khasan virus, a new ungrouped bunyavirus isolated from haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in the primorie region.strain leiv-776p, possessing no haemagglutinating activity was isolated in 1971 in the primorie region (u.s.s.r.) from haemaphysalis longicornis neumann 1091 tick. complement fixation (cf) tests revealed no antigenic relationship with 24 antigenic groups of arboviruses or 21 ungrouped viruses isolated from ticks. the virus isolate contains rna and is relatively sensitive to ether and sodium deoxycholate; it is pathogenic for suckling mice and two-week-old white mice by the intracerebral route, a ...197827977
ultrastructure of babesia major vermicules from the tick haemaphysalis punctata as demonstrated by negative staining.the ultrastructure of babesia major vermicules was studied in samples derived from the haemolymph of haemaphysalis punctata adults and negatively stained with phosphotungstic acid. most of the organelles observed were typical of those found in apicomplexan parasites. these were the apical complex with the polar ring and the ribs, micronemes and subpellicular microtubules. the number of ribs was 27 or 28. the outer membrane of the pellicle was composed of a large number of fibrils running along t ...197877093
development of acquired resistance precipitating antibody in rabbits experimentally infested with females of haemaphysalis longicornis (ixodoidea: ixodidae).the resistance to the ixodid tick, haemaphysalis longicornis (parthenogenetic okayama strain), manifested as a reduction in engorged body weight, developed in rabbits subjected to a series of adult female infestations. a single infestation with females always produced resistance in hosts. this production appeared to depend little on the number of ticks per infestation. unlike the previous papers, this study revealed that there was no reduction in the mean recovery rate of engorged females when t ...197877478
[anomalohimalaya lotozkyi sp. n., a new species of ixodid ticks from the peter the first range (ixodoidea, ixodidae)].anomalohimalaya lotozkyi sp. n., the second species of this genus, was found in tadzhikistan, peter i ridge, at the height of 2700 m above the sea level in rocky locality with xerophilous vegetation on alticola argentatus. in june, 1977 there were found larvae and nymphs of the species. after feeding larvae and then nymphs females and males were obtained. all phases of the life cycle differ distinctly from those of the type species an. lama hoog., kais. et mitch., 1970, from himalayas. the diagn ...1978151845
isolation of langat virus from haemaphysalis papuana thorell in thailand.a strain of langat virus (lgt), t-1674, was isolated from a pool of haemaphysalis papuana thorell collected in the forest of khao yai national park in central thailand. the isolated virus was found to have growth and antigenic similarity to the prototype langat strain (tp-21). this is the first report of a natural infection of haemaphysalis ticks with lgt and of the isolation of this arbovirus in thailand. the wide distribution of known vectors of lgt in thailand suggests that the virus may be p ...1976180846
ticks of small mammals from the hindu kush (afghanistan).during the first czechoslovak expedition to the east hindu kush in june-september 1965 a total of 193 hosts belonging to 12 species was examined on the presence of ticks. specimens of the genera ixodes, haemaphysalis, dermacentor and rhipicephalus were found. data and comments are given for the species collected.1977342370
blood parasites of sheep in the netherlands. i. anaplasma mesaeterum sp.n. (rickettsiales, anaplasmataceae).on two occasions an anaplasm was isolated from sheep on the dutch island of ameland. the organism proved to be highly pathogenic for splenectomised sheep; a non-splenectomised animal recovered spontaneously after the packed cell volume had decreased by 40%. treatment with oxytetracycline was effective. its pathogenicity for goats appeared to be low, and the organism was apparently not infective to splenectomised cattle. this anaplasm differs from anaplasma ovis in that less than 30% of the organ ...1979419513
growth of haemaphysalis (kaiseriana) longicornis on cattle. 1979500279
field study of the relationship between skin-sensitizing antibody production in the cottontail rabbit, sylvilagus floridanus, and infestation by the rabbit tick, haemaphysalis leporispalustris (acri: ixodidae).the resistance of cottontail rabbits to tick feeding appears correlated with the rabbits' development of skin-sensitizing antibodies. resistance appeared to be greatest in adult rabbits which had been repeatedly infested with ticks. rabbits with little exposure to ticks, usually the young cottontails, showed little or no skin-sensitizing antibody present in their blood and usually had relatively high tick loads when compared with adult rabbits. models used to interpret the data show promise as t ...1979512764
development, survival, and oviposition of the rabbit tick, haemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard) (acari: ixodidae), at constant temperatures.the relationship between development, survival, and oviposition rates, and five constant temperatures is described for the developing and reproductive life stages of the rabbit tick, haemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard). development was most rapid at 29.7 c for egg and larvae, and 35.6 c for nymphs. survival was greatest between 14.7 and 29.7 c, but was reduced at 35.6 c for eggs and larvae. oviposition was optimal between 19.9 and 29.7 c with a maximum mean daily oviposition of 253 eggs/fem ...1979512768
haemaphysalis (allophysalis) kopetdaghica: identity and discovery of each feeding stage on the wild goat in northern iran (ixodoidea: ixodidae). 1979512770
epidemiology and control of anaplasmosis in australia.anaplasmosis occurs in those areas of northern and eastern australia infested by the cattle tick boophilus microplus but it has been studied intensively only in queensland. anaplasmosis is predominantly a disease of autumn and winter and of cattle greater than 1 year of age. the complement fixation test has been used in serological surveys of the tick-infested areas of the state. both clinical and subclinical infections occur only in tick-infested areas and they are both more frequent in bos tau ...1979553977
