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inability of ixodes cookei and amblyomma americanum nymphs (acari: ixodidae) to transmit borrelia burgdorferi.the vector competency of ixodes cookei packard and amblyomma americanum (l.) for borrelia burgdorferi was studied using syrian hamsters. ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin were used as controls. darkfield and immunofluorescent examinations of midgut diverticula revealed b. burgdorferi spirochetes in 32 of 36 (88.9%) i. dammini larvae, 5 of 36 (13.9%) i. cookei larvae, and 7 of 36 (19.4%) a. americanum larvae within 48 h after feeding on infected syrian hamsters. b. burgdorferi w ...19921625302
borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from coastal virginia.ixodid ticks removed from hosts and from vegetation during march-november 1987 at sites in coastal virginia and north carolina were examined for borrelia burgdorferi. b. burgdorferi was evident in nine (22%) ixodes cookei packard removed from rice rats (oryzomys palustris), a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), and raccoons (procyon lotor); four (6%) amblyomma americanum (l.) removed from raccoons; and two (3%) dermacentor variabilis (say) removed from a raccoon and a rice rat. b. burgdorf ...19911941936
spotted fever group rickettsiae in immature and adult ticks (acari: ixodidae) from a focus of rocky mountain spotted fever in connecticut.immature and adult ixodid ticks were collected during 1983 and 1984 in newtown, connecticut, an area endemic for rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf), to determine prevalence of infection by spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae. direct fluorescent-antibody (fa) staining revealed sfg organisms in 6 (1.8%) of 332 dermacentor variabilis larvae, 5 (7.8%) of 64 d. variabilis nymphs, and in 2 (40%) of 5 ixodes cookei nymphs removed from small- and medium-sized mammals. hemolymph tests detected rickett ...19853938341
ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized kansas mammals.seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in kansas; amblyomma americanum l., dermacentor variabilis (say), haemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard), ixodes cookei packard, i. kingi bishopp, i. sculptus neumann, and i. texanus banks. dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, a. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the ixodes spp. and h. leporispalustris were widely scattered. the most common tick found was d. varia ...19948057327
tick-raccoon associations and the potential for lyme disease spirochete transmission in the coastal plain of north carolina.raccoons (procyon lotor) were live-trapped and examined for ticks from july 1990 to july 1993 in the coastal plain of north carolina on marine corps base, camp lejeune, north carolina (usa). five species of ixodid ticks were found on 351 (78%) of 449 raccoons. amblyomma americanum was the most abundant tick found on raccoons. dermacentor variabilis, ixodes texanus, and ixodes scapularis were frequently collected, while ixodes cookei were rarely collected from raccoons. tick burdens were not affe ...19979027688
ticks of south carolina (acari: ixodoidea).county and host records are reported for 19 species of ticks from south carolina: amblyomma americanum, amblyomma maculatum, amblyomma tuberculatum, aponomma latum, boophilus annulatus, boophilus microplus, dermacentor albipictus, dermacentor variablis, haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes affinis, ixodes brunneus, ixodes cookei, ixodes marxi, ixodes minor, ixodes scapularis, ixodes texanus, ixodes woodi, rhipicephalus sanguineus, and ornithodoros capensis. ixodes woodi is recorded from south ...199910672552
ticks parasitizing dogs in northwestern georgia.from january 1998 through september 1999, 324 dogs in three northwestern georgia counties were examined for ticks. six species of ticks were recovered. the three most commonly collected ticks were the american dog tick, dermacentor variabilis (say) (310 male male, 352 female female; prevalence, 97%; mean intensity 2.1); the brown dog tick, rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (118 male male, 119 female female, 38 nymphs; prevalence, 22%; mean intensity, 3.8); and the lone star tick, amblyomma am ...200211931241
host associations and seasonal occurrence of haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes brunneus, i. cookei, i. dentatus, and i. texanus (acari: ixodidae) in southeastern missouri.hemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard), ixodes brunneus koch, ixodes cookei packard, ixodes dentatus marx, and ixodes texanus banks were collected during a 3-yr study of pathogen-tick-host interactions in southeastern missouri. h. leporispalustris was collected from the eastern cottontail rabbit, northern bobwhite, and carolina wren, and it was active all year. i. brunneus was collected by drag and from passerine birds during december, march, and april. i. cookei was collected from raccoons and ...200312597662
tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: emerging diseases challenging old concepts.during most of the 20th century, the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsioses could be summarized as the occurrence of a single pathogenic rickettsia on each continent. an element of this paradigm suggested that the many other characterized and noncharacterized rickettsiae isolated from ticks were not pathogenic to humans. in this context, it was considered that relatively few tick-borne rickettsiae caused human disease. this concept was modified extensively from 1984 through 2005 by the identif ...200516223955
