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experimental infection of hamsters with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9.abstract: avian paramyxoviruses (apmvs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world and are separated into nine serotypes (apmv-1 to -9). only in the case of apmv-1, the infection of non-avian species has been investigated. the apmvs presently are being considered as human vaccine vectors. in this study, we evaluated the replication and pathogenicity of all nine apmv serotypes in hamsters. the hamsters were inoculated intranasally with each virus and monitored for c ...201121345199
roles of the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins in replication, tropism, and pathogenicity of avian paramyxoviruses.virulent and moderately virulent strains of newcastle disease virus (ndv), representing avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (apmv-1), cause respiratory and neurological disease in chickens and other species of birds. in contrast, apmv-2 is avirulent in chickens. we investigated the role of the fusion (f) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) envelope glycoproteins in these contrasting phenotypes by designing chimeric viruses in which the f and hn glycoproteins or their ectodomains were exchanged indiv ...201121680512
a survey for paramyxoviruses in caged birds, wild birds, and poultry in new zealand.to determine the presence of avian paramyxovirus (apmv) types 1, 2, and 3 in caged and wild birds, and apmv-2 and -3 in poultry in new zealand.200116032157
serological survey of racing pigeons for selected pathogens in taiwan.to investigate the pathogens that racing pigeons in taiwan are exposed to, a total of 3764 pigeons from 90 lofts were analysed by collection of blood samples in the period between october 2000 and september 2001. the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test was performed to detect antibodies against newcastle disease virus (ndv), type 2 avian paramyxovirus (apmv-2), and egg drop syndrome '76 virus (eds-76v). the agar-gel precipitin (agp) test was used to detect antibodies against fowl adenovirus ( ...200616841756
mutations in the fusion protein cleavage site of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 increase cleavability and syncytium formation but do not increase viral virulence in chickens.avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 (apmv-2) is one of the nine serotypes of apmv, which infect a wide variety of avian species around the world. in this study, we constructed a reverse genetics system for recovery of infectious recombinant apmv-2 strain yucaipa (apmv-2/yuc) from cloned cdna. the rescued recombinant virus (rapmv-2) resembled the biological virus in growth properties in vitro and in pathogenicity in vivo. the reverse genetics system was used to analyze the role of the cleavage site of ...201121450835
genomic characterization of two avian paramyxovirus type 2 isolates from chickens in china.the complete genome sequences were determined for avian paramyxovirus type 2 (apmv-2) strains f8 and nk isolated from chickens in china. both strains had a genome of 14,904 nucleotides (nt) in length, which followed the "rule of six". each genome consisted of six genes in the order 3'-n-p-m-f-hn-l-5', with a 55-nt leader at the 3' end and a 154-nt trailer at the 5' end. sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that apmv-2 strains f8 and nk shared the highest sequence identity with apm ...201121461587
monoclonal antibodies to avian paramyxovirus type 2.three mouse monoclonal antibodies, raised against pmv2/chicken/california/ yucaipa/56, which caused haemagglutination inhibition of the homologous virus were tested against 53 isolates which had been placed in the pmv2 serogroup using polyclonal antisera. the results allowed the viruses to be placed in four distinguishable groups consisting of 34, 4, 2 and 13 isolates.199018679947
avian paramyxoviruses in shorebirds and gulls.there are nine serotypes of avian paramyxovirus (apmv), including apmv-1, or newcastle disease virus. although free-flying ducks and geese have been extensively monitored for apmv, limited information is available for species in the order charadriiformes. from 2000 to 2005 we tested cloacal swabs from 9,128 shorebirds and gulls (33 species, five families) captured in 10 states within the usa and in three countries in the caribbean and south america. avian paramyxoviruses were isolated from 60 (0 ...201020688640
prevalence of antibodies to different avian paramyxoviruses in commercial poultry in the united states.avian paramyxoviruses (apmvs) other than newcastle disease virus have been isolated from feral avian species and have the potential to cause clinical disease. the objective of this study was to investigate the apmv antibody prevalence in commercial poultry settings. sera from 100 commercial, layer-type and broiler-type (broiler-breeder and broiler) chicken flocks were analyzed on a random basis. pooled serum samples from each flock were tested for the presence of antibodies to apmv-1, -2, -3, -4 ...200819166066
avian paramyxovirus serotypes 2-9 (apmv-2-9) vary in the ability to induce protective immunity in chickens against challenge with virulent newcastle disease virus (apmv-1).the avian paramyxoviruses (apmvs) belong to the genus avulavirus of family paramyxoviridae. the apmvs are classified into nine serotypes on the basis of hemagglutination inhibition (hi) and neuraminidase inhibition (ni) assays, although some serologic cross-reaction exists. newcastle disease virus (ndv), which constitutes serotype 1 (apmv-1), is an important pathogen of poultry, but the pathogenic potential of the other apmv serotypes is poorly understood. although antibodies to apmv -2 to -9 ar ...201222222870
