungal populations impacted by crop rotations.the application of molecular markers enables scientists to clarify the genetic relationships among fungi who are difficult to classify or partition into sub-species using traditional morphological or physiological criteria. one such fungus is macrophomina phaseolina, a plant pathogenic soil-borne fungus that is the causative agent of charcoal rot on soybeans and 500 other plant species world-wide. this plant pathogenic fungus is a very heterogeneous species and disease population dynamics and pa ...200819226737
halogenated coumarin derivatives as novel seed protectants.development of new and improved antifungal compounds that are target-specific is backed by a strong federal, public and commercial mandate. many plant-derived chemicals have proven fungicidal properties, including the coumarins (1,2-benzopyrone) found in a variety of plants such as clover, sweet woodruff and grasses. preliminary research has shown the coumarins to be a highly active group of molecules with a wide range of antimicrobial activity against both fungi and bacteria. it is believed tha ...200819226745
effects of maturity and determinacy in soybean on host-parasite relationships of heterodera glycines.the effects of soybean maturity and determinacy on the host-parasite relationships of heterodera glycines were investigated in a field microplot study over 2 years. determinate and indeterminate isolines of the maturity group (mg) iii cultivar williams 82 and the mg v cultivar essex were grown in microplots artificially infested with a race 3 isolate of h. glycines at three initial population (pi) densities (0, 300, and 3,000 eggs/100 cm(3) soil). soybean seed yields, nematode final population ( ...200019271013
two pathogenesis-related peroxidases in greengram (vigna radiata (l.) wilczek) leaves and cultured cells induced by macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) goid. and its elicitor.an elicitor has been isolated from macrophomina phaseolina, the root rot and leaf blight pathogen of greengram. suspension-cultured cells of greengram were established which responded to the fungal elicitor. when greengram leaves were inoculated with m. phaseolina two new peroxidases appeared. similarly, two new peroxidases could be detected in suspension-cultured greengram cells when treated with the fungal elicitor. these peroxidases were purified by column chromatography and their molecular m ...200111572453
purification and molecular characterization of a sialic acid specific lectin from the phytopathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina.a lectin was isolated and purified from the culture filtrate of the plant pathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on fetuin-sepharose 4b and ion-exchange chromatography on deae-a 50. the lectin designated mpl was homogeneous by page and hplc and a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of approximately 34 kda as demonstrated by sds-page. it is a glycoprotein and agglutinated human erythrocytes regardless of the huma ...200516009354
horizontal and vertical movement of pseudomonas fluorescens toward exudate of macrophomina phaseolina in soil: influence of motility and soil properties.the role of motility and cell surface hydrophobicity in transport and dispersal of pseudomonas fluorescens strains lam1-hydrophilic, lam2-hydrophobic and lam(nm) (non-motile mutant of lam2) under different soil conditions was studied. maximum adhesion was recorded for lam2 in clay loam (70%), followed by sandy loam (68%) and sandy soil (40%). vertical migration of p fluorescens isolates in soils was recorded at 5 and 25 cm flow of wafer or m. phaseolina exudate. in all the treatments, lam1 exhib ...200212002402
interrelationships among macrophomina phaseolina, criconemella xenoplax, and tylenchorhynchus annulatus on grain sorghum.microplot experiments were established in 1992, 1993, and 1994 to investigate the relationships among macrophomina phaseolina, criconemella xenoplax, mad tylenchorhynchus annulatus on grain sorghum in louisiana. a factorial treatment arrangement of two grain sorghum hybrids (de kalb dk 50 and pioneer hybrid 8333), three levels of m. phaseolina (0, 10, and 100 colony-forming units (cfu)/g soil), and three nematode inoculum levels (0, 1x, and 2x) were used. nematode inocula at 1x levels were 929, ...199719274150
competition between tylenchorhynchus annulatus and mesocriconema xenoplax on grain sorghum as influenced by macrophomina phaseolina.greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine competition between tylenchorhynchus annulatus and mesocriconema xenoplax on grain sorghum roots that were colonized by the fungus macrophomina phaseolina or free from fungus colonization. an incomplete factorial treatment design consisted of two levels of m. phaseolina (0 or 10 colony-forming units/g soil) and 12 t. annulatus:m. xenoplax ratios: 1,000:0; 750:0; 500:0; 250:0; 0:0; 0:250; 0:500; 0:750; 0:1,000; 750:250; 500:500; and 250:750. plants ...199819274235
