the species of mallophaga in wild birds in iran.up to date 2 species of mallophaga have been reported from birds in iran. further studies in tehran area showed that the wild birds harbour more lice. the following species of mallophage are reported for the first time from birds in iran. anaticola crassicornis from anas clypeata, laemobothrion maximum from falco tinnunculus laemobothrion sp. from aquila chrysaetos alcedoecus annulatus from alcedo athis, colpocephalum pectinatum and strigiphilus sp. from streptopelia turtur, amrysidea fulvomacul ...19751243890
bird attack on milk bottles: possible mode of transmission of campylobacter jejuni to man.a case-control study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the rise in the rate of campylobacter jejuni infection in the brigend area of south wales during may was due to the consumption or handling of milk from bottles that had been attacked by birds. 32 of 36 cases meeting the case definition were interviewed, along with 2 controls per case, matched for age, sex, and area of residence. there were strong associations between campylobacter infection and doorstep delivery of milk bottles, a ...19901978882
use of recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein virus for oral vaccination of wildlife against rabies: innocuity to several non-target bait consuming species.the pathogenicity of a vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies glycoprotein (vvtggrab) was tested in several wild animal species which could compete with the natural rabies host, the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in consuming vaccine baits in europe. the following species were included in this study: wild boar (sus scrofa), eurasian badger (meles meles), wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis), bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), common vole (microtus arv ...19892681844
[new filaria of the magpie, eufilaria kalifai n. sp. (lemdaninae) and its development in culicoides nubeculosus].e. kalifai n. sp. (lemdaninae) is described from pica pica galliae captured in france (herault); this species resembles e. longicaudata from north american corvidae as well as e. delicata and e. bartlettae from european turdidae but is distinguished principally by the large size of the microfilaria (180-220 microns). the life is completed using culicoides nubeculosus as intermediate host. the above four species of eufilaria are very similar but the caudal extremity of the infective stage has fou ...19846721377
possible fenthion toxicity in magpies (pica pica).unusual mortality in magpies (pica pica) is described. dead or sick birds were discovered in proximity to cattle in alberta feedlots. subsequent examinations indicated magpies were being exposed to fenthion, an organophosphate used on cattle for control of warble larvae and lice. the possibility of toxicity with fenthion is suggested.19817248874
isolation and primary structure of a novel avian pancreatic polypeptide from five species of eurasian crow.chicken pancreatic polypeptide is the prototype of the neuropeptide y (npy)/pp superfamily of regulatory peptides. this polypeptide was appended the descriptive term avian, despite the presence of some 8600 extant species of bird. additional primary structures from other avian species, including turkey, goose and ostrich, would suggest that the primary structure of this polypeptide has been highly-conserved during avian evolution. avian pancreatic polypeptides structurally-characterised to date ...19938234905
rapid antigen-capture assay to detect west nile virus in dead corvids.the utility of the vectest antigen-capture assay to detect west nile virus (wnv) in field-collected dead corvids was evaluated in manitoba and ontario, canada, in 2001 and 2002. swabs were taken from the oropharynx, cloaca, or both of 109 american crows, 31 blue jays, 6 common ravens, and 4 black-billed magpies from manitoba, and 255 american crows and 28 blue jays from ontario. the sensitivity and specificity of the antigen-capture assay were greatest for samples from american crows; oropharyng ...200314718083
vertebral artery occlusion in duplex color-coded establish the diagnostic criteria for the site of occlusion in the vertebral arteries (vas) using duplex color-coded ultrasonography.200415060317
zoonotic transmission of cryptococcus neoformans from a magpie to an immunocompetent patient.we report a case of cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent female patient with exposure to a pet magpie (pica pica). genetically indistinguishable isolates were cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid of the patient and excreta of the bird. our data strongly suggest zoonotic transmission of cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii from a magpie to this patient.200515788009
highly pathogenic avian influenza in magpies (pica pica sericea) in south korea.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) is an extremely infectious, systemic viral disease of birds that produces high mortality and morbidity. hpai was diagnosed in the three dead magpies (pica pica sericea) submitted to the national veterinary research and quarantine service. at necropsy, the prominent lesions were multifocal or coalescing necrosis of the pancreas with enlargement of the livers and spleens. microscopically, there were severely necrotizing pancreatitis and lymphocytic meningoe ...200516244075
[the genotyping of the west nile virus in birds in the far eastern region of russia in 2002-2004].samples from 20 species of trapped and dead birds were collected in the far eastern region in 2002-2004 and were analyzed by the anti-wnv mab-modified immunoenzyme assay for antigen detection and rt-pcr for viral rna detection. five positive samples from cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) and two positive samples from cattle egret (bubulcus ibis) were found in both tests. the sequencing of the 322 bp fragments of protein e gene showed 99-99.67% homology with the strain wnv/leiv-vlgoo-27924 o ...200617094656
avian mortality surveillance for west nile virus in colorado.we tested 1,549 avian carcasses of 104 species to identify targets for west nile virus (wnv) surveillance in colorado, determine species affected by wnv, compare virus isolation versus rna detection applied to hearts and oral swabs from carcasses, and compare the vectest wnv antigen assay (vectest) to standard assays. forty-two species tested positive. from june to september 2003, 86% of corvids, 34% of non-corvid passerines, and 37% of raptors tested positive. we developed the target species in ...200717360863
west nile virus in wild resident birds, southern france, equine west nile virus (wnv) outbreak occurred in 2004 in the camargue, a wetland area in the south of france where the virus was first reported in 1962 and re-emerged in 2000. wnv neutralizing antibodies were detected in resident birds and two isolates from a house sparrow (passer domesticus) and a common magpie (pica pica) were completely sequenced. phylogenetic analyses revealed that these isolates are closely related to strains previously found in horses in southern europe and north afric ...200717767404
