ecological study of ixodes ricinus (linné, 1758) (acarina, ixodoides) in southeastern france.ixodes ricinus (linne, 1758) is being surveyed in the northern alp and the jura mountains. this species, quite often found in the mesophilous forests of the hills, preferably takes root in the forest clusters, where there is a mull type mild humus often covered with an abundant litter. such plant layers maintain a high degree of moisture, which beneficially affects this species. examinations performed for three years in a southern jura's resort allow for securing a preliminary approximation as r ...19751985
vegetation analysis used for the detection of exophile tick populations in the south-east of france: the example ixodes ricinus (linne 1758) (acarina, ixodoidea).the cross-linking relation between the evidence of outside living tick populations and specific vegetation units allows for efficiently using the vegetation maps, and more especially the medium scale maps. ixodes ricinus is referred to here as an example. the limitations of this data derived from such maps are evaluated by the authors. they suggest some means aiding in improving their efficiency through the knowledge of the ecological variables playing a role in the species settlement.19757119
eyach--an arthropod-borne virus related to colorado tick fever virus in the federal republic of germany.from ixodes ricinus ticks collected in a tick-borne encephalitis focus in baden-württemberg, an agent pathogenic exclusively for suckling mice was isolated. obviously a virus, it passed membrane filters with a pore width of 200 nm. it was resistant to ether and sodium deoxycholate, but not to chloroform. in the complement fixation test it showed a close, and in the neutralisation test a more one-sided relationship to colorado tick fever virus.19769824
isolation of tettnang virus from ixodes ricinus ticks in czechoslovakia.three virus strains closely related to tettnang virus were isolated from nymphs and males of ixodes ricinus tick in moravia and slovakia. the virus isolates were lethal for suckling mice on intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation but the virus titres in the brain were low. the incubation period of 5--12 days in the first mouse passage was shortened to 3 days in further passages. infection of mice was accompanied by ultrastructural changes in the cytoplasm of neurons. groups of spherical virus particles ...197825012
isolation of tribcc virus from ixodes ricinus ticks in italy. 197826204
isolation of tettnang virus from ticks, mosquitoes and small strains of tettnang virus were isolated in czechoslovakia: 3 from ixodes ricinus tick nymphs, males and females, one from dermacentor reticulatus tick females, one from aedes cantans mosquitoes and two strains from the brains of clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus flavicollis small rodents.197935963
[new aspects of the part of the vector played by ixodes ricinus l. in switzerland. preliminary note (author's transl)].the authors, after having recalled their recent work on ixodes ricinus ecology, give the new results about the part played by this species in the transmission of different infectious agents in switzerland. i. ricinus was already known to be the most important vector of the tick borne encephalitis virus, and of protozoans of the babesia genus. in this article, we describe the existence in the hemolymphe of different i. ricinus populations, of a rickettsia species related to the rmst group (rocky- ...197941427
ixodes ricinus: vector of a hitherto undescribed spotted fever group agent in switzerland.a tick/rickettsial survey in various parts of switzerland revealed the presence of a new, hitherto undescribed spotted fever group rickettsia ("swiss agent") in up to 11.7% of i. ricinus collected off vegetation. infection in ticks was found to be generalized with rickettsiae developing intracellularly and occasionally also intranuclearly. as a result of massive growth in ovarial tissues, including the germinative cells, the rate of transovarial and filial infection was 100%. the "swiss agent" a ...197944100
the efficacy of showers for control of ectoparasites of sheep.ectoparasites of sheep in britain include the tick ixodes ricinus, the blowfly, lucilia sericata, the ked, melophagus ovinus and the lice, damalinia ovis and linognathus ovillus. the most important ectoparasite, however, is the mite psoroptes communis ovis which causes sheep scab. this notifiable disease was eradicated from britain in 1952 but was reported again in 1973. the control of ectoparasites depends largely on the efficient application of insecticide to the fleece and skin. plunge dippin ...197876363
[the possibility of individual protection of people against the ixodes ricinus ticks (author's transl)]. 1977137777
[sex ratio in natural populations of imago, ixodes ricinus l. and ixodes persulcatus p. sch. (ixodoidea, ixodidae)]. 1977144853
tick-borne viruses in finland.ixodes ricinus is the only one of six tick species reported from finland found to carry viruses. it transmits tick-borne encephalitis and uukuniemi viruses, and transmission of a kemerovo group virus is suggested by antibody findings. tick-borne encephalitis is common only in the sw-archipelago; it is also found near the se-boarder but is very rare elsewhere. in contrast, uukuniemi virus is common throughout the distribution area of i. ricinus, being commoner on the mainland than in the archipel ...1975173939
[characteristics of the biological properties of a kemerovo group arbovirus isolated in transcarpathia].a strain of an arbovirus named mircha was isolated from ixodes ricinus l. ticks (30 incompletely engorged females) collected in may, 1972 from cows pastured in a forest near the village of mircha of the velikobereznyansky district of the zakarpathye region of the ukrainian ssr. the strain was found to be pathogenic for newborn white mice and rats by the intracerebral and intraperitoneal routes and for chick embryos inoculated into the yolk sac, to replicate in chick embryo fibroblast culture pro ...1977200013
