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mosquito-borne arboviruses in arctic america.mosquito-borne arboviruses are prevalent throughout subarctic regions of canada and alaska, principally in the boreal forest extending between latitudes 53 and 66 degrees n, but they have been identified in tundra regions as far north as 70 degrees n. all mosquito-borne agents have been bunyaviruses, comprising principally the snowshoe hare subtype of california encephalitis (ce) virus, but also northway virus. mosquito vectors comprise several aedes species and culiseta inornata, all of which h ...19751602
sunday canyon virus, a new ungrouped agent from the tick argas (a.) cooleyi in texas.a new arbovirus was isolated from texas, u.s.a., populations of the cliff swallow parasits argas (argas) cooleyi kohls and hoogstraal, 1960. the virus, named sunday canyon, is serological urelated to any of 185 arbovirus strains or 20 other viral agents with which it was compared. morphologically it resembles bunyamwera viruses and, in common with them, is sensitive to lipid solvents and acid ph, and apparently possesses rna. although considerably resistant to a temperature of 41.5 degrees c, it ...197715436
razdan virus, a new ungrouped bunyavirus isolated from dermacentor marginatus ticks in armenia.a virus, designated razdan, was isolated from dermacentor marginatus ticks in the armenian s.s.r. in 1973. the complement fixation tests revealed no antigenic relationships to 74 tick-borne arboviruses. the size of the virus is about 100 nm; it agglutinates goose erythrocytes at ph 5.5--7.0, is pathogenic for newborn, 14-day-old and adult white mice and multiplies in primary and continuous cell cultures. morphological properties of the virus permit its classification as a member of the family bu ...197835950
cache valley virus: isolations from mosquitoes in saskatchewan, 1972-1974.eighteen isolations of cache valley virus (bunyaviridae) were obtained from a total of 113,694 mosquitoes collected in saskatchewan during the summers of 1972 to 1974. most of the isolations were from mosquitoes collected during august. culiseta inornata, the most abundant mosquito (38% of total collected), had the highest minimum vector-infection rate (0.83 isolations per 1000 mosquitoes). the virus was also isolated from culex tarsalis and aedes vexans. it is indicated in the isolations that t ...197938897
electron microscopy of akabane virus.electron microscopy of negatively stained purified virus and of thin sections of infected cells and tissues showed akabane virus being similar in morphology and morphogenesis to members of the family bunyaviridae.197941431
bunyavirus development in arctic and aedes aegypti mosquitoes as revealed by glucose oxidase staining and immunofluorescence.northway virus replication has been detected in salivary glands of wild-caught culiseta inornata and aedes communis mosquitoes from the western canadian arctic after incubation at 4 degrees c for 9 to 11 months, and after incubation at 13 degrees c for 3 to 4 months after they received virus by oral ingestion or intrathoracic injection. aedes hexodontus supported northway virus replication after incubation at 13 degrees c for one month after intrathoracic injection. aedes aegypti supported north ...197944464
serologic examination of birds from the area of southern moravia for the presence of antibodies against arboviruses of the groups alfa, flavo, bunyamwera supergroup, and the virus yaba 1-lednice 110. i. domestic fowls.196 geese, 141 ducks, and 100 hens from 9 localities of the south moravian region (district of breclav) were examined by means of the haemagglutination-inhibition test (hit) for the presence of antibodies against 12 arbovirus antigens of the groups alfavirus (western equine encephalitis (wee), eastern equine encephalitis (eee), semliki, sindbis, chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong), flavovirus (tick-borne encephalitis (tbe), dengue and west nile virus (wn), bunyamwera supergroup (tahna and beta calovo), ...1975175616
investigations on the presence of antibodies to alphaviruses, flaviviruses, bunyavirus and kemerovo virus in humans and some domestic animals.the presence of antibodies to some alphaviruses, flaviviruses, bunyaviruses and orbiviruses was studied in the sera from humans and domestic animals of biotopes "c" and "t" in the south-east of romania. specific antibodies were found in humans to 3 alphaviruses (eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis and sindbis), in a very low proportion, and to 3 flaviviruses (tickborne encephalitis, west nile and ntaya), at a much higher percentage. very low percentages of antibodies to buny ...1978209613
[birds as reservoirs and transmitters of disease agents]. 1979220949
genetic potential of bunyaviruses. 1979387343
relationships of bunyamwera group viruses by neutralization.a standardized serum dilution plaque reduction neutralization test was used for cross-neutralization studies of 23 strains of bunyamwera serogroup viruses. antigenic relationships were determined by inspection of the neutralization tests results as well as by numerical taxonomic analysis. based on these analyses five complexes, containing 1-11 viruses, were distinguished. little or no cross-reactivity was observed between viruses of different complexes. three of the viruses tested were indisting ...1979464195
m viral rna segment of bunyaviruses codes for two glycoproteins, g1 and g2.tryptic peptide digests of the two viral glycoproteins (g1 and g2) of snowshow hare (ssh) virus, la crosse, la crosse (lac) virus, and an ssh/lac recombinant virus which has a large (l)/medium (m)/small (s) rna segment genome composition of ssh/lac/ssh were analyzed by ion-exchange column chromatography. the analyses prove that the m rna species of bunyaviruses codes for the two viral glycoproteins.1979480466
[characterization of the urucuri virus (bean 100049). ultrastructural study of experimental infection]. 1979482769
viruses isolated from culicoides midges in south africa during unsuccessful attempts to isolate bovine ephemeral fever virus.five viruses, unrelated to bovine ephemeral fever virus (befv), were isolated from culicoides biting-midges collected during the summer months of the years 1968-69 and 1969-70 near a cattle herd in which cases of bef occurred and at an open horse stable at onderstepoort. these viruses were investigated by means of serological, electron-microscopical and physicochemical tests. it was established that 2 isolates, cul. 1/69 and cul. 2/69, were related to each other and belonged to the palyam subgro ...1979551368
