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a survey of ticks on farm animals in libya.thirteen species of ixodid ticks and two species of argasid ticks were collected during a three-year survey of 58 farms in libya. these included boophilus annulatus, b. microplus, b. decoloratus, seven species of hyalomma, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rh. evertsi, rh. bursa, argas persicus and ornithodoros foleyi. this is the first recording of b. microplus, b. decoloratus and rh. bursa in libya. of 20,391 animals examined by random sampling, 2020 (9.6%) had ticks; particularly common were hy. drom ...19921288437
suitability of white-tailed deer as hosts for cattle fever ticks (acari: ixodidae).white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus l.) were evaluated as an alternate host for the cattle fever tick, boophilus annulatus (say). the total of adult female ticks recovered and associated reproductive parameters were compared between deer and bovine hosts. significantly fewer ticks were recovered from deer than from cattle; this was attributed to the grooming behavior of the deer. the mean weight of ticks taken from deer (243.5 mg) was significantly less than that of ticks recovered from ca ...19892724312
[studies on ticks (acarina, ixodidae), parasites of cattle in west algeria. i. systematic survey and seasonal activity].tick samples (acarina, ixodidae) were collected for two years on bovidae from the whole oran area which were brought weekly at the oran open market (algeria). the 5,500 ticks thus obtained could be divided into six genera and twelve species. from the phenological analysis the following were defined: three spring species (rhipicephalus bursa, rh. turanicus and rh. sanguineus), three summer species (hyalomma detritum, h. impeltatum and boophilus annulatus), three winter species (ixodes ricinus, ha ...19863813419
boophilus annulatus: effect of host nutrition on development of female ticks. 19734707746
boophilus annulatus and b. microplus: sprays and dips of insecticides for control on cattle. 19725085795
apparent failure of boophilus annulatus to transmit anaplasmosis to white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). 19715090975
[parasitic horse ticks in italy. observations on their distribution and pathogenic role].the following 13 species of ticks, belonging to ixodidae family, were recorded in italy on horse (equus caballus) since 1931: ixodes ricinus, i. gibbosus, haemaphysalis inermis, h. parva, h. punctata, h. sulcata, dermacentor marginatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rh. bursa, rh. turanicus, hyalomma marginatum, hy. detritum, boophilus annulatus. the regional distribution and the role of the species in the transmission of pathogens are reported.19947637997
distribution and host-relationship of ticks (ixodoidea) infesting domestic animals and rodents in sinai peninsula.geographical distribution of ticks infesting farm animals in sinai peninsula revealed the presence of 12 tick species namely hyalomma dromedarii, h. impeltatum, h. an anatolicum, h. an. excavatum, h. marginatum rufipes, h. m. turanicum, h. schulzei, rhipicephalus sanguineus, r. turanicus, boophilus annulatus, ornithodors erraticus and argas persicus. the distribution map of those species is given. the areas of sinai could be arranged as regards the number of tick species in the following descend ...19938376863
[seasonal dynamics of tick infestations in cattle (ixodoidea) in cattle sold in the area of yaoundé, cameroon].among the tick species identified in cameroon, eight were found in cattle in yaoundé: amblyomma variegatum, boophilus annulatus, b. decoloratus, haemaphysalis aciculifer, hyalomma nitidum, rhipicephalus longus, rh. lunulatus, rh. sulcatus. three species, hm. aciculifer, h. nitidum and rh. lunulatus, were identified for the first time in yaoundé. rhipicephalus and hyalomma were abundant during the rainy season. boophilus was abundant throughout the year, with a maximum concentration at the end of ...19911824137
preliminary observations on ticks and tick-borne diseases in the north west province of cameroon. i. babesiosis and anaplasmosis.during a survey on ticks and tick-borne diseases in the north-western cameroon at the bamenda cattle market, the ticks identified were boophilus annulatus (20%) and b. decoloratus (80%). more than 50% of the ticks were collected during the dry season. of 524 blood smears 47.3% were positive for babesia bovis, 31.1% for b. bigemina and 2.2% for anaplasma marginale. 19.4% were negative.19911824132
mitochondrial 16s rdna sequences and phylogenetic relationships of species of rhipicephalus and other tick genera among metastriata (acari: ixodidae).the mitochondrial 16s rrna gene sequences of the following eight european metastriata tick species were obtained by direct polymerase-chain-reaction cycle sequencing and silver-staining methods: rhipicephalus bursa, r. pusillus, r. sanguineus, r. turanicus, boophilus annulatus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis punctata, and hyalomma lusitanicum. this mitochondrial gene seems to be a good marker for the establishment of genetic relationships among closely related tick species, but it does no ...19989660138
test for assortative mating between boophilus microplus and boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae).the closely related cattle ticks, boophilus microplus (canestrini) and b. annulatus (say), were tested for possible assortative mating under conditions designed to mimic those in the field. patterns in the numbers of the four possible types of matings were generally indicative of a preference for conspecific mates in both species. there were significantly more conspecific and fewer interspecific matings than would be predicted from the observed frequencies of males and females among the two spec ...19921495080
seasonal observations on the development and ovipositional capability of boophilus annulatus and b. microplus (acari: ixodidae) reared on bovines. 19827120294
[babesia influencing of bigemina parasitemias by boophilus annulatus following experimental transmissions]. 19715087606
boophilus annulatus and b. microplus: laboratory tests of insecticides. 19734690254