the first tick-borne encephalitis virus isolates from norway.five virus strains with close serological relationship to the tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) complex have been isolated from ixodes ricinus ticks. the ticks were collected in early june 1976 at three different locations in sogn & fjordane county, norway. one of the virus-yielding pools was composed of ticks collected between the cabins on a tourist camping ground.1978211795
experimental mixed cns infections in mice caused by three ixodes ricinus transmitted arboviruses.approximately 12-day-old mice were infected intracerebrally with tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus (strain hypr), unkuniemi virus (strain by e50) and tribec virus, as single virus inoculations, coinfections with two or three viruses, and sequential infections with two or three viruses at 24-hour intervals. the effect of mixed infections on mortality, morbidity and average survival time was recorded. the main findings were that: 1. some mixed infections with tbe and uuk viruses reduced the mort ...1978214993
rickettsioses studies. 3. natural foci of rickettsioses in south bohemia.antibodies against coxiella burnetii and against rickettsiae of the spotted fever group were found in human sera and in sera from domestic and wild animals collected in south bohemia. spotted fever group rickettsiae were also discovered in the tick ixodes ricinus. these results indicate the presence of both types of rickettsiae in this part of czechoslovakia. as no epizootics or epidemics of q fever have as yet been reported in the area, it can be assumed that c. burnetii occurs in the latent st ...1977304389
effects and duration of resistance acquired by rabbits on feeding and egg laying in ixodes ricinus l.rabbits gradually developed a resistance against ixodes ricinus ticks as a result of sequential experimental infestations. the resistance was characterized by an increase duration of feeding, by ticks engorging to a smaller extent and by reduced egg production. once established, the immunity persisted for at least 9 months. changes in the titre of circulating anti-i. ricinus antibodies was measured by indirect immunofluorescence.1977324791
[additional observations to the biology of hepatozoon erhardovae krampitz 1964 in bank voles from the south-western styria and from areas around the neusiedlersee (burgenland) (author's transl)].the incidence of hepatozoon erhardovae in the blood of bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) captured in the investigated areas is examined. the biology of schizonts, their distribution in the lobes of the lung and the further development of natural infections in vertebrate hosts kept strictly free of ectoparasites are observed. the accumulation of gametocytes in larvae of the tick ixodes ricinus and of the mite neotrombicula zachvatkini after sucking on strongly infected bank voles is pointed ou ...1977413270
phosphoglucomutase polymorphism in the tick ixodes ricinus.ten variants of phosphoglucomutase were detected by starch-gel electrophoresis in extracts of the tick ixodes ricinus. agreement of phenotype frequencies with those predicted by the hardy-weinberg model indicated that the enzyme is coded by a single gene locus (pgm) at which 10 alleles are segregating. allelic proportions in 5 irish tick samples indicated that both spatial and temporal genetic differentiation exist. it is suggested that this polymorphism may be of use as a marker for studying th ...1979419005
blood parasites of sheep in the netherlands. i. anaplasma mesaeterum sp.n. (rickettsiales, anaplasmataceae).on two occasions an anaplasm was isolated from sheep on the dutch island of ameland. the organism proved to be highly pathogenic for splenectomised sheep; a non-splenectomised animal recovered spontaneously after the packed cell volume had decreased by 40%. treatment with oxytetracycline was effective. its pathogenicity for goats appeared to be low, and the organism was apparently not infective to splenectomised cattle. this anaplasm differs from anaplasma ovis in that less than 30% of the organ ...1979419513
[circadian rhythm of the dropping of engorged larvae in 2 species of ixodid ticks (ixodidae) and its photoperiodic entrainment].daily rhythm of detachment of engorged larvae of ixodes ricinus l. and hyalomma anatolicum koch is regulated by photoperiod. in photoperiodic conditions (16--20 hours of light p. d.) the maximum of detachment in h. anatolicum occurs at the beginning of photophase (the first 4--8 hours), but in i. ricinus it occurs at the second part of photo-phase (12--16 hours after the light is on). the rhythm of detachment is regulated according to the processes of endogenous circadian nature which are mainta ...1979440776
[effect of the diapause in the ixodes ricinus (ixodidae) tick on the multiplication of the tick-borne encephalitis virus in its body].the tick encephalitis virus was found to multiply more intensively in ticks developing without diapause. thus, in larvae developing with diapause, in 4 and 8 weeks after they feed on infected animals, the virus titers were 3.0 and 3.5 lg ld50 respectively. at the development without diapause the titers were 4.3 and 5.3, respectively (p less than 0.05). the virus titers in infected nymphs developing without diapause were 2.5 to 3.9 lg ld50 higher than those of the diapausing individuals. in diapa ...1979440778
passive transfer of resistance in rabbits infested with adult ixodes ricinus l: humoral factors influence feeding and egg laying.parital immunity against the bites of female i. ricinus was transferred to normal rabbits by inoculating immune serum from resistant animals. transferred humoral factors diminished the weight of the ticks' blood meal by 29% and increased the feeding period by about 1 day in comparison with ectoparasites engorged on controls. they provoked also the failure of egg laying by female i. ricinus. only 55% of ticks fed on treated rabbits laid eggs (94% on controls). the immunological state of immune se ...1979499438