discontinuous counter-immunoelectrophoresis in the study of viruses.a method for the use of the discontinuous counter-immunoelectropnoresis (dcie) technique in the study of viruses of the major taxonomic groups is reported. the method was successfully employed in detection of antigen of viruses in the bunyavirus, bunyavirus-like, flavivirus, orbivirus, and rhabdovirus groups, and/or of antibody to these agents. although less sensitive than the complement fixation test, the dcie test was found to be rapid and in some cases more specific in differentiating related ...197897243
small viral rna segment of bunyaviruses codes for viral nucleocapsid protein.tryptic peptide analyses have been undertaken on the nucleocapsid (n) protein of snowshoe hare (ssh) and la crosse (lac) bunyaviruses. similar analyses have been performed on the n proteins of two recombinant viruses which have the large/medium/small rna genome configurations: ssh/lac/lac and ssh/lac/ssh. the results provide conclusive evidence that the s rna of bunyaviruses codes for the the viral n protein.1978702656
bunyamwera virus. ii. the generation and nature of defective interfering particles. 1978716217
bunyavirus isolations from mosquitoes in the western canadian arctic.strains of california encephalitis virus (snowshoe hare subtype) were isolated from 8 of 475 pools comprising 23 747 unengorged female mosquitoes of five species collected at three of six locations throughout the mackenzie valley of the northwest territories, canada, from latitudes 60 to 69 degrees n between 10 and 24 july 1976. minimum field infection rates included 1:2734 for aedes communis, 1:256 to 1:3662 for a. hexodontus and 1:911 to 1:1611 for a. punctor. northway virus was also isolated ...197718541
genetic capabilities of bunyaviruses. 1978752701
seriologic and vector comparisons of rift valley virus with other bunyaviruses. 1978752702
transmission of northway and st. louis encephalitis viruses by arctic mosquitoes.transmission of a canadian arctic isolate of northway virus has been demonstrated after incubation of arctic aedes communis mosquitoes at 13 degrees c for 27 days after intrathoracic injection of 300 plaque forming units of virus. replication has also been demonstrated after intrathoracic injection of domestic a. aegypti mosquitoes of this virus. virions of northway virus, 84--92 nm diameter were morphologically typical of a bunyavirus after propagation in salivary glands of a. communis or in ti ...1978687117
formation of recombinants between snowshoe hare and la crosse bunyaviruses.wild-type recombinants were obtained at high frequency from coinfections of bhk cells involving temperature-sensitive, conditional-lethal mutants of snowshoe hare (ssh) and la crosse (lac) bunyaviruses. analyses of two of the recombinants indicated that they have the genome compositions ssh/lac/ssh and ssh/lac/lac for their respective l, m, and s virion rna species. this evidence, together with that for the genetic stability of the recombinants, indicates that they were derived by segment reasso ...1977592468
arbovirus infections in sarawak, october 1968-february 1970: human serological studies in a land dyak village.449 human sera collected in a land dyak village were tested for antibodies to 11 arboviruses. japanese encephalitis and dengue virus antibodies were particularly prevalent. the rates of infection with these viruses were estimated to be 5-2% per annum for japanese encephalitis, 8-8% for dengue 1 and 4-3% for dengue 2. chikungunya virus antibodies were quite common with an annual infection rate of the order of 5% per annum. infections with other group a and b and bunyamwera group viruses were gene ...1975809868
recombination between snowhoe hare and la crosse bunyaviruses.we have previously reported heterologous genetic recombination resulting from crosses involving temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of la crosse (lac) group ii and snowshoe hare (ssh) group i ts mutants (j. gentsch, l. r. wynne, j. p. clewley, r. e. shope, and d. h. l. bishop, j. virol. 24:893-902, 1977). from those crosses two reassortant viruses having the large/medium/small viral rna segment genotypes of ssh/lac/ssh and ssh/lac/lac were obtained. in this study it has been found that the recipr ...1979513193
genome complexities of the three mrna species of snowshoe hare bunyavirus and in vitro translation of s mrna to viral n polypeptide.the genome complexities of the principal intracellular viral complementary rna species of the snowshoe hare bunyavirus have been analyzed by duplex analyses involving hybridization of complementary rna to individual 32p-labeled viral rna species (large, l; medium, m; and small, s), recovery of nuclease-resistant duplexes, and determination of the oligonucleotide fingerprints of the protected 32p-labeled viral sequences. the result for the m rna (which codes for the glycoproteins g1 and g2; j. r. ...1979513192
morphology and morphogenesis of soldado virus (hugues group); similarities with viruses of the bunyaviridae family. brief report. 1979485857
bunyamwera virus. i. the molecular complexity of the virion rna. 1977898678
bunyamwera virus-induced polypeptide synthesis.bunyamwera virus-induced polypeptide synthesis in bsc-1 cell has been studied using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. four virus-induced polypeptides were identified. their molecular weights were 200 x 10(6) (l), 128 x 10(6) (g1), 31 x 10(6) (g2), and 23 x 10(6) (n). pulse-chase experiments, short labeling experiments, and experiments using amino acid analogs failed to show evidence of polypeptides processing by proteolytic cleavage. analysis of the kinetics of synthesis of ...1977904029
studies on lumbo virus replication. ii. properties or viral ribonucleoproteins and characterization of messenger rnas. 1976936468