the ultrastructure of penetrating stages of babesia major infecting the ovary of haemaphysalis punctata.the ultrastructure of penetrating stages of babesia major merozoites responsible for causing trans-ovarian infection of the tick haemaphysalis punctata was studied. these merozoites were different from forms of other babesia species previously described in the tick in that they were highly pleomorphic. most of the organelles found in these forms were similar to those found in other stages: however, the apical complex was found to be very active. micronemes were found to be predominant in the cyt ...1977563562
the temperature and humidity preferences of haemaphysalis longicornis, ixodes holocyclus and rhipicephalus sanguineus (ixodidae): studies on eggs. 1979571858
electronmicroscopic investigations of wolbachia-like microorganisms in haemaphysalis inermis. 1977600395
growth of arboviruses in cell cultures derived from the tick haemaphysalis spinigera. 1977608719
new minto virus: a new rhabdovirus from ticks in alaska.three strains of a virus were isolated from haemaphysalis leporis-palustris (packard) ticks removed from snowshoe hares (lepus americanus erxleben) in east central alaska. we suggest that the virus be named new minto for the location in which the ticks were collected. prototype new minto virus is sensitive to the action of sodium deoxycholate and kills suckling mice by the intracerebral but not intraperitoneal route; weaned mice do not die after intracerebral, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous in ...1978638895
[population density of ixodes persulcatus ticks (ixodidae) in the western sikhote-alin].the paper presents data on the population density of active ticks in different landscape zones of west sykhote-alyn as well as the material on the absolute abundance of ticks in four experimental 400 m2 areas. the abundance of active ixodes persulcatus and haemaphysalis japonica on vegetation at the peak of their activity was found to amount to half of all hibernated adult ticks.1978643311
attempted transmission of anaplasma marginale by haemaphysalis longicornis. 1978655986
transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by haemaphysalis wellingtoni nuttall and warburton, 1907 (acarina : ixodidae). 1978680913
natural infection of the tick dermacentor reticulatus (fabr.) with the microsporidian nosema slovaca weiser et rehácek in slovakia.a total of 6,199 adult ticks (haemaphysalis intermis, dermacentor reticulatus, d. marginatus and ixodes ricinus) collected in three localities in slovakia were examined for microsporidian infection. the spores of nosema slovaca were found in six d. reticulatus (0.097%). the microsporidian experimentally inoculated into the hemocele of half-engorged females of d. reticulatus caused acute infection and death of the host. the infection can be transmitted also to other tick species from the same reg ...1978689565
haemaphysalis (rhipistoma) eupleres (ixodoidea: ixodidae), a parasite of the madagascar falanouc (mongoose): new data and male identity.haemaphysalis (rhipistoma) eupleres hoogstraal, kohls and trapido 1965, was described and partially illustrated from a single damaged female from the falanouc, or small-toothed mongoose, eupleres sp., from an unstated locality in madagascar. data are here presented for two collections (9 males, 17 females) from two localities in tamatave province, one from e. goudotii doyère, the other from an unstated host. the male is described and illustrated; a complete female is illustrated.1977758015
theileria mutans: experimental transmission by haemaphysalis punctata.t. mutans (essex), originally isolated from a farm in the county of essex in south-east england by allowing field-collected h. punctata tickes to feed on a splenectomized calf, was syringe-passaged once between calves and then resecured in a laboratory-reared strain of h. punctata. from subsequent studies it was found that only transstadial transmission of the parasite occurred. thus, only the larval and the nymphal stages of the ticks were capable of acquiring the infection and subsequently nym ...1975810930
rickettsiae belonging to the spotted fever group from ticks in the tribec mountains.rickettsiae of the spotted (sf) group were found in a selected locality of the tribec mountains in southern slovakia in 1974. the rickettsiae were found in 10.8% of females and 6.1% of males of haemaphysalis inermis and 7.3% of females and 4.8% of males of ixodes ricinus. no significant differences in the incidence were observed during the year. coxiella burneti was found in 1 male and 4 females of h. inermis and 1 male of i. ricinus in ad adjacent locality. antibodies against rickettsiae of the ...1976820614
possibilities of persistence in new biotopes of ticks imported by birds.survival and development of 6 tick species (hyalomma anatolicum, rhipicephalus sanguineus, haemaphysalis punctata, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus and ixodes ricinus) were studied in 3 groups differing in the range of distribution with respect to the place of importation, as a model for the knowledge of their possible inclusion in the new local biocenosis during transportation by natural hosts.1977852771
babesia major in britain: infectivity for cattle of cryopreserved parasites derived from haemaphysalis punctata nymphs.babesia major-infected haemaphysalis punctata nymphs, prefed for four days on rabbits, were ground in a modified eagle's minimum essential medium containing n-2 hydroxyethylpiperazine-n1-ethane-sulphonic acid (hepes) buffer using sterile sand or ground glass as triturating agents. the resultant supernatant fluids were shown to be infective for splenectomised calves. when attempts were made to cryopreserve the fluids using either dimethyl sulphoxide or glycerol to a final concentration of 10 per ...1977860093
life history of haemaphysalis wellingtoni nuttall and warburton, 1907 (acarina : ixodidae). 1977863477
haemaphysalis (allophysalis) danieli, sp. n. (ixodoidea: ixodidae), female and tentatively associated immature stages from high mountains of northern pakistan and afghanistan.haemaphysalis (allophysalis) danieli sp. n. is described from a female taken from alpine vegetation in swat, pakistan. fifty-one nymphal and larval ticks tentatively associated with this taxon are from hamsters, field mice, voles, and marmots (rodentia), cricetulus migratorius, apodemus flavicollis, alticola roylei, and marmota caudata, and from pikas (lagomorpha), ochotona roylei, in gilgit and hazara districts of pakistan and in badakhashan province of afghanistan. collecting localities are in ...1977864574