[ecology of indigenious arbovirus in alsace. tick central european encephalitis. i.--complex ixodes ricinus--bank voles. ii.--study of bank voles population immunity. iii.--virologic results in bank voles population (author's transl)].i.--after showing that bank voles are parasited only by ixodes ricinus larvae, the authors attempt to found different factors (demographic, biometric, and sexual) who favor individual parasitism. the authors conclude to absent of anti tick immunity for this rodent specie. ii.--the search for anti-central european encephalitis antibodies (i.h.a.) are shown that 2 p. cent animals were immuns. yearly and monthly chronologies of antibodies apparition are shown, factors favoring the growth of specifi ...1979538306
the detection of rickettsia-like microorganisms within the ovaries of female ixodes ricinus ultrastructural study of tick-borne fever (tbf)-infected ixodes ricinus ticks revealed the presence of rickettsia-like microorganisms within the ooplasm and the mitochondria of developing oocytes. these microorganisms are similar in appearance to the tbf agent and it is possible that although transovarial transmission of the tbf agent apparently does not occur, the rickettsiae are at least able to establish themselves in the ovaries of infected ticks.1979539071
[the larval development of dipetalonema rugosicauda (syn. wehrdlikmansia rugosicauda) in the tick ixodes ricinus. i. infection of ticks with microfilariae using artificial feeding techniques (author's transl)]. 1979575448
[biology of ixodes ricinus l., 1758. i. ecology; developmental cycle]. 1977579620
[biology of ixodes ricinus l., 1758. 2. epidemiological consequences]. 1977579621
rabbits infested with the adults of ixodes ricinus l.: passive transfer of resistance with immune serum. 1977580912
the sex ratio in the common tick ixodes ricinus (l). 1977604218
[some demographic datas from ixodes ricinus linné: vector of a virus strain of central european encephalitis in alsace (author's transl)].this work shows the montly variation in the density and stage composition of the population of the tick ixodes ricinus in the rhine forest. some factors influencing this variation are analysed. these include the locality of egg-laying and of down localisation and the main climatic variables. we also try to link these ecological data with the strains of central european encephalitis virus isolated from this arthropod.1977618028
[effect of the physiological state of ticks on the intensity of tick-borne encephalitis virus replication in them].the features of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) virus reproduction in ixodes ricinus and dermacentor anderson ticks were studied in relation to the age of ticks, duration of fasting, feeding, and conditions of keeping the ticks before and after the experiment. parenteral infection of ticks at various intervals after molting showed that the most favourable conditions for reproduction, survival, transphase and transovarial transmission of the virus occurred when the virus was given to the ticks in t ...1978664624
natural infection of the tick dermacentor reticulatus (fabr.) with the microsporidian nosema slovaca weiser et rehácek in slovakia.a total of 6,199 adult ticks (haemaphysalis intermis, dermacentor reticulatus, d. marginatus and ixodes ricinus) collected in three localities in slovakia were examined for microsporidian infection. the spores of nosema slovaca were found in six d. reticulatus (0.097%). the microsporidian experimentally inoculated into the hemocele of half-engorged females of d. reticulatus caused acute infection and death of the host. the infection can be transmitted also to other tick species from the same reg ...1978689565
reaction of the host to the tick bite iii. the bite of viruliferous ixodes ricinus distinct internal cement formation was observed at the penetration site of the mouth parts of ixodes ricinus females during their feeding on golden hamsters. at 2 h, the chelicera were already deeply inserted into the dermal tissue. beginning after 4 hours, the proliferation of collagen and conus formation became evident. the internal cell-free area was structureless and showed pas positivity, while the outer collagen layer was rich in fibrocytes and negative for pas staining. both layers sho ...1978735556
the isolation of central european encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis) virus from ixodes ricinus (l.) ticks in southern-germany.during the years 1972--1976 a total of 14.692 ticks of the species ixodes ricinus (l.), (2.738 adults and 11.954 nymphs) was collected. they were taken from five areas where human central european encephalitis virus (cee) infections had occurred. by means of, intracerebral (ic) and subcutaneous (sc) isolation experiments with suckling mice 19 agents, exhibiting the pathogenic characteristics of cee virus, were isolated from these ticks. in neutralization tests with suckling mice these isolates c ...1978735557
[participation of ixodes ricinus l. ticks in the biology and transmission of toxoplasma gondii]. 1978741744
nosema slovaca sp. n.: a second microsporidian of the tick ixodes ricinus. 1975812923
rickettsiae belonging to the spotted fever group from ticks in the tribec mountains.rickettsiae of the spotted (sf) group were found in a selected locality of the tribec mountains in southern slovakia in 1974. the rickettsiae were found in 10.8% of females and 6.1% of males of haemaphysalis inermis and 7.3% of females and 4.8% of males of ixodes ricinus. no significant differences in the incidence were observed during the year. coxiella burneti was found in 1 male and 4 females of h. inermis and 1 male of i. ricinus in ad adjacent locality. antibodies against rickettsiae of the ...1976820614
[clinical picture of central european tick-borne encephalitis (author's transl)].tick-borne encephalitis is transmitted by the tick ixodes ricinus. after the second world war an increase in the number of cases of encephalitis was observed and the neurotropic virus was isolated for the first time in 1948. reservoir animals are mouse-like wild animals and also agricultural domestic animals. the infection is transmitted to humans through tick bites. it becomes apparent subjectively in headaches, vomiting, tiredness, giddiness and insomnia, and objectively in meningeal symptoms, ...1976826810