soybean planting date and maturity effects on heterodera glycines and macrophomina phaseolina in southeastern kansas.heterodera glycines reproduction and damage potential were evaluated for h. glycines-resistant and -susceptible soybean cultivars from maturity groups (mg) iii, iv, and v on two planting dates in each of two years (1990-1991). infection by h. glycines reduced yields of late-planted susceptible cultivars to a lesser degree than early planted cultivars in 1990 but not in 1991. the mg v susceptible cultivar yielded better than earlier-maturing susceptible cultivars even when yields of resistant cul ...199319279832
interactions of heterodera glycines, macrophomina phaseolina, and mycorrhizal fungi on soybean in kansas.the impact of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on soybean growth and their interaction with heterodera glycines were evaluated in nematode-infested and uninfested fields in kansas. ten soybean cultivars from maturity groups iii-v with differential susceptibility to h. glycines were treated with the fungicide benomyl to suppress colonization by naturally occurring mycorrhizal fungi and compared with untreated control plots. in h. glycines-infested soil, susceptible cultivars exhib ...199419279947
effect of heterodera glycines on charcoal rot severity in soybean cultivars resistant and susceptible to soybean cyst nematode.field experiments were conducted in two soil types in northeastern kansas to evaluate the influence of heterodera glycines on the severity of charcoal rot in group iii soybean cultivars resistant and susceptible to soybean cyst nematode race 3. resistant cultivars asgrow 3307 and fayette and susceptible cultivars asgrow 3127, harper, pella, sprite, and williams 82 were planted in carbofuran-treated and nontreated plots. heterodera glycines and the charcoal rot fungus, macrophomina phaseolina, we ...198719290272
cutaneous infection caused by macrophomina phaseolina in a child with acute myeloid leukemia.we report a case of macrophomina phaseolina skin infection in an immunocompromised child with acute myeloid leukemia, which was treated successfully with posaconazole without recurrence after a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. the fungus was identified by dna sequencing using both the internal transcribed spacer and d1/d2 region of the 28s ribosomal dna gene.200919386841
antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane extracts of three chenopodium species against macrophomina phaseolina.antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane leaf, stem, root and inflorescence extracts (1, 2, 3 and 4% w/v) of three chenopodium species (family chenopodiaceae) namely chenopodium album l., chenopodium murale l. and chenopodium ambrosioides l. was investigated against macrophomina phaseolina (tassi) g. goid., a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen that has a broad host range and wide geographical distribution. all the extracts of the three chenopodium species significantly suppressed the test fung ...200919662577
relatedness of macrophomina phaseolina isolates from tallgrass prairie, maize, soybean and sorghum.agricultural and wild ecosystems may interact through shared pathogens such as macrophomina phaseolina, a generalist clonal fungus with more than 284 plant hosts that is likely to become more important under climate change scenarios of increased heat and drought stress. to evaluate the degree of subdivision in populations of m. phaseolina in kansas agriculture and wildlands, we compared 143 isolates from maize fields adjacent to tallgrass prairie, nearby sorghum fields, widely dispersed soybean ...201019943894
antifungal activity of 4'-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3'-butene-2'-ketoxime n-o-alkyl ethers.a number of 4'-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3'-butene-2'-ketoxime n-o-alkyl ethers were prepared, separated into their e and z isomers, and characterized on the basis of (1)h nmr and mass spectroscopy. these compounds were tested in vitro for antifungal activity against four important phytopathogenic fungi, namely, sclerotium rolfsii , rhizoctonia bataticola , macrophomina phaseolina , and sclerotinia sclerotiorum . e isomers of 4'-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3'-butene-2'-ketoxime ...201020038099
effect of indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) produced by pseudomonas aeruginosa in suppression of charcoal rot disease of chickpea.the production of indole-3-acetic acid (iaa), by rhizobacteria, has been associated with plant growth promotion, especially root initiation and elongation. isolate to3 selected from 103 fluorescent pseudomonads, identified as pseudomonas aeruginosa, showed maximum production of iaa. isolate to3 having biocontrol activity against macrophomina phaseolina also showed production of siderophore and hcn was used to screen the role of bacterial iaa in reducing the level of charcoal rot disease occurren ...201020049597