[diagnosis of the sexually immature phases of the tick, haemaphysalis flava neum (ixodidae)]. 1977896281
a differential diagnostic criterion for babesia major and babesia bigemina vermicules from tick haemolymph.babesia major mature and immature vermicules in the haemolymph of haemaphysalis punctata were measured and found to be significantly larger than vermicules of babesia bigemina. mature b. major vermicules had a mean length of 15.53 micrometer and mature b. bigemina vermicules had a mean length of 11.79 micrometer. this difference provides a new criterion for the differentiation of the two species.1977906629
experimental transmission of babesia major by haemaphysalis punctata.using a newly isolated strain of babesia major and a clean strain of laboratory reared haemaphysalis punctata it was shown that adult female ticks could be alimentarily infected by feeding on infected calves but that larvae and nymphae could not. all stages were able to transmit the parasite. two syringe passages of b major resulted in a complete loss of infectivity to ticks.1977928992
differential variation of parthenogenetic and bisexual haemaphysalis longicornis (acari: ixodidae).morphological characters are measured from each tick specimen from samples of 10 "populations" of haemaphysalis longicornis. the 10 populations consist of 6 diploid bisexual and 4 triploid parthenogenetic populations from australia, japan, and korea. statistical analyses (univariate and multivariate) of differential morphological variation are made among sex, method of reproduction, and chromosome ploidy level in attempts to determine the effects of these parameters on overall variation. in gene ...1976932923
accumulating process and concentration ratios of ingested blood meals in larvae and nymphs of ten species of ticks.the accumulating process and concentration ratios of ingested blood meals in the larvae and nymphs of amblyomma testudinarium, haemaphysalis campanulata, h. concinna, h. formosensis, h. hystricis, h. kitaokai, the bisexual and parthenogenetic strains of h. longicornis, h. megaspinosa, and ixodes persulcatus on rabbits and argas japonicus on chickens were comparatively investigated. the larvae and nymphs of the ixodid ticks examined and the larvae of a. japonicus concentrated the ingested blood m ...1976980120
comparative observations on some bionomics of japanese ixodid ticks under laboratory cultural conditions.seventeen species of japanese ixodid ticks of the genera amblyomma, boophilus, haemaphysalis, ixodes, and rhipicephalus were reared in the laboratory under almost the same cultural conditions. their major biological characters, such as feeding, molting, oviposition, and hatching, were summarized in tables. there were some differences in these bionomics among the species. the general characteristics common to all the ticks, except amblyomma testudinarium, were as follows. the feeding period in im ...1976980121
[occurrence of the tick haemaphysalis punctata (can. et fanz., 1877) and of babesia major in cattle in north germany]. 19761008781
[new faunal and biological observations on ticks in abruzzo].ticks collected during the years 1975-76 in abruzzo (prov. l'aquila and chieti) italy are reported. the following species have been identified: ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis sulcata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum. new hosts are: felis catus for ixodes canisuga; scolopax rusticola, motacilla flava, corvus cornix for ixodes frontalis; sciurus vulgaris for haemaphysalis punctata; garrul ...19761032325
a comparative toxicological and biochemical study of the effects of coumaphos on larvae of haemaphysalis longicornis and boophilus microplus. 19761052884
feeding of boophilus microplus larvae on a partially defined medium through thin slices of cattle skin.larvae of the cattle tick boophilus microplus will attach to thin (0-3--0-5 mm) slices of cattle skin and engorge on a partially defined medium at 35 degrees c. forty-seven to 83 per cent of the larvae had engorged by 8 days, and 51--71 per cent of these moulted to nymphs. tissue culture medium alone allowed little growth unless supplemented with dialysed, freeze dried bovine serum (7 per cent, w/v). this medium could be further difined by substituting purified bovine serum albumin (cohn frac ...19751128926
parasites of the black-tailed jackrabbit in north central colorado.forty-four black-tailed jackrabbits, lepus californicus melanotis mearns, 1890, were collected near denver from august, 1972, through july, 1973, and amined for parasites. recovered parasites and their infection rates were: eimeria sp. 100%, cittotaenia sp.27%, coenuri of multiceps sp. 57%, cediopsylla inaequalis 14%, hoplopsyllus affinis 9%, haemodipsus setoni 2%, dermacentor andersoni 14%, and haemaphysalis leporis-palustris 25%.19751142561
ackertia globulosa sp. n. (nematoda: filarioidea) from rodents in kenya.ackertia globulosa sp. n. (nematoda: filarioidea) is described from the pulmonary arteries of the striped mouse, lemniscomys striatus striatus (l.), in kenya. distinguishing features are the small size of the adults; the short left spicule and arrangement of the caudal papillae (3 pairs preanal, 4 pairs postanal) of the male; small projecting lobes on the tail of the females; and 10 to 12 refractile globules in the microfilarial sheath. the microfilariae are found in the skin, mostly of the ear. ...19751165543
transstadial transmission of theileria annulata through common ixodid ticks infesting indian cattle.transstadial transmission of theileria annulata with hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, h. dromedarii and h. marginatum isaaci, and haemaphysalis bispinosa, rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides haemaphysaloides and boophilus microplus was determined. it was found that the infection was successfully transmitted by h. a. anatolicum from larva to nymph and nymph to adult in all attempts. when larvae were fed on an infected calf the succeeding adults transmitted the infection when the intervening nymphs fed ...19751178216