preen oil as the main source of external contamination with organic pollutants onto feathers of the common magpie (pica pica).we investigated the possible sources of contamination with organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) and metabolites, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes), in and onto tail feathers of a large songbird, the common magpie (pica pica). although feathers are potentially useful as a non-destructive biomonitor for organic pollutants, concentrations may be influenced by external contamination onto the feather surface. in a first appr ...200818237780
magpies as hosts for west nile virus, southern france.european magpies (pica pica) from southern france were tested for antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) and viral shedding in feces during spring-autumn 2005. results suggest that this peridomestic species may be a suitable sentinel species and a relevant target for additional investigations on wnv ecology in europe.200818258098
molecular epidemiology and characterization of campylobacter spp. isolated from wild bird populations in northern england.campylobacter infections have been reported at prevalences ranging from 2 to 50% in a range of wild bird species, although there have been few studies that have investigated the molecular epidemiology of campylobacter spp. consequently, whether wild birds are a source of infection in humans or domestic livestock or are mainly recipients of domestic animal strains and whether separate cycles of infection occur remain unknown. to address these questions, serial cross-sectional surveys of wild bird ...200919286781
low west nile virus circulation in wild birds in an area of recurring outbreaks in southern france.west nile virus (wnv) has a history of irregular but recurrent epizootics in countries of mediterranean and of central and eastern europe. we have investigated the temporal enzootic activity of wnv in free-ranging birds over a 3-year period in an area with sporadic occurrences of wnv outbreaks in southern france. we conducted an intensive serologic survey on several wild bird populations (>4000 serum samples collected from 3300 birds) selected as potential indicators of the wnv circulation. wnv ...200919402766
cryptosporidium spp. in pet birds: genetic diversity and potential public health characterize the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of cryptosporidium species/genotypes in pet birds in henan, china, 434 fecal samples were acquired from 14 families of birds in pet shops. the overall prevalence of cryptopsoridium was 8.1% (35/434) by the sheather's sugar flotation technique. the cryptosporidium-positive samples were analyzed by dna sequence analysis of the small subunit (ssu) rrna gene. three cryptosporidium species and two genotypes were identified, in ...201121557938
pharmaceuticals in the river elbe and its tributaries.medicinal drugs were found to be ubiquitous in the river elbe, its tributary the river saale and in other tributaries at their points of entry into the elbe. the distribution of concentration peaks along the investigated river stretches provides an indication that they are mainly due to the emission of treated waste water from municipal sewage treatment works. this leads to the conclusion that medicinal substances can be regarded as faecal indicators for water pollution caused by human activity. ...200415294435
presence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum dna in the brain of wild birds.toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in many avian species and can cause mortality in some bird hosts. although t. gondii has been isolated from various species of birds, the role of many different species of wild birds in the epidemiology of t. gondii remains unknown. neospora caninum, a closely related parasite to t. gondii, has been recently confirmed to infect domestic chickens and wild birds such as house sparrows (passer domesticus). the present study reports the presence of t. gondi ...201121831525
trade-off between immunocompetence and growth in magpies: an experimental study.a trade-off between immunity and growth has repeatedly been suggested, mainly based on laboratory and poultry science, but also from experiments where parasitism intensity was manipulated in field bird populations. however, as resource allocation to different activities (or organs) during growth is difficult to manipulate, this trade-off has only been experimentally tested by studying the effects of non-pathogenic antigens. by providing some nestling magpies (pica pica) with methionine, a sulphu ...200312614572
comparative power curves in bird flight.the relationship between mechanical power output and forward velocity in bird flight is controversial, bearing on the comparative physiology and ecology of locomotion. applied to flying birds, aerodynamic theory predicts that mechanical power should vary as a function of forward velocity in a u-shaped curve. the only empirical test of this theory, using the black-billed magpie (pica pica), suggests that the mechanical power curve is relatively flat over intermediate velocities. here, by integrat ...200312540899
[diagnosis and therapy of neurotic depressions].the causes of depressive syndroms differ from case to case. frequently, the cause of disease cannot be reliably determined from the cross-sectional picture alone. rather, it is necessary to give careful consideration to heredity, longitudinal analyses, and psychodynamics. the etiopathogenesis of neurotic depressions is discussed for the four different forms of neurosis by reference to the classification of neuroses recommended in bad elster in 1969. to make the psychodynamics of neurotic depress ...2004375275
antibiotic resistance in bacteria from magpies (pica pica) and rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) from west wales.the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wild animal and bird populations is largely unknown, with little consistency among the few published reports. we therefore examined intestinal bacteria from magpies (pica pica) and rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) collected in rural west wales. escherichia coli isolates resistant to multiple antibiotics were grown from eight of 20 magpies trapped in spring, 1999 and one of 17 in spring, 2000; the most prevalent resistance trait among these isolat ...200111722546
development of object permanence in food-storing magpies (pica pica).the development of object permanence was investigated in black-billed magpies (pica pica), a food-storing passerine bird. the authors tested the hypothesis that food-storing development should be correlated with object-permanence development and that specific stages of object permanence should be achieved before magpies become independent. as predicted, piagetian stages 4 and 5 were reached before independence was achieved, and the ability to represent a fully hidden object (piagetian stage 4) e ...200010890586
flight kinematics of black-billed magpies and pigeons over a wide range of speedsto investigate how birds that differ in morphology change their wing and body movements while flying at a range of speeds, we analyzed high-speed (60 hz) video tapes of black-billed magpies (pica pica) flying at speeds of 4-14 m s-1 and pigeons (columba livia) flying at 6-20 m s-1 in a wind-tunnel. pigeons had higher wing loading and higher-aspect-ratio wings compared with magpies. both species alternated phases of steady-speed flight with phases of acceleration and deceleration, particularly at ...19969317775