possibilities of persistence in new biotopes of ticks imported by birds.survival and development of 6 tick species (hyalomma anatolicum, rhipicephalus sanguineus, haemaphysalis punctata, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus and ixodes ricinus) were studied in 3 groups differing in the range of distribution with respect to the place of importation, as a model for the knowledge of their possible inclusion in the new local biocenosis during transportation by natural hosts.1977852771
effectiveness of fenitrothion for area control of ticks ixodes ricinus (l.).susceptibility to fenitrothion in all stages of unfed ticks ixodes ricinus increases with their age and this fact is reflected in the effectiveness of various dosages of insecticides applied for area control. the following minimum, but fully effective dosages of the dust metation p-5 and the spray metation e-50 (both preparations contain fenitrothion) for application in separate seasons have been ascertained: in september and october 1 kg of fenitrothion per ha of treated area ensures complete c ...1977856685
influence of microclimate on the life cycle of the common tick ixodes ricinus (l.) in an open area in comparison with forest habitats.under conditions of the south-moravian region of pannonian climate (valtice near breclav), the life cycle of the common tick ixodes ricinus (l.) was studied and a continous recording of main elements of microclimate (temperature and humidity) was carried out in an open grassy area. simultaneously the process of hibernation was studied in four soil layers (surface, depths of 10, 20 and 30 cm). observations were assessed by mathematiccal-statistical tests and compared with the results obtained by ...1977881143
[ixodes ricinus, experimental vector of 3 species of babesia (b. bovis, b. berbera, and b. argentina)]. 1976968441
influence of microclimate on the life cycle of the common tick ixodes ricinus (l.) in thermophilic oak forest.under conditions of the south moravian thermophilic oak forest (valtice near breclav), the life cycle of the common tick ixodes ricinus was studied by continuous recording of main elements of microclimate (temperature and humidity) in three different biotopes: forest, margin of the forest and meadow. simultaneously conditions and the process of tick hibernation were studied in four soil layers (surface, depths of 10, 20 and 30 cm). observations made in the winter and vegetation periods were asse ...19761017757
[new faunal and biological observations on ticks in abruzzo].ticks collected during the years 1975-76 in abruzzo (prov. l'aquila and chieti) italy are reported. the following species have been identified: ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis sulcata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum. new hosts are: felis catus for ixodes canisuga; scolopax rusticola, motacilla flava, corvus cornix for ixodes frontalis; sciurus vulgaris for haemaphysalis punctata; garrul ...19761032325
[the sheep tick (ixodes ricinus) as cause and vector of diseases in humans]. 19761045681
study of rickettsioses in slovakia. i. coxiella burneti and rickettsiae of the spotted fever (sf) group in ticks and serological surveys in animals and humans in certain selected localities in the lucenec and v. krtís districts.a study of the natural focus character of q fever and the rickettsiosis caused by organisms of the sf group carried out in 1971-1973 in 7 selected villages in the lucenec district and in a few control villages in the v. krtis district, produced the following results: among a total number of 2,200 ticks belonging to the species dermacentor marginatus, ixodes ricinus and haemaphysalis punctata and tested for the presence of rickettsial organisms by the haemocyte test, c. burneti was detected in 8 ...19751092754
experiments on the transmission of babesia divergens to cattle by the tick ixodes ricinus. 19751126789
[isolation of "bratislava" strains of tick-born-encephalitis virus from ixodes ricinus ticks in devín natural focus (author's transl)]. 19751156891
[sheep tick (ixodes ricinus) as cause and transmittor of human diseases]. 19751161076
[ecology and ethology of ixodes ricinus l. in switzerland. ii. comparison of the populations 1972 and 1973]. 19751179955
[ecology and ethology of ixodes ricinus l. in switzerland (ixodoidea: ixodidae). iii: copulation, nutrition and oviposition]. 19751179957
[experience in the study of the peculiarities of the distribution of the tick ixodes ricinus in a large territory].attempts were undertaken to study the character of the distribution of i. ricinus over a large territory. methodic principles of the land survey of arthropods distribution and laboratory processing of its results, that were used before for i. persulcatus, were found to be quite suitable for i. ricinus. it was established that hungry adults of i. ricinus have at least three types of the distribution throughout the forests of lithuania. types of the distribution can be ascertained by the results o ...19751196669
[trends in ixodides fauna along the black sea in the south].a total of 55726 ixodes ticks were collected from farm and wild animals on the territory of bourgas district in the 1958-1964 period and were specifically differentiated. at a later study in the region of the town of michourin other 26722 ticks were collected from sheep. a total of 15 species were determined. it was found that ixodes ricinus in the east balkan mountain to the north of the town of nessebur develops after a three-year pattern in pure populations of larvae, nymphs, and imagoes, the ...19751210006
[investigations on the filariidae of the cervidae in southern germany. 3. the filariidae of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (dama dama) (author's transl)].roe deer in southern germany are frequently infected with w. rugosicauda. the adult worms are found subcutaneously in the connective tissues of the back of the host. the microfilariae concentrate in a considerable distance near the nose, in smaller numbers also in the ears and in the skin of the legs. the vector is probably ixodes ricinus. in fallow deer c. wenki are found intradermally and subcutaneously. the microfilariae remain in the skin near the site of the adult worms. skin inhabiting mic ...19751216336