acaricidal efficacy of cypermethrine (a new synthetic pyrethroid) against boophilus annulatus ticks in cattle.resistance of ticks to acaricides had spread dramatically in recent years, so changing of acaricides periodically is needed to avoid resistant strains. cypermethrine is a new pyrethroid acaricide recently introduced in the skin parasites control programs in egypt. fourteen crossbred cows (friesian x egyptian native) were used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of cypermethrine against boophilus annulatus ticks. cows were allocated into treated and control groups, each consists of 7 animals. at da ...19968968127
tests of acaricides for control of boophilus annulatus and b. microplus. 19761249305
control of boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae) on cattle using injectable microspheres containing ivermectin.the efficacy of an injectable microsphere formulation of ivermectin for control of the cattle tick, boophilus annulatus (say), was tested on 2 groups of 6 hereford heifers held on separate 7-ha, tick-infested, buffel grass pastures. cattle in one pasture were injected subcutaneously in the neck with a controlled-release microsphere formulation of ivermectin at the rate of 2.4 mg ai/kg body weight; the other group was injected with carrier only. beginning 4 wk after injection and continuing throu ...199910582049
ticks of south carolina (acari: ixodoidea).county and host records are reported for 19 species of ticks from south carolina: amblyomma americanum, amblyomma maculatum, amblyomma tuberculatum, aponomma latum, boophilus annulatus, boophilus microplus, dermacentor albipictus, dermacentor variablis, haemaphysalis leporispalustris, ixodes affinis, ixodes brunneus, ixodes cookei, ixodes marxi, ixodes minor, ixodes scapularis, ixodes texanus, ixodes woodi, rhipicephalus sanguineus, and ornithodoros capensis. ixodes woodi is recorded from south ...199910672552
intrastadial and interstadial transmission of anaplasma marginale by boophilus annulatus ticks in cattle.the 1-host tick boophilus annulatus was found to transmit anaplasmosis in cattle transstadially. anaplasma marginale was invariably transmitted when ticks that had been pulled off anaplasma-infected calves either after 7 days (as fully engorged larvae) or after 14 to 15 days (as fully engorged nymphs) were transferred within 4 days to susceptible calves. three morphologically different a marginale isolates, 1 round (tailless) and 2 with different types of appendages (tailed) were transmitted by ...19938498744
stagewise mortality, ovipositional biology, and egg viability of boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae) on boselaphus tragocamelus (artiodactyla: bovidae).the stagewise mortality, ovipositional biology, and egg viability of the cattle tick, boophilus annulatus (say), on nilgai antelope, boselaphus tragocamelus pallas, was compared with ticks reared on bos taurus (hereford) cattle. mortality was highest during the larval stage on both host species, but larval mortality on nilgai (78.6%) was significantly higher than on cattle (45.6%) hosts. mortality during the nymphal stage was also significantly higher on nilgai (49.3%) than on cattle (13.9%). du ...19938271258
mortality rate of adult ticks due to infection by entomopathogenic nematodes.the mortality of boophilus annulatus, hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus bursa, and rhipicephalus sanguineus adult ticks was recorded after their exposure in petri dishes to 5 entomopathogenic nematode strains. the strains used were dt and mexican of steinernema carpocapsae, hb hp88 of heterorhabditis bacteriophora, and is-3 and is-5 of heterorhabditis sp. the most rapid killing rates (lt50 and lt90) were observed for b. annulatus ticks (0.8-5.0 days). most unfed males died 0.3-2.8 days after the ...200010958439
distribution and ecology of ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting livestock in tunisia: an overview of eighth years field collections.ticks (ixodidae) play a significant role as vectors of pathogens of domestic animals in tunisia. the major losses caused by ticks are related to transmission of protozoan parasites. these include agents of tropical theileriosis and babesiosis in ruminants. since 1991, we conducted research studies on tick population of livestock in tunisia. this overview reports a synthesis on tick distribution, their biology and their role as vectors of pathogens in domestic animals, particularly cattle. during ...199911071534
general review of tick species present in portugal.at present, 24 species are known to occur in portugal: argas vespertilionis, ornithodoros maritimus and ornithodoros erraticus in argasidae; ixodes acuminatus, ixodes bivari, ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, ixodes simplex simplex, ixodes ventalloi, ixodes vespertilionis, dermacentor marginatus, dermacentor pictus', haemaphysalis hispanica, haemaphysalis inermis, haemaphysalis punctata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus pusillus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhi ...199911071535
clinical and laboratory studies on theileriosis outbreaks in sicily, italy.a total of 153 blood samples were collected all over the sicilian island in 15 farms. 29.4% and 25.5% were pcr positive for theileria annulata and t. buffeli/orientalis respectively. 15.7% of cattle blood samples showed a mixed infection with both theileria species. each farm showed an infection rate ranging from 0% to 100%. hyalomma marginatum and boophilus annulatus were the most common ticks collected in april and november 1998 respectively. the aim of the present work was to investigate on h ...199911071547
[isolation of thogoto virus from amblyomma and boophilus ticks in central africa].a survey has been carried out in the cameroons and the central african republic about the role of the ticks in the ecology of arboviruses in central africa. attempts for virus isolation were made for 12,678 amblyomma variegatum, 3,276 boophilus decoloratus and 1,769 boophilus annulatus, by inoculation into suckling mice. from 968 pools which were inoculated, 20 yielded isolates which were identified to thogoto virus. considering previously published results concerning tick-borne virus isolations ...19761037382