occurrence of giardia and cryptosporidium in wild birds in galicia (northwest spain).faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in galicia (northwest spain), between february 2007 and september 2009. the birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. giardia cysts and cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established pcr-sequencing methods. the overall prevalence of giardia was 2·1% and that of cryptosporidium, 8·3%. to our knowledge, t ...201525669618
[quantitative determination of co2-resorption from thermo-indifferent carbon dioxide mineral-water baths through human skin].by means of mass spectrometric precision analysis of the natural variation of the 12c/13 relation in carbon dioxide of different provenience we contrive to pursue quantitatively the penetration of co2 from the water of natural containing carbonic acid mineral baths (mineral springs bad elster) into the human body (skin--blood--expiratory air). first experiments confirm that in a bath of 21 or 20 minutes duration must be reckoned with a quantity of approximately equal to 24 ml . min-1 . m-2 of re ...19826815909
the effects of heptachlor and lindane on birds, columbia basin, oregon and washington, 1976-1981.the effects of heptachlor seed treatments on birds in the vicinity of the umatilla national wildlife refuge, oregon and washington, were investigated from 1978 to 1981. an egg was collected from each of 60 nests representing six species. heptachlor epoxide (he) residues were detected in 35 eggs and were particularly high (8-13 micrograms g-1) in a few eggs of the black-billed magpie, mallard, and ring-necked pheasant. these residues were within the range that induced reproductive problems in oth ...19852417314
vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass using a radial artery graft for hemorrhagic dissecting vertebral artery aneurysms: surgical technique and report of 2 cases.endovascular occlusion of hemorrhagic dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral artery (va) is not possible when the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (pica) originates from the dissecting aneurysm or when the contralateral va provides inadequate collateral blood flow to the distal basilar circulation. the authors introduce a va-pica bypass with radial artery interposition graft and aneurysm trapping as an alternative approach and describe 2 cases in which this bypass was used to treat hemorrhagi ...201120540594
epidemiology of west nile in europe and in the mediterranean the last 30 years several cases of west nile (wn) virus infection were reported in horses and humans in europe and in the mediterranean basin. most of them were determined by strains of the lineage 1 included in the european mediterranean/kenyan cluster. strains of this cluster are characterised by a moderate pathogenicity for horses and humans and limited or no pathogenicity for birds. in recent years, however, wn cases determined by strains grouped in the israeli/american cluster of lineage ...201020517490
wild birds recognize individual humans: experiments on magpies, pica pica.the ability to distinguish among heterospecific individuals has been reported in only a few animal species. humans can be viewed as a special type of heterospecifics because individuals differ widely in behavior, ranging from non-threatening to very threatening toward animals. in this study, we asked whether wild magpies can recognize individual humans who had accessed their nests. we compared the behavior of breeding pairs toward individual humans before and after the humans climbed up to the b ...201121614521
isolation, characterization and chromosome locations of polymorphic black-billed magpie pica pica (corvidae, aves) microsatellite and two unique loci were isolated from a microsatellite-enriched black-billed magpie pica pica genomic library. sixteen of these new loci, along with 148 existing microsatellite passerine loci, were tested for polymorphism in four unrelated black-billed magpies. we identified a total of 43 unique polymorphic loci (10 and 33 respectively) that we characterized in 24 unrelated individuals from a population in guadix, spain. the putative chromosomal locations of loci polymorphic in blac ...200921564946
immunohistochemical analysis of pyloric gland adenomas using a series of mucin 2, mucin 5ac, mucin 6, cd10, ki67 and p53.a pyloric gland adenoma (pga) of the stomach was first described in a book chapter in 1976 by kurt elster and has been rarely reported in the literature. we expanded the current immunohistochemical data of these adenomas in a detailed series to further analyse the immunhistochemical status of pga. from 60 patients with pga with and without adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, an immunhistochemical panel of mucin 2, mucin 5ac, mucin 6, cd10, ki67 and p53 was used to define the expressio ...201020827489
corvid birds (corvidae) act as definitive hosts for sarcocystis ovalis in moose (alces alces).epidemiological data and a unique phylogenetic position had suggested that sarcocystis ovalis in moose and red deer might use a definitive host other than canids, felids, or humans. corvid birds and rats were therefore evaluated as potential definitive hosts for this species in a small pilot study. four laboratory rats were each inoculated with 10 or 25 sarcocysts of s. ovalis isolated from moose, but no sarcocystis oocysts were detected in their intestinal mucosa upon euthanasia 2 to 3 weeks la ...201020697910
redescription of sphaerirostris picae (acanthocephala: centrorhynchidae) from magpie, pica pica, in northern iran, with special reference to unusual receptacle structures and notes on histopathology.adults of sphaerirostris picae (rudolphi, 1819) golvan, 1956 are described from european magpie, pica pica linnaeus (corvidae), collected in 2008 from wooded areas near the northern iranian town of tonekabon by the southern shores of the caspian sea. other specimens also were collected from corvus cornix linnaeus, corvus corone linnaeus, and corvus frugilegus linnaeus (corvidae) in the same location, as well as from some of these hosts in other locations. our specimens had 31-38 proboscis hook r ...201020557203
a transitional model for the evaluation of west nile virus transmission in august 2008, after 10 years of apparent silence, west nile virus (wnv) infection re-emerged in northern italy, spreading through the territories of three regions. in the following years, new cases occurred in the same area and additional foci of infection were observed in central and southern italy, involving also sicily and sardinia islands. the italian ministry of health ordered to test by rt-pcr all blood and organ donors from 15th june to 15th november of each year in the infected areas. ...201625382294
the susceptibility of magpies to a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype h5n1.korean wild magpies (pica pica sericea) were intranasally inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza (a/chicken/korea/es/03 virus) (h5n1), which was classified as clade 2.5. we estimated viral replication, death after infection, and histology and immunohistochemistry. this species was highly susceptible to severe infection; 100% of birds died within 5 to 8 d. the virus was detected from oropharyngeal (1 to 5 d postinfection) and cloacal (3 to 5 d postinfection) swabs from infected magpies ...201020460661