[study of characteristics of distribution of the tick ixodes ricinus over a large territory].attempts were undertaken to study the character of the distribution of i. ricinus over a large territory. methodic principles of the land survey of arthropods distribution and laboratory processing of its results, that were used before for i. persulcatus, were found to be quite suitable for i. ricinus. it was established that hungry adults of i. ricinus have at least three types of the distribution throughout the forests of lithuania. types of the distribution can be ascertained by the results o ...19751235415
[ecology and ethology of ixodes ricinus l. in switzerland (ixodoidea: ixodidae). 5. demonstration of a sexual pheromone in ixodes ricinus]. 19761266551
[ecology and ethology of ixodes ricinus l. in switzerland. 4. comparison of 2 populations at different altitudes]. 19761266552
haemaphysalis juxtakochi, ixodes pararicinus (ixodidae) and otobius megnini (argasidae) in relation to the phytogeography of argentina.the phytogeographical distributions of haemaphysalis juxtakochi, ixodes pararicinus and otobius megnini in argentina are described from material collected mainly from 1978 to the present. h. juxtakochi was found in the northwestern area of the amazonian domain and in the chaco, espinal and pampean provinces of the chaco domain. it was detected on mazama spp., tapirus terrestris, dog, cattle and on the vegetation. most findings of i. pararicinus were from mountain rangeland, where it was found on ...19921290380
[examination of ticks for the presence of borrelia sp. in kosice and the surrounding region. preliminary results].the authors present preliminary data on the infestation of ticks ixodes ricinus with borrelia in the town of kosice and surroundings. the authors found a mean 4.7% positivity which means that more systematic attention should be paid to the problem.19921394475
incompetence of roe deer as reservoirs of the lyme borreliosis determine whether the roe deer, capreolus capreolus l. may serve as a reservoir host for the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, evidence of spirochetal infection was sought in nymphal ixodes ricinus (l.) that had engorged as larvae on roe deer. sixteen roe deer were shot in lyme disease enzootic areas of south-central sweden during august-november 1990 and august 1991. an average of 276 (range, 84-658) larvae of i. ricinus was collected ...19921404260
[the tick fauna of eastern germany].the occurrence of several tick species in selected areas of eastern germany is described. from may 1987 till december 1989 8,472 ticks from 430 places were examined. ixodidae of the genus ixodes, dermacentor and haemaphysalis as well as argasidae of the genus argas were identified. the most common species was ixodes ricinus. furthermore, an endemic area of dermacentor reticulatus was detected in the düben-dahlen and annaburg health. two other species of ticks, which were found frequently and som ...19921416225
borrelia burgdorferi infection in ixodes ricinus from habitats in denmark.a total of 2647 ticks of the genus ixodes was sampled by flagging the vegetation in thirty-one sites in eastern jutland, denmark. all ticks were identified as ixodes ricinus linnaeus. a total of 317 ticks (202 nymphs and 115 adults) from three different sites were examined for the spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. by indirect fluorescent antibody staining; the frequency of infection varied from 7% to 22%. it is concluded that i. ricinus, known to be the most common tick in denmark, ...19921421487
[ixodid ticks in the mountainous part of the crimea].about a hundred of patients with tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) were recorded over the latest decade in the crimea, and 60 tbe virus strains were isolated from the ticks collected on the peninsula. the results of studies carried out in 1986-1990 helped define the borders of 4 local natural foci of tbe, study their acarifauna, detect the principal tbe vector--ixodes ricinus (with a mean virophority of 0.6%), and distinguish two foci with a combination of tbe and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever.19921435578
[the age-related structure of an ixodes ricinus population studied by using a rapid anatomical method].a rapid anatomic method for the assessment of the physiologic age of ticks and their virtual age was used in studies of the age structure of a natural population of i. ricinus in the moscow region. the anatomic method was found quite fit for the purpose. the findings evidence that the age structure of i. ricinus (active imago) population is heterogeneous with variously directed seasonal fluctuations. in spring the structure is the youngest (up to 60% of imagoes are in the second age, 8 months) a ...19921435580
changes in the protein profile and antigenicity of different borrelia burgdorferi strains after reintroduction to ixodes ricinus ticks.eight swiss strains of borrelia burgdorferi, with various protein profiles and the north-american strain b31 were artificially introduced into ixodes ricinus ticks and reisolated 10 days later. all isolates were subsequently examined by sds-page analysis. comparing initial isolates with the reisolates, we observed that 7 out of 9 strains changed their protein pattern with respect to the major proteins ospa, ospb and the 22 kda protein after passage in the tick. the strains ne2, ne4 and ne83 with ...19921437234
arthropoda as zoonoses and their implications.some aspects of changing patterns of arthropodal infections and arthropod-borne diseases in mediterranean areas are briefly discussed. selected examples are given, with particular emphasis on the phenomenon of the synanthropic flea ctenocephalides felis felis and on health problems caused by human infections with argas reflexus, the common tick of urban pigeons in europe. finally, the risk of the emergence of lyme borreliosis (borrelia burgdorferi) is considered in relation to the increasing spr ...19921441188