in vivo transcription and protein synthesis capabilities of bunyaviruses: wild-type snowshoe hare virus and its temperature-sensitive group i, group ii, and group i/ii mutants.the in vivo primary and secondary transcription capabilities of wild-type snowshoe hare (ssh) virus and certain of its temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants have been analyzed. the results obtained agree with in vitro studies (bouloy et al., c.r. acad. sci. paris 280:213-215, 1975; m. bouloy and c. hannoun, virology 69:258-264, 1976; m. ranki and r. pettersson, j. virol. 16:1420-1425, 1975) which have shown that bunyaviruses are negative-stranded rna viruses with a virion rna-directed rna polymeras ...1979480477
heterologous interference in aedes albopictus cells infected with alphaviruses.maximum amounts of 42s and 26s single-stranded viral rna and viral structural proteins were synthesized in aedes albopictus cells at 24 h after sindbis virus infection. thereafter, viral rna and protein syntheses were inhibited. by 3 days postinfection, only small quantities of 42s rna and no detectable 26s rna or structural proteins were synthesized in infected cells. superinfection of a. albopictus cells 3 days after sindbis virus infection with sindbis, semliki forest, una, or chikungunya alp ...1979480461
serologic examination of birds from the area of southern moravia for the presence of antibodies against arboviruses of the groups alfa, flavo, uukuniemi, turlock and bunyamwera supergroup. ii. wild living birds.280 specimens of 29 species of wild living birds from 11 families captured in the endemic area of the virus lednice in southern moravia (cssr) were investigated by haemagglutination-inhibition test (hit) on presence of antibodies against 12 arbovirus antigens of the groups alfa-virus (western and eastern equine encephalomyelitis, semliki, sindbis, chikungunya), flavovirus (tick-borne encephalitis, dengue, west nile), the uukuniemi group (poteplí), the turlock group (lednice) and the bunyamwera s ...19761010494
serologic examination of human population in south moravia (czechoslovakia) on the presence of antibodies to arboviruses of the alfavirus, flavivirus, turlock groups and bunyamwera supergroup.a statistically representative group of human population from the south moravian region (cssr) was examined on the presence of antibodies against the following arboviruses: lednice, sindbis, tick-borne encephalitis, west nile, tahyna and calovo. the ascertained absence of antibodies to the lednice virus is an evidence that at present this virus is of no epidemiological importance in the region studied. no antibodies to sindbis, west nile and calovo viruses were demonstrated. 17.8 to 42.0% of ant ...1979447128
bunyaviridae: recent biochemical developments. 1977335022
arthropod-borne viral infections of man in nigeria, 1964-1970.during the years 1964 to 1970, 171 arboviruses of 15 different types were isolated from humans in nigeria. isolation rates were highest in 1969, and lowest in 1965 and 1967. monthly arbovirus activity was highest in the rainy season months of june, july and august and lowest in the dry months of january and february. viruses were isolated from all age groups, with the majority from children one to four years old. the viruses isolated in largest numbers were chikungunya and yellow fever, which ca ...19751124969
virus neutralizing antibodies to arboviruses in birds of the order anseriformes in czechoslovakia.sera from birds of the order anseriformes in czechoslovakia were examined for virus neutralizing (vn) antibodies to arboviruses. vn antibodies to sindbis, calovo and tahyna viruses were found in 15, 5 and 6 out of 106 greylag goose (anser anser) sera. out of 38 ducks, 6 mallards (anas platyrhynchos) and 1 garganey (anas querquedula) contained vn antibodies to sindbis virus, 6 mallards to calovo virus, 4 mallards and 1 garganey to tahyna virus, 2 mallards and 1 garganey to tick-borne encephalitis ...1975241234
arboviruses in birds captured in slovakia.virus neutralizing (vn) antibodies against sindbis, tick-borne encephalitis (tbe), west nile (wn), tahyna and calovo viruses were found in birds captured in slovakia. in parallel, sindbis, tbe and wn viruses were isolated from the blood, brain and liver of migrating birds.1977203628
studies on the occurrence and distribution of hi antibodies against some arboviruses in the serum of domestic mammals in puglia.the virological and serological studies previously carried out on arboviruses in italy are reviewed. the presence of antibodies to 11 arboviruses was investigated in the serum of various domestic animals (100 horses, 107 pigs, 102 sheep, 205 goats, 100 cattle and 200 dogs) from some areas of puglia. the techniques are described. the results, given in tables and discussed in detail, support the hypothesis that in this region also there are arboviruses circulating, particularly those of group b.1977201546
arboviruses in finland: models for arctic arboviruses and viral structure. 1975173937
international arbovirus research.international cooperation in arbovirus research became increasingly prominent shortly after it was found in the early 1940's, that antigenic relationships existed among certain viruses isolated in different areas of thw world. the interest of a number of scientists and of a private organization led to the establishment of an international information exchange and to the preparation of an international catalogue of arboviruses including certain other viruses of vertebrates. international cooperat ...1975173936
protein synthesis in bunyamwera virus-infected cells.in vero cells infected with bunyamwera virus there is a rapid inhibition of cell rna and protein synthesis to levels of 30 and 3% respectively of the control rate, both the rate of inhibition and the time lag before its initiation being multiplicity dependent. using u.v.-irradiated virus, investigation of the mechanism of inhibition of host cell protein synthesis indicates that synthesis of new virus components is required for inhibition to occur. quantitative comparison of the proteins synthesi ...1979115963
isolation of virus strains from mosquitoes collected in queensland, 1972-1976.171,348 mosquitoes and 4,353 other arthropods collected at three centres in queensland in 1972-1976 yielded 151 strains of 18 viruses. culex annulirostris was the major source of virus isolation but 42 strains from aedes normanensis indicate it to be a vector of importance. ross river and kokobera viruses were isolated at kowanyama in the dry season, a finding of interest as being compatible with year-round survival in vector-vertebrate cycles. culex fatigans has in part replaced culex annuliros ...197944840
