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characterization of two new serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus.two new virus isolates, one from a california sea lion (zalophus californianus californianus) and the other from a northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) were partially characterized. their physicochemical characteristics were similar to those of vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv). the virion morphology was in both instances typically calicivirus. on the basis of this and the serum cross-neutralization testing, these isolates were classed as two new t ...197767101
isolation of san miguel sea lion virus from samples of an animal food product produced from northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus) carcasses.a virus was isolated from california sea lions (zalophus californianus californianus) and northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) in 1972. it was later named san miguel sea lion virus (smsv). state and federal livestock disease control agencies became concerned, because smsv was found to be indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema of swine virus and to cause (in laboratory trials) clinical signs in swine similar to those produced by vesicular exanthema of swine virus. ground carcasses of nort ...1978629435
vesicular exanthema of swine.vesicular exanthema of swine (ves) was first recognized in 1932. at the time, eradication measures and, later, quarantine procedures were instituted and extension of the disease to surrounding farms appeared to have been prevented. between 1932 and 1936, however, seemingly unrelated epizootics continued among swine herds being fed raw garbage. in 1936, ves disappeared only to reappear in 1939. the disease was contained within california until 1952, at which time it spread to all the major swine ...1976786969
vesicular exanthema of swine and san miguel sea lion virus.san miguel sea lion virus (smsv), recently isolated from marine mammals, and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv), which caused epizootics of vesicular exanthema of swine (ves) over a period of 24 years (1932 to 1956), may be the same virus. this finding is of particular interest because the source of the original ves epizootic was never identified, swine were the only known natural host of vesv, and vesv was thought to have been eradicated. the smsv has been shown to be enzootic in 2 speci ...1976786970
premature parturition in the california sea lion.twenty percent of the california sea lion pups born on san miguel island die due to premature parturition. specimens collected from premature-partus animals resulted in recovery of a virus, san miguel sea lion virus, indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema of swine virus, and leptospira pomona from some of the premature cows and pups. the age range of 10 females delivering healthy pups in june was 10-14 years. with one exception, the ages in 10 aborting females was 6-8 years. the p,p'-dde le ...1976815567
vesicular exanthema of swine virus: isolation and serotyping of field samples.virus isolation was attempted from 262 field samples of vesicular material collected during the outbreaks of vesicular exanthema of swine in the u.s.a. from 1952-54. using primary swine kidney culture, viral cytopathogenic agents were isolated from 76.3% of the samples. however, an overall recovery rate of 82.1% was obtained after samples negative in tissue culture were inoculated intradermally in susceptible swine. all vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolates were identified as serotype b51 ...19873651889
the influence of cations on the thermal inactivation of vesicular exanthema of swine virus. 19674299736
san miguel sea lion virus isolation, preliminary characterization and relationship to vesicular exanthema of swine virus. 19734583480
electron microscopic studies on the vesicular exanthema of swine virus. ii. morphogenesis of vesv type h54 in pig kidney cells. 19684870390
electron microscopic studies on vesicular exanthema of swine virus: intracytoplasmic viral crystal formation in cultured pig kidney cells. 19685646003
rotavirus-like, calicivirus-like, and 23-nm virus-like particles associated with diarrhea in young pigs.virus particles morphologically similar to caliciviruses and rotaviruses were detected by electron microscopy (em) in the intestinal contents of a 27-day-old diarrheic nursing pig. a third small spherical 23-nm virus-like particle was also observed. calicivirus-like particles averaged 33 nm in diameter. similar to rotaviruses, rotavirus-like particles were present as single-capsid 55-nm forms or double-capsid 70-nm particles. most gnotobiotic pigs orally exposed to samples containing these three ...19806252238
experimental vesicular exanthema of swine virus and san miguel sea lion virus infection in phocid seals. 19826283712
vesicular exanthema of swine and san miguel sea lion virus: experimental and field studies in otarid seals, feeding trials in swine.the naturally occurring disease caused by san miguel sea lion virus in fur seals was characterized by small fluid-filled vesicles 1 to 25 mm in diameter on the nonhaired portions of the flippers. early epithelial lesions contained multifocal sites of cell lysis. the resultant microvesicles enlarged and coalesced, forming grossly visible macrovesicles. mature vesicles progressed to involve all layers of the epithelium but did not involve the underlying dermis. intradermal inoculation of vesicular ...19826283713