[ability of female ixodid ticks to recover from poisoning with ddt in the process of feeding].ability of hungary females of ixodes persulcatus, haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor silvarum to feed and lay eggs after having been exposed to different ddt doses (ld100) has been studied. the ticks heavily injuried but still mobile can feed on the host and lay eggs, i.e. to overcome the poisoning. clutches laid by these females do not differ from control ones. loss of mobility deprives the ticks of the ability to fed. an increase in ddt dose (ld100 x 100, experiment with i. persulcatus) do ...19751187171
transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by haemaphysalis kyasanurensis trapido, hoogstraal and rajagopalan, 1964 (acarina: ixodidae). 19751213783
haemaphysalis juxtakochi, ixodes pararicinus (ixodidae) and otobius megnini (argasidae) in relation to the phytogeography of argentina.the phytogeographical distributions of haemaphysalis juxtakochi, ixodes pararicinus and otobius megnini in argentina are described from material collected mainly from 1978 to the present. h. juxtakochi was found in the northwestern area of the amazonian domain and in the chaco, espinal and pampean provinces of the chaco domain. it was detected on mazama spp., tapirus terrestris, dog, cattle and on the vegetation. most findings of i. pararicinus were from mountain rangeland, where it was found on ...19921290380
[differences in the distant transmission of the tick-borne encephalitis virus by ixodid ticks of 2 subfamilies].simultaneous but separate feeding of ticks on nonviremic animal (guinea pig) has shown that amblyomminae ticks are practically unable to transmit distantly tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) to the specimens of their own subfamily and to ixodinae as well. ixodes persulcatus and i. ricinus displayed their ability as donors and recipients of tbev (adults and nymphs) not only for their own subfamily representatives but also as donors for recipients of amblyomminae subfamily (nymphs and adults of ...19921299805
[survey on tick vectors of lyme disease spirochetes in china].since 1987 we have been studying on lyme disease in china. there were 71 isolates of borrelia burgdorferi recovered from six species of ticks including ixodes persulcatus, ixodes granulatus, ixodes rangtangensis, haemaphysalis concinna. haemaphysalis bispinosa and haemaphysalis longicornis, and 55 isolates from ixodes persulcatus collected from heilongjiang, jilin, liaoning, nei-monggol, hebei and xinjiang region (province). ixodes persulcarus is the dominant species accounted for more than 80% ...19921300244
observations of babesia gibsoni in midgut epithelial cells of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis. 19921308256
[haemaphysalis (alloceraea) inermis birula, 1895, in a wooded area of latium].haemaphysalis (alloceraea) inermis birula specimens have been collected in a woody land of manziana in the province of rome. this is the first report in latium region and suggests the presence of autochthonous populations of the species in central italy since no exotic fauna has been introduced in the past in the area studied. the role of h. inermis on the transmission of pathogens for humans and animals is discussed.19921339963
identification of spotted fever group rickettsiae using polymerase chain reaction and restriction-endonuclease length polymorphism order to facilitate the isolation and identification of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae from their tick vectors, we used the centrifugation shell vial technique or traditional isolation procedures and genotypic identification using the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain amplified fragments. the presence of rickettsia conorii both in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected in southern france, and in rhipicephalus simus and haemaphysalis leachi from zim ...19921350164
[the tick fauna of eastern germany].the occurrence of several tick species in selected areas of eastern germany is described. from may 1987 till december 1989 8,472 ticks from 430 places were examined. ixodidae of the genus ixodes, dermacentor and haemaphysalis as well as argasidae of the genus argas were identified. the most common species was ixodes ricinus. furthermore, an endemic area of dermacentor reticulatus was detected in the düben-dahlen and annaburg health. two other species of ticks, which were found frequently and som ...19921416225
[vectors of japanese spotted fever].in the southeast coast of shikoku, most of the japanese spotted fever (jsf) patients were found to be infected with the rickettsial pathogen through bamboo plantation, and also the eschar was frequently noticed in skin inspection, so that it was clinically speculated to be caused by ticks. according to out field research, the tick fauna was very rich throughout that area, and it was permissible enough to determine ticks as the vectors, based on arising of anti-sf group rickettsiae (sfgr) antibod ...19921431380
tick infection rates with borrelia: ixodes ricinus versus haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor reticulatus in two locations in eastern germany.unfed nymphal ixodes ricinus, haemaphysalis concinna, and adult dermacentor reticulatus were collected in two locations of saxony in july and september 1991 by flagging. in july, the abundance of nymphal i. ricinus was about 2-3 times higher than that of nymphal h. concinna, a time of the year when nymphs of both species are reported to have a seasonal peak of activity. no d. reticulatus were flagged concurrently. in september, host-seeking activity of nymphal i. ricinus was again quite high as ...19921463902
parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern illinois.fifteen species of parasites including haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes dentatus, amblyomma americanum, cediopsylla simplex, odontopsyllus multispinosus, cuterebra sp., obeliscoides cuniculi, trichostrongylus calcaratus, trichostrongylus affinis, longistriata noviberiae, dermatoxys veligera, trichuris sp., mosgovoyia sp., taenia pisiformis, and hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern il ...19921491303
prevalence of lyme borreliosis spirochetes in ixodid ticks of japan, with special reference to a new potential vector, ixodes ovatus (acari: ixodidae).to determine the vectors of lyme borreliosis in japan, the ixodid ticks taken in hokkaido, fukushima, nagano, ehime, and kochi prefectures were examined individually for spirochetal infections by culturing their midgut tissues in bsk medium. the cultivable spirochetes identified as borrelia burgdorferi were detected in ixodes persulcatus schulze adults (15.5% of 634), nymph (6.7% of 15) and ixodes ovatus neumann adult (9.6% of 188) from hokkaido, i. ovatus adults (25.5% of 47) from fukushima, an ...19921495032