khasan virus, a new ungrouped bunyavirus isolated from haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in the primorie region.strain leiv-776p, possessing no haemagglutinating activity was isolated in 1971 in the primorie region (u.s.s.r.) from haemaphysalis longicornis neumann 1091 tick. complement fixation (cf) tests revealed no antigenic relationship with 24 antigenic groups of arboviruses or 21 ungrouped viruses isolated from ticks. the virus isolate contains rna and is relatively sensitive to ether and sodium deoxycholate; it is pathogenic for suckling mice and two-week-old white mice by the intracerebral route, a ...197827977
pig kidney epithelial (ps) cells: a perfect tool for the study of flaviviruses and some other arboviruses. 19751999
[circular ribonucleoproteins in the virus lumbo (bunyavirus)]. 1975808354
experimental placental transfer of akabane virus in the hamster.transplacental infection of hamster fetuses was produced by inoculation of pregnant hamsters with 10(6.3) plaque-forming units (pfu) of akabane virus by either the intraperitoneal or the subcutaneous route. virus with titers as high as 10(7.5) pfu/g of tissue was detected first in the placenta and later in the fetus. virus could also be readily isolated from blood, lung, spleen, and liver of both pregnant and nonpregnant hamsters, but it reached higher titers and persisted longer in the placenta ...1978629464
morphology and morphogenesis of crimean hemorrhagic fever virus.morphological characteristics of crimean hemorrhagic fever virus indicate that it is closely related to the bunyaviridae family. however, there are some features (e.g. formation of crystal-like patterns in infected cells) demonstrating differences to the other known bunyaviridae.1976816333
nucleotide sequence and coding capacity of the large (l) genomic rna segment of seoul 80-39 virus, a member of the hantavirus genus.the nucleotide sequence of the large (l) genomic rna segment of seoul 80-39 virus was determined from overlapping cdna clones. the virion l rna segment is 6530 nucleotides long. the 3' and 5' terminal sequences are inversely complementary for 15 bases. the viral complementary-sense rna contains a single open reading frame from an aug codon at nucleotide position 37-39 to a uaa stop codon at nucleotide position 6490-6492. this orf could encode a polypeptide of 2151 amino acids (246,662 kda) which ...19911840713
a comparison of la crosse virus isolated obtained from different ecological niches and an analysis of the structural components of california encephalitis serogroup viruses and other bunyaviruses.analyses of the oligonucleotide fingerprints of the three genome ribonucleic acid (rna) species of 11 isolates of la crosse (lac) virus, obtained from various ecological niches in the northern united states and compared to those of prototype lac virus, showed that in each place from which these isolates were obtained lac variants and varieties were present with related, but distinguishable, nucleotide sequences for their large, medium, or small rna species. the rna genomes of prototypes trivitta ...1979453439
serological comparison of aino and samford viruses in simbu group of bunyaviruses. 1978739909
[rna polymerase activity associated with a bunya virus (lumbo)].rna dependent rna polymerase has been demonstrated in purified lumbo virus (bunyavirus) which contains a single stranded segmented rna. divalent cations (mn++ and mg++) are required for optimal in vitro activity. reaction products can be specifically annealed with the viral genome.1975808281
[a serological survey of arboviruses in the human population of senegal].2,457 serum samples collected during an epidemiological survey on treponematosis in senegal by the w. h. o. ir051 team in five areas of senegal between 1972 and 1975 were studied for arbovirus antibodies using hemagglutination inhibition test. in addition 998 were studied using cf test and 1012 in neutralization test with yellow fever virus. the prevalence of arbovirus antibodies is important in all the country and does not vary basically between the different areas. in group a, chikungunya anti ...197833772
primary structure of the large (l) rna segment of nephropathia epidemica virus strain hällnäs b1 coding for the viral rna polymerase.the l rna segment of the nephropathia epidemica virus (nev) strain hällnäs b1 was characterized by molecular cloning of the corresponding cdna and subsequent determination of the dna nucleotide sequence. the l rna segment is 6550 nucleotides long with complementarity of 20 bases at the 3' and 5' termini. the viral messenger sense rna contains one major open reading frame (orf) with a coding capacity of 2156 amino acid residues encoding a protein with a calculated molecular weight of 246 kda and ...19912053288
expression of functional bunyamwera virus l protein by recombinant vaccinia viruses.a cdna containing the complete coding sequence of the bunyamwera virus (family bunyaviridae) l genome segment has been constructed and cloned into two recombinant vaccinia virus expression systems. in the first, the l gene is under control of vaccinia virus p7.5 promoter; in the second, the l gene is under control of the bacteriophage t7 phi 10 promoter, and expression of the l gene requires coinfection with a second recombinant vaccinia virus which synthesizes t7 rna polymerase. both systems ex ...19912072449
evidence that cache valley virus induces congenital malformations in sheep.an outbreak of congenital abnormalities occurred in sheep at san angelo, texas, between december 1986 and february 1987. of 360 lambs born, 19.2% had arthrogryposis or other musculo-skeletal problems and hydranencephaly (agh), and the total neonatal loss was 25.6%. in 1987, all ewes that were tested with agh lambs had antibody to cache valley virus (cvv), whereas 62% of the ewes with normal lambs had cvv-specific antibody. pre-colostral serum samples from agh lambs had neutralizing antibody to c ...19902107620