the low seroprevalence of tick-transmitted agents of disease in dogs from southern ontario and quebec.infectious diseases caused by pathogens transmitted by ticks and other insect vectors are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in both dogs and humans throughout north america. the purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of selected vector-transmitted pathogens in southern ontario and quebec. samples submitted to the vector borne disease diagnostic laboratory (vbddl) at the north carolina state university college of veterinary medicine were evaluated for antibodies to ...200617217089
prevalence of ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii in ticks from tennessee.human ehrlichiosis is the second most common tick-borne disease reported in tennessee after rocky mountain spotted fever. two closely related ehrlichiae, ehrlichia chaffeensis and ehrlichia ewingii, are both causative agents of human disease and are transmitted by amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. prevalence rates and distribution patterns of these pathogens among ticks in tennessee are currently unknown. to understand prevalence and exposure risk of ehrlichia spp., we tested 616 ticks ( ...201019877819
host associations of dermacentor, amblyomma, and ixodes (acari: ixodidae) ticks in tennessee.from april 2007 to september 2008, 1,793 adult and nymphal ixodid ticks were collected from 49 counties in tennessee. six species were identified, including dermacentor variabilis (say), amblyomma americanum (l.), ixodes texanus (banks), ixodes cookei packard, ixodes scapularis (say), and amblyomma maculatum koch, from 13 medium- to large-sized mammalian hosts and dragging through vegetation. raccoons were the most common vertebrate source (198 captures), accounting for 60% of ticks collected. d ...201020496589
absence of rickettsia rickettsii and occurrence of other spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from tennessee.rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf) is the most common tick-borne illness in tennessee. little is known about the occurrence of r. rickettsii, the causative agent, in ticks in tennessee. to better understand the prevalence and distribution of rickettsial agents in ticks, we tested 1,265 amblyomma, dermacentor, and ixodes adult and nymphal ticks. additionally, we tested 231 amblyomma americanum larvae. ticks were collected from 49 counties from humans, wild animals, domestic canines, and flannel ...201020810834
molecular detection and identification of rickettsia species in ixodes pacificus in california.we amplified 16s rrna, glta, and ompa genes from ixodes pacificus by polymerase chain reaction. sequencing, blast analysis, and phylogenetic constructions indicated that two rickettsia phylotypes are present in i. pacificus. while phylotype g021 has high homology to ixodes scapularis endosymbiotic rickettsia, phylotype g022 is a deeply branched novel spotted fever group rickettsia.201121413886
tick cell lines for study of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.abstract continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. a preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cc ...201121955214
homogeneity of powassan virus populations in naturally infected ixodes scapularis.powassan virus (powv, flaviviridae: flavivirus) is the sole north american member of the tick-borne encephalitis complex and consists of two distinct lineages that are maintained in ecologically discrete enzootic transmission cycles. the underlying genetic mechanisms that lead to niche partitioning in arboviruses are poorly understood. therefore, intra- and interhost genetic diversity was analyzed to determine if powv exists as a quasispecies in nature and quantify selective pressures within and ...201020434750
lyme disease in canada: q & a for paediatricians. 200919436561
revisiting the clinal concept of evolution and dispersal for the tick-borne flaviviruses by using phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses.tick-borne flaviviruses (tbf) are widely dispersed across africa, europe, asia, oceania, and north america, and some present a significant threat to human health. seminal studies on tick-borne encephalitis viruses (tbev), based on partial envelope gene sequences, predicted a westward clinal pattern of evolution and dispersal across northern eurasia, terminating in the british isles. we tested this hypothesis using all available full-length open reading frame (orf) tbf sequences. phylogenetic ana ...201222674986
tick (acari: ixodidae) infestation at two rural, seasonal camps in maine and vermont.in july 2008, owners of seasonal camps in vermont and maine were exposed to large numbers of questing ticks after opening their camps for the season. examination of collected specimens revealed that the camp in vermont was infested with ixodes cookei packard, and the camp in maine was infested with ixodes marxi banks. in both instances, numerous tick bites were reported by residents. both camps were also occupied by wildlife during the off-season, primarily squirrels (maine) and skunks (vermont) ...201019925041