tick sweep: modification of the tick drag-flag method for sampling nymphs of the deer tick (acari: ixodidae).we describe a version of the standard tick drag-flag modified for use in close-growing and tangled vegetation, as well as under ornamental shrubbery and fallen branches. two major features of the sweep are: (1) it allows the user to remain upright with the flag parallel to the ground, thus sampling effectively beneath low and fallen branches and around shrubs, as well as capturing host-seeking ticks in advance of the operator; and (2) the use of a flannel rubberized-laminate fabric (crib sheet) ...19921495058
ectoparasites of the blackbuck antelope (antilope cervicapra).fifty-two free-ranging blackbuck antelope (antilope cervicapra) from texas were examined for ectoparasites. two species of sucking lice (anoplura), one species of chewing louse (mallophaga), one species of louse fly (diptera), and three species of ticks (acari) were found. this is the first report of the anoplurans linognathus cervicaprae and l. pithodes from the western hemisphere. the southern deer ked (lipoptena mazamae), the winter tick (dermacentor albipictus), and the rabbit tick (haemaphy ...19921512888
toxic effect of endocytobionts from dermacentor reticulatus ticks in three tick species after in vivo application.the endocytobionts from ovaries of partially engorged female dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inoculated introcoelomally into females of three tick species, d. reticulatus, ixodes ricinus and haemaphysalis inermis, caused considerable morphological alterations in the examined cells and tissues of the synganglion, fat body, tracheal complex and ovary of these recipients.19921638925
development, survival, fecundity and behaviour of haemaphysalis (kaiseriana) longicornis (ixodidae) at two locations in southeast queensland.the free-living stages of the tick haemaphysalis (kaiseriana) longicornis were studied at mt tamborine (526 m altitude) and amberley (25 m altitude) in southeast queensland between 1971 and 1980. data are presented on the number of eggs and larvae produced, the moulting success of engorged larvae and nymphs and the survival and behaviour of unfed larvae, nymphs and adult females. temperature, moisture, daylength, grass length and age of unfed ticks were investigated as sources of variation in de ...19911757193
ectoparasites of commensal rodents in sulawesi utara, indonesia, with notes on species of medical importance.ectoparasite records are presented for four species of commensal murid rodents (rattus rattus palelae miller & hollister, r. argentiventer (robinson & kloss), r. exulans (peale) and mus musculus castaneus waterhouse) in sulawesi utara, with particular reference to the potential for these arthropods to bite and transmit pathogens to humans. the flea, xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild), was most common on r.r. palelae and is capable of transmitting plague and other pathogens to humans although no cur ...19911768888
ixodid ticks and lice infesting red duikers and bushpigs in north-eastern natal.eighteen red duikers, cephalophus natalensis, from the charters creek nature reserve and 2 from fanies island nature reserve were processed for arthropod parasite recovery. they harboured 8 species of ixodid ticks and 2 lice species. all were infested with haemaphysalis parmata and the nymphs of rhipicephalus muehlensi. two bushpigs, potamochoerus porcus, from the ndumu nature reserve, 5 from the eastern shores nature reserve and 1 from cape vidal were examined for ectoparasites. they were infes ...19911780129
development of babesia ovata in the ovary and eggs of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis.the ovary and eggs of adult tick haemaphysalis longicornis (h. longicornis) infected with babesia ovata (b. ovata), were examined at regular intervals of time. as a result kinetes could be detected in the ovary for the first time 6 days after engorgement. the kinetics could be classified into three types on the basis of their morphological characteristics. on the 2nd day after oviposition, round-formed protozoa were found in the ooplasm of the egg. in 5 days after oviposition, these round-formed ...19911811111
development of babesia gibsoni in the gut epithelium of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis. 19911830766
development of babesia gibsoni in the hemolymph of the vector tick, haemaphysalis longicornis. 19911832036
a review of the ixodid ticks (acari, ixodidae) occurring in southern africa.eighty-three species of ixodid ticks, as well as several entities that have yet to be described, occur in the republic of south africa plus the 4 independent states lying within its borders (bophuthatswana, venda, transkei and ciskei) and in namibia, botswana, lesotho and swaziland. they belong to the following genera: amblyomma (8 spp.); aponomma (3 spp.); boophilus (2 spp.); cosmiomma (1 sp.); dermacentor (1 sp.); haemaphysalis (10 spp.); hyalomma (2 spp., one of them with 2 subspp.); ixodes ( ...19911881661
extensive examination of different tick species for infestation with coxiella burnetii in slovakia.between 1987-1989 almost 7000 adult ixodes ricinus, dermacentor reticulatus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis concinna, haemaphysalis punctata and haemaphysalis inermis ticks collected in all 38 districts of slovakia were screened for the presence of coxiella burnettii. the proportion of ticks containing c. burnetii as indicated by the haemocyte test was less than 3%. attempts to recover c. burnetii by inoculation of yolk sacs of embryonated hen eggs from pools of 1-6 specimens of haemocyte ...19911884784
tick-bite fever in zimbabwe. survey of antibodies to rickettsia conorii in man and dogs, and of rickettsia-like organisms in dog part of a study of tick-bite fever in zimbabwe, the prevalence of antibodies to rickettsia conorii in dogs and humans was examined. blood samples were obtained from 184 dogs in different parts of the country and tested by indirect immunofluorescence. in all, 150 (82%) were positive at a titre of 1/40 or higher. dogs from the south and east of the country showed very high seroprevalence compared with dogs from the main urban centre, harare. human serum was obtained from blood donors, from peop ...19911887350