biochemical studies on the phlebotomus fever group viruses (bunyaviridae family).analyses of the virion polypeptides and genomes of several phlebotomus fever group viruses, karimabad, punta toro, chagres, and the sandfly fever sicilian serotype viruses, have established that they are biochemically similar to the accepted members of the bunyaviridae family. like snowshoe hare virus (a member of the california serogroup of the bunyavirus genus of the bunyaviridae family), karimabad, punta toro, chagres, and the sandfly fever sicilian serotype viruses all have three viral rna s ...1979225523
host-adaptive antigenic variation in bunyaviruses.bunyamwera virus and snowshoe have virus (family bunyaviridae) were passaged up to six times through mosquito cells in culture and the resultant viruses were compared to the input, mammalian cell-passed virus using monoclonal antibodies raised against the input virus. the mosquito cell-adapted virus population consisted of mutants which were better adapted to replication in the new host than was the input mammalian cell-passed virus and were differentially susceptible to neutralization by antibo ...19862432166
[the circulation of viruses of the california encephalitis and bunyamwera groups (bunyaviridae, bunyavirus) on the northeastern russian plain].in the komi assr, 102.2 thousand mosquitoes, 207 small mammals, 1487 blood serum specimens from people, 793 cow blood sera, 140 blood serum specimens from reindeer were collected in june-august, 1988. twenty seven virus strains isolated from mosquitoes were classified into bunyaviridae family according to the data of electron microscopic studies. identification of the isolates by cft and ifa showed 18 of the strains to belong to california encephalitis complex and 9 to bunyamwera complex. serolo ...19911677507
serological evidence of california group and cache valley virus infection in minnesota white-tailed deer.blood samples were obtained from 138 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) harvested at three sites surrounding the greater minneapolis-st. paul, minnesota, metropolitan area (usa) and tested for neutralizing antibody to cache valley virus and three california serogroup (jamestown canyon, la crosse, trivittatus) viruses (bunyaviridae). deer at each site had neutralizing antibody to one or more california serogroup viruses and/or cache valley virus. the majority of adult deer (85%) had antib ...19911906113
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against california and bunyamwera serogroup viruses in deer from mountainous areas of california.plaque reduction-serum dilution neutralization was used to evaluate the status of bunyavirus activity in deer in mountainous areas of california. antibodies against 9 bunyaviruses were measured in 337 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus, o. hemionus californicus, and o. hemionus inyoensis) and black-tailed deer (o. hemionus columbianus). more deer from high mountainous areas had neutralizing antibodies against jamestown canyon virus than did deer from low mountainous areas (23% vs. 9%; p les ...19892496610
[the use of immunoenzyme assay for detecting antigens of california group virus and bunyamwera group virus (bunyavirus, bunyaviridae) in mosquito pools]. 19892576693
congenital abnormalities in newborn lambs after infection of pregnant sheep with akabane virus.akabane virus (a bunyavirus) has been associated with epizootics of congenital deformities in cattle, sheep, and goats. experimental studies using mouse-adapted virus inoculated intravenously into pregnant sheep gave an inapparent infection. neutralizing antibodies were detected on day 5, and peaks in the titer were seen at days 10 and 48. ewes infected at day 30 to 36 of pregnancy produced five (31% incidence) deformed lambs. sera from four of these possessed neutralizing antibodies to akabane ...1977832900
the virus particle nucleic acids and proteins of four bunyaviruses.the structural polypeptides of five bunyaviruses, snowshoe hare, lumbo and la crosse viruses (members of the california encephalitis subgroup of bunyaviruses), bunyamwera and main drain viruses (members of the bunyamwera subgroup of bunyaviruses), have been compared by polyacrylamide-sds gel electrophoresis. each virus was found to possess three major structural polypeptides, two glycoproteins (g1 and g2), and one nucleocapsid protein (n). although the sizes of the g1 polypeptides (mol. wt. appr ...1977839199
growth of california encephalitis and other viruses in aedes dorsalis (diptera: culicidae) cell cultures. 1979490565
california encephalitis virus proliferation in yukon mosquitoes incubated at low temperatures.replication of a subarctic bunyavirus, california encephalitis (snowshoe hare subtype), was detected in salivary glands and thoraces of wild-caught aedes communis mosquitoes from the yokon territory, after intrathoracic inoculation with 0.1 to 100 mouse ld50 virus, and incubation for 7 to 21 days throughout their viable temperature range of 0 to 23 degrees c. immunoperoxidase staining confirmed that viral replication occurred in the cytoplasm of acinar cells of salivary glands, both by ligh micr ...1976963625
recombination and complementation between temperature-sensitive mutants of a bunyavirus, snowshoe hare virus.complementation and recombination have been observed with temperature-sensitive mutants of bunyavirus snowshoe hare virus.1976978796
transovarial transmission of arboviruses by mosquitoes: a review.one interesting aspect of mosquito-borne arboviruses is their endemic persistence, espeically during adverse climatic conditions in the temperate zones. the hypothesis that transovarial transmission of alpha- and flaviviruses by their respective mosquito vectors could serve as an overwintering mechanism has been proposed; however, experimental data in support of this hypothesis are not very convincing. recently, some of the california encephalitis group arboviruses have been shown to be transmit ...19751207183
laboratory investigation of a naturally occurring outbreak of arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly in texas sheep.an epizootic of abortions, weak lambs, stillbirths, and congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly occurred in a sheep flock in west texas. the outbreak began during the first week of january 1987 and continued through the third week of february 1987. lambs born after february 1987 were not affected. a high incidence of antibodies to cache valley virus (texas 7856 isolate) was demonstrated in the ewes' serum and in precolostral serum from affected lambs. no virus was isolated from tissues and bod ...19892488650