a conceptual framework for the colonisation of urban areas: the blackbird turdus merula as a case study.despite increasing interest in urban ecology the factors limiting the colonisation of towns and cities by species from rural areas are poorly understood. this is largely due to the lack of a detailed conceptual framework for this urbanisation process, and of sufficient case studies. here, we develop such a framework. this draws upon a wide range of ecological and evolutionary theory and the increasing number of studies of how the markedly divergent conditions in urban and rural areas influence t ...201020128785
west nile virus transmission in 2008 in north-eastern italy.after 10 years, west nile virus (wnv) re-emerged in italy in august 2008. as on 31 december 2008, the infection affected eight provinces in three regions (emilia romagna, veneto, lombardy), where a total of 794 cases of wnv infection in 251 equine stables were detected on the basis of the clinical signs and as a result of a serological screening in horses living in the area. only 4.0% (32/794) of the serologically positive animals showed clinical signs, and the 32 clinical cases were reported in ...201020042066
phylogenetic analysis of west nile virus isolated in italy in italy the first occurrence of west nile virus (wnv) infection was reported in tuscany region during the late summer of 1998. in august 2008, the wnv infection re-emerged in italy, in areas surrounding the po river delta, and involving three regions lombardy, emilia romagna and veneto. wnv was isolated from blood and organs samples of one horse, one donkey, one pigeon (columba livia) and three magpies (pica pica). the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates, conducted on 255 bp in the region cod ...200819040827
organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in lanner falco biarmicus feldeggli schlegel chicks and lanner prey in sicily, italy.this paper reports on research conducted to elucidate the risk posed to the sicilian population of the endangered lanner falcon falco biarmicus feldeggii schlegel by organochlorine (oc) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), as part of a wider study on contaminant risk to the lanner. seventeen lanner nest sites were studied in northern and central sicily. sampling (in 2005) and analysis were carried out for selected oc pesticides and pcb congeners in lanner chick blood (15 chicks from ...200818833798
mirror-induced behavior in the magpie (pica pica): evidence of self-recognition.comparative studies suggest that at least some bird species have evolved mental skills similar to those found in humans and apes. this is indicated by feats such as tool use, episodic-like memory, and the ability to use one's own experience in predicting the behavior of conspecifics. it is, however, not yet clear whether these skills are accompanied by an understanding of the self. in apes, self-directed behavior in response to a mirror has been taken as evidence of self-recognition. we investig ...200818715117
very virulent infectious bursal disease virus isolated from wild birds in korea: epidemiological explore the epidemiological link between infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv) in wild birds and domestic chickens in korea, we examined 107 free-living wild birds, representing 7 species, that were found dead of apparent natural causes in korea over the past two years for the presence of ibdv. five birds were tested positive for ibdv by rt-pcr assay: black-billed magpie (n=1), mallard duck (n=2), bean goose (n=1) and white-fronted goose (n=1). ibdv was isolated from rt-pcr-positive tissues ...200818652855
role of terrestrial wild birds in ecology of influenza a virus (h5n1).house sparrows, european starlings, and carneux pigeons were inoculated with 4 influenza a (h5n1) viruses isolated from different avian species. we monitored viral replication, death after infection, and transmission to uninfected contact birds of the same species. sparrows were susceptible to severe infection; 66%-100% of birds died within 4-7 days. high levels of virus were detected from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and in organs of deceased sparrows. inoculation of starlings caused no deat ...200718217557
preference of birds for zinc phosphide bait formulations.zinc phosphide baits are used for controlling pest rodents but are also highly toxic to other vertebrates. the base for rodent baits containing zinc phosphide is usually wheat kernels which are highly attractive to birds. in this study, wheat-based pellets of different shapes and colours without zinc phosphide were tested for their attractiveness for pigeons (columba livia gmelin) and japanese quails (coturnix japonica temm. & schleg.) in aviaries and for pigeons and corvids (corvus monedula l., ...200818189327
reassortant h9n2 influenza viruses containing h5n1-like pb1 genes isolated from black-billed magpies in southern china.h9n2 influenza a viruses have become endemic in different types of terrestrial poultry and wild birds in asia, and are occasionally transmitted to humans and pigs. to evaluate the role of black-billed magpies (pica pica) in the evolution of influenza a virus, we conducted two epidemic surveys on avian influenza viruses in wild black-billed magpies in guangxi, china in 2005 and characterized three isolated black-billed magpie h9n2 viruses (bbm viruses). phylogenetic analysis indicated that three ...201121980538
[avian diversity and bird strike risk at fuyang airport].from june 2008 to january 2010, a survey of avian communities was conducted in five habitats (grassland, farmland, town, wetland, and woodland) at fuyang airport and its surrounding areas, with the diversity indices in different seasons and different habitats analyzed. a total of 122 avian species belonging to 15 orders and 40 families were recorded. at fuyang airport, the avian species number was significantly higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring, the avian density was the high ...201122007473
[on the anniversary. 50 years of the journal of rheumatology. its first editor: public health officer professor dr. med. paul köhler, bad elster]. 20113071033
a few morphological features of interest in development of the nasal apparatus of the magpie (pica pica l.). morphogenesis and evolutionary morphology of the nasal capsule, the nasal epithelial tube and the organ of jacobson in sauropsida. xvii. 20133699635
understanding west nile virus ecology in europe: culex pipiens host feeding preference in a hotspot of virus emergence.understanding wildlife disease ecology is becoming an urgent need due to the continuous emergence and spread of several wildlife zoonotic diseases. west nile virus (wnv) is the most widespread arthropod-borne virus in the world, and in recent decades there has been an increase both in geographic range, and in the frequency of symptomatic infections in humans and wildlife. the principal vector for wnv in europe is the common house culex pipiens mosquito, which feeds on a wide variety of vertebrat ...201525888754