detection of swine caliciviruses by indirect immunofluorescence.the indirect immunofluorescence test is a rapid method for detecting the presence of vesicular exanthema of swine virus or san miguel sea lion virus in cell culture. a serological relationship exists between vesicular exanthema of swine virus and san miguel sea lion virus, as shown by the fluorescence-positive reactions between swine antisera to vesicular exanthema of swine virus a48 and san miguel sea lion virus type 5 and cell cultures infected with san miguel sea lion virus types 1, 2, 3, 4 a ...19806994862
isolation of caliciviruses from skunks that are antigenically and genotypically related to san miguel sea lion virus.caliciviruses were isolated from feces of skunks imported from the north central united states to canada. virus isolation was accomplished using adenovirus-transformed human kidney (293) cells, swine testes and vero cells. plaque size variants were presented, but there was no apparent difference in virus morphology by negative stain or immune electron microscopy. pigs infected with skunk calicivirus had a slightly elevated body temperature at 3 days postinfection. although the infected animals s ...19957483817
phylogenetic analysis of the caliciviruses.a phylogenetic portrait of the genus calicivirus in the family caliciviridae was developed based upon published sequences and newly characterized calicivirus (cv) strains, including additional sapporo-like hucv strains in pediatric diarrhea stool specimens from south africa, the united kingdom, and the united states. distance and parsimony methods were applied to nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human and animal calicivirus 3d rna-dependent rna polymerase (approximately 470nt) and capsid h ...19979260691
the capsid protein of vesicular exanthema of swine virus serotype a48: relationship to the capsid protein of other animal caliciviruses.vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv), the prototype calicivirus, is the etiologic agent of the porcine disease vesicular exanthema of swine (ves). ves is characterized by vesicle formation on the extremities, mouth and snout and causes abortions and stillbirths if infection occurs during pregnancy. vesv is considered an exotic agent in the us, following its eradication in 1956. the single capsid protein gene of vesv serotype a48 was cloned and sequenced. the capsid amino acid sequence was 6 ...19989660070
development of a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction procedure for the detection of marine caliciviruses with potential application for nucleotide sequencing.a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) procedure is described for the detection of marine caliciviruses including vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv), san miguel sea lion virus (smsv), bovine tillamook virus (bcv bos-1) and caliciviruses (cv) isolated from dolphin (cetacean cv), gorilla (primate cv) and rattlesnake (reptile cv) using primers (1f and 1r) designed from the capsid-coding region of the viral genome. these primers were compared with those described by neill, ...199910507417
complete nucleotide sequence, genome organization and phylogenic analysis of the canine calicivirus.the complete genomic sequence of canine calicivirus (cacv) isolated from feces of a dog with diarrhea was determined. the cacv genome, a positive-sense single-stranded rna, contained 8513 nucleotides excluding the poly(a) tail and was longer than that of any other calicivirus strain with a completely known sequence. there were three open reading frames (orf1, nt 12-5801; orf2, nt 5805-7880; and orf3, nt 7877-8278). orf1 encoded a polyprotein (calculated mr of 214,802) which had the conserved mot ...200212206310
broad-spectrum virus reduction in red cell concentrates using inactine pen110 chemistry.the risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens by transfusion is a persistent problem in medicine. to address this safety issue, inactine pen110 chemistry is being utilized to develop a process for preparing pathogen-reduced red blood cell concentrates (rbcc). the purpose of this study was to characterize the virucidal effectiveness of the inactine pen110 chemistry in full units of rbcc by using a panel of viruses with diverse properties in composition, size and shape.200212437518
the cellular changes produced by two variants within type e54 of vesicular exanthema of swine virus in tissue culture. 196113903422
prevalence and distribution of four serotypes of smsv serum neutralizing antibodies in wild animal populations.serum neutralizing antibodies to four serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) were demonstrated in a variety of marine and terrestrial species. these results show a wide geographic distribution of sms viruses in the marine environment and indicate that certain terrestrial mammals have been infected with these so-called marine viruses. evidence is presented supporting the theory that unidentified submammalian marine species are a reservoir for smsv.197616498871