bunyaviruses and bunyaviridae.a new family is described, the bunyaviridae, which contains a single genus, bunyavirus. the main characteristics of the family are as follows: single-stranded rna, total molecular weight about 7 x 10(6) daltons, probably in three segments. virions spherical, enveloped particles 90-100 nm in diameter. envelope contains at least one virus-specified glycopeptide. develop in the cytoplasm, mature by budding into smooth-surfaced vesicles in the golgi region or nearby. internal ribonucleoprotein compo ...19751235823
application of enzyme immunoassay on infected cells (eia-ic) for arboviruses.comparative titrations of alpha-, flavi- and bunyamwera viruses were made by eia-ic and according to cytopathic effect (cpe). specific enzymatic reactions appeared earlier and in higher titres than cpe. the titres of dengue type 1, mayaro, powassan and langat viruses measured by eia-ic were comparable to those measured by intracerebral inoculation of mice. the cross-reactivity testing of eia-ic among alphaviruses (chikungunya, sindbis and mayaro), flaviviruses (japanese encephalitis, murray vall ...19862881468
defective rnas in mosquito cells persistently infected with bunyamwera virus.viral protein and rna synthesis were compared in bhk and aedes albopictus c6/36 (mosquito) cells infected with bunyamwera virus. in bhk cells host protein synthesis was inhibited and viral proteins were detected until the cells died; in c6/36 cells there was little inhibition of host proteins and viral proteins could not be detected after 36 h post-infection. relatively more s segment rna than l or m segment rna was produced in infected c6/36 cells compared to bhk cells. a persistent infection o ...19921346156
mutagenesis of the l protein encoded by bunyamwera virus and production of monospecific antibodies.bacterial fusion proteins containing portions of the bunyamwera virus l protein were used as immunogens to prepare antisera in rabbits. of five fusion proteins injected into rabbits, three yielded sera that reacted with the bunyamwera virus l protein, detected by western blotting or immunoprecipitation. two of these antisera were specific for either the amino- or carboxy-terminal regions of the l protein. the specificity of these antisera was confirmed by their pattern of reactivity with full-le ...19921402814
cache valley virus infection in texas sheep flocks.cache valley virus (cvv), an arbovirus indigenous to the united states, has been implicated as an important teratogenic agent in sheep. the prevalence and distribution of texas sheep with cvv-specific antibody were investigated. in 1981, 19.1% of 366 sheep located in 22 counties of texas had antibodies specific for cvv. of 50 flocks examined in the major sheep-producing counties in texas, 34 had sheep with antibodies that reacted with cvv, including all sheep tested in 6 flocks that were seropos ...19911917638
organization of germiston bunyavirus m open reading frame and physicochemical properties of the envelope glycoproteins.we describe the construction of plasmids which express fusion proteins representing various regions of germiston virus m polyprotein. the fusion proteins were purified and inoculated into rabbits to produce antisera. the n- and c-terminal regions of the polyprotein induced specific antibodies which reacted with glycoproteins g2 and g1, respectively, and the intermediate region induced antibodies against the nsm polypeptide. this enabled us to determine the gene order: g2-nsm-g1. glycoproteins g1 ...19921402815
evidence of human infection with a rat-associated hantavirus in baltimore, maryland.human sera obtained from two sources in baltimore were tested for antibodies against a hantavirus by a variety of techniques. four persons out of 1,788 had hantaviral antibody as demonstrated by immunofluorescent assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and neutralizing assay. neutralizing antibody titrations against three test viruses indicated that infections were caused by a rat-associated virus. medical histories of two subjects indicated life-long residence in baltimore and an absence of f ...19883128102
distribution of neutralizing antibodies to california and bunyamwera serogroup viruses in horses and rodents in california.neutralization tests were done on sera from 141 horses from high elevation regions of california. antibody prevalences to jamestown canyon, snowshoe hare, and california encephalitis viruses in the california serogroup and northway virus in the bunyamwera serogroup were 55%, 43%, 18%, and 46%, respectively. in 51 horses from rural low elevation regions, seroprevalences were 31%, 35%, 35%, and 37%, respectively. twenty-four horses from a suburban lowland area were seronegative, except for a singl ...19902107770
the nucleotide sequence of the m rna segment of tomato spotted wilt virus, a bunyavirus with two ambisense rna segments.the complete sequence of the tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv) m rna segment has been determined. the rna is 4821 nucleotides long and has an ambisense coding strategy similar to that of the s rna segment. the m rna segment contains two open reading frames (orfs), one in the viral sense which encodes a protein with a predicted size of 33.6k, and one in the viral complementary sense which encodes the precursor to the g1 and g2 glycoproteins, with a predicted size of 127.4k. both orfs are expressed ...19921431808
characterization of bunyamwera virus defective interfering particles.in an attempt to isolate conditional lethal amber nonsense mutants of bunyamwera virus, five variants were found which produced small plaques on bhk and mouse l cells. characterization of these variants by northern blotting showed that they synthesized defective (subgenomic) rnas derived from the l rna segment. no subgenomic m or s segment rnas were detected. the defective l rnas were shown to be packaged into virus particles, and four of five preparations caused interference with the multiplica ...19921538195