baculovirus expression of the avian paramyxovirus 2 hn gene for diagnostic applications.avian paramyxovirus 2 (apmv-2) infections are associated with respiratory diseases in poultry worldwide. the hemagglutination inhibition (hi) test is a useful tool for surveillance and monitoring of this virus. in this study, full-length hemagglutinin (hn) gene of apmv-2 was chemically synthesized based on its published sequence, cloned and expressed in spodoptera frugiperda insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. the biological, antigenic and immunogenic properties of the expressed protei ...201424374124
complete sequence of the genome of avian paramyxovirus type 2 (strain yucaipa) and comparison with other paramyxoviruses.the complete rna genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus (apmv) serotype 2, strain yucaipa isolated from chicken has been determined. with genome size of 14,904 nucleotides (nt), strain yucaipa is consistent with the "rule of six" and is the smallest virus reported to date among the members of subfamily paramyxovirinae. the genome contains six non-overlapping genes in the order 3'-n-p/v-m-f-hn-l-5'. the genes are flanked on either side by highly conserved transcription start and stop signals and ...200818603323
isolations of avian paramyxovirus type 2 from domestic fowl in scotland in 2002 and 2006. 200818552330
evaluation of the genetic diversity of avian paramyxovirus type 4.avian paramyxoviruses (apmvs) belong to the genus avulavirus in the family paramyxoviridae and include at least nine serotypes, apmv-1 to -9, as well as two additional provisional serotypes. newcastle disease virus (ndv), which comprises apmv-1, is the most extensively studied apmv because it is an important poultry pathogen. a moderate level of antigenic and genetic diversity is recognized for apmv-1 isolates, but our knowledge of the antigenic and genetic diversity of the other apmv serotypes ...201323178589
molecular characterization and complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 4 prototype strain duck/hong kong/d3/75.avian paramyxoviruses (apmvs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world. all apmvs, except avian metapneumovirus, are classified in the genus avulavirus of the family paramyxoviridae. at present, the apmvs of genus avulavirus are divided into nine serological types (apmv 1-9). newcastle disease virus represents apmv-1 and is the most characterized among all apmv types. very little is known about the molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of apmv 2-9.200818937854
complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 7 (strain tennessee) and comparison with other paramyxoviruses.the complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus serotype 7 (apmv-7) prototype strain dove/tennessee/4/75 was determined. the genome size is 15,480 nucleotides (nt) long and follows the "rule of six". the genome contains six non-overlapping genes in the order of 3'-n-p/v/w-m-f-hn-l-5'. the 3'-leader and 5'-trailer sequences of the genome are 55 and 127nt long, respectively. the first 12nt of the leader and trailer sequences are complementary to each other. the viral genes are flanked by highl ...200919540277
seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in obligate and facultative scavenging avian species in california.throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. to assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger ...201526606755
comparative study on the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of wild bird isolates of avian paramyxovirus 2, 4, and 6 in chickens.based on the haemagglutination inhibition assay, nine antigenically distinct serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (apmv) are described. isolates from apmv 2, 3, 6 and 7 can cause respiratory symptoms and/or problems of the reproductive tract that may produce complications if secondary infections occur, while isolates from apmv 4, 5, 8 and 9 rarely produce clinical signs in species from which they are isolated. isolates belonging to the apmv 1 subtype induce a wide range of disease symptoms varying ...200818622861
isolation, identification, and comparison of four isolates of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 in china.four yucaipa-like viruses of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 (apmv-2) were isolated in china from the imported gouldian finch (chloebia gouldiae) and broilers in 1998-2002, and were named f4, f6, f8, and nk, respectively. examined under electron microscope, the isolates were found to be round in shape and varying in size. the results of the hemagglutination inhibition test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (using monoclonal antibodies) showed some differences between the isolates and ...200617039838
the spread of non-oie-listed avian diseases through international trade of chicken meat: an assessment of the risks to new zealand.twelve avian diseases are listed by the world organisation for animal health (oie), although more than 100 infectious diseases have been described in commercial poultry. this article summarises a recent assessment of the biosecurity risks posed by non-listed avian diseases associated with imports of chilled or frozen chicken meat and meat products into new zealand. following the guidelines described in chapter 2.1 of the oie terrestrial animal health code, avian adenovirus splenomegaly virus, av ...201527044152