mortality associated with avian reovirus infection in a free-living magpie (pica pica) in great britain.avian reoviruses (arvs) cause a range of disease presentations in domestic, captive and free-living bird species. arvs have been reported as a cause of significant disease and mortality in free-living corvid species in north america and continental europe. until this report, there have been no confirmed cases of arv-associated disease in british wild birds.201525880683
life history and spatial distribution of oriental beetle (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) in golf courses in korea.larval and adult activity of the oriental beetle exomala orientalis (waterhouse), a pest of turfgrass in korea, was investigated at four golf clubs in pusan, korea, from 1995 to 1999. adult emergence was first observed on the greens in late may with peak activity occurring 2 wk later. during the day, e. orientalis adults were most active between 1800 and 2200 hours. first instars were found mostly in early july, second instars mostly in late july, and third instars from august to april. the dens ...200211942767
generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to avian influenza h5n1 hemagglutinin protein.highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 virus has in the past breached the species barrier from infected domestic poultry to humans in close contact. although human-to-human transmission has previously not been reported, hpai h5n1 virus has pandemic potential owing to gain of function mutation(s) and/or genetic reassortment with human influenza a viruses. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) have been used for diagnosis as well as specific therapeutic candidates in several disease conditions inclu ...201526683184
genetic characterization of oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates from wild birds indicates that genotype is associated with host species, diet and presence of pathognomonic lesions.oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates of wild birds from spain were studied. a total of 1688 samples (1214 of predator birds and 474 of prey species) from wildlife recovery centres and scientific bird-ringing campaigns were analysed from 2011 to 2013. the overall infection prevalence was 20.3% (11.4% in predator birds and 43.3% in prey species). pathognomonic lesions were present in 26% of the infected birds (57.3% in predator birds and 4.9% in prey species). the most commonly parasitized species w ...201425262786
feather microstructure of the black-billed magpie (pica pica sericea) and jungle crow (corvus macrorhynchos).the jungle crow (corvus macrorhynchos) distribution stretches from eastern eurasia continent to southeastern asia. the distribution of the black-billed magpie (pica pica sericea) stretches from korea and china to the kyushu area in japan. they are both in the family, corvidae, and have iridescent feather colors, but the iridescent feather color of the black-billed magpie is more remarkable than that of the jungle crow. we observed the feather microstructure of these birds using electron microsco ...201020224241
wall thickness of gas- and marrow-filled avian long bones: measurements on humeri, femora and tibiotarsi in crows (corvus corone cornix) and magpies (pica pica).we studied how the ratio k of the internal to external diameter of gas- and marrow-filled avian long bones follows the biomechanical optima derived for tubular bones with minimum mass designed to fulfil various mechanical requirements. we evaluated radiographs of numerous humeri, femora and tibiotarsi in corvus corone cornix and pica pica. the k-values of the gas-filled humerus (k=0.78+/-0.03) and the marrow-filled femur (k=0.79+/-0.02) in corvus are practically the same, while k of the marrow-f ...200616084519
laying date, incubation and egg breakage as determinants of bacterial load on bird eggshells: experimental evidence.exploring factors guiding interactions of bacterial communities with animals has become of primary importance for ecologists and evolutionary biologists during the last years because of their likely central role in the evolution of animal life history traits. we explored the association between laying date and eggshell bacterial load (mesophilic bacteria, enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, and enterococci) in natural and artificial magpie (pica pica) nests containing fresh commercial quail (cotu ...201525912895
great spotted cuckoo fledglings often receive feedings from other magpie adults than their foster parents: which magpies accept to feed foreign cuckoo fledglings?natural selection penalizes individuals that provide costly parental care to non-relatives. however, feedings to brood-parasitic fledglings by individuals other than their foster parents, although anecdotic, have been commonly observed, also in the great spotted cuckoo (clamator glandarius)--magpie (pica pica) system, but this behaviour has never been studied in depth. in a first experiment, we here show that great spotted cuckoo fledglings that were translocated to a distant territory managed t ...201425272009
recognizing odd smells and ejection of brood parasitic eggs. an experimental test in magpies of a novel defensive trait against brood of the most important defensive host traits against brood parasitism is the detection and ejection of parasitic eggs from their nests. here, we explore the possible role of olfaction in this defensive behaviour. we performed egg-recognition tests in magpie pica pica nests with model eggs resembling those of parasitic great spotted cuckoos clamator glandarius. in one of the experiment, experimental model eggs were exposed to strong or moderate smell of tobacco smoke, whereas those of a third ...201424725170
three new species of the genus passeroptes fain (astigmata: dermationidae) from china.three new species of the genus passeroptes (acariformes: dermationidae) are described from passerine birds (passeriformes) in china: passeroptes formosus sp. nov. from garrulax formosus formosus (verreaux) (guizhou), p. poecilorhynchus sp. nov. from garrulax poecilorhynchus berthemyi (david and oustalet) (guizhou), and p. picae sp. nov. from pica pica sericea gould (henan). passeroptes garrulax is redescribed from garrulax poecilorhynchus berthemyi in guizhou.201425081760
eavesdropping cuckoos: further insights on great spotted cuckoo preference by magpie nests and egg colour.reproductive success of brood parasites largely depends on appropriate host selection and, although the use of inadvertent social information emitted by hosts may be of selective advantage for cuckoos, this possibility has rarely been experimentally tested. here, we manipulated nest size and clutch colouration of magpies (pica pica), the main host of great spotted cuckoos (clamator glandarius). these phenotypic traits may potentially reveal information about magpie territory and/or parental qual ...201424556949
gastrointestinal helminths of magpies (pica pica), rooks (corvus frugilegus) and carrion crows (corvus corone) in mazandaran province, north of iran.corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine birds including crows, rooks, magpies, jays, chough, and ravens. these birds are migratory species, especially in the shortage of foods, so they can act like vectors for a wide range of microorganisms. they live generally in temperate climates and in a very close contact with human residential areas as well as poultry farms. there is no available information in the literature concerning the parasitic infections of these three species of corvidae in maz ...201122347286