borrelia burgdorferi in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from coastal virginia.ixodid ticks removed from hosts and from vegetation during march-november 1987 at sites in coastal virginia and north carolina were examined for borrelia burgdorferi. b. burgdorferi was evident in nine (22%) ixodes cookei packard removed from rice rats (oryzomys palustris), a white-footed mouse (peromyscus leucopus), and raccoons (procyon lotor); four (6%) amblyomma americanum (l.) removed from raccoons; and two (3%) dermacentor variabilis (say) removed from a raccoon and a rice rat. b. burgdorf ...19911941936
longitudinal study of natural foci of central european encephalitis virus in west slovakia.a total of 2922 small terrestrial mammals of 12 species were collected in six localities of west slovakia between 1981 and 1986. when examined for the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (na) to central european encephalitis (cee) virus we found that 14.6% had antibody. nearly all (97%) of the 426 animals with antibody were clethrionomys glareolus, the most abundant species (52.6% of mammals collected, 15.1% of those with antibody). apodemus flavicollis (22.5% of mammals collected, 18.1% of th ...19901983180
ixodid and argasid ticks. keys to their identification.ticks of the ixodidae family are important ectoparasites of humans and animals. of the 80 or so species found in the united states, about 20 are of veterinary importance. ticks are second only to mosquitoes as carriers of human pathogens. the ixodid (or hard) ticks are the most common and are represented by the genera ixodes, haemaphysalis, boophilus, rhipicephalus, amblyomma, and dermacentor. accurate identification of the species of ixodid ticks within an area is a prerequisite to control and ...19912014622
ultrastructural changes of the midgut epithelial cells in feeding and moulting nymphs of the tick haemaphysalis longicornis.the midgut epithelial cells in nymphs fed on laboratory rabbits were examined during feeding and after detachment. the midgut epithelium at the unfed stage consisted of digestive cells of lower activity, containing such nutritive substances as protein, lipid and glycogen. as feeding proceeded, the cells became active in intracellular digestion. at the middle of the feeding stage, the spent digestive cells derived from the active digestive cells began to be replaced by the new digestive cells of ...19912040567
some effects of tick infestations on juvenile northern brown bandicoot (isoodon macrourus).the effect of tick infestations on body weight and various blood parameters was monitored in juvenile northern brown bandicoots (isoodon macrourus) after release into tick-infested or tick-free enclosures. three species of ticks were observed in the enclosures, haemaphysalis humerosa, ixodes tasmani and ixodes holocyclus. bandicoots released into tick-infested enclosures showed a reduced growth rate (1.8 versus 2.5 g/day increase in body weight), a reduced haematocrit value (27.4 versus 40.0%) a ...19912067048
infection rates of theileria sergenti in haemaphysalis longicornis ticks collected from the field in japan.for a period of one year haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were collected in a pasture from vegetation by dragging flannel cloth and from soil samples at monthly intervals. nymphal ticks were assessed for theileria infection. salivary glands were stained with methylgreen-pyronin and examined for parasite masses. nymphal h. longicornis infected with theileria sergenti were found in all samples during 12 months including the winter. after shortening the prefed period on rabbits to 24 hours, the para ...19902107351
maturation of theileria sergenti in salivary glands of haemaphysalis longicornis induced by temperature stimulation.the parthenogenetic haemaphysalis longicornis larvae engorged on cattle naturally infected with theileria sergenti were reared at 24 degrees c. the resultant nymphal ticks were incubated at 37 degrees c to clear the effect of incubation on the development and maturation of sporozoites. the sporozoites in the salivary glands of the nymphal ticks exposed to 37 degrees c for 16 days were observed by the methyl green pyronin staining method. the ticks exposed to 37 degrees c were ground up in a mort ...19902117090
borrelia burgdorferi in ticks of the canton tessin (switzerland).in the northern alps it is hard to find an ixodes ricinus population which does not harbour borrelia burgdorferi. the infection rates range from 5 to 34% for adults and nymphs to 3.1% for larvae. this study shows that the infection rates on the southern side of the alps are similar, at 25% for adults, 36.2% for nymphs and 3.2% for larvae. with respect to tick species other than i. ricinus, we did not succeed in finding any spirochetes in dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis punctata, ixodes hex ...19902132440
francisella tularensis from ixodid ticks in czechoslovakia.a total of 26,478 ixodid ticks (935 pools) were examined by intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice. six species of ticks were tested: ixodes ricinus (23,470 individuals), i. trianguliceps (12), haemaphysalis punctata (831), h. concinna (39), dermacentor reticulatus (69) and d. marginatus (2,057). the ticks were collected largely by flagging vegetation, a substantial minority (4%) from animals. three strains of francisella tularensis were isolated, one each from i. ricinus (males, district br ...19902227710
interaction of the tick (haemaphysalis leporispalustris) with a cyclic snowshoe hare (lepus americanus) population.prevalence and intensity of the tick, haemaphysalis leporispalustris, were monitored during 1963 to 1976 in a cyclic snowshoe hare (lepus americanus) population near rochester, alberta, canada. prevalence was near zero from december through march, and near 100% among adult hares from may through september. prevalence among juvenile hares approached 100% by age 2 mo. intensity peaked for both adults and juveniles during may-june and again in august. mean intensities were significantly higher amon ...19902250317