potential role of deer tick virus in powassan encephalitis cases in lyme disease-endemic areas of new york, u.s.a.powassan virus, a member of the tick-borne encephalitis group of flaviviruses, encompasses 2 lineages with separate enzootic cycles. the prototype lineage of powassan virus (powv) is principally maintained between ixodes cookei ticks and the groundhog (marmota momax) or striped skunk (mephitis mephitis), whereas the deer tick virus (dtv) lineage is believed to be maintained between ixodes scapularis ticks and the white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus). we report 14 cases of powassan encephalit ...201324274334
single-tube real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ixodes affinis and ixodes scapularis.ixodes affinis neumann (1899) and ixodes scapularis say (1821) are tick vectors of the etiologic agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. ixodes affinis and i. scapularis are morphologically very similar, and as they are sympatric in the mid- and south-atlantic u.s. coastal states, their accurate identification is crucial to studies of disease and vector ecology in this area. this work describes a rapid, single-tube sybr(®) green-based real-time pcr assay for differentiation of ...201324192510
virome analysis of amblyomma americanum, dermacentor variabilis, and ixodes scapularis ticks reveals novel highly divergent vertebrate and invertebrate viruses.a wide range of bacterial pathogens have been identified in ticks, yet the diversity of viruses in ticks is largely unexplored. in the united states, amblyomma americanum, dermacentor variabilis, and ixodes scapularis are among the principal tick species associated with pathogen transmission. we used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the viromes of these tick species and identified the presence of powassan virus and eight novel viruses. these included the most divergent nairovirus descr ...201425056893
population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis and the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.we identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in ontario, canada, and tested blacklegged ticks ixodes scapularis for borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum. among the 18 species of ticks identified, i. scapularis, dermacentor variabilis, ixodes cookei and amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in ontario's eastern region; d. variabilis in central west and easte ...201425171252
climate change and habitat fragmentation drive the occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease, at the northeastern limit of its distribution.lyme borreliosis is rapidly emerging in canada, and climate change is likely a key driver of the northern spread of the disease in north america. we used field and modeling approaches to predict the risk of occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria causing lyme disease in north america. we combined climatic and landscape variables to model the current and future (2050) potential distribution of the black-legged tick and the white-footed mouse at the northeastern range limit of lyme diseas ...201425469157
the prevalence of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in ixodes scapularis collected in the hudson valley, new york state.ixodes scapularis, the blacklegged tick, is capable of transmitting the pathogens that cause lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi), babesiosis (babesia microti), anaplasmosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum), and to a lesser extent powassan encephalitis (deer tick virus [dtv]). these pathogens represent significant public health problems, but little is known about the occurrence and co-infection prevalence of these pathogens in i. scapularis. here, we used standard pcr and pathogen-specific primers to ...201424689680
tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.the abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. they are obligatory hematop ...201527047089
prevalence of the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis at hamilton-wentworth, ontario.lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in canada, where the etiological agent, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. this study explores the presence of b. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, ixodes scapularis, collected at dundas, ontario (a locality within the region of hamilton-wentworth). using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and c ...201627226771
the role of viral persistence in flavivirus biology.in nature, vector-borne flaviviruses are persistently cycled between either the tick or mosquito vector and small mammals such as rodents, skunks, and swine. these viruses account for considerable human morbidity and mortality worldwide. increasing and substantial evidence of viral persistence in humans, which includes the isolation of rna by rt-pcr and infectious virus by culture, continues to be reported. viral persistence can also be established in vitro in various human, animal, arachnid, an ...201424737600
seroprevalence of powassan virus in new england deer, 1979-2010.powassan virus and its subtype, deer tick virus, are closely related tick-borne flaviviruses that circulate in north america. the incidence of human infection by these agents appears to have increased in recent years. to define exposure patterns among white-tailed deer, potentially useful sentinels that are frequently parasitized by ticks, we screened serum samples collected during 1979-2010 in connecticut, maine, and vermont for neutralizing antibody by using a novel recombinant deer tick virus ...201323568288