detection and serotype-specific differentiation of vesicular stomatitis virus using a multiplex, real-time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay.a multiplex, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) assay was developed that allowed simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation of vesicular stomatitis virus strains--new jersey (vsv-nj) and indiana 1, 2, and 3 (vsv-in1-3). this assay involves use of a set of vsv universal primers located in the l gene that amplify vsv-in1-3 and vsv-nj using probes that allow differentiation of the major serotypes indiana and new jersey. the assay was evaluated using reference v ...200616617693
development of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of marine caliciviruses (genus vesivirus).marine caliciviruses form a distinct lineage within the genus vesivirus (family caliciviridae). this group includes vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) and other related viruses which have been proposed to be marine in origin isolated from a variety of terrestrial and marine animals. rapid and reliable detection of marine caliciviruses is important as these viruses appear to be widespread and can cause vesicular disease in a wide variety of susceptible ...200717187870
bile acids promote the expression of hepatitis c virus in replicon-harboring cells.hepatitis c virus (hcv) is a cause of chronic liver disease, with more than 170 million persistently infected individuals worldwide. although the combination therapy of alpha interferon (ifn-alpha) and ribavirin is effective for chronic hcv infection, around half of all patients infected with hcv genotype 1 fail to show sustained virologic responses and remain chronically infected. previously, we demonstrated that bile acids were essential for growth of porcine enteric calicivirus in cell cultur ...200717609266
diagnostic evaluation of multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr microsphere array assay for detection of foot-and-mouth and look-alike disease viruses.a high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) from viruses that cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. this assay simultaneously screens for five rna and two dna viruses by using multiplexed reverse transcription-pcr (mrt-pcr) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. two of the 17 primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from prev ...200818216216
microarray-based detection of viruses causing vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals.definitive diagnosis of vesicular or vesicular-like lesions in livestock animals presents challenges both for veterinary clinicians and diagnostic laboratories. it is often impossible to diagnose the causative disease agent on a clinical basis alone and difficult to collect ample vesicular epithelium samples. due to restrictions of time and sample size, once laboratory tests have ruled out foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease a definitive diagnosis may remain ...200918621489
the development of a rapid sybr one step real-time rt-pcr for detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.prompt detection of prrsv in the field samples is important for effective prrs control, thereby reducing the potentially serious economic damage which can result from an outbreak. in this study, a rapid sybr-based, one step real-time rt-pcr quantitative reverse transcription pcr (qrt-pcr) has been developed for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (prrsv). primers were designed based on the sequence of highly conservative region of prrsv n gene.201020459705
a simple and rapid colloidal gold-based immunochromatogarpic strip test for detection of fmdv serotype a.a sandwich format immunochromatographic assay for detecting foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes was developed. in this rapid test, affinity purified polyclonal antibodies from guinea pigs which were immunized with sucking-mouse adapted fmd virus (a/av88(l) strain) were conjugated to colloidal gold beads and used as the capture antibody, and affinity purified polyclonal antibodies from rabbits which were immunized with cell-culture adapted fmd virus (a/cha/09 strain) were used as detect ...201121331888
genomic characterization of novel marine vesiviruses from steller sea lions (eumetopias jubatus) from alaska.marine vesiviruses were isolated in cell culture from oral and rectal swabs and vesicular fluid from alaskan steller sea lions (ssl; eumetopias jubatus). further characterization by rt-pcr, complete genomic sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these viruses are most closely related to the marine vesiviruses, but are distinct viruses and represent two novel genotypes. the complete genome of these two ssl isolates was sequenced after cloning their viral cdna. the genomes were found ...200818765261
insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase pcr (iirt-pcr) for rapid and sensitive detection of classical swine fever virus.classical swine fever (csf) is an oie-listed disease that can have a severe impact on the swine industry. user-friendly, sensitive, rapid diagnostic tests that utilize low-cost field-deployable instruments for csf diagnosis can be useful for disease surveillance and outbreak monitoring. in this study, we describe validation of a new probe-based insulated isothermal reverse transcriptase pcr (iirt-pcr) assay for rapid detection of classical swine fever virus (csfv) on a compact, user-friendly dev ...201625644051
a universal protocol to generate consensus level genome sequences for foot-and-mouth disease virus and other positive-sense polyadenylated rna viruses using the illumina miseq.next-generation sequencing (ngs) is revolutionizing molecular epidemiology by providing new approaches to undertake whole genome sequencing (wgs) in diagnostic settings for a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. previous sequencing protocols have been subject to biases such as those encountered during pcr amplification and cell culture, or are restricted by the need for large quantities of starting material. we describe here a simple and robust methodology for the generation of whole genom ...201425269623
the first identification and complete genome of senecavirus a affecting pig with idiopathic vesicular disease in china.senecavirus a (sva) infection was recently confirmed in pigs in brazil. in march, 2015, an outbreak of vesicular disease occurred in guangdong, china, characterized by vesicular lesions in sows and acute death of neonatal piglets. cumulative incidence of porcine idiopathic vesicular disease in farm a was 258, which had a total number of 5500 sows. sows in farm b displayed typical vesicular symptoms by may, 2015, which also had 5500 sows. a total of 278 and 142 of 5500 sows in farm b demonstrated ...201627539949
development and evaluation of multiplex rt-lamp assays for rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.this paper describes the evaluation of four novel real-time multiplex reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assays for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). in order to overcome the genetic diversity of fmd viruses (fmdv), these multiplex rt-lamp assay pairs were established by combining four newly designed primer sets with two primer sets that had been previously published. using a real-time turbidimeter to detect amplification products ...201323583488
x-ray structure of a native calicivirus: structural insights into antigenic diversity and host specificity.caliciviruses, grouped into four genera, are important human and veterinary pathogens with a potential for zoonosis. in these viruses, capsid-related functions such as assembly, antigenicity, and receptor interactions are predominantly encoded in a single protein that forms an icosahedral capsid. understanding of the immunologic functions and pathogenesis of human caliciviruses in the norovirus and sapovirus genera is hampered by the lack of a cell culture system or animal models. much of our un ...200616702551
the complete genome sequence of the san miguel sea lion virus-8 reveals that it is not a member of the vesicular exanthema of swine virus/san miguel sea lion virus species of the caliciviridae.the complete genome sequence of the san miguel sea lion virus-8 (smsv-8) was determined in this study. a comparison of this sequence to other calicivirus sequences in genbank showed that this virus is genetically distinct from the vesicular exanthema of swine virus/san miguel sea lion virus (vesv/smsv) strains and belongs to a novel clade within the vesivirus genus.201425502676
crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of san miguel sea lion virus: an animal calicivirus.the caliciviridae is a family of nonenveloped, icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded rna viruses. this family of viruses consists of both animal and human pathogens. adapting human caliciviruses to cell culture has not been successful, whereas some animal caliciviruses, including san miguel sea lion virus, have been successfully propagated in vitro. here we report the crystallization of san miguel sea lion virus serotype 4 (smsv4) and the preliminary x-ray crystallographic analysis of the ...200312615540
detection of vesicular exanthema of swine-like calicivirus in tissues from a naturally infected spontaneously aborted bovine fetus. 200211860239
taxonomy of the caliciviruses.the international committee on taxonomy of viruses (ictv) has recently approved several proposals submitted by the present caliciviridae study group. these proposals include the division of the family into 4 new genera designated lagovirus, vesivirus, "norwalk-like viruses (nlvs), and "sapporo-like viruses (slvs); the latter 2 genera were assigned temporary names until acceptable names can be determined by the scientific community. the genera have been further divided into the following species: ...200010804145
caliciviruses: an overview.several caliciviruses are known to cause diseases in animal and man. amongst them are vesicular exanthema virus of swine (vesv), feline calicivirus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (rhdv), and norwalk and sapporo-like viruses; the latter viruses cause gastroenteritis in man. in this paper, an overview of caliciviruses is presented, with particular emphasis on the molecular aspects. the unique properties as compared to other related families of positive-stranded rna viruses will be discussed. ma ...199910515270