ovine arthrogryposis and central nervous system malformations associated with in utero cache valley virus infection: spontaneous disease.gross appearance and histologic lesions seen in 15 newborn lambs in an outbreak of congenital arthrogryposis with hydrocephalus or hydranencephaly (cah) in texas are described. severe arthrogryposis with skeletal muscle hypoplasia was seen in limbs of affected lambs. spinal column deformities were also present. multiple central nervous system (cns) malformations were present in cah lambs including micrencephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, micromelia, hydrocephalus, hydranencephaly, and porencephaly. ...19892492399
isolation of northway serotype and other bunyamwera serogroup bunyaviruses from california and oregon mosquitoes, 1969-1985.eight previously untyped bunyamwera serogroup bunyaviruses that had been isolated from mosquitoes collected in california and oregon between 1969 and 1985, were identified by cross-neutralization tests. four viruses from anopheles freeborni and a virus from aedes sierrensis collected in butte county in the central valley of california in 1970-71 were shown to belong to the northway serotype. the existence of a northway serotype virus in california had been inferred from previous serologic survey ...19911677543
the structure of togaviruses and bunyaviruses.this article reviews the properties of arthropod-borne and nonarbo togaviruses and members of the bunyaviridae family. averaged information is given on the morphology and substructure of the virion, its physical properties, its chemical composition and the function of its constituents. special attention is given to distinctive traits which might be useful for virus classification.19751107688
serological evidence of california serogroup virus activity in oregon.we wished to demonstrate evidence of the presence of california serogroup viruses in oregon and to test for the presence of certain other arboviruses in large ungulates. blood samples from black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), mule deer (o. hemionus hemionus), and roosevelt elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti) from nine counties in oregon were tested by serum-dilution plaque reduction neutralization for antibody to california serogroup viruses, including snowshoe hare, california encep ...19873586196
isolation of cache valley virus and detection of antibody for selected arboviruses in michigan horses in 1980.blood samples collected in september and november 1980 from 87 horses in southwestern michigan were examined for virus isolation and for plaque-reduction neutralizing antibody against selected arboviruses. cache valley virus was isolated from the blood of a clinically normal horse in st joseph county in september. the age-specific antibody prevalence for cache valley virus indicated enzootic transmission in the study area. the high antibody prevalence and the lack of age-specific antibody preval ...19873631684
[the effect of a persistent viral infection on natural antitumor resistance].the influence of persistent infection with tahyna virus on the natural antitumor resistance of the hosts was studied in mature mice. the infection was shown to suppress the host natural antitumor resistance. the development of infection was accompanied by a decrease of natural killer cell cytotoxicity against yac-1 cell line within 7 days after virus inoculation. in this period, the transplantation dose of tumor cells decreased from 10(1.73) to 10(0.82). this indirectly indicates a potential abi ...19911909071
the structure of uukuniemi virus, a proposed member of the bunyaviruses.uukuniemi virus, a proposed member of the new large bunyavirus group of arboviruses, has an interesting structure which differs in many respects from that of other enveloped rna viruses. the surface structure reveals a clustering of the two glycoproteins into distinct capsomere-like subunits, arranged in a t = 12 icosahedral lattice. the genome is found in at least three pieces that appear to represent unique virus-specific rnas. the ribonucleoproteins corresponding to the rna species are circul ...19751107689
a survey for ilesha bunyamwera group virus antibodies in sera from domestic animals and humans in three ecological zones of nigeria.343 persons, 58 children and 285 adults, from three ecological zones: rainforest, savannah, and plateau were tested for the presence of ilesha virus n antibodies in their sera. neutralization tests were conducted in suckling mice using the constant virus--constant serum technique. 155 subjects (45%) had ilesha immunity: 22 children (38%) and 133 adults (44%). the highest percentage of positive sera was found in the savannah (54%), followed by the plateau and rainforest. a further analysis of the ...19751216686
seroepidemiology of california and bunyamwera serogroup bunyavirus infections in humans in california.several human populations in california were surveyed cross-sectionally and longitudinally for neutralizing antibodies to selected arthropod-borne bunyaviruses in the california and bunyamwera serogroups. overall, the prevalence of antibodies to california serogroup viruses was 6.4% in 702 individuals sampled during 1963-1988. comparative antibody titers in individual sera indicated that 4.1% and 1.6% of these infections were caused by viruses similar or identical to jamestown canyon and califor ...19921357960
transmission of a newly recognized virus (bunyaviridae, bunyavirus) isolated from aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in potosi, missouri.aedes albopictus (skuse) mosquitoes collected in potosi, mo., were tested for their ability to transmit a newly recognized bunyamwera sero group virus isolated from the same mosquito population. mosquitoes were fed artificial blood meals containing 4.5-6.2 log10 tcid50 of virus per ml. after 7-29 d at 25 degrees c, 79-99% of the mosquitoes had disseminated infections and 0-26% transmitted virus to fluid-filled capillary tubes. transmission was first observed after 7 d of extrinsic incubation. te ...19911941926
serologic evidence of arboviral infections in white-tailed deer from central wisconsin.a survey conducted during 1979-1980 on white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in central wisconsin revealed serological evidence of infection by selected arboviruses. among sera from 41 deer, antibody was detected for jamestown canyon virus (56%) and bunyamwera group virus (80%), demonstrating their continuing endemic activity. antibody for la crosse virus, not found previously in sera from deer in central wisconsin, also was detected (5%) in this study.19892716117