passive surveillance in maine, an area emergent for tick-borne diseases.in 1989, a free-of-charge, statewide tick identification program was initiated in maine, 1 yr after the first ixodes scapularis say (=i. dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin) ticks were reported in the state. this article summarizes data from 18 continuous years of tick submissions during which >24,000 ticks of 14 species were identified. data provided include tick stage, degree of engorgement, seasonal abundance, geographical location, host, and age of the person from whom the tick was ...200718047214
four emerging arboviral diseases in north america: jamestown canyon, powassan, chikungunya, and zika virus diseases.arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. there are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. recently, jamestown canyon, powassan, chikungunya, and zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in north america. unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies fo ...201626903031
powassan virus: summer infection cycle, 1964.between may 1, and september 15, 1964, neutralizing antibody to powassan virus was detected in sera from 163 of 464 forest mammals captured in the powassan-north bay area of northern ontario. these included 159 of 358 groundhogs and four of 43 red squirrels. acquisition of antibody by juvenile groundhogs occurred principally during july and august. powassan virus strains were isolated from tick pools containing two to 15 ixodes cookei per pool which were removed from eight of 91 groundhogs in th ...196414230913
molecular genetic key for the identification of 17 ixodes species of the united states (acari:ixodidae): a methods model.a taxonomic key, based on restriction enzyme analysis of the second internal-transcribed spacer (its-2) in the nuclear ribosomal dna gene, was developed for identification of 17 ixodes tick species in the united states. this key includes: ixodes affinis neumann, ixodes angustus neumann, ixodes baergi cooley and kohls, ixodes brunneus koch, ixodes cookei packard, ixodes dentatus marx, ixodes jellisoni cooley and kohls, ixodes kingi bishopp, ixodes minor neumann, ixodes muris bishopp and smith, ix ...199910461941
rickettsia helvetica in ixodes ricinus ticks in sweden.in the present study further characterization of the amplified sequence of the citrate synthase gene of the spotted fever group rickettsia isolated from ixodes ricinus ticks in sweden showed that it has 100% homology with the deposited sequence of the citrate synthase gene of rickettsia helvetica. the restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) pattern of an amplified 382-bp product of the citrate synthase sequence, defined by primers rpcs877 and rpcs1258, yielded fragments for our isolate t ...19999889227
the groundhog tick ixodes cookei (acari: ixodidae): a poor potential vector of lyme borreliosis.evidence for infection with the spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, was sought in ixodes cookei and in groundhogs (marmota monax) in southern ontario, canada, and ticks fed on experimentally inoculated hosts were examined for the spirochete. borrelia burgdorferi was not detected by immunofluorescent examination of 110 larval, nymphal or adult i. cookei collected from the environment, or taken from humans and other animals. three groundhogs inoculated with b. burgdorferi developed titers of 1:20 to ...19938355343
powassan virus: persistence of virus activity during 1966.powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of toronto between may 5 and september 5, 1966. virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 10(2.5) to 10(6.0) tcd(50) for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on june 24, july 15 and august 10. powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 a ...19676019677
powassan virus: vernal spread during 1965.powassan virus was isolated from seven pools of ixodes cookei ticks removed from groundhogs (marmota monax) collected near north bay, ontario, between may and august 1965, including five pools obtained during spring. tick pools, each comprising one to nine ticks, contained 2.0 to 5.5 log(10) tcd(50) of virus upon titration in monolayer cultures of primary swine kidney cells. powassan virus neutralizing antibody prevalence in sera of the current season's groundhogs increased steadily from zero du ...19665904925
the transmission of ackertia marmotae webster, 1967 (nematoda: onchocercidae) of groundhogs (marmota monax) by ixodes cookei. 19725022070
biology of ixodes cookei packard (ixodidae) of groundhogs (marmota monax erxleben). 19725022069
parasites of the laboratory woodchuck (marmota monax).the parasite burden of captive and colony-born woodchucks maintained in laboratory animal facilities was determined and compared to woodchucks recently trapped. microfilariae of ackertia marmotae in blood or dermis were most commonly observed in trapped woodchucks. there was a linear decrease in woodchucks positive for microfilariae after introduction in the laboratory colony, but even after 39 months, 53% were positive. microfilaremia or microfilariderma were never observed in colony born woodc ...19863724058