[the taxonomic aspects of the transmission of the causative agent of lyme disease].according to world literature data 17 species of ixodid ticks have been studied for natural infection with the lyme disease agent. analysis of the data on the level of the infection, transovarial and transphase transmission has shown that main biological vectors of borrelia burgdorferi are the species of the subgenus ixodes s. str. - i. ricinus, i. persulcatus (eurasia), i. dammini, i. pacificus (north america). potential vectors are i. scapularis, i. dentatus, amblyomma americanum, dermacentor ...19902259524
laboratory observations of haemaphysalis longicornis neumann after a human bite.a case of a tick bite with haemaphysalis longicornis neumann is reported. the tick was found on the left lower abdomen of a 62-year-old female. the tick bite occurred in fuchu city, a suburb of tokyo. this paper presents laboratory observations of the process of haemaphysalis longicornis neumann laying eggs and becoming larvae after biting a human. the results of our observations include the size of female adult (length: 7.5 mm, width: 5.2 mm, weight: 96 mg) after blood sucking, preoviposition p ...19902273164
necessity of ige antibodies and mast cells for manifestation of resistance against larval haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in mice.genetically mast cell-deficient wbb6f1-w/wv mice showed an apparent defect in manifestation of the resistance against larval haemaphysalis longicornis ticks, but their serum ige levels increased more than 100-fold after the second tick infestation. immune sera obtained from the wbb6f1-w/wv mice were adoptively transferred to the other wbb6f1-w/wv mice which had received intracutaneous injections of wbb6f1-+/+ mouse-derived cultured mast cells. because the resistance against ticks was detectable ...19902295794
taxonomic relationships of the subgenus rhipistoma (acari: ixodidae: haemaphysalis).the possible evolution of the haemaphysalid subgenus rhipistoma (koch) (acari: ixodidae, haemaphysalis) is postulated. h. hispanica and h. caucasica seem to be the most primitive species of the subgenus, closely related to a common ancestor, as can be deduced from the palpal outline and from the combination of spines and spurs on the coxae and palpi. however, h. adleri, h. asiatica, h. fossae, h. eupleres, and h. obtusa compose a group of phylogenetically more-advanced species, based on the deve ...19902332881
[ixodes ricinus, haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor reticulatus (ixodida, ixodidae) in the east german district of leipzig].haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor reticulatus mostly occur in narrow-limited humid biotopes of certain landscapes, whereas ixodes ricinus--as wellknown--occurs more or less occupying the whole territory in kind of a mosaic; in regard of epidemiological questions at least, such a distribution may be resumed for ixodes ricinus. haemaphysalis concinna nearly regularly may be found in certain biotopes. considering the possible role of haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor reticulatus as vector ...19902389828
development of theileria sergenti in the midgut of the larval tick, haemaphysalis longicornis. 19872455095
[haemaphysalis concinna ticks and tularemia natural foci in the pavlodar region (north east of kazakhstan)].haemophysalis concinna koch. ticks, found in the pavlodar region adjacent to the altay and situated in the north-east of kazakhstan, play an important role in tularemia infection circulation. 58.5% of 212 strains of the tularemia infection agent, isolated from three pastural ticks species for the last 10 years, belong to the abovementioned species. all h. concinna habitats were enzootic with regard to tularemia.19892526920
[ixodid ticks of pavlodar province and their participation in the circulation of tularemia infection].investigations carried out in pavlodar province have shown that 7 species of ixodid ticks, ixodes crenulatus, i. lividus, i. persulcatus, i. laguri laguri, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis concinna, and one brought species, hyalomma asiaticum, parasitize domestic animals and wild mammals. maximum activity of pasture ticks of the genus dermacentor falls on the end of april--beginning of may, that of h. concinna on the beginning of june. the growth in the abundance of pasture ...19892528108
numerical comparative serology of the bhanja antigenic group (bunyaviridae).antigenic relationships between the two known members of the bhanja serogroup (bhanja virus, 7 strains; kismayo virus, two strains) were studied by a plaque-reduction cross-neutralization test in vero cells, using hyperimmune mouse sera. the results were then subjected to a cluster analysis, which showed (in the form of a dendrogram) a considerable antigenic difference between the two viruses. within bhanja virus, the european isolates from haemaphysalis punctata or h. sulcata ticks were antigen ...19852581527
keys to the adult ticks of haemaphysalis koch, 1844, in thailand with notes on changes in taxonomy (acari: ixodoidea: ixodidae).specimens of the genus haemaphysalis collected in thailand were examined, and a key to the adult of 24 species belonging to six subgenera is presented. we propose that h. wellingtoni nuttall & warburton, 1908, be placed in the subgenus kaiseriana; h. obesa larrousse, 1925, be moved from segalia to kaiseriana; and that h. cornigera neumann, 1897, be removed from the species list of thailand.19892585453
transmission of theileria buffeli to cattle by haemaphysalis bancrofti fed on artificially infected mice.larval and nymphal haemaphysalis bancrofti became infected with theileria buffeli following the intraperitoneal inoculation of infected bovine blood into cba mice on which they were feeding. subsequent instars of fed ticks were released on calves and transmitted theileriosis at each of 10 attempts. suspensions made from ticks moulted in vitro and then incubated for 4 days at 37 degrees c were also infective for calves inoculated subcutaneously. the findings provide a convenient method for infect ...19892588463
correlation between the infection rate of the vector tick, haemaphysalis longicornis and the parasitaemia of cattle infected with theileria sergenti.the infection rate of theileria sergenti in salivary glands of nymphal haemaphysalis longicornis which had dropped from cattle showing different piroplasm parasitaemias was examined by the methyl green-pyronin staining method. the results suggested that there was some correlation between parasitaemia and the subsequent infection rate in salivary glands of ticks. it seemed possible that the parasitaemia in cattle, especially the number of parasitized erythrocytes in blood imbibed by ticks, might ...19892596906