investigation of blood parasites in livestock infested with argasid and ixodid ticks in egypt.nineteen species and subspecies of ixodid and argasid ticks, hyalomma dromedarii, h. impeltatum, h. anatolicum excavatum, h. a. anatolicum, h. truncatum, h. m. marginatum, h. m. rufipes, h. m. turanicum, boophilus annulatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, r. turanicus, r. guilhoni, r. camicasi, amblyomma lipidum, a. marmoreum, a. vareigatum, argas persicus, a. hermanii and a. arboreus were collected from different localities in five governorates, giza, sharkia, ismailia, el beheira and sinai. hyalomm ...200111478436
observations on the structure and histology of the female genital system of the cattle tick boophilus annulatus (say).female genital system of boophilus annulatus was examined grossly on the day of drop-off from the host and grossly and microscopically on 4th day. it consists of an ovary, 2 oviducts, a common oviduct, a connecting tube, a seminal receptacle, a vagina divided into cervical and vestibular parts, 2 accessory glands and gene's organ. the ovary oocytes undergo excessive growth during the 4 days after drop-off from the host. oocytes accumulate eosinophilic material during growth and undergo histologi ...200111478455
[ecology of tick-borne arboviruses in the central african republic].ticks have been collected on cattle skins for seven consecutive years in bangui, berberati, bangassou and bouar. 150 strains of arboviruses have been isolated from the four following species: amblyomma variegatum: dugbe, jos, thogoto, crimean-congo hemorragic fever (cchf), yellow fever, bhanja and pétévo; boophilus annulatus: dugbe, jos and thogoto; b. decoloratus: dugbe, jos, thogoto and cchf; hyalomma nitidum: cchf. dugbe (112 isolated strains), jos (19 isolates) and thogoto (11 isolates) viru ...19854028317
genetic similarity and variability between natural populations and laboratory colonies of north american boophilus (acari: ixodidae).four natural populations and 4 laboratory colonies of boophilus microplus (canestrini) and a laboratory colony of boophilus annulatus (say) were subjected to electrophoretic analysis to determine levels of genetic similarity and genetic variability. populations of b. microplus exhibited high genetic similarity (i = 0.984 +/- 0.012) indicating that all populations share a relatively undifferentiated gene pool. host vagility is proposed as an important mechanism promoting gene flow in ectoparasite ...19863712179
tick infestations on livestock in the yemen arab republic and their potential as vectors of livestock diseases.a survey of ticks on cattle, camels, sheep, goats and donkeys in four different geographical locations of the yemen arab republic (yar) was carried out to provide more information on the possible risk of tick-borne diseases to imported exotic cattle included in the yar's plans for livestock development. the most abundant ticks were hyalomma spp. particularly on camels. ticks found on cattle included hyalomma spp., amblyomma variegatum, boophilus annulatus and rhipicephalus spp. in general with t ...19873603710
introduced ticks and tick-borne diseases: the threat and approaches to eradication.exotic tick species and tick-borne diseases are serious threats to live-stock, companion animals, and wildlife in the united states. recurring introductions of exotic tick species into the united states are a significant indicator of the degree of risk. successful tick-eradication campaigns, such as the national program that eradicated boophilus annulatus and b. microplus from the united states, the cattle fever tick eradication program of the us department of agriculture's veterinary services t ...200212442574
effect of infection by babesia spp. on the development and survival of free-living stages of boophilus annulatus.oviposition, egg hatching and survival of newly-hatched larvae of boophilus annulatus were studied in relation to infection by babesia species and different temperature regimens. infection of female ticks by babesia bigemina or b. bovis had no effect on the time elapsed between engorgement and oviposition. the duration of oviposition was shorter in infected females incubated at 25 degrees c or 35 degrees c and infected females laid fewer eggs than the controls. no larvae hatched at 16 degrees c. ...19873564342
cage design for the confinement of deer and goats infested with ectoparasites.the design for a cage for the confinement of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and goats (capra sp.) for use in ectoparasite studies is presented. the cage was successfully used for the infestation of these hosts with boophilus annulatus and may be useful for host/parasite studies using similar hosts and other ectoparasites. the cage will accommodate mature hosts with adequate space for normal grooming activity. a detailed description of materials and methods for the assembly of the cag ...19883418463
the infection of various tick species with babesia bigemina, its transmission and identification.strains of boophilus decoloratus and b. microplus were easily infected with a single stock of babesia bigemina; boophilus annulatus could be infected less easily, and it was difficult to infect rhipicephalus evertsi. two strains of r. appendiculatus and one strain each of r. bursa and hyalomma anatolicum excavatum were refractory. the same stock of b. bigemina was transmitted by nymphs and adults of b. decoloratus but only by nymphs of r. evertsi. vertical infection was not observed in r. everts ...19883387405
effect of temperature on transovarial transmission of babesia bigemina (smith and kilborne, 1893) in boophilus annulatus (say, 1821).the effect of the temperature on the transovarial passage of babesia bigemina has been studied in female boophilus annulatus during their oviposition. kinetes of babesia were present in eggs laid at the temperatures of 16, 20, 26, 28, 30 and 35 degrees c. the rate of infection was temperature dependent. it reached at least 50%, even at low temperatures. the average infection level at 26 and 30 degrees c was 270 kinetes per egg. however, between 20 and 35 degrees c the eggs laid during the first ...19883347984
effect of temperature on the ovipositional biology and egg viability of the cattle tick boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae).the effect of temperature on the ovipositional biology of boophilus annulatus (say) was determined under laboratory conditions. engorged females subjected to constant temperatures of 12 and 45 degrees c died without ovipositing, while females held at 15 and 40 degrees c laid eggs which did not hatch. the preoviposition period at 25-40 degrees c was 2-3 days; however, significant increases occurred at 20 degrees c (5.2 days) and at 15 degrees c (16.3 days). the number of eggs laid per female was ...19883197576