parasitization of humans in west virginia by ixodes cookei (acari: ixodidae), a potential vector of lyme borreliosis.in 32 collections, two larvae, 33 nymphs, and one adult female ixodes cookei packard were collected from humans in west virginia from august 1987 to may 1990. most were attached. the ticks were found in 14 counties and were the most abundant ixodes found biting humans. one nymphal i. cookei was removed from the left axilla of a 39-yr-old woman who lives and works in monongalia and marion counties, w. va. the bite was the center of an expanding erythematous lesion reaching 4 cm in diameter, clear ...19912033612
ectoparasites from river otters in pennsylvania.twenty-three livetrapped and two trapper-caught river otters (lutra canadensis) from northeastern pennsylvania (usa) were examined for ectoparasites immediately after their captures during 1981 to 1985. ectoparasites were collected from both trapper-caught otters, but from only one livetrapped otter. one species of tick (ixodes cookei) and one flea (oropsylla arctomys) were collected.19921548794
diversity of tick species biting humans in an emerging area for lyme disease.although most tick bites in humans in areas of the northeastern united states in which lyme disease is highly endemic are due to ixodes dammini, no study documents the frequency of i. dammini bites in low-prevalence or emerging areas for lyme disease. data on the proportion of tick bites in humans that are due to i. dammini in a region may have implications for public health policy and clinical management.19921536337
recent records of ticks, ixodes cookei packard and dermacentor variabilis (say) (acarina: ixodoidea) in southwestern ontario. 19751193021
lyme disease in canada: q & a for paediatricians. 200920514158
molecular epidemiology of powassan virus in north america.powassan virus (pow) is a tick-borne flavivirus distributed in canada, the northern usa and the primorsky region of russia. pow is the only tick-borne flavivirus endemic to the western hemisphere, where it is transmitted mainly between ixodes cookei and groundhogs (marmota monax). deer tick virus (dtv), a genotype of pow that has been frequently isolated from deer ticks (ixodes scapularis), appears to be maintained in an enzootic cycle between these ticks and white-footed mice (peromyscus leucop ...201020631087
species distribution models and ecological suitability analysis for potential tick vectors of lyme disease in mexico.species distribution models were constructed for ten ixodes species and amblyomma cajennense for a region including mexico and texas. the model was based on a maximum entropy algorithm that used environmental layers to predict the relative probability of presence for each taxon. for mexico, species geographic ranges were predicted by restricting the models to cells which have a higher probability than the lowest probability of the cells in which a presence record was located. there was spatial n ...201222518171
analysis of the langat virus genome in persistent infection of an ixodes scapularis cell line.tick-borne flaviviruses (tbfvs) cause a broad spectrum of disease manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to mild febrile illness and life threatening encephalitis. these single-stranded positive-sense (ss(+)) rna viruses are naturally maintained in a persistent infection of ixodid ticks and small-medium sized mammals. the development of cell lines from the ixodid ticks has provided a valuable surrogate system for studying the biology of tbfvs in vitro. when we infected ise6 cells, an ixodes sc ...201627626437
increased recognition of powassan encephalitis in the united states, 1999-2005.powassan virus (powv) disease is a rare human disease caused by a tick-borne encephalitis group flavivirus maintained in a transmission cycle between ixodes cookei and other ixodid ticks and small and medium-sized mammals. during 1958-1998, only 27 powv disease cases (mostly powassan encephalitis) were reported from eastern canada and the northeastern united states (average, 0.7 cases per year). during 1999-2005, nine cases (described herein) of serologically confirmed powv disease were reported ...200818959500
serum antibodies to west nile virus in naturally exposed and vaccinated horses.a polyvalent elisa and plaque reduction neutralization tests (prnts) were used to measure serum antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) in horses naturally exposed to or vaccinated against this flavivirus in connecticut and new york state, usa. relying on a prnt as a 'gold standard', the main objective was to validate a modified elisa containing a recombinant wnv envelope protein antigen. it was also important to assess specificity by testing sera from horses that had other, undiagnosed illnesses. s ...200818719177
prevalence and genetic characterization of powassan virus strains infecting ixodes scapularis in connecticut.a total of 30 powassan virus (powv) isolates from ixodes scapularis collected from bridgeport and north branford, ct in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012 and one earlier isolate from ixodes cookei collected in old lyme, ct in 1978 were characterized by phylogenetic analysis of their envelope gene sequences. powassan virus sequences segregated into two major groups termed the deer tick virus (dtv) and powassan (pow) lineages. the lineage from i. cookei was pow. the remaining viruses from i. scapularis g ...201222890037