detection of avian paramyxoviruses in migratory and resident birds in the state of rio de janeiro, brazil.paramyxoviruses and avian influenza viruses are present worldwide, and wild birds are known natural reservoirs of these viruses. this study monitored the circulation of these viruses in migratory and resident coastal birds captured in the state of rio de janeiro, brazil. in total, 494 birds were trapped, and their fecal samples were collected and inoculated into embryonated chicken eggs. the allantoic fluids were evaluated using a hemagglutination test and pcr amplification of the genes of the m ...201324597121
evaluation of the replication, pathogenicity, and immunogenicity of avian paramyxovirus (apmv) serotypes 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 in rhesus macaques.avian paramyxoviruses (apmv) serotypes 1-9 are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds worldwide. apmv-1 (also called newcastle disease virus, ndv) is attenuated in non-human primates and is being developed as a candidate human vaccine vector. the vector potential of the other serotypes was unknown. in the present study, we evaluated nine different biologically- or recombinantly-derived apmv strains for the ability to replicate and cause disease in rhesus macaque model. five of the viru ...201324130713
evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype 10 detected in rockhopper penguins from the falkland islands.the biological, serological, and genomic characterization of a paramyxovirus recently isolated from rockhopper penguins (eudyptes chrysocome) suggested that this virus represented a new avian paramyxovirus (apmv) group, apmv10. this penguin virus resembled other apmvs by electron microscopy; however, its viral hemagglutination (ha) activity was not inhibited by antisera against any of the nine defined apmv serotypes. in addition, antiserum generated against this penguin virus did not inhibit the ...201020702635
avian paramyxoviruses and influenza viruses isolated from mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos) in new zealand.a comprehensive study using virological and serological approaches was carried out to determine the status of live healthy mallard ducks (anas platyrhynchos) in new zealand for infections with avian paramyxoviruses (apmv) and influenza viruses (aiv). thirty-three viruses isolated from 321 tracheal and cloacal swabs were characterized as: 6 aiv (two h5n2 and four h4n6), 10 apmv-1 and 17 apmv-4. of 335 sera samples tested for aiv antibodies, 109 (32.5%) sera were positive by nucleoprotein-blocking ...200212111409
replication, neurotropism, and pathogenicity of avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1-9 in chickens and ducks.avian paramyxovirus (apmv) serotypes 1-9 have been isolated from many different avian species. apmv-1 (newcastle disease virus) is the only well-characterized serotype, because of the high morbidity, mortality, and economic loss caused by highly virulent strains. very little is known about the pathogenesis, replication, virulence, and tropism of the other apmv serotypes. here, this was evaluated for prototypes strains of apmv serotypes 2-9 in cell culture and in chickens and ducks. in cell cultu ...201222558104
detection of paramyxoviruses in magellanic penguins (spheniscus magellanicus) on the brazilian tropical coast.aquatic migratory birds are a major vectors by which influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses are spread in nature. magellanic penguins (spheniscus magellanicus) are usually present on the southern shores of south america and can swim as far as the southern coast of brazil in winter. in 2008, however, several magellanic penguins were observed on the northeastern coast of brazil. paramyxoviruses were isolated from magellanic penguins on the espírito santo state coast, approximately 4000km from their ...201122189432
serosurvey for selected infectious agents in two sympatric species of cormorants (phalacrocorax atriceps and phalacrocorax magellanicus) from coastal patagonia, argentina.we conducted a serologic survey for selected infectious agents on two sympatric cormorants, the imperial cormorant (phalacrocorax atriceps) and the rock shag (phalacrocorax magellanicus). blood was collected from 267 imperial cormorants and 106 rock shags at 17 colonies along the patagonia atlantic shore during nine breeding seasons (1994, 1999-2001-2005-2008-2010). antibodies to four pathogens were common to both species and frequently observed: avian paramyxovirus type 1 (56% of imperial cormo ...201323778597
evaluation of fusion protein cleavage site sequences of newcastle disease virus in genotype matched vaccines.newcastle disease virus (ndv) causes a devastating poultry disease worldwide. frequent outbreaks of ndv in chickens vaccinated with conventional live vaccines suggest a need to develop new vaccines that are genetically matched against circulating ndv strains, such as the genotype v virulent strains currently circulating in mexico and central america. in this study, a reverse genetics system was developed for the virulent ndv strain mexico/01/10 strain and used to generate highly attenuated vacci ...201728339499