secondary poisoning of eagles following intentional poisoning of coyotes with anticholinesterase pesticides in western canada.records of eagles, coyotes (canis latrans), and red foxes (vulpes vulpes) necropsied at the western college of veterinary medicine, saskatoon, saskatchewan, canada, between 1967 and 2002 were reviewed for cases suggestive of anticholinesterase poisoning. from 1993 to 2002, 54 putative poisoning incidents involving 70 bald eagles (haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 10 golden eagles (aquila chrysaetus) were identified. of these, 50 incidents occurred in saskatchewan, two were in manitoba, and one occur ...200415362815
do climatic conditions affect host and parasite phenotypes differentially? a case study of magpies and great spotted cuckoos.climatic conditions, through their effects on resource availability, may affect important life history strategies and trade-offs in animals, as well as their interactions with other organisms such as parasites. this impact may depend on species-specific pathways of development that differ even among species with similar resource requirements (e.g., avian brood parasites and their hosts). here we explore the degree of covariation between environmental-climatic conditions and nestling phenotypes ( ...201424078079
brood parasitism correlates with the strength of spatial autocorrelation of life history and defensive traits in magpies.environmental characteristics of neighboring locations are generally more similar than those of distant locations. selection pressures due to parasitism and other environmental conditions shape life history traits of hosts; thus, the probability of parasitism should be associated with the strength of spatial autocorrelation in life history and defensive traits of their hosts. here we test this hypothesis in three different subpopulations of magpie (pica pica) parasitized by the great spotted cuc ...201323923497
recent circulation of west nile virus and potentially other closely related flaviviruses in southern recent years, the number of west nile virus (wnv) cases reported in horses and humans has increased dramatically throughout the mediterranean basin. furthermore, the emergence of usutu virus (usuv) in austria in 2001, and its subsequent expansion to hungary, spain, italy, switzerland, the united kingdom, and germany, has given added cause for concern regarding the impact of the spread of flaviviruses on human and animal health in western europe. despite frequent detection of wnv and usuv case ...201323930977
interspecies differences in mixed function oxidase activity in birds: relationship between feeding habits, detoxication activities and organochlorine accumulation.the relationship between feeding habits and interspecies differences in the detoxication ability of the mixed function oxidase (mfo) system was investigated in birds. the role of mfo (particularly aldrin epoxidase activity) in the detoxication/bioaccumulation of organochlorines was also investigated. euriphagic (yellow-legged herring gull (larus cachinnans), black-headed gull (larus ridibundus), jackdaw (corvus monedula), magpie (pica pica) and stenophagic (cormorant (phalacrocorax carbo), coot ...199515091496
telomere dynamics in parasitic great spotted cuckoos and their magpie hosts.although little is known on the impact of environment on telomere length dynamics, it has been suggested to be affected by stress, lifestyle and/or life-history strategies of animals. we here compared telomere dynamics in erythrocytes of hatchlings and fledglings of the brood parasite great spotted cuckoos (clamator glandarius) and of magpies (pica pica), their main host in europe. in magpie chicks, telomere length decreased from hatching to fledging, whereas no significant change in telomere le ...201526109322
development of hippocampal specialisation in a food-storing bird.previous studies demonstrated that amongst food-storing passerine birds the hippocampal region (dorso-medial cortex) is enlarged relative to the rest of the telencephalon. it has been hypothesised that this hippocampal specialisation is related to the spatial memory requirements of retrieving large numbers of stored items. here we compare the development of the hippocampus in a food-storing and a non-storing corvid, the adults of which differ in relative hippocampal volume. the volume, cell dens ...19938466658
corticosterone levels in host and parasite nestlings: is brood parasitism a hormonal stressor?parasite chicks from non-evictor species usually try to monopolize host parental care, thereby increasing considerably the level of food competition in the nest. here, we propose that brood parasitism is an important stressor for host and parasite nestlings and explore this hypothesis in the non-evictor great spotted cuckoo (clamator glandarius) and its main hosts, the same-sized black-billed magpie (pica pica) and the larger carrion crow (corvus corone). we experimentally created 3-nestling bro ...201222366505
evolution of tolerance by magpies to brood parasitism by great spotted cuckoos.hosts may use two different strategies to ameliorate negative effects of a given parasite burden: resistance or tolerance. although both resistance and tolerance of parasitism should evolve as a consequence of selection pressures owing to parasitism, the study of evolutionary patterns of tolerance has traditionally been neglected by animal biologists. here, we explore geographical covariation between tolerance of magpies (pica pica) and brood parasitism by the great spotted cuckoo (clamator glan ...201121123258
cuckoo parasitism and productivity in different magpie subpopulations predict frequencies of the 457bp allele: a mosaic of coevolution at a small geographic scale.the level of defense against great spotted cuckoo (clamator glandarius) parasitism in different european populations of magpie (pica pica) depends on selection pressures due to parasitism and gene flow between populations, which suggests the existence of coevolutionary hot spots within a european metapopulation. a mosaic of coevolution is theoretically possible at small geographical scales and with strong gene flow, because, among other reasons, plots may differ in productivity (i.e., reproducti ...200717711473
retaliatory cuckoos and the evolution of host resistance to brood parasites.we present a dynamic model of the evolution of host resistance to avian brood parasites, when the latter can retaliate against hosts that reject parasitic eggs. in a verbal model, zahavi (1979, american naturalist, 113, 157-159) suggested that retaliatory cuckoos might prevent the evolution of host resistance by reducing the reproductive success of rejecter hosts (i.e. by destroying their eggs or nestlings). here we develop a model based on the association between the great spotted cuckoo, clama ...199910512655
