distribution of the lyme disease vector, ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) and isolation of borrelia burgdorferi in ontario, canada.ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin was confirmed at long point, lake erie, ontario, on small mammals and white-tailed deer and by dragging for ticks. mean intensities of up to 16.2 larvae and 2.1 nymphs were found on peromyscus leucopus (rafinesque), with an overall prevalence of infestation up to 92%. adult i. dammini (101.6 +/- 77.63) (mean +/- sd) were found on 8 white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus (zimmerman). the seasonal pattern of recovery of ticks from hosts and th ...19921460617
an ospa antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting north american isolates of borrelia burgdorferi in larval and nymphal ixodes antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for detecting north american isolates of borrelia burgdorferi in larval, nymphal, and adult ticks. the assay uses an anti-ospa monoclonal antibody (h5332) for antigen capture and biotin-labelled polyclonal sera with streptavidinhorseradish peroxidase for signal generation. the assay recognized 15 of 15 north american b. burgdorferi isolates and did not cross-react with spirochete antigens of borrelia hermsii, borrelia tur ...19938432812
ticks and fleas of shrews in appalachian georgia and north carolina.ticks (acari: ixodidae) and fleas (insecta: siphonaptera) were recovered from 8 smoky shrews, sorex fumeus miller, and 9 northern short-tailed shrews, blarina brevicauda (say), trapped at elevations of 720-1,310 m in macon and jackson counties in western north carolina and union county in northern georgia from april 1994 to august 1995. the ticks ixodes angustus neumann and ixodes woodi bishopp, and the flea corrodopsylla curvata (rothschild), were recovered from smoky shrews. the same 2 tick sp ...19968691385
molecular genetic key for the identification of 17 ixodes species of the united states (acari:ixodidae): a methods model.a taxonomic key, based on restriction enzyme analysis of the second internal-transcribed spacer (its-2) in the nuclear ribosomal dna gene, was developed for identification of 17 ixodes tick species in the united states. this key includes: ixodes affinis neumann, ixodes angustus neumann, ixodes baergi cooley and kohls, ixodes brunneus koch, ixodes cookei packard, ixodes dentatus marx, ixodes jellisoni cooley and kohls, ixodes kingi bishopp, ixodes minor neumann, ixodes muris bishopp and smith, ix ...199910461941
vector competence of ixodes angustus (acari: ixodidae) for borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.the vector competence of ixodes angustus for borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) was investigated in the laboratory. the larval progeny of female ticks from washington state were placed on swiss-webster mice that had been inoculated intravenously with 10(8) spirochetes each of a californian isolate of b. burgdorferi. spirochetes were detected in 6 (12%) of 50 nymphs derived from larvae that had fed on these animals. ten nymphs from the same cohort of experimentally infected ticks were plac ...200010823359
host associations of the tick, ixodes angustus (acari: ixodidae), on alaskan mammals.infestation parameters are presented for 227 ticks, all ixodes angustus neumann, collected from individual mammals (n = 531) in southeastern and south-central alaska from 1996 to 1999. this tick was recovered from 12 of the 19 mammal species examined, with four species of shrews (sorex spp.), two species of voles [clethrionomys gapperi (vigors) and clethrionomys rutilus (pallas)], one species of mouse [peromyscus keeni (rhoads)], and the red squirrel [tamiasciurus hudsonicus (erxleben)] being th ...200314596283
anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia microti, and borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes scapularis, southern coastal maine.ixodes scapularis (deer ticks) from maine were tested for multiple infections by polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. in 1995, 29.5%, 9.5%, and 1.9% of deer ticks were infected with borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and babesia microti, respectively. in 1996 and 1997, the number of a. phagocytophilum-infected ticks markedly declined. in 1995 through 1996, 4 (1.3%) of 301 were co-infected.200415200875
geographical distribution patterns and habitat suitability models for presence of host-seeking ixodid ticks in dense woodlands of mendocino county, california.we used drag sampling to examine the geographical distribution patterns of ixodid ticks engaging in open (non-nidicolous) host-seeking behavior in dense woodland habitats of the climatically and ecologically diverse mendocino county in north coastal california. the findings based on this sampling methodology reflect risk of human exposure to host-seeking ticks rather than the true distribution of the ticks. drag sampling in 78 sites yielded 7,860 nymphal or adult ixodes pacificus cooley & kohls, ...200616619628
ectoparasite diversity and exposure to vector-borne disease agents in wild rodents in central coastal california.a survey of wild rodents was performed in the morro bay area of central coastal california to determine serological and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum dumler, barbet, bekker, dasch, palmer, ray, rikihisa, and rurangirwa, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwalt, and brenner, francisella tularensis mccoy, and yersinia pestis yersin; to describe the ectoparasitic fauna on important vector-borne disease hosts; and to determine whether pathoge ...200717427705
anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in small mammal hosts of ixodes ticks, western united states.a total of 2,121 small mammals in california were assessed for anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. odds ratios were >1 for 4 sciurids species and dusky-footed woodrats. high seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. ten tick species were identified. heavily infested rodent species included meadow voles, woodrats, deer mice, and redwood chipmunks.200818598645
reservoir competence of the redwood chipmunk (tamias ochrogenys) for anaplasma phagocytophilum.granulocytic anaplasmosis (ga) is an emerging tick-transmitted disease that persists in rodent- ixodes ricinus-complex tick cycles across the holarctic. although the putative reservoir for anaplasmosis in the western united states is the dusky-footed woodrat (neotoma fuscipes), this rodent was not shown reservoir-competent because of failure of infection from woodrats to other animals via ticks. redwood chipmunks are common in habitats where anaplasma phagocytophilum is common, have high pcr- an ...200919327022
delineation of a new species of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, borrelia americana sp. nov.analysis of borrelia isolates collected from ticks, birds, and rodents from the southeastern united states revealed the presence of well-established populations of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia bissettii, borrelia carolinensis, and borrelia sp. nov. multilocus sequence analysis of five genomic loci from seven samples representing borrelia sp. nov. isolated from nymphal ixodes minor collected in south carolina showed their close relatedness to california strains known as genomospec ...200919846628
ecological niche modeling of lyme disease in british columbia, canada.the purpose of this study was to describe the geographic distribution and model the ecological niche for borrelia burgdorferi (johnson, schmidt, hyde, steigerwaldt & brenner), ixodes pacificus (cooley & kohls), and ixodes angustus (neumann), the bacterium and primary tick vectors for lyme disease, in british columbia (bc), canada. we employed a landscape epidemiology approach using geographic information systems mapping and ecological niche modeling (genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction) to ...201020180315
note on the tick, ixodes angustus neumann. 194621027515
the ecology of tick-transmitted infections in the redwood chipmunk (tamias ochrogenys).the redwood chipmunk contributes to the maintenance of tick-borne diseases in northern california. the range of redwood chipmunks overlaps that of western black-legged ticks and tick-borne disease, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis. chipmunks have high anaplasma phagocytophilum pcr- and seroprevalence, are infested with a diversity of ixodes spp. ticks, and are reservoir competent for borrelia burgdorferi. we hypothesized that chipmunks could maintain tick-borne disease on ...201121643481
nidicolous ticks of small mammals in anaplasma phagocytophilum-enzootic sites in northern california.ixodes spp. tick-borne zoonotic diseases are present across the holarctic in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. small mammals are reservoirs for the rickettsial pathogen anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick vectors may include catholic-feeding bridge vectors as well as host-specialist or nidicolous ticks. far western north american communities in which a. phagocytophilum is maintained are complex ecologically, with multiple reservoir host and tick species, multiple strains of the bacterial pa ...201121686062
larval keys to the genera of ixodidae (acari) and species of ixodes (latreille) ticks established in california, hard (ixodidae) ticks transmit at least 8 zoonotic disease agents (1 virus, 6 bacteria, 1 protozoan) to humans or other animals. the correct taxonomic identification of all 3 parasitic stages (larvae, nymphs, adults) of ticks is integral to understanding host-tick associations and disease dynamics, but immature ticks, especially the larvae, can be difficult to identify. here, we present larval keys to the 4 genera of ixodidae (dermacentorkoch, 1844; haemaphysaliskoch, 1844; ixodes ...200820027236
natural history of zoonotic babesia: role of wildlife reservoirs.babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease on all inhabited continents and various wildlife species are the principal reservoir hosts for zoonotic babesia species. the primary vectors of babesia are ixodid ticks, with the majority of zoonotic species being transmitted by species in the genus ixodes. species of babesia vary in their infectivity, virulence and pathogenicity for people. various factors (e.g., increased interactions between people and the environment, increased immunosuppression, ch ...201224533312