antigenic and molecular properties of murayama virus isolated from cynomolgus monkeys: the virus is closely related to avian paramyxovirus type 2.a new virus that belonged to a member of paramyxovirus was isolated from cynomolgus monkeys showing respiratory disorders about 20 years ago and was named murayama virus (mrv). interestingly, it showed no serological relationship with the mammalian paramyxoviruses tested. on the other hand, it was related to yucaipa (yuv) and bangor virus (bav) belonging to avian paramyxovirus type 2 (pmv2). in analysis using anti-mrv monoclonal antibodies, mrv showed the closest relationship with yuv, and furth ...19938503187
mixed paramyxovirus infection of wild and domestic birds in israel.five cases of dual isolations of different serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (apmv) from domestic and wild birds are described: one case of mixed infection by apmv-1 and apmv-4 and four cases of infection by apmv-1 and apmv-2 serotypes. the double infection was proven by consecutive isolations of two viruses from allantoic fluid samples derived from single swabs after their respective treatment by antisera against each suspected virus. the finding of double apmv infection in poultry farms appea ...19979451463
demonstration of ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in pheasants (phasianus colchicus) with pneumonia and airsacculitis.outbreaks of respiratory disease were investigated in reared pheasants (phasianus colchicus) aged approximately 18 to 32 weeks, released into the semi-wild on four shooting estates in southern england. the clinical signs in the affected birds included swelling of the face and eyes, loss of condition, gasping respirations and coughing. the gross pathology findings included sinusitis, airsacculitis, pleural oedema and lung lesions. the histopathological findings in the affected lungs were characte ...201323581445
pathogenesis of two strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2, yucaipa and bangor, in chickens and turkeys.nine serologic types of avian paramyxovirus (apmv) have been recognized. newcastle disease virus (apmv-1) is the most extensively characterized virus, while relatively little information is available for the other apmv serotypes. in the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of two strains of apmv-2, yucaipa and bangor, in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free (spf) chicks, and 4-wk-old spf chickens and turkeys. the mean death time in 9-day-old embryonated ch ...201020945787
isolation of avian paramyxovirus 2 and 3 from turkeys in brittany. 19846087542
[preparation and identification of the monoclonal antibody specific to hemagglutinin of avian paramyxovirus type 2].a hybridoma cell line 1g4a7 secreting monoclonal antibody (mcab) specific to hemagglutinin of avian paramyxovirus type 2 (apmv-2) was developed by fusing the spleen cells of apmv-2 immunized balb/c mice with sp2/0 myeloma cells. the immunoglobulin subclass of 1g4a7 was igg1 with light chain kappa and the affinity constant against apmv-2 was 1.02 x 10(10). identified by hi and indirect elisa, the mcab titers in ascities were 10 log 2 and 1 : 10(6) respectively. the mcab did not cross react with t ...200818533347
phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences for the hn gene of 22 avian paramyxovirus type 2 viruses reveals marked heterogeneity.the nucleotide sequence of the hn gene was determined for 21 isolates of avian paramyxovirus type 2 virus and compared with the published hn gene of apmv-2/chicken/california/yucaipa/56. the hn gene of the 22 viruses had five different lengths in the range of 1737 to 1755 nucleotides coding for 579 to 585 amino acids. phylogenetic analysis of a corresponding 1734-nucleotide sequence from the hn gene of each virus established five genetic groups (i to v), two of which (ii and iv) could be divided ...201021154054
isolation of avian paramyxovirus-2 from domestic and wild birds in costa rica.a survey for newcastle disease virus (ndv) in wild birds of costa rica was conducted by swabbing wild-caught pet birds, backyard chickens, and wild birds captured in japanese mist nets in tropical rain forests and agricultural areas. cloacal swabs were collected from 876 birds of approximately 132 species representing 24 taxonomic families. hemagglutinating agents were isolated from 18.7% of the birds. paramyxovirus type 2(pmv-2) (yucaipa-like), unreported in free-flying passerines in the americ ...19883202769
newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses.newcastle disease (nd), caused by avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (apmv-1) viruses, is included in list a of the office international des epizooties. historically, nd has been a devastating disease of poultry, and in many countries the disease remains one of the major problems affecting existing or developing poultry industries. even in countries where nd may be considered to be controlled, an economic burden is still associated with vaccination and/or maintaining strict biosecurity measures. the ...200010935273
structure and function study of paramyxovirus fusion protein heptad repeat peptides.paramyxovirus might adopt a molecular mechanism of membrane fusion similar to that of other class i viruses in which the heptad repeat (hr) regions of fusion protein (f) hr1 and hr2 form a six-helix bundle structure inducing membrane fusion. in this study, we examined the structure and function of hr1 and hr2 from the avian paramyxovirus-2 (apmv-2) f protein. the study showed that apmv-2 hr1 and hr2 formed a stable six-helix bundle. only a soluble apmv-2 hr2 peptide showed potent and specific vi ...200515797244
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