new insights in trichoderma harzianum antagonism of fungal plant pathogens by secreted protein analysis.trichoderma harzianum all42 were capable of overgrowing and degrading rhizoctonia solani and macrophomina phaseolina mycelia, coiling around the hyphae with formation of apressoria and hook-like structures. hyphae of t. harzianum all42 did not show any coiling around fusarium sp. hyphae suggesting that mycoparasitism may be different among the plant pathogens. in this study, a secretome analysis was used to identify some extracellular proteins secreted by t. harzianum all42 after growth on cell ...201020213103
variability of united states isolates of macrophomina phaseolina based on simple sequence repeats and cross genus transferability to related genera within botryosphaeriaceae.twelve simple sequence repeat (ssrs) loci were used to evaluate genetic diversity of 109 isolates of macrophomina phaseolina collected from different geographical regions and host species throughout the united states (us). genetic diversity was assessed using nei's minimum genetic distance, and the usefulness of each locus was determined by calculating the polymorphism information content (pic). a total of 98 alleles were detected and of these 31 were unique to individual genotypes. eight of twe ...201020352493
characterization of pseudomonas aeruginosa rm-3 as a potential biocontrol agent.molecular characterization of rhizobacterial isolate rm-3, based on sequencing of a partial 1,313-bp fragment of 16s rdna amplicon, validated the strain as pseudomonas aeruginosa. the strain showed significant growth inhibition of different phytopathogenic fungi in dual plate and liquid culture assays. maximum growth inhibition was found in case of macrophomina phaseolina in plate assay (68%), whereas it was 93% in dreschlera graminae in dual liquid assay. microscopic studies (light and scanning ...201020446042
xanthine oxidase/tyrosinase inhibiting, antioxidant, and antifungal oxindole alkaloids from isatis costata.phytochemical investigations on the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the whole plant of isatis costata linn. (brassicaseae) led to the isolation of the oxindole alkaloids costinones a (1), b (2), isatinones a (3), b (4), indirubin (5), and trisindoline (6). compounds 1-6 displayed significant to moderate inhibition against xanthine oxidase enzyme with ic50 values ranging from 90.3+/-0.06 to 179.6+/-0.04 microm, whereas the standard inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (allopurinol) had an ic(50) value ...201020645747
response of soybean pathogens to glyceollin.plants recognize invading pathogens and respond biochemically to prevent invasion or inhibit colonization in plant cells. enhancing this response in crop plants could improve sustainable methods to manage plant diseases. to enhance disease resistance in soybean, the soybean phytoalexin glyceollin was assessed in soybean hairy roots of two soybean genotypes, spencer and pi 567374, transformed with either soybean isoflavone synthase (ifs2) or chalcone synthase (chs6) genes that were inoculated wit ...201020701487
a six locus phylogeny reveals high species diversity in botryosphaeriaceae from california almond.botryosphaeriaceae are important pathogens on a variety of woody hosts, including almond, a major crop in california. almond is susceptible to botryosphaeria dothidea that forms band cankers on almond trunks, and the same fungus was also isolated from cankers of the canopy. to study the diversity and host range of b. dothidea and allied species from almond we used 132 isolates from 36 plant hosts from five continents, including 45 strains from almond in california. species were identified by com ...201020943551
antifungal activity of flavonoids isolated from mango (mangifera indica l.) leaves.five flavonoids, namely (-)-epicatechin-3-o-β-glucopyranoside (1), 5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxylphenyl)pyrano[3,2-g]chromene-4(8h)-one (2), 6-(p-hydroxybenzyl)taxifolin-7-o-β-d-glucoside (tricuspid) (3), quercetin-3-o-α-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (4) and (-)-epicatechin(2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2h-chromene-3,5,7-triol (5), were isolated from the leaves of mango (mangifera indica l.). antifungal activity of these compounds was evaluated against five fungal species, namely alt ...201021108117
quantitative real-time pcr assay for rapid detection of plant and human pathogenic macrophomina phaseolina from field and environmental samples.a real-time qpcr assay was developed to detect and quantify macrophomina phaseolina abundance in rhizosphere soil and plant tissue. both taqman and sybr green techniques were targeted on ~ 1 kb sequence characterized amplified region (scar) of m. phaseolina and two sets of specific primers were designed for sybr green (mpsyk) and taqman (mptqk) assays. no cross-hybridization and no fluorescent signal exceeding the baseline threshold was observed in taqman and sybr green assays, respectively. the ...201021186328