[survey of the infestation level of the ixodes ricinus tick by borrelia burgdorferi. complimentary report].in a recent report, we gave results of a 4 year consecutively survey (1987 to 1990) of the level of ixodes ricinus nymphs infested by borrelia burgdorferi in two forests of the western part of france. this brought us to conclude that there was a relative stability for this level in course of time. results of this survey kept on in 1991 oblige us to partly modify our conclusion, on account of an important dropping of the tick infection frequency in one of the two forests, this perhaps in connecti ...19921446183
the diagnosis and treatment of lyme disease.lyme disease has probably been reported for at least 80 years, with the cause unknown until the discovery of the ixodes ricinus complex tick-borne spirochete b. burgdorferi. the incidence of diagnosed cases appears to be increasing in kansas and elsewhere. a negative laboratory test does not exclude the possibility of the disease. at present, no accurate laboratory screen for the illness is available. the diagnosis must be considered when acute or chronic clinical manifestations reviewed in this ...19921447864
studies on the ecology of lyme disease in a deer forest in county galway, ireland.the abundance of the tick ixodes ricinus (l.) and the infection rate of ticks with borrelia burgdorferi (johnson et al.) were compared on either side of a deer fence in a forest park in county galway, ireland, in an attempt to elucidate the role of fallow deer, dama dama, and woodmice, apodemus sylvaticus, in determining the population density of i. ricinus and the transmission of b. burgdorferi. the results showed that tick numbers were much higher on the deer side of the fence, although the de ...19921460628
tick infection rates with borrelia: ixodes ricinus versus haemaphysalis concinna and dermacentor reticulatus in two locations in eastern germany.unfed nymphal ixodes ricinus, haemaphysalis concinna, and adult dermacentor reticulatus were collected in two locations of saxony in july and september 1991 by flagging. in july, the abundance of nymphal i. ricinus was about 2-3 times higher than that of nymphal h. concinna, a time of the year when nymphs of both species are reported to have a seasonal peak of activity. no d. reticulatus were flagged concurrently. in september, host-seeking activity of nymphal i. ricinus was again quite high as ...19921463902
stage-associated risk of transmission of the lyme disease spirochete by european ixodes more closely define the risk of infection by the agent of lyme disease in europe, we determined whether spirochetal prevalence increases throughout the development of the ixodes ricinus vector tick. of all ticks that could be flagged from vegetation, i. ricinus were by far the most abundant. spirochetal infection rates in the adult stage of this tick (15%) are no higher than those in nymphs (18%) but greatly exceed those in larvae (0.7%). this tick therefore appears to attain infection mainly ...19921480608
[human babesiosis. study of vectors].babesiosis in an entity transmitted by tick bite presented in our medium producing high morbidity and mortality in immunodepressed patients.19921489774
regeneration of haller's sensory organ in the tick ixodes ricinus l.amputation of legs in nymphs of ticks, obtained from the first laboratory generation, resulted in regeneration of the legs after moulting to adults. haller's sensory organ on the upper surface of each foreleg tarsus was significantly modified following regeneration. haller's organ in non-amputated legs of the experimental ticks remained unchanged, being comparable to controls. pored olfactory sensilla in the anterior pit, in a capsule and on a distal knoll usually increased in number, as well as ...19921511638
capacity of european animals as reservoir hosts for the lyme disease spirochete.the abundance of spirochete-infected ixodes ricinus ticks naturally derived from endemic rodents was compared to identify the reservoir hosts of the agent of lyme disease at a series of enzootic sites in central europe. black-striped mice appear to be the most important rodent host for the tick and infect more ticks with borrelia burgdorferi than do other mice and voles tested. although rodents infect about half of the ticks that feed on them, lizards infect none. these spirochete-incompetent ho ...19921538153
[the characterization of a spanish strain of borrelia burgdorferi].the characteristics of a spanish strain of borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochete which causes lyme's disease, and which, up to the present, has not been isolated in spain, are described.19921552756
seroepidemiological studies of borrelia burgdorferi infection in sheep in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in sheep was established. the assay was used in a seroepidemiological survey in which serum samples from 327 norwegian rams were screened for antibodies to b. burgdorferi. these rams were randomly chosen, clinically healthy animals from all parts of norway. they came both from areas where ixodes ricinus is common and from areas where the tick has not been found. the age of the animals varied from 0.5 to 7.5 years. sera f ...19921583130
[influence of temperature and humidity on the reproductive efficiency of ixodes ricinus (linnaeus, 1758) and hyalomma marginatum koch, 1844 (ixodoidea, ixodidae)].laboratory studies have been carried out on two species of ticks, i. ricinus and h. marginatum, showing different seasonal activity and different geographical distribution in nature. the purpose of the present study has been to investigate the effect of different combinations of temperature and humidity on the oviposition of i. ricinus and h. marginatum. an index of reproduction efficiency (no. eggs/wt female), established to relate the capacity of the females to produce eggs to their body weigh ...19761032336
[seasonal changes in the level of fertility of female ixodes ricinus l. and ixodes persulcatus p. sch. until they land on their hosts and the significance of this phenomenon in the life of tick populations]. 1979537588