micro-evolutionary change and population dynamics of a brood parasite and its primary host: the intermittent arms race hypothesis.a long-term study of the interactions between a brood parasite, the great spotted cuckoo clamator glandarius, and its primary host the magpie pica pica, demonstrated local changes in the distribution of both magpies and cuckoos and a rapid increase of rejection of both mimetic and non-mimetic model eggs by the host. in rich areas, magpies improved three of their defensive mechanisms: nest density and breeding synchrony increased dramatically and rejection rate of cuckoo eggs increased more slowl ...199828307917
great spotted cuckoo nestlings have no antipredatory effect on magpie or carrion crow host nests in southern defences against cuckoo parasitism and cuckoo trickeries to overcome them are a classic example of antagonistic coevolution. recently it has been reported that this relationship may turn to be mutualistic in the case of the carrion crow (corvus corone) and its brood parasite, the great spotted cuckoo (clamator glandarius), given that experimentally and naturally parasitized nests were depredated at a lower rate than non-parasitized nests. this result was interpreted as a consequence of the ...201728422953
an experimental test of host's life history traits modulation in response to cuckoo parasitism risk.hosts can counteract parasites through defences based on resistance and/or tolerance. the mechanistic basis of tolerance, which involve defensive mechanisms minimizing parasite damage after a successful parasitic attack, remains poorly explored in the study of cuckoo-host interactions. here, we experimentally explore the possibility that the risk of great spotted cuckoo clamator glandarius parasitism may induce tolerance defences in magpie pica pica hosts through plasticity in life-history trait ...201728658287
phylogeographic patterns in widespread corvid birds.intraspecific genetic diversity and phylogeography of corvus corone was investigated using the mitochondrial (mt) control region as a molecular marker. a split into two distinct mt lineages was observed. one represents individuals from a wide geographic range spanning from england to the russian far east (kamchatka), while the other one was found in the primorye and khabarovsk regions (southern parts of russian far east) as well as japan. for comparison, we investigated several widespread palear ...200717920300
growth and sex ratio of nestlings in two species of crows: how important is hatching asynchrony?in experimental studies of avian hatching paterns offspring sex has been neglected. this may be a problem if nestling growth and mortality is sex biased, and if this bias is influenced by hatching spread. in a field study of two crow species, the magpie pica pica and the hooded crow corvus corone cornix, we manipulated hatching spread. both species have asynchronous hatching, and adult males are larger than females by 12-14%. the sex ratios obtained from the different experimental groups on day ...199228312269
thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.the hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. most notably, small waders of the genu ...201627033033
morphologic and molecular study of hemoparasites in wild corvids and evidence of sequence identity with plasmodium dna detected in captive black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).a morphologic and molecular epidemiologic investigation was conducted on a captive african black-footed penguin (spheniscus demersus) colony with a history of plasmodium infections at la palmyre zoo (france). each penguin received 12.5 mg of pyrimethamine twice a week as a prophylaxis every year from april to november. although plasmodium parasites were not detected in blood smears and tissues collected from the penguins, various blood parasites were recorded in blood smears from wild eurasian m ...201425314825
influence of environmental temperature and photoperiod on temporal structure of sleep in corvids.a survey is presented of the author's own investigations on the effects of ambient temperature and photoperiod on sleep in corvids. daily sleep patterns of rook, corvus frugilegus and magpie, pica pica have been studied electrographically under natural ambient conditions of light and temperature. the daily amount of total sleep time (tst) was positively correlated with night duration, whereas the proportion of tst spent in paradoxical sleep (ps) was strongly reduced in low ambient temperature (t ...19892638547
mirror-mark tests performed on jackdaws reveal potential methodological problems in the use of stickers in avian mark-test studies.some animals are capable of recognizing themselves in a mirror, which is considered to be demonstrated by passing the mark test. mirror self-recognition capacity has been found in just a few mammals having very large brains and only in one bird, the magpie (pica pica). the results obtained in magpies have enormous biological and cognitive implications because the fact that magpies were able to pass the mark test meant that this species is at the same cognitive level with great apes, that mirror ...201424475085
[peculiarities of the contour feather microstructure in the corvidae family].the results of comparative electron microscope study of the fine structure of the definitive contour feathers often crows species (perisoreus infaustus, garrulus glandarius, cyanopica cyanus, pica pica, podoceus panderi, nucifraga caryocatactes, corvus monedula, c. frugilegus, c. cornix, c. corax) are presented. the results of the research allowed us to conclude that crows, along with the traditional elements of feather architectonics, have a number of species-specific microstructure characteris ...201621870493
a subpopulation of large calbindin-like immunopositive neurones is present in the hippocampal formation in food-storing but not in non-storing species of bird.the avian hippocampal formation (hp) is thought to play a role in the processing of spatial memory related to food-storing behaviour. the hp of two food-storing species (marsh tit (parus palustris) and magpie (pica pica)) and two non-storing species (great tit (parus major) and jackdaw (corvus monedula)) were compared following calbindin-like immunostaining. in the dorsal hippocampal region, both species of food-storing birds had larger calbindin-immunoreactive cells than did the two non-storing ...19938348321
comparative population structure and gene flow of a brood parasite, the great spotted cuckoo (clamator glandarius), and its primary host, the magpie (pica pica).the amount of gene flow is an important determinant of population structure and therefore of central importance for understanding coevolutionary processes. we used microsatellite markers to estimate population structure and gene flow rates of the great spotted cuckoo (clamator glandarius) and its main host in europe, the magpie (pica pica), in a number of populations (seven and 15, respectively) across their distribution range in europe. the genetic analysis shows that there exists a pattern of ...199928565191
paronchocerca mansoni sp.nov. from pica pica sericea (gould) and caynopica cyana interposita hartert, peking, china, with observations on the genus paronchocerca peters, 1936. 19666006734
gross anatomical and scanning electron microscopic studies of the oropharyngeal cavity in the european magpie (pica pica) and the common raven (corvus corax).there is no descriptive information about morphology of the oropharyngeal cavity including tongue, palate, and laryngeal region in corvidae family. this study not only presents the first definitive anatomical description of the structures in the oropharyngeal cavity of magpie and raven but also reviews and compares the scattered information on the morphology of the other avian species available in the literature. in this study, the organs of four birds (two magpies and two ravens) were used. the ...201221898667