mapping the genetic determinants of pathogenicity and plaque phenotype in swine vesicular disease virus.a series of recombinant viruses were constructed using infectious cdna clones of the virulent j1'73 (large plaque phenotype) and the avirulent h/3'76 (small plaque phenotype) strains of swine vesicular disease virus to identify the genetic determinants of pathogenicity and plaque phenotype. both traits could be mapped to the region between nucleotides (nt) 2233 and 3368 corresponding to the c terminus of vp3, the whole of vp1, and the n terminus of 2a. in this region, there are eight nucleotide ...199910074117
viral serologic survey of bowhead whales in alaska.serum samples from 21 of 36 eskimo harvested bowhead whales (balaena mysticetus) were positive by virus neutralization (50% endpoint titer > or = 1:28 and/or 100% endpoint titer > or = 1:20) for antibodies to at least one virus serotype from the calicivirus family, vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv). many animals were positive to more than one serotype when using the spearman-karber (s-k) method for calculating antibody titers. the most common serotype ...19989476224
[campaign against swine vesicular disease]. 19948009538
genetic relatedness of the caliciviruses: san miguel sea lion and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses constitute a single genotype within the caliciviridae.the san miguel sea lion viruses (smsv) and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses (vesv) are related morphologically and antigenically, but little has been done to determine their genotypic relationship to each other and to other caliciviruses. to examine this relationship, reverse transcriptase pcrs were performed by using oligonucleotide primer sets designed to amplify portions of the 2c rna helicase-like and rna-dependent rna polymerase regions with total cellular rna purified from virus-infect ...19957769708
development of pcr primers for specific amplification of two distinct regions of the genomes of san miguel sea-lion and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses.the san miguel sea-lion viruses (smsv) and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses (vesv) are members of the calicivirus family and aetiologic agents of vesicular disease in susceptible hosts. these two virus groups have been shown by several serological methods to be closely related antigenically. to further examine their relatedness, two sets of non-degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed for the specific amplification of two distinct regions of the smsv and vesv genomes using a reverse ...19957760857
analysis of the serologic relationship among san miguel sea lion virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolates. application of the western blot assay for detection of antibodies in swine sera to these virus types.caliciviruses are positive-sense single-stranded rna viruses with a single capsid protein. the serotypes of the marine mammal calicivirus, san miguel sea lion virus (smsv), are antigenically related to vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and are potentially hazardous to swine. western blot assays using purified smsv serotypes 1 and 4 were used to further examine the serologic relationship among smsv and vesv isolates. with the exception of smsv 8 and smsv 12, rabbit polyclonal antisera gen ...19957619900
the pathogenesis of vesicular exanthema of swine virus and san miguel sea lion virus in swine.vesicular exanthema of swine virus type a48 or san miguel sea lion virus type 2, when inoculated intradermally into swine, resulted in fluid-filled vesicles at the sites of inoculation in the snout, coronary band, and tongue. pigs that developed vesicles also had fevers. secondary vesicle formation varied, depending on virus serotype. viremia was found in one pig infected with san miguel sea lion virus five days after infection. virus was recovered from nasal-oral passages for up to five days af ...19826283714
naturally occurring picornavirus infection of domestic mink.the isolation and preliminary characterization of a virus from domestic mink- are reported. the virus was tentatively classified as a member of the family picornaviridae on the basis of its physicochemical properties. the mink virus was not neutralized by antiserum to some known members of the calicivirus genus, which included the nine serotypes of vesicular exanthema of swine virus, ten serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus and feline calicivirus. seroepidemiological studies indicated that the ...19806256041
development of plaque assay for vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) under methyl cellulose overlay. 19675628589
a study of the cellular pathogenesis of vesicular exanthema of swine virus in pig kidney cells. 19674165635
biochemical and biophysical properties of vesicular exanthema of swine virus. 19714105255