suspected lyme borreliosis in sheep.two cases of suspected lyme borreliosis in lambs are described. the clinical signs observed resemble those described for lyme borreliosis in dogs and horses. the lambs were approximately six months old and came from two different flocks in a district heavily infested with ixodes ricinus ticks. the lambs had pronounced lameness in one leg, generally bad condition and poor appetite. they had high serum levels of igg antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi when tested in an elisa. the other lambs in the ...19921595160
[ixodes ricinus proven as a vector of lyme borreliosis in yugoslavia].263 fasting female ixodes ricinus were examined for borrelia burgorferi, the vector of lyme borreliosis. female ticks were collected by flagella in the biotopes (belgrade and osijek) in which ticks bite patients with lyme borreliosis. borrelia burgorferi was proved in 58 (22%) of 263 female ticks in the native preparations of the intestinal contents by darkfield microscopy. in macerates of two groups of 5 female ticks each, borrelia burgorferi was isolated by cultivation in the modified kelly nu ...19921595237
[lyme disease in switzerland: ocular involvement].lyme disease is a multisystem disorder caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by a tick (ixodes ricinus). lyme disease is divided into three stages (infection, dissemination and immunological reactions). ocular manifestations are rare except for conjunctivitis and facial nerve palsy. switzerland is an endemic zone for lyme disease; the presence of an atypical pars planitis should prompt a search for lyme disease.19921614153
epidemiology and prevalence of seropositivity against borrelia burgdorferi antigen in la rioja, spain.the aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge of the epidemiology of lyme disease. a seroepidemiologic study was made by evaluating the different levels of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in a five hundred serum representative sample of a population from the province of la rioja, spain. samples were randomly selected and stratified to take into account sex, age, rural or urban residence, and geographical area. all subjects included in the study were asked to fill out a questionnaire ...19921631381
toxic effect of endocytobionts from dermacentor reticulatus ticks in three tick species after in vivo application.the endocytobionts from ovaries of partially engorged female dermacentor reticulatus ticks, inoculated introcoelomally into females of three tick species, d. reticulatus, ixodes ricinus and haemaphysalis inermis, caused considerable morphological alterations in the examined cells and tissues of the synganglion, fat body, tracheal complex and ovary of these recipients.19921638925
molecular characterization of borrelia burgdorferi isolated from ixodes ricinus in northern sweden.ixodes ricinus ticks, harbouring borrelia burgdorferi, were found in an area in northern sweden, not thought to be endemic for lyme borreliosis. this investigation took place at norrbyskär, an island situated in the bothnian gulf, 63 degrees 33'n/19 degrees 52'e. one of 42 nymphal and 8/43 adult i. ricinus ticks collected carried spirochetes as seen by phase contrast microscopy. pure bacterial cultures were obtained from 2 of the ticks. western blot analysis using species-specific monoclonal ant ...19921641595
the alsatian tick-borne encephalitis focus: presence of the virus among ticks and small extensive epidemiologic survey was carried out from 1970 to 1974 in order to understand the condition of circulation of tick-borne encephalitis virus between ticks and small mammals in the alsatian focus, france. the virus has been isolated from ixodes ricinus adult ticks (30 lots out of 369, representing a total of 5617 ticks), and from ixodes ricinus nymphs (4 lots out of 251, representing a total of 8587 ticks). the virus has also been isolated from 11 pools of rodent organs (out of 3361 r ...19921644133
loss of lyme disease spirochetes from ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on european determine whether blackbirds (turdus merula), the most abundant and most abundantly tick-infested ecotonal bird of central europe, may contribute to the transmission of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), we compared the infectivity to ticks of naturally as well as experimentally infected blackbirds and rodents. european blackbirds experience intense exposure to ixodes ricinus ticks and to the pathogens that they transmit. in nature, subadult i. ricinus ticks found feeding on ...19921740177
louping ill in man: a forgotten disease.louping ill disease of sheep has been recognised in scotland for centuries. it causes encephalitis and is transmitted by the sheep tick, ixodes ricinus. human infection was first reported in 1934. thirty-one cases of human infection have now been described. four clinical syndromes are seen, an influenza-like illness, a bi-phase encephalitis, a poliomyelitis-like illness and a hemorrhagic fever. certain occupational groups, e.g. laboratory personnel working with the virus and those who kill injec ...19911753132
the peritrophic membrane of ixodes ricinus.a peritrophic membrane was found in all three stages of ixodes ricinus at no later than 18 h after their placement on rabbits. it was found to remain intact until at least 11, 30 and 10 days after repletion in larvae, nymphs and females, respectively. in blood-feeding i. ricinus, the peritrophic membrane is an uneven single layer with a thickness of about 0.03-0.48 micron in larvae, 0.03-0.79 micron in nymphs and 0.04-0.93 micron in females. it covers the whole surface of the midgut epithelium a ...19911792236
[survey during 4 years of the infestation level of the tick ixodes ricinus (acari ixodidae) by borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of lyme borreliosis, in 2 forests in brittany].the authors followed, during 4 years consecutively, from 1987 to 1990, by immunofluorescence, the frequency of b. burgdorferi in an amount of 677 nymphs of i. ricinus tick, collected fasting by flagging in 2 forests in brittany (france). percentages obtained in each of these forests do not reveal significative differencies statistically and seem to show a relative stability, from one year to the following, during the considered period, of the infestation levels in ticks.19911807855