efficacy and stability of wettable powder amitraz in field and laboratory studies against boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae) in south texas.a study was done at the usda-ars, cattle fever tick research laboratory, mission, tex., to determine the efficacy of a 50% wettable powder (wp) amitraz formulation applied as a whole-body spray in a standard dip vat, and in a laboratory bioassay against boophilus annulatus (say) on cattle. a study also was done at the king ranch in kleberg county, tex., to determine the stability of 50% wp amitraz in a dip vat under south texas conditions cattle were infested with all parasitic life stages of b. ...19892754100
failure of white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus l., to sustain a population of cattle ticks, boophilus annulatus (say), through successive generations.cattle ticks, boophilus annulatus (say), previously reared only on cattle, were placed on 3 white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus l. ticks were maintained through successive generations solely on the same deer as they aged (3, 6, and 9 mo of age) and received repeated challenges (0, 1, and 2 previous challenges). cattle were infested simultaneously to assess tick viability and provide a comparison of tick numbers, female weight, egg mass weight, and egg hatch. the initial infestation (3,000 ...19902352065
18s rrna gene sequences and phylogenetic relationships of european hard-tick species (acari: ixodidae).the complete 18s rrna gene sequences of the following six european hard-tick species were obtained by direct pcr cycle sequencing and silver-staining methods: rhipicephalus pusillus, boophilus annulatus, dermacentor marginatus, hyalomma lusitanicum, haemaphysalis punctata, and ixodes ricinus. differences observed in the sequence alignment of these six species together with the 18s rrna gene sequences of 13 other hard-tick species demonstrate that this gene is a good marker for supraspecific diff ...19989491423
comparative study of anaplasma parasites in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle.a comparative study on the prevalence of anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle. five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during february, march and april. thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had anaplasma marginale, anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively ...200516252338
bovine babesiosis. seroprevalence and ticks associated with cattle from two different regions of morocco.a total of 475 bovine sera collected in 1995-1996 from 10 areas belonging to two different bioclimatic strata were tested for antibody activity to babesia bigemina and babesia bovis using indirect immunofluorescence (iif). in the gharb, the b. bovis seroprevalence was 21.7% and for b. bigemina, 10.8%. the infection rate for either or both species as determined microscopically with giemsa-stained blood films was 18.9%. the tiflet area was considered an endemic focus, and the seroprevalence was 42 ...19989668467
observations of the rhythm of detachment of engorged female boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae) from cattle.a bimodal, diurnal rhythm of detachment was observed for engorged female boophilus annulatus fed on hereford heifers confined in individual stalls in an open-sided barn and exposed to ambient climate and light. in 3 experiments during which hosts were fed each morning and evening, a morning period of increased detachment activity occurred during a 6-h period centered around the 2-h collecting interval in which sunrise occurred. a 2nd peak of activity occurred during the 2-h interval that began 6 ...19989701931
rickettsial agents in egyptian ticks collected from domestic animals.to assess the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from egypt, we collected ticks from domestic and peridomestic animals between june 2002 and july 2003. dna extracts from 1019 ticks were tested, using pcr and sequencing, for anaplasma spp., bartonella spp., coxiella burnetii, ehrlichia spp., and rickettsia spp. ticks included: 29 argas persicus, 10 hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, 55 hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, 174 hyalomma dromedarii, 2 hyalomma impeltatum, 3 hyalomma marginatum rufipe ...200617004028
trials for control of ixodid ticks using pheromone acaricide tick decoys.experimental application of hyalomma dromedarii pheromone-impregnated in cyfluthrin (pyrethroid) decoys on experimentally infested camels revealed efficacy rate of 85.33%, while the control group showed normal pattern of tick engorgement. this study proved the rapid movement of males toward decoys and some males took the mounting position with such decoys. on the other side, the same decoys (h. dromedarii) when used on naturally infested cattle with boophilus annulatus did not even disturb the b ...19989707683
protection against boophilus annulatus infestations in cattle vaccinated with the b. microplus bm86-containing vaccine gavac. off.tick infestations by boophilus spp. constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. the use of traditional control methods has been only partially successful and tick infestations remain a serious problem. recently, the gut antigen bm86 was isolated from b. microplus. recombinant preparations of this antigen have been used in vaccines for the control of b. microplus infestations. however, in several regions of the world, b. microplus coexists wi ...19989796055
pcr-ribotyping of xenorhabdus and photorhabdus isolates from the caribbean region in relation to the taxonomy and geographic distribution of their nematode hosts.the genetic diversity of symbiotic xenorhabdus and photorhabdus bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematodes was examined by a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of pcr-amplified 16s rrna genes (rdnas). a total of 117 strains were studied, most of which were isolated from the caribbean basin after an exhaustive soil sampling. the collection consisted of 77 isolates recovered from entomopathogenic nematodes in 14 caribbean islands and of 40 reference strains belonging to xen ...19989797272