genetic variation in the mitochondrial 16s ribosomal rna gene of ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae).ixodes scapularis is a vector of several human pathogens in the united states, and there is geographical variation in the relative number of persons infected with these pathogens. geographically isolated populations of i. scapularis have established or are in the process of establishing in southern canada. knowledge of the genetic variation within and among these populations may provide insight into their geographical origins in the united states and the potential risk of exposure of canadians t ...201425430547
climate change and habitat fragmentation drive the occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme disease, at the northeastern limit of its distribution.lyme borreliosis is rapidly emerging in canada, and climate change is likely a key driver of the northern spread of the disease in north america. we used field and modeling approaches to predict the risk of occurrence of borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria causing lyme disease in north america. we combined climatic and landscape variables to model the current and future (2050) potential distribution of the black-legged tick and the white-footed mouse at the northeastern range limit of lyme diseas ...201425469157
vector biodiversity did not associate with tick-borne pathogen prevalence in small mammal communities in northern and central california.vector and host abundance affect infection transmission rates, prevalence, and persistence in communities. biological diversity in hosts and vectors may provide "rescue" hosts which buffer against pathogen extinction and "dilution" hosts which reduce the force of infection in communities. anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-transmitted zoonotic pathogen that circulates in small mammal and tick communities characterized by varying levels of biological diversity. we examined the prevalence of a. p ...201424582513
powassan virus in mammals, alaska and new mexico, u.s.a., and russia, 2004-2007.powassan virus is endemic to the united states, canada, and the russian far east. we report serologic evidence of circulation of this virus in alaska, new mexico, and siberia. these data support further studies of viral ecology in rapidly changing arctic environments.024274336
unique strains of anaplasma phagocytophilum segregate among diverse questing and non-questing ixodes tick species in the western united states.the emerging tick-borne pathogen anaplasma phagocytophilum infects humans, domestic animals, and wildlife throughout the holarctic. in the western us, the ecology of a. phagocytophilum is particularly complex, with multiple pathogen strains, tick vectors, and reservoir hosts. a recent phylogenetic analysis of a. phagocytophilum strains isolated from various small mammal hosts in california documented distinct clustering of woodrat strains separate from sciurid (chipmunk and squirrel) strains. he ...201323994335
parasite removal improves reproductive success of female north american red squirrels (tamiasciurus hudsonicus).in order to evaluate potential reproductive costs associated with parasitism, we experimentally removed ectoparasites from reproductive female north american red squirrels (tamiasciurus hudsonicus). body mass and overwinter survival of mothers, days to juvenile emergence, juvenile survival from birth to emergence, and body mass of juveniles at emergence were all compared to those of untreated (control) animals. ectoparasite removal did not affect the body mass of mothers throughout the lactation ...201323409041
host, habitat and climate preferences of ixodes angustus (acari: ixodidae) and infection with borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma phagocytophilum in california, usa.the holarctic tick ixodes angustus is a competent vector for borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of lyme disease, and possibly anaplasma phagocytophilum, the etiologic agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis, as well. from 2005 to 2013, we collected host-feeding i. angustus individuals from live-trapped small mammals and by flagging vegetation from 12 study sites in northern and central california, and tested for b. burgdorferi sensu lato, a. phagocytophilum, and rickettsia spp. dna by real-tim ...201627416728
detection of borrelia genomospecies 2 in ixodes spinipalpis ticks collected from a rabbit in canada.lyme disease is a serious health problem, with many patients requiring in-depth clinical assessment and extended treatment. in the present study, we provide the first records of the western blacklegged tick, ixodes pacificus , and ixodes spinipalpis parasitizing eastern cottontails, sylvilagus floridanus . we also documented a triple co-infestation of 3 tick species (ixodes angustus, i. pacificus , i. spinipalpis) feeding on an eastern cottontail. notably, we discovered a unique member of the ly ...201727835071
new records of ticks (acari: ixodidae) from dogs, cats, humans, and some wild vertebrates in alaska: invasion potential.during 2010-2016, tick specimens were solicited from veterinarians, biologists, and members of the public in alaska. eight species of ticks were recorded from domestic dogs. some ticks were collected from dogs with recent travel histories to other countries or other u.s. states, which appears to explain records of ticks not native to alaska such as amblyomma americanum (l.) (lone star tick), ixodes scapularis (say) (blacklegged tick), and ixodes ricinus (l.). however, we recorded dermacentor var ...201627524823