genic snp markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying qtl for macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [vigna unguiculata (l) walp.].macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. an increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. in cowpea [vigna unguiculata (l) walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. in this study we report ...201121208448
suppression of charcoal rot of chickpea by fluorescent pseudomonas under saline stress condition.the ability of fluorescent pseudomonas strain eki, in production of biocontrol and plant growth promotory (pgp) metabolites under saline stress was evaluated. strain eki could tolerate nacl up to 1,550 mm and showed biocontrol of macrophomina phaseolina (76.19%) in the presence of up to 400 mm nacl. strain eki was able to produce iaa, siderophore and pyocyanin with gradual reduction of up to 76.31, 45.46, and 48.99%, respectively, as nacl concentration increased from 0 to 500 mm. reduced growth ...201121331555
glyceollin, a soybean phytoalexin with medicinal properties.this review covers the biosynthesis of glyceollin and its biological activities including antiproliferative/antitumor action (toward b16 melanoma cells, lncap prostate cancer cells, and bg-1 ovarian cancer cells), anti-estrogenic action (through estrogen receptors a- and ß-), antibacterial action (toward erwinia carotovora, escherichia coli, bradyrhizobium japonicum, sinorhizobium fredii ), antinematode activity, and antifungal activity (toward fusarium solani, phakospora pachyrhizi, diaporthe p ...201121336922
metabolites of the fungistatic agent 2+¦-methoxyclovan-9+¦-ol by macrophomina phaseolina.biotransformation of 2+¦-methoxyclovan-9+¦-ol (1), a fungistatic agent against botrytis cinerea, was investigated with macrophomina phaseolina. demethoxylation, regioselective oxidation at c-9 and c-13, and inversion of the configuration at c-9 of compound 1 afforded six oxidative metabolites, 2+¦-methoxyclovan-9-one (2), clovan-2+¦,9+¦-diol (3), clovan-2+¦,9+¦-diol (4), clovan-2+¦,13-diol-9-one (5), 2+¦-methoxyclovan-9+¦,13-diol (6), and clovan-2+¦,9+¦,13-triol (7). compounds 5-7 are described ...201121391597
physiologically stressed cells of fluorescent pseudomonas eki as better option for bioformulation development for management of charcoal rot caused by macrophomina phaseolina in field conditions.bioformulation that supports the inoculant under storage condition and on application to field is of prime importance for agroindustry. pseudomonas strain eki having biocontrol activity against macrophomina phaseolina was used in the study. eki cells were pretreated by carbon starvation, osmotic stress (nacl), and freeze drying conditions, and talc-based bioformulation was developed. combined pretreatment with carbon starvation and osmotic stress was given to pseudomonas cells. bioformulation of ...201121479797
scorpion toxins modify phytopathogenic fungus physiology. a possible source of new fungicides.seven toxins (f1-f7) were purified from tityus discrepans scorpion venom on a c18 hplc column. the compounds were fungitoxic on macrophomina phaseolina . the molecular masses of f1-f7 were (da) 1061.1, 7328.8, 7288.3, 7268.5, 7104.6, 6924.6, and 6823.3, respectively. it is not known if f1 is a small peptide or some other kind of organic molecule. compounds f2-f7 were peptides. the most potent was f7, with a minimal inhibition concentration of 0.4 μg/μl and a concentration for 50% inhibition of 0 ...201121510675
opportunistic invasive fungal pathogen macrophomina phaseolina prognosis from immunocompromised humans to potential mitogenic rbl with an exceptional and novel antitumor and cytotoxic effect.with the ever-increasing risk for fungal infections, one can no longer ignore fungi. it is imperative that clinical manifestations "presume fungus" with their epidemiologic and pathogenic features when evaluating a potentially infected patient. in the high-risk patient groups, fungi with intrinsic resistance to antifungal agents already exist, with a tendency to emerge as opportunistic pathogens. one of the smart pathogens is macrophomina phaseolina, with the potential to disarm plant, animal, a ...201121553299
microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (macrophomina phaseolina).microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus (macrophomina phaseolina). primer pairs for 46 loci were developed, and of these, 13 were optimized and screened using genomic dna from 55 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in mississippi. twelve of the optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 22. these microsatellites will be useful in population and pathogenicity studies to correspond with development of po ...200921564800