arthropod parasites of nubian ibexes (capra ibex nubiana) and gazelles (gazella gazella) in israel.in a 20-year survey the following ectoparasites were collected from nubian ibexes: larvae of an unidentified oestrus sp. collected from the nasal cavities, sinuses and horns, hippoboscid flies (lipoptena chalcomelaena) specific to the nubian ibex, blood sucking lice (linognathus africanus) and unidentified biting lice (damalinia sp.). ibexes were severely infested with the cattle tick, boophilus annulatus; a few hyalomma anatolicum excavatum ticks were also collected. in five ibexes kept in two ...199910392972
egg output in the weights and states of engorgement of amblyomma variegatum (fabr.) and boophilus annulatus (say): (ixodoidea: ixodidae).the relationship between egg output and the weights and states of engorgement of two species of ixodid ticks amblyomma variegtum (fabr.) and boophilus annulatus (say) was studied, using over 3,000 female ticks of different sizes. based on the average weights and numbers of eggs produced, guide indices are provided for the predictability of the oviposition potential in females of different weights. linear correlation was noted between weights of the ticks and the weights and numbers of eggs they ...1977881144
immunization of cattle against boophilus annulatus ticks using adult female tick antigen.ten crossbred calves (friesian x egyptian native) aged between 7-9 months old were used to evaluate the immunizing effect of whole adult b. annulatus tick antigen. a soluble fraction was obtained from extensively disrupted ticks and this fraction was used to vaccinate calves with 1 mg protein antigen. the vaccination protocol for five randomly selected calves involved two immunizations, the first was administered subcutaneously (plus aluminium hydroxide adjuvant) at the beginning of the experime ...19968766904
prevalence of cattle ticks in morocco.during july 1980 the prevalence of cattle ticks was studied in 4 bioclimatic regions of morocco. all the 24 farms examined were infested. the mean number of ticks per animal varied from 6.5 to 36.3 in different regions. eight species of ticks were identified: hyalomma marginatum, h. detritum, h. lusitanicum, h. anatolicum, boophilus annulatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, r. turanicus, r. bursa. numerically h. detritum (30.8%) h. marginatum (25.5%) and b. annulatus (29.2%) were most important. the ...19827123663
pathogenicity of 17 isolates of entomophagous nematodes (steinernematidae and heterorhabditidae) for the ticks amblyomma variegatum (fabricius), boophilus microplus (canestrini) and boophilus annulatus (say).entomopathogenous nematodes are well known biocontrol agents of insects. they live in the superficial layer of the soil, a location where ticks accomplish their molt and where they oviposit their eggs, making them, theoretically, the preys of infective larvae of nematodes. seventeen strains of entomopathogenous nematodes: eight strains of steinernema and nine strains of heterorhabditis were placed in contact with each of the free living stages of three tick species: amblyomma variegatum, boophil ...19937628227
the seasonal occurrence of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on sheep and in the field in the judean area of israel.a 2 year survey of ixodid ticks in the judean area of israel between 1983 and 1985 showed that sheep were parasitized by the following species: rhipicephalus sanguineus group (30.6%), rhipicephalus bursa (25.3%), haemaphysalis cretica (20.5%), haemaphysalis otophila (20.1%) and hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (3.1%). three other species, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, boophilus annulatus and amblyomma lepidum were also present but in very low numbers. a total of 50,816 specimens (78.1% adult ticks) ...19968746133
factors affecting the virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to engorged female boophilus annulatus ticks.the laboratory trials rank the virulence of entomopathogenic nematode strains (3 heterorhabditids and 6 steinernematids) to engorged female boophilus annulatus ticks according to 3 parameters of the infection process: the effect of exposure time on tick mortality, the quantity of nematodes that penetrate ticks, and the rate of tick mortality after the injection of 1, 2, or 3 nematodes. exposure of the ticks to heterorhabditid strains for 6 hr resulted in >80% mortality, but only 20 or 65% mortal ...200111534645
the ivomec sr bolus for control of boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in south texas.when hereford heifers infested with boophilus annulatus (say) were treated with a single ivomec sr bolus, the concentration of ivermectin in the serum of the treated cattle reached a maximum of 8.8 +/- 0.9 ppb at 2 wk posttreatment. the single bolus treatment resulted in 84.4% control of standard engorging b. annulatus females on treated cattle over the 20-wk trial. although fewer engorged ticks were collected from the sentinel heifers exposed in the treated pasture than those in the control pas ...200111777074
a survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on dairy cattle on the island of menorca in spain.a survey of ticks affecting dairy cattle under extensive management on menorca island (off the spanish mediterranean coast) was performed through 1999-2000 on seven farms. the species collected were rhipicephalus bursa, r. turanicus, hyalomma m. marginatum, h. lusitanicum and boophilus annulatus. the most abundant species were r. bursa and h. m. marginatum, with peaks of 10.7 (in summer) and 7.5 (in spring) ticks/cow, respectively. r. turanicus was scarcely encountered, while b. annulatus and h. ...200112455879
ixodid ticks parasitizing iberian red deer (cervus elaphus hispanicus) and european wild boar (sus scrofa) from spain: geographical and temporal distribution.commercial hunting of spanish wild ungulates has made them an important economic resource. wild ungulates may have an important role in the maintenance of ixodid tick populations, and also as reservoirs of pathogens. we studied the ixodid ticks that parasitize iberian red deer and european wild boar from spain. ixodid ticks (n=6,336) were collected from 431 iberian red deer and 142 wild boar in different regions of spain. we found 10 different ixodid tick species parasitizing iberian red deer, m ...200616675125