evolving perspectives on lyme borreliosis in canada.with cases now documented in every province, lyme borreliosis (lb) is emerging as a serious public health risk in canada. controversy over the contribution of lb to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of lb. the use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by c6 peptide, extends across the country. dissemination of infected ti ...201223091570
tick parasites of rodents in romania: host preferences, community structure and geographical distribution.ticks are among the most important vectors of zoonotic diseases in temperate regions of europe, with widespread distribution and high densities, posing an important medical risk. most ticks feed on a variety of progressively larger hosts, with a large number of small mammal species typically harbouring primarily the immature stages. however, there are certain ixodidae that characteristically attack micromammals also during their adult stage. rodents are widespread hosts of ticks, important vecto ...201223171665
comparison of the dna sequences and secondary structure of the mitochondrial 16s rrna gene of ixodes kingi, ixodes sculptus and ixodes angustus.the dna sequences and predicted secondary structure of domains iv and v of the mitochondrial (mt) 16s rrna gene were compared for three species of ixodes: ixodes kingi, ixodes sculptus and ixodes angustus. each species had a unique set of dna sequences for the 16s gene. many of the differences in dna sequence within and among species occurred in a "hypervariable" region of domain v, and either represented partial or full compensatory base pair changes that maintained the helices within the secon ...201424556375
comparison of bacterial 16s rrna variable regions for microbiome surveys of ticks.ticks vector diverse pathogenic bacteria that are important to identify in public health and veterinary contexts. technological advances in high throughput sequencing have given an unprecedented opportunity to comprehensively characterize bacterial associates of ticks, but recent studies have used different 16s rrna variable regions and sequence read lengths with little consideration of whether they reveal the same bacterial diversity. we compare the effectiveness of bacterial surveys using thre ...201728236572
parasitism of mustelids by ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae), maine and new hampshire, u.s.a.ticks collected from mustelids from four counties in maine and one in new hampshire were identified after harvest. of the 18 fishers martes pennanti erxleben, two mink neovison vison schreber, and one long-tailed weasel mustela frenata lichtenstein, 589 ticks were collected and identified. they were identified as, in order of abundance, ixodes gregsoni lindquist, wu, and redner (158 larvae, 189 nymphs, four adults), ixodes cookei packard (99 larvae, 77 nymphs, six adults), ixodes scapularis say ...201424690190
ticks (acari: ixodidae) on small mammals in kootenay national park, british columbia, canada.two hundred and ninety-one ticks (i.e., 185 larvae, 72 nymphs, and 34 adults) were removed from 153 small mammals comprising six species collected in verdant forest, numa forest, and marble canyon within kootenay national park, british columbia, canada. morphological examination and molecular analyses (i.e., polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism [pcr-sscp] and dna sequencing of the mitochondrial 16s rrna gene) of the ticks revealed that most individuals were ixodes an ...201324843924
discovery of novel rickettsiella spp. in ixodid ticks from western canada.the genomic dna from four species of ixodid ticks in western canada was tested for the presence of rickettsiella by pcr analyses targeting the 16s rrna gene. eighty-eight percent of the ixodes angustus (n = 270), 43% of the i. sculptus (n = 61), and 4% of the i. kingi (n = 93) individuals examined were pcr positive for rickettsiella, whereas there was no evidence for the presence of rickettsiella in dermacentor andersoni (n = 45). three different single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles ...201424334664
a novel rickettsia species detected in vole ticks (ixodes angustus) from western canada.the genomic dna of ixodid ticks from western canada was tested by pcr for the presence of rickettsia. no rickettsiae were detected in ixodes sculptus, whereas 18% of the i. angustus and 42% of the dermacentor andersoni organisms examined were pcr positive for rickettsia. the rickettsiae from each tick species were characterized genetically using multiple genes. rickettsiae within the d. andersoni organisms had sequences at four genes that matched those of r. peacockii. in contrast, the rickettsi ...201324077705
host preferences and temporal trends of the tick ixodes angustus in north-central alberta.we examined host preferences and temporal trends of the tick ixodes angustus on small mammals in north-central alberta. small mammals were live-trapped from 1 june to 29 september 1994 and 3 may to 30 june 1995 in mature aspen (populus tremuloides) forest near lac la biche, alberta. abundance of female i. angustus was high in early may (0.90 +/- 0.20 [se]) and peaked again in late june (0.58 +/- 0.16), whereas abundance of immature i. angustus peaked (1.2 +/- 0.35) in mid-july. red-backed voles ...19989794628
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