[preliminary studies of the occurrence of ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodida: ixodidae) in the areas of the cracow-czestochowa highland at various stages of human industrial activities].in the years 1987-88 the density of the population of i. ricinus on the territory of kraków-czestochowa highland including the ojców national park was studied. the method of collection of ticks from 100 m2 fields was applied. on the spite of similar ecological conditions there was marked variation in the population density of i. ricinus. it decreased from east to west, where territories are under the strong pressure of the upper silesia and olkusz industry.19911823484
[morphological anomalies in ticks (acari: ixodida) collected from natural environment].among the ticks with morphological anomalies were: argas persicus--fed female with atrophia of the third right leg together with the coxa from the chicken in the hen house (mfakar alsrki--syria); hyalomma marginatum--partly fed female with complete absence of the fourth right leg, was found on a sheep (mfakar alsrki); ixodes ricinus--partly fed female with asymmetry of the body from the roe-deer (popielno, province suwaƂki); i. i. ricinus--partly fed female with anomaly in shape of the dorsal di ...19911823491
interference between the viruses of tick-borne encephalitis complex in the ixodes ricinus ticks.the interference of two closely related viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis complex (tbe) in ixodes ricinus ticks has been observed. 42.9 to 65.0% of dually infested ticks developed virus neutralization antibodies in mice without signs of illness, which contrasts with the control ticks infected with 198 strain only. other explanations of this interference could include alteration of viral receptors on host cells or induction of antiviral activity in the infected ticks and/or other vectors suc ...19911823493
[use of original plant communities as indicators for the occurrence of common ticks].in an investigation conducted in the south and west bohemian region the author paid attention to the incidence of the tick ixodes ricinus and foci of tick-borne encephalitis in original plant communities. in southern bohemia in places of original communities of acidophil oak forests, oak-hornbeam woods and their mosaic combinations as well as combinations of flowers and beech forests and meadows and alder trees the author detected 93.5% of the breeding places of ticks. in western bohemia in orig ...19911827360
[lyme borreliosis: should we prepare for an epidemic?].lyme borreliosis results from the persistent infection with a spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. the geographic distribution of these ticks depends on specific climatic and ecologic conditions. lyme borreliosis is a disease with protean manifestations whose distribution is world-wide. in north america, the disease usually begins between may and august with a characteristic rash, erythema chronicum migrans, accompanied by non specific or meningit ...19911866842
[the ultrastructure of the interaction of rickettsia sibirica and r. slovaca with the cells of ixodid ticks].the ultrastructural aspects of the interaction of r. sibirica and r. slovaca with cells of mites of the species dermacentor reticulatus, d. marginatus and ixodes ricinus after their parenteral infection, as well as in the organs of d. marginatus infected naturally in the environment, have been studied. both rickettsial species have similar morphology in different organs of the vector. these rickettsiae not only multiply, their populations are also partly destroyed in phagolysosomes. the natural ...19911867038
isolation and characterization of a thrombin inhibitor from the tick ixodes ricinus.the secretion of the salivary glands of ticks, ixodes ricinus, contains anticoagulant substances. some years ago an antithromboplastin, ixodin, was described. the present paper refers the isolation and characterization of a second anticoagulant substance of the ticks named ixin. ixin proved to be a relatively stable and specific thrombin inhibitor. the multi step procedure for isolation results in a 850-fold purification. the preparation obtained has a specific activity of 250 antithrombin units ...19911881945
extensive examination of different tick species for infestation with coxiella burnetii in slovakia.between 1987-1989 almost 7000 adult ixodes ricinus, dermacentor reticulatus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis concinna, haemaphysalis punctata and haemaphysalis inermis ticks collected in all 38 districts of slovakia were screened for the presence of coxiella burnettii. the proportion of ticks containing c. burnetii as indicated by the haemocyte test was less than 3%. attempts to recover c. burnetii by inoculation of yolk sacs of embryonated hen eggs from pools of 1-6 specimens of haemocyte ...19911884784
lyme borreliosis: ten years after discovery of the etiologic agent, borrelia burgdorferi.since the recovery of its causative agent, borrelia burgdorferi, in 1981, lyme borreliosis has become the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the united states as well as in europe. its steadily increasing clinical spectrum now includes erythema migrans, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, lymphadenosis beniga cutis, arthritis, myocarditis, progressive meningoencephalitis, myositis, and various ocular and skin disorders. the true incidence of lyme borreliosis in the world is unknown. in the un ...19911917043
[borrelia infections of the skin--progress of knowledge since the discovery of lyme disease].the description of lyme disease in 1976 and the detection of its causative agent, the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi), in 1982 led to an increase in our knowledge of the course of b. burgdorferi infection and its clinical manifestations. the classic tick-borne dermatoses erythema chronicum migrans (ecm), lymphadenosis benigna cutis (labc) and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (aca) were proven by isolation of the spirochete from skin lesions to be caused by b. burgdorferi infe ...19911917458
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