[determination of tick species and treatment of cows, sheep and goats in the sivas-zara region].the purpose of this study was to examine tick infestation in cattle, sheep and goats in the zara-sivas region for one year and to determine the epizootiology of the tick species as well as to investigate treatment of the infested animals. tick infestation was detected in 71 (29.6%) out of 240 cattle, 66 (24.0%) out of 275 sheep and 50 (19.9%) out of 252 goats in the zara region. it has been shown that the tick infestation on cattle included haemaphysalis parva (33.8%), dermacentor marginatus (2. ...200617160854
biological control of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus by different strains of metarhizium anisopliae, beauveria bassiana and lecanicillium psalliotae fungi.virulence of 11 native strains of entomopathogenic fungi; metarhizium anisopliae (three strains), beauveria bassiana (six strains) and lecanicillium psalliotae (two strains) collected from different parts of iran, were studied against different developmental stages of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus. after the exposure of ticks to the fungal strains in different concentrations (i.e. 10(3), 10(5), 10(7) conidia/ml), various parameters such as mortality rate and reproductive efficiency of engo ...200717186273
identification of midgut and salivary glands as specific and distinct barriers to efficient tick-borne transmission of anaplasma marginale.understanding the determinants of efficient tick-borne microbial transmission is needed to better predict the emergence of highly transmissible pathogen strains and disease outbreaks. although the basic developmental cycle of anaplasma and ehrlichia spp. within the tick has been delineated, there are marked differences in the ability of specific strains to be efficiently tick transmitted. using the highly transmissible st. maries strain of anaplasma marginale in dermacentor andersoni as a positi ...200717420231
greek goat encephalitis virus strain isolated from ixodes ricinus, greece.a strain of greek goat encephaltitis virus was isolated from engorged ixodes ricinus ticks that had fed on goats in northern greece. the strain was almost identical to the prototype strain isolated 35 years ago.200818258134
detection of haemoparasites in cattle by reverse line blot hybridisation with a note on the distribution of ticks in sicily.a reverse line blot hybridisation (rlb) of 21 oligonucleotides with polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplified regions of 16s rrna (ehrlichia/anaplasma group) or 18s rrna (babesia/theileria group) genes of haemoparasites detected theileria annulata, t. buffeli/orientalis, babesia bovis, b. bigemina, b. divergens, ehrlichia bovis, anaplasma marginale, a. centrale and unknown species within the rickettsia tribe.a very high prevalence of mixed infections was detected, which indicated that animals in ...200111511414
conservation of transmission phenotype of anaplasma marginale (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) strains among dermacentor and rhipicephalus ticks (acari: ixodidae).before the eradication of boophilus ticks from the united states, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (canestrini) and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus (say) were important biological vectors of the cattle pathogen anaplasma marginale theiler. in the absence of boophilus ticks, a. marginale continues to be transmitted by dermacentor ticks. however, a few u.s. strains are not transmissible by dermacentor andersoni stiles, dermacentor variabilis (say), or both, raising the question of how these ...200717547235
cloning, characterization, and expression of a 200-kilodalton diagnostic antigen of babesia bigemina.current serological tests for babesia bigemina use semipurified merozoite antigens derived from infected erythrocytes. one of the major drawbacks of these tests is that antigen quality can vary from batch to batch. since the quality of the antigen contributes to the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests, the use of standardized recombinant antigens should ensure consistency in assay quality. previously, a 200-kda merozoite antigen (p200) was identified as a candidate diagnostic antige ...200010834983
report on ticks collected in the southeast and mid-west regions of brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man.specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the southeast and mid-west regions of brazil. nine species of amblyommidae were identified: anocentor nitens, amblyomma cajennense, amblyomma ovale, amblyomma fulvum, amblyomma striatum, amblyomma rotundatum, boophilus microplus, boophilus annulatus, and rhipicephalus sanguineus. the potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. a flaviviridade flavivirus ...199910881097
biocontrol of ticks by entomopathogenic nematodes. research update.entomopathogenic nematodes (epns) are lethal to ticks even though they do not use their normal propagation cycle within tick cadavers. the tick boophilus annulatus was found to be far more susceptible to epns than hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus bursa, or rhipicephalus sanguineus. ticks seem to be less susceptible to nematodes when feeding on a host. preimaginal tick stages were less susceptible to nematodes than adult ticks. the mortality rate of unfed females was highest, followed by unfed m ...200011193678
biological activities of chamomile (matricaria chamomile) flowers' extract against the survival and egg laying of the cattle fever tick (acari ixodidae).in the present work, the potential of acaricidal activity of chamomile flowers' extract was studied against engorged rhipicephalus annulatus tick under laboratory condition. for this purpose, the engorged females of rhipicephalus annulatus were exposed to two-fold serial dilutions of chamomile flowers' extract (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0% and 8.0%) using "dipping method" in vitro. the engorged ticks were immersed in different plant dilutions (five ticks for each dilution) for 1 min and they were imme ...200717726752