biochemical and serological comparisons of australian bunyaviruses belonging to the simbu serogroup.comparative analysis of the structural and possible non-structural proteins of seven simbu serogroup bunyaviruses isolated in australia revealed them all to be similar in size to those of bunyamwera virus, the prototype of the bunyavirus genus. the molecular weights of the structural proteins for these bunyaviruses (akabane, aino, tinaroo, douglas, peaton, facey's paddock and thimiri viruses) were 193k to 205k (l), 103k to 125k (g1), 33k to 37k (g2) and 25k to 26k (n). analysis of the virion rna ...19883286816
bunyamwera virus replication in mosquitoes. 19724338313
cross-neutralization tests among cache valley virus isolates revealing the existence of multiple subtypes.maguari virus has been classified as a subtype of cache valley virus. seven bunyamwera serogroup viruses (including prototypes cache valley and maguari viruses), 4 viruses shown in previous tests as close antigenic relatives of maguari or cache valley viruses, and xingu virus were cross-tested by serum dilution-plaque reduction neutralization. all viruses were distinguishable from prototypes cache valley and maguari viruses. the close antigenic relationships of the cache valley-like viruses demo ...19883407840
a multipurpose serological survey in kenya. 2. results of arbovirus serological tests.arbovirus infections are of public health interest in east africa, where a very widespread epidemic of o'nyong-nyong fever was reported in 1959-60 and where the threat of yellow fever, present in neighbouring areas such as ethiopia, remains. sera collected in a serological survey in kenya were therefore tested for antibodies against 3 group-a arboviruses (chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong and sindbis), 6 group-b arboviruses (zika, yellow fever, west nile, banzi, wesselsbron and dengue 1), and bunyamwer ...19705313066
nucleotide sequence analysis of the small (s) rna segment of bunyamwera virus, the prototype of the family bunyaviridae.the nucleotide sequence of the small (s) rna segment of the bunyamwera virus genome has been determined. the s rna is 961 bases in length and, in common with other bunyaviruses, encodes two proteins, n and nss, in overlapping reading frames. a six-way alignment of the amino acid sequences of the n and nss proteins of viruses representing three serogroups within the bunyavirus genus indicates regions which are strongly conserved, and provides targets for future analysis of protein function.19892732714
distribution of bunyamwera serogroup viruses in north america, 1956-1984.we attempted to tabulate all bunyamwera serogroup (family bunyaviridae, genus bunyavirus) isolates from north america. by summarizing information from the laboratories of the centers for disease control, data generously shared by other laboratories, and the published literature, we were able to accumulate data regarding 1,372 bunyamwera serogroup viruses. these were: tensaw (664, including 8 from vertebrates), cache valley (396, including 6 from vertebrates), main drain (160, including 14 from v ...19862869708
a newly recognized vesiculovirus, calchaqui virus, and subtypes of melao and maguari viruses from argentina, with serologic evidence for infections of humans and horses.in 1983, 17 virus strains were isolated from mosquitoes collected during an outbreak of western equine encephalitis in santa fe province, argentina. strains of western equine encephalitis, venezuelan equine encephalitis, st. louis encephalitis, and antequera viruses were isolated, as were several bunyaviruses of the california and bunyamwera serogroups and a new vesiculovirus. complement fixation and neutralization tests were used to identify the california serogroup virus as a subtype of melao ...19872880522
the effect of cicloxolone sodium on the replication in cultured cells of adenovirus type 5, reovirus type 3, poliovirus type 1, two bunyaviruses and semliki forest virus.the effect of cicloxolone sodium (ccx) on the replication of typical representatives of different virus families [adenovirus type 5 (ad-5), reovirus type 3 (reo-3), bunyamwera and germiston viruses, poliovirus type 1 (polio-1) and semliki forest virus (sfv)] in tissue culture was investigated. the golgi apparatus inhibitor monensin (mon) and ccx were shown to have analogous effects on some aspects of virus replication. although the mon-like effect of ccx played no role in the antiviral activity ...19921311362
classification of barmah forest virus as an alphavirus using cytotoxic t cell assays.barmah forest virus, an arbovirus, does not cross-react convincingly with alpha-, flavi- or bunyavirus immune sera. secondary cytotoxic t cells generated in vitro immune to a number of alphaviruses cross-lyse barmah forest virus-infected target cells. flavivirus (west nile and kunjin)- and bunyamwera virus-immune tc cells lyse homologous virus-infected target cells, but not alphavirus-infected targets. using cytotoxic t cell assays barmah forest virus can be classified as an alphavirus.19863003237
kairi virus identified from a febrile horse in argentina.a virus isolated from the blood of a febrile horse in argentina was identified as a strain of kairi virus. this is the fifth bunyamwera serogroup virus isolated from livestock and wild animals in the americas. bunyamwera serogroup viruses have been isolated from febrile humans in the americas and africa.19883143273
isolation of a newly recognized bunyamwera serogroup virus from a febrile human in panama.a virus, strain 86msp18, was isolated from the acute phase serum of a u.s. soldier with a febrile illness. he was stationed at fort sherman in the republic of panama when the onset of his illness occurred. a rise in neutralizing antibody to the viral isolate was observed between the patient's acute and convalescent-phase serum samples. virus strain 86msp18 has been shown by plaque reduction neutralization to be closely related to but distinct from cache valley virus and known subtypes. it appear ...19883144921
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