assay of antibodies to caliciviruses by radioimmune precipitation using staphylococcal protein a as igg adsorbent.a radioimmune assay method designated st-rip using a staphylococcal igg adsorbent, which potentially has broad applications to viral (and nonviral) antigen-antibody systems, was applied to detection of calicivirus antibodies. purified 125i-labeled virions of san miguel sea lion virus serotypes 4 (smsv-4) and 5 (smsv 5) were incubated with sera; the immune complexes were reacted with an immunoadsorbent, formaldehyde-fixed staphylococci (staphylococcus aureus protein a producer, strain cowan i), a ...1978678121
prevalence of vesicular exanthema of swine antibodies among feral mammals associated with the southern california coastal zones.serum-neutralizing antibodies to both vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) were found in a number of animal species having an association with the southern california coastal zones. california sea lions (zalophus californianus) had antibodies to 9 vesv types (a48, c52, d53, e54, f54, g55, i55, j56, and k56). fur seals (callorhinus ursinus) and elephant seal pups (mirounga angustirostris) were tested for antibodies to 6 vesv types and all were negative. c ...1978629463
comparative resistance of san miguel sea lion virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus to chemical disinfectants.two similar calici agents, san miguel sea lion virus (smsv) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) are susceptible to the virucidal activity of disinfectants of differing formulation. ten of 12 compounds were effective against six log10 plaque forming units (pfu) of smsv in a 2-min exposure at 4, 25 and 37 degrees c. however, only seven of these 10 smsv-positive compounds inactivated vesv under the same conditions of temperature and time. two compounds were not effective against smsv in a ...1978568301
immunoelectron microscopic comparisons of caliciviruses.using immunoelectron microscopy, 9 serotypes of vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) were compared with 5 serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus and 7 additional calicivirus isolates from marine animals. in addition, swine caliciviruses and marine caliciviruses were compared with the vaccinal strain of feline calicivirus (fcv) f-9. of 9 vesv types, 8 showed common antigenicity with san miguel sea lion virus. of 9 vesv types, 2 showed common antigenicity with fcv f-9. all 12 marine calicivir ...1978567950
rna synthesized in calicivirus-infected cells is atypical of picornaviruses.rna labeled with [3h]uridine from vero cells infected with san miguel sea lion virus in the presence of actinomycin d was analyzed by glycerol density gradient sedimentation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the predominant single-stranded rna (36s, 2.6 x 10(6) molecular weight) was genome size. there was also a prominent 22s, 1.1 x 10(6)-molecular weight, single-stranded component and one or more double-stranded or partially double-stranded classes. replicative forms, sedimenting at 18s, ...1977559106
host range comparisons of five serotypes of caliciviruses.two new serotypes of san miguel sea lion virus (smsv), designated smsv-4 and smsv-5, were studied in vivo and in vitro. the host cell spectrums were compared with smsv-1, smsv-2, and vesicular exanthema of swine virus type a-48. based on the result of these broad host spectrums, a numerical scoring system was devised for ranking each virus on the basis of its potential for infecting terrestrial mammals, including the important domestic species.1977556918
multiplex rt-pcr detection and microarray typing of vesicular disease viruses.a vesicular disease multiplex reverse transcription (rt)-pcr with an accompanying microarray assay was developed for simultaneous detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) and vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), and for the detection of swine vesicular disease virus (svdv) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv). the multiplex rt-pcr successfully detected viral rna from a collection of 49 strains of vesicular viruses, including multiple strains from all seven serotypes of f ...201121620898
detection of early infection of swine vesicular disease virus in porcine cells and skin sections. a comparison of immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization.sensitive methods are required to study the early pathogenesis of swine vesicular diseases (svd). therefore, two new methods, immunohistochemistry (ihc) and in-situ hybridization (ish), were developed and tested for their specificity and sensitivity. with these methods the svd virus (svdv) infection in cytospins of primary porcine kidney cells and in frozen skin sections was investigated. both ihc and the ish showed a specific cytoplasmic staining, but the ihc detected more infected cells than t ...19979389406
genetic characterization of a reptilian calicivirus (cro1).vesiviruses in the family caliciviridae infect a broad range of animal hosts including mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles. the vesivirus cro1 strains were isolated from diseased snakes in the san diego zoo in 1978 and reported as the first caliciviruses found in reptiles. the goal of this study was to characterize the cro1 strain 780032i that was isolated in cell culture from a rock rattlesnake (crotalus lepidus) in the original outbreak.201223190937
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