detection of theileria and babesia species in ticks collected from cattle.the present study was carried out to detect tick species that infest cattle, and theileria and babesia species transmitted by these ticks in kayseri province (turkey). a total of 300 cattle were examined for tick infestations. of the 300 cattle, 117 (39%) were infested with ticks. a total of 1160 ticks belonging to 11 ixodid genera were collected from the infested animals and their shelters. the most prevalent tick species was boophilus annulatus 26.37% (306/1160) followed by hyalomma marginatum ...200717614205
status of tick infestation of cattle in the kayseri region of turkey.this study was carried out to determine the status of tick infestation of cattle in the kayseri region in turkey. eight hundred and sixty-six cattle and their barns in 12 localities were examined during the period of june 2000-november 2001, where 188 (21.7%) of which were infested by ticks. a total of 1,585 ticks consisting of rhipicephalus turanicus (2.27%), r. bursa (2.14%), r. sanguineus (0.94%), hyalomma marginatum (17.16%), h. anatolicum excavatum (24.73%), h. a. anatolicum (19.62%), derma ...200717823821
high-resolution predictive mapping for boophilus annulatus and b. microplus (acari: ixodidae) in mexico and southern texas.in this study we use high-resolution satellite imagery to map habitat suitability for both boophilus annulatus and b. microplus over an area covering parts of texas and northeastern mexico. the habitat for these tick species covers widely different regions. b. microplus finds satisfactory abiotic conditions in wet coastal habitats, whereas b. annulatus finds suitable habitat in the drier inner parts of southwestern texas and northern mexico; the two species have very different habitat requiremen ...200616956729
ticks of domestic animals in the macedonia region of greece.a study was carried out on ticks of domestic animals in the macedonia region of greece. during 1983-1986, 11,620 tick specimens, belonging to 18 species and subspecies, were collected from cattle, sheep, goats and dogs, in 64 localities throughout macedonia. rhipicephalus bursa, the most common tick, and hyalomma marginatum marginatum occurred in all bioclimatic zones, as well as the two one-host ticks, boophilus annulatus and h. detritum scupense, which were present in fewer localities. r. tura ...19968792578
babesia bigemina: attenuation of an uzbek isolate for immunization of cattle with live calf- or culture-derived parasites.the virulence of an uzbek isolate of babesia bigemina, obtained from infected boophilus annulatus ticks from an endemic area in uzbekistan, was attenuated for immunization of cattle with autochthonous calf- or culture-derived parasites in uzbekistan. after four "slow passages" in vivo the virulence was reduced, as evidenced by the response of calves inoculated with an experimental live frozen vaccine produced from the following passage. the vaccine was safe and protective against homologous viru ...200717368728
purification and characterization of two larval glycoproteins from the cattle tick, boophilus annulatus.the present study was conducted to identify new target immunogenic molecules from the larval stage of the cattle tick, boophilus annulatus (acari: ixodidae). two specific larval glycoproteins (glps) were isolated by two-step affinity chromatography. the larval immunogens were first purified with cnbr-sepharose coupled to rabbit anti-larval immunoglobulins, and the glycoproteins were then purified with con-a sepharose. these glycoproteins have molecular weights of approximately 32 and 15 kda with ...200717519572
expression of recombinant rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, r. annulatus and r. decoloratus bm86 orthologs as secreted proteins in pichia pastoris.rhipicephalus (boophilus) spp. ticks economically impact on cattle production in africa and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. the r. microplus bm86 protective antigen has been produced by recombinant dna technology and shown to protect cattle against tick infestations.200818275601
cellular and molecular characterization of an embryonic cell line (bme26) from the tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus.the cellular and molecular characteristics of a cell line (bme26) derived from embryos of the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus were studied. the cells contained glycogen inclusions, numerous mitochondria, and vesicles with heterogeneous electron densities dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. vesicles contained lipids and sequestered palladium meso-porphyrin (pd-mp) and rhodamine-hemoglobin, suggesting their involvement in the autophagic and endocytic pathways. the cells phagocytose ...200818405834
isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soils and ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) ticks: prevalence and methods.entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to ixodes scapularis say, the blacklegged tick. as a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an eastern deciduous forest where i. scapularis is common. several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter ...200919496427
gene silencing of the tick protective antigens, bm86, bm91 and subolesin, in the one-host tick boophilus microplus by rna interference.the use of rna interference (rnai) to assess gene function has been demonstrated in several three-host tick species but adaptation of rnai to the one-host tick, boophilus microplus, has not been reported. we evaluated the application of rnai in b. microplus and the effect of gene silencing on three tick-protective antigens: bm86, bm91 and subolesin. gene-specific double-stranded (dsrna) was injected into two tick stages, freshly molted unfed and engorged females, and specific gene silencing was ...200717196597
ticks infesting domestic animals in northern greece.the tick species infesting grazing animals in the countryside of 11 prefectures in northern greece were investigated during april-july and september-december of consecutive years 2003-2006. a total of 3,249 (1,952 males, 1,297 females) adult ticks were collected from goats, sheep, cattle and dogs. ticks were identified as ixodes ricinus (44.57%), ixodes gibbosus (4.09%), rhipicephalus bursa (19.14%), rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhipicephalus turanicus (5.79%), hyalomma marginatum marginatum (12.40 ...200818563592