magpie host manipulation by great spotted cuckoos: evidence for an avian mafia?why should the hosts of brood parasites accept and raise parasitic offspring that differ dramatically in appearance from their own? there are two solutions to this evolutionary enigma. (1) hosts may not yet have evolved the capability to discriminate against the parasite, or (2) parasite-host systems have reached an evolutionary equilibrium. avian brood parasites may either gain renesting opportunities or force their hosts to raise parasitic offspring by destroying or preying upon host eggs or n ...199528565143
functional morphology and integration of corvid skulls - a 3d geometric morphometric approach.sympatric corvid species have evolved differences in nesting, habitat choice, diet and foraging. differences in the frequency with which corvid species use their repertoire of feeding techniques is expected to covary with bill-shape and with the frontal binocular field. species that frequently probe are expected to have a relatively longer bill and more sidewise oriented orbits in contrast to species that frequently peck. we tested this prediction by analyzing computed tomography scans of skulls ...200919128499
brood-parasite interactions between great spotted cuckoos and magpies: a model system for studying coevolutionary relationships.brood parasitism is one of the systems where coevolutionary processes have received the most research. here, we review experiments that suggest a coevolutionary process between the great spotted cuckoo (clamator glandarius) and its magpie (pica pica) host. we focus on different stages of establishment of the relationship, from cuckoos selecting individual hosts and hosts defending their nests from adult cuckoos, to the ability of magpies to detect cuckoo eggs in their nests. novel coevolutionary ...200028547325
ecological role of vertebrate scavengers in urban ecosystems in the uk.recent research has demonstrated how scavenging, the act of consuming dead animals, plays a key role in ecosystem structure, functioning, and stability. a growing number of studies suggest that vertebrate scavengers also provide key ecosystem services, the benefits humans gain from the natural world, particularly in the removal of carcasses from the environment. an increasing proportion of the human population is now residing in cities and towns, many of which, despite being highly altered envir ...201628725378
genetic and geographic variation in rejection behavior of cuckoo eggs by european magpie populations: an experimental test of rejecter-gene responses toward brood parasitism have been shown to differ among populations depending on the duration of sympatry between host and parasite, although populations not currently parasitized show rejection behavior against parasitic eggs. the persistence of rejection behavior in unparasitized host populations and rapid increases of rejection rate in parasitized ones have sometimes been explained as the result of gene flow of rejecter genes from sympatry to allopatry (rejecter-gene flow hypot ...199928565625
host preferences of ornithophilic biting midges of the genus culicoides in the eastern balkans.many biting midges of the genus culicoides latreille, 1809 (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are competent vectors of a diverse number of pathogens. the identification of their feeding behaviour and of vector-host associations is essential for understanding their transmission capacity. by applying two different nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays, of which one targeted the avian cyt b gene and the other targeted the coi gene of a wide range of vertebrates, we identified the blood hosts of six ...201525689114
effect of incubation on bacterial communities of eggshells in a temperate bird, the eurasian magpie (pica pica).inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. in this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative pcr and 16s rrna gene pyrosequencing, to elucidate the effect of incubation on the bacterial abundance and bacterial community composition on the eggshells of the eurasian magpie (pi ...201425089821
cuckoo hosts shift from accepting to rejecting parasitic eggs across their of the best-known outcomes of coevolution between species is the rejection of mimetic parasite eggs by avian hosts, which has evolved to reduce costly cuckoo parasitism. how this behavioral adaptation varies along the life of individual hosts remains poorly understood. here, we identify for the first time, lifetime patterns of egg rejection in a parasitized long-lived bird, the magpie pica pica and show that, during the years they were studied, some females accept, others reject, and some ot ...201424916150
comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies: importance of habitat preference and breeding behavior on genetic structure in china.historical geological events and climatic changes are believed to have played important roles in shaping the current distribution of species. however, sympatric species may have responded in different ways to such climatic fluctuations. here we compared genetic structures of two corvid species, the azure-winged magpie cyanopica cyanus and the eurasian magpie pica pica, both widespread but with different habitat dependence and some aspects of breeding behavior. three mitochondrial genes and two n ...201222842292
foramen magnum size and involvement of its intraoccipital synchondroses in crouzon syndrome.cranial sutures and synchondroses tend to close prematurely in patients with crouzon syndrome. this influences their skull vault and skull base development and may involve in common disturbances such as increased intracranial pressure and cerebellar tonsillar herniation. the authors' hypothesis was that crouzon patients patients have a smaller foramen magnum than controls because of premature fusion of the intraoccipital synchondroses, putting them at risk for cerebellar tonsillar herniation. th ...201324281646
how i do it: side to side posterior inferior cerebellar artery – posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass intracranial in situ side to side posterior circulation procedure is performed infrequently. the scope of treatment modalities of vertebral artery-pica aneurysms and vertebral dissections is limited due to the lack of many representations of this procedure's technical nuances.201324022600
direct look from a predator shortens the risk-assessment time by prey.decision making process is an important component of information use by animals and has already been studied in natural situations. decision making takes time, which is expressed as a cost in evolutionary explanations of decision making abilities of animals. however, the duration of information assessment and decision making process has not been measured in a natural situation. here, we use responses of wild magpies (pica pica) to predictably approaching humans to demonstrate that, regardless of ...201323755164
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