biotransformation of dehydroepiandrosterone with macrophomina phaseolina and ß-glucuronidase inhibitory activity of transformed products.the biotransformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (1) with macrophomina phaseolina was investigated. a total of eight metabolites were obtained which were characterized as androstane-3,17-dione (2), androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (3), androst-4-ene-17ß-ol-3-one (4), androst-4,6-diene-17ß-ol-3-one (5), androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (6), androst-4-ene-3ß-ol-6,17-dione (7), androst-4-ene-3ß,7ß,17ß-triol (8), and androst-5-ene-3ß,7a,17ß-triol (9). all the transformed products were screened for enzyme inhibition ...201121774747
biotransformation of (20s)-20-hydroxymethylpregna-1,4-dien-3-one by four filamentous fungi.microbial transformation of (20s)-20-hydroxymethylpregna-1,4-dien-3-one (1) by four filamentous fungi, cunninghamella elegans, macrophomina phaseolina, rhizopus stolonifer, and gibberella fujikuroi, afforded nine new, and two known metabolites 2-12. the structures of these metabolites were characterized through detailed spectroscopic analysis. these metabolites were obtained as a result of biohydroxylation of 1 at c-6ß, -7ß, -11a, -14a, -15ß, -16ß, and -17a positions, except metabolite 2 which c ...201121762714
isolation and purification of fungal pathogen (macrophomina phaseolina) induced chitinase from moth beans (phaseolus aconitifolius).chitinase (ec 3.2.1.14) is one of the major pathogenesis-related proteins, which is a polypeptide that accumulates extracellularly in infected plant tissue. an attempt was made to isolate and purify the chitanase enzyme using moth beans as an enzyme source.201021814429
plant growth-promotion (pgp) activities and molecular characterization of rhizobacterial strains isolated from soybean (glycine max l. merril) plants against charcoal rot pathogen, macrophomina phaseolina.charcoal rot disease, caused by the fungus macrophomina phaseolina, leads to significant yield losses of soybean crops. one strategy to control charcoal rot is the use of antagonistic, root-colonizing bacteria. rhizobacteria a(5)f and fpt(7)21 and pseudomonas sp. strain grp(3) were characterized for their plant growth-promotion activities against the pathogen. rhizobacterium fpt(7)21 exhibited higher antagonistic activity against the pathogen on dual plate assay compared to strain a(5)f and grp( ...201121833548
genetic diversity and effect of temperature and ph on the growth of macrophomina phaseolina isolates from sunflower fields in hungary.the effects of temperature and ph on the growth of 45 hungarian macrophomina phaseolina isolates from different locations and hosts were compared on the basis of their genetic diversity. one spanish and two serbian isolates were also included in the experiment. the most favourable temperature regimes for the development of the isolates ranged between 25 and 35-¦c. the optimal ph for the pathogen varied between 4.0 and 6.0, but growth was observed on potato dextrose agar even at ph values of 3.0, ...201121695429
the synthetic strigolactone gr24 influences the growth pattern of phytopathogenic fungi.strigolactones that are released by plant roots to the rhizosphere are involved in both plant symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and in plant infection by root parasitic plants. in this paper, we describe the response of various phytopathogenic fungi to the synthetic strigolactone gr24. when gr24 was embedded in the growth medium, it inhibited the growth of the root pathogens fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, fusarium solani f. sp. mango, sclerotinia sclerotiorum and macrophomina phase ...201121688170
detection of double stranded rna in phytopathogenic macrophomina phaseolina causing charcoal rot in cyamopsis tetragonoloba.one hundred one isolates of macrophomina phaseolina from various hosts and eco-geographical locations were employed for elucidating relationships among genetic diversity and virulence. highly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic, and hypovirulent cluster bean specific isolates were identified. in order to correlate respective phenotypes of plant pathogenic fungus multiple and complex patterns of dsrna elements were analyzed. double-stranded ribonucleic acids (dsrna) are ubiquitous in all major grou ...201121695431
dual activity of pyocyanin from pseudomonas aeruginosa--antibiotic against phytopathogen and signal molecule for biofilm development by rhizobia.the purified pyocyanin from pseudomonas aeruginosa to3 was investigated for its antagonistic activity against macrophomina phaseolina and as a signaling molecule for development of biofilm by rhizobial strain ca2. the antagonistic activity of purified pyocyanin, as determined by a dry mass method, showed inhibition of m. phaseolina. biofilm formation by strain ca2 was performed by crystal violet assay. there was an increase in biofilm development by ca2 with an increase in pyocyanin concentratio ...201121851321
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