parasitism of mustelids by ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae), maine and new hampshire, u.s.a.ticks collected from mustelids from four counties in maine and one in new hampshire were identified after harvest. of the 18 fishers martes pennanti erxleben, two mink neovison vison schreber, and one long-tailed weasel mustela frenata lichtenstein, 589 ticks were collected and identified. they were identified as, in order of abundance, ixodes gregsoni lindquist, wu, and redner (158 larvae, 189 nymphs, four adults), ixodes cookei packard (99 larvae, 77 nymphs, six adults), ixodes scapularis say ...201424690190
powassan virus: an emerging arbovirus of public health concern in north america.powassan virus (powv, flaviviridae) is the only north american member of the tick-borne encephalitis serogroup of flaviviruses. it is transmitted to small- and medium-sized mammals by ixodes scapularis, ixodes cookei, and several other ixodes tick species. humans become infected with powv during spillover transmission from the natural transmission cycles. in humans, powv is the causative agent of a severe neuroinvasive illness with 50% of survivors displaying long-term neurological sequelae. pow ...201728498740
ticks (acari: ixodida) uncommonly found biting humans in north carolina.collection records are presented that document human-biting by otobius megnini, amblyomma maculatum, haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes cookei, ixodes dentatus, and rhipicephalus sanguineus in north carolina. these species are either extremely rare in north carolina or they are normally considered non-human feeders. the record of otobius megnini represents the first collection of this species in north carolina in over 50 years. it is proposed that immature rhipicephalus sanguineus feed on hu ...19979221733
an ospa antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting north american isolates of borrelia burgdorferi in larval and nymphal ixodes dammini.an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for detecting north american isolates of borrelia burgdorferi in larval, nymphal, and adult ticks. the assay uses an anti-ospa monoclonal antibody (h5332) for antigen capture and biotin-labelled polyclonal sera with streptavidinhorseradish peroxidase for signal generation. the assay recognized 15 of 15 north american b. burgdorferi isolates and did not cross-react with spirochete antigens of borrelia hermsii, borrelia tur ...19938432812
powassan virus-a new reemerging tick-borne disease.powassan virus is a neurovirulent flavivirus consisting of two lineages causing meningoencephalitis. it is the only member of the tick-borne encephalitis serogroup which is present in mainland north america. with a total number of 27 cases from 1958 to 1998 and 98 cases from 1999 to 2016, reported cases have increased by 671% over the last 18 years. powassan infection is transmitted by different tick species in different geographical regions. ixodes scapularis is the primary vector that transmit ...201729312918
canine seroprevalence and the distribution of ixodes dammini in an area of emerging lyme disease.this study evaluates the relative usefulness of canine serosurveys to predict risk of exposure in an area of emerging lyme disease by comparing the distribution of canine seroprevalence with that of vector ticks. from 16 veterinary clinics throughout the state of maine, 828 canine sera were obtained during the heartworm-testing months of april and may 1989 and measured for anti-borrelia antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. in the same year, 1605 ticks, including 585 ixodes dammini, w ...19911928538
spotted fever group rickettsiae or borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes cookei (ixodidae) in connecticut.immatures and females of ixodes cookei, a hard-bodied tick, were collected from woodchucks and other mammals in the northeastern united states and examined for spotted fever group rickettsiae and borrelia burgdorferi. of the 93 nymphs analyzed by a hemolymph test, 4 (4.3%) harbored rickettsiae. six (15%) of 40 females were also infected. all infected ticks were collected from woodchucks in connecticut. indirect fluorescent antibody staining of midgut tissues from 128 nymphs revealed b. burgdorfe ...19911885748
powassan virus in ixodes cookei and mustelidae in new england.powassan virus was recovered from a pool of 3 nymphal and 1 adult female ixodes cookei removed from a striped skunk (mephitis mephitis) trapped in massachusetts during 1967 and from a pool of 9 nymphal i. cookei from a long-tailed weasel (mustela frenata) captured in connecticut during 1978. virus was detected in the blood of both mammals. hemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) antibody to powassan virus was demonstrated in 16.0% of the skunks sampled in connecticut, and neutralizing antibody was dete ...1979230364
evaluating the submission of digital images as a method of surveillance for ixodes scapularis ticks.widespread access to the internet is offering new possibilities for data collection in surveillance. we explore, in this study, the possibility of using an electronic tool to monitor occurrence of the tick vector of lyme disease, ixodes scapularis. the study aimed to compare the capacity for ticks to be identified in web-based submissions of digital images/photographs, to the traditional specimen-based identification method used by the provincial public health laboratory in quebec, canada. forty ...201728345501
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