development of babesia ovata in the midgut of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis.studies were made on the development of babesia ovata in the midgut of the nymphal tick vector, haemaphysalis longicornis. in 12 hr post-repletion, merozoites were observed outside of erythrocytes infected with b. ovata in the contents of the midgut of the tick. after that, these merozoites were transformed into ring-forms which were comparatively large ring 2-3 microns in diameter. within 48-72 hr post-repletion, ring-form protozoa developed into spherical form 4-5 microns in diameter. within 3 ...19892601226
development of babesia ovata in the haemolymph of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis.the haemolymph of adult tick haemaphysalis longicornis (h. longicornis) infected with babesia ovata (b. ovata) was examined at regular intervals. as a result kinetes could be detected in the haemolymph 15 days after engorgement. the kinetes detected could be classified into three types on the basis of their morphological characteristics. they increased gradually in number, reaching a maximum 23 days later. then they tended to decrease in number, disappearing almost completely from the haemolymph ...19892622117
three groups of babesia canis distinguished and a proposal for nomenclature.two stocks of large babesia from dogs originating in france, transmitted by dermacentor reticulatus, two from north africa, having rhipicephalus sanguineus as vector, and one from south africa, transmitted by haemaphysalis leachi, were compared in cross-immunity tests in dogs and in the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). the french and north african stocks did not immunise against the south african one, while the north african stocks did not protect against a french one. the south africa ...19892655263
pictorial key to the adults of hard ticks, family ixodidae (ixodida: ixodoidea), east of the mississippi river.six genera and 27 species of hard ticks (ixodidae) currently are recognized in the united states east of the mississippi river as follows: amblyomma (4 species), boophilus (1), dermacentor (3), haemaphysalis (2), ixodes (16), and rhipicephalus (1). we present a diagrammatic couplet key to the adults of the six genera and 27 species of ixodidae found in the eastern portion of the united states.19892795615
peculiarities of tick-borne encephalitis virus reproduction in haemaphysalis inermis ticks and their explants.virological, electron microscopic and immunomorphological investigation on the reproduction of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus in haemaphysalis inermis ticks and in tissue explants from nymphs during their metamorphosis revealed that the virus reproduced in the cells of different tissues and organs of ticks which were in different phases and stages of life cycle. during the eclipse phase of tbe virus persistence in ticks, when no virus could be demonstrated by infectivity assay, viral partic ...19862878587
physiological phases of nymphal molting defined by mobility, body weight decrease, and excretion in haemaphysalis longicornis (acari: ixodidae).based on the rate of body weight decrease, the nymphal premolting period in haemaphysalis longicornis neumann was divided into three phases: a period of rapid weight decrease following detachment, a period of slight decrease, and another period of relatively rapid decrease before molting. phase 1 was characterized by increased guanine excretion and mobility. the rate of weight decrease during phase 1 was greater in males than in females. during the premolting period, excreta consisted only of gu ...19892926778
[new data on the ixodid tick fauna of the western pamirs].dermacentor raskemensis and haemaphysalis pospelovashtromae were first recorded from the west pamirs in the flood-land of the gunt river at the height of 2700 m above the sea level. the ticks were collected from sheep, on which in addition to the above species d. marginatus was found. in the rushansk region of the mountain-badakhshan district at the height of 2100 to 2300 m rhipicephalus pumilio, r. turanicus and hyalomma plumbeum were collected from domestic sheep and goats.19862950368
geographic distribution of bhanja virus.a review on the geographic distribution, vectors and hosts of bhanja virus (bunyaviridae) is based on reports about: isolations of the virus; antibody surveys. bhanja virus has been isolated in 15 countries of asia, africa and europe, and antibodies against it have been detected in 15 additional countries. vector range includes ticks of the family ixodidae (subfam. amblyomminae; not subfam. ixodinae): 13 species of 6 genera (haemaphysalis, dermacentor, hyalomma, amblyomma, rhipicephalus and boop ...19873108117
development of theileria sergenti in the midgut of the tick, haemaphysalis longicornis. 19873108562
incidence of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies for bhanja virus in humans along the north-west border of the hemagglutination-inhibition test with the yugoslav strain of bhanja virus, the sera of 380 youngsters residing in the region along the yugoslav-hungarian border (north croatia) and 367 sera from newcomers to the area from various parts of yugoslavia were examined. the testing included 154 sera of the youngsters who had came to the region along the yugoslav-italian border (slovenia) without antibodies for bhanja virus and were staying there for a year. hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodie ...19873118594
effect of constant temperatures on theileria sergenti infection in salivary glands of nymphal haemaphysalis longicornis. 19883133517
morphology and transmission of theileria recondita (theileriidae: sporozoa) isolated from haemaphysalis punctata from north haemaphysalis punctata (canestrini and fanzago 1877) collected from an area of rough grazing at mynydd mawr, aberdaron, north wales, transmitted theileria recondita (wales); field-collected nymphs failed to transmit this parasite. following adult tick infestation, piroplasms were first observed in the blood of splenectomised infested sheep 8 days after tick attachment; the parasitaemia lasted 9 days. the parasite can also be transferred by syringe passage of blood from splenectomised to no ...19883138810
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