reliminary survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in central equatoria state, southern sudan.in a preliminary survey conducted in 2005, the species composition and seasonality of ticks infesting cattle in central equatoria state, southern sudan was determined. three locations were selected (gumbo, khor rumla and nyaing) and surveyed every 3 months. two cattle herds in each of the three locations were visited four times during the study period. total body collections of ticks were made from each of five cattle (nilotic zebu breed) kept in six different herds. four tick genera and ten spe ...200818575063
human babesiosis.human babesiosis is an emerging intraerythrocytic infection caused by protozoal parasites transmitted by ixodid ticks. babesiosis is endemic in the northeastern and upper midwestern regions of the united states and is found sporadically in other parts of the united states, europe, asia, africa, and south america. babesial infections range from asymptomatic to severe and occasionally are fatal. specific laboratory diagnosis of babesial infection is made by morphologic examination of giemsa-staine ...200818755385
immunologic and molecular identification of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northern mexico.the suitability of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) as hosts for the cattle ticks rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, has been well documented. these ticks have a wide host range, and both transmit babesia bovis and babesia bigemina, the agents responsible for bovine babesiosis. although this disease and its vectors have been eradicated from the united states and some states in northern mexico, it still is a problem in other mexican states. it i ...200717699089
prevalence and genotypes of anaplasma species and habitat suitability for ticks in a mediterranean ecosystem.anaplasma species are tick-transmitted pathogens that impact veterinary and human health. sicily is one of the locations where these pathogens are endemic. sicily represents a typical mediterranean ecosystem to study anaplasma infection and tick habitat suitability. the aims of this study were (i) to characterize by 16s rrna and species-specific msp4 gene pcr the prevalence and genotypes of a. marginale, a. phagocytophilum, and a. ovis in the most abundant host species in sicilian provinces and ...200818978093
allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus.the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. the morphological and genetic differences among r. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from america/africa and those from australia being different species. to test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we perfo ...200919243585
climate niches of tick species in the mediterranean region: modeling of occurrence data, distributional constraints, and impact of climate change.in this study, we used ecological niche factor analysis (enfa) and principal components analysis (pca) of climate variables to define the climate niches and areas of potential colonization of six species of ticks in the mediterranean region: dermacentor marginatus sulzer, rhipicephalus bursa canestrini & fanzago, rhipicephalus turanicus pomerantsev, matikashvili & lototsky, hyalomma marginatum koch, hyalomma excavatum koch, and boophilus annulatus (say). enfa generated distribution models that v ...200718047215
coxiella burnetii in humans and ticks in rural senegal.q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by coxiella burnetii. epidemiologically, animals are considered reservoirs and humans incidental hosts.201020386603
molecular cloning and expression of a larval immunogenic protein from the cattle tick boophilus annulatus.a full-length cdna of an immunogenic protein was cloned from a cdna library of the local egyptian cattle tick boophilus annulatus. antibodies raised against b. annulatus larval proteins were used to screen a cdna expression library. a 936bp cloned fragment was sequenced and showed an open reading frame of 516bp encoding a protein of 171 amino acids. comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with protein data bank revealed that the sequence is related to a sequence isolated from the hard tick ...200818054085
phylogeny, evolution and historical zoogeography of ticks: a review of recent progress.there has been much progress in our understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of ticks, particularly hard ticks, in the past 5 years. indeed, a consensus about the phylogeny of the hard ticks has emerged. our current working hypothesis for the phylogeny of ticks is quite different to the working hypothesis of 5 years ago. so that the classification reflects our knowledge of ticks, several changes to the nomenclature of ticks are imminent. one subfamily, the hyalomminae, will probably be sunk, ...200214570116
the susceptibility of different species and stages of ticks to entomopathogenic fungi.boophilus annulatus, hyalomma excavatum and rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were shown to be susceptible to different entomopathogenic fungi under laboratory conditions. comparative results of bioassays using five different fungal species showed that some strains of metarhizium anisopliae are highly pathogenic against various tick stages tested. in contrast to to their activity against insects, fungi also affected tick eggs. all tested tick stages including those feeding on a host were found to b ...200214570142
immunity against boophilus annulatus induced by the bm86 (tick-gard) vaccine.friesian cattle were immunized with two inoculations of anti-tick bm86 (tick-gard) vaccine and were challenged 30 or 90 d later with boophilus annulatus larvae derived from 1.2 g of eggs. no nymphs or adult ticks were found on the immunized cattle during four weeks after challenge. repeated infestations (2 to 4) with larvae on three other calves during a period of 160 and 390 d after the immunization did not result in development of nymphal and adult stages. in control, non-immunized cattle infe ...200314580066
application of highly sensitive saturation labeling to the analysis of differential protein expression in infected ticks from limited samples.abstract:201020704695
monthly dynamics of ticks (acari:ixodida) infesting n'dama cattle in the republic of guinea.the occurrence of ixodid ticks on n'dama cattle was studied in the republic of guinea between june 1994 and may 1995. monthly tick collections were performed on 80 animals from 14 villages located in dabola, kouroussa and dinguiraye prefectures. a total of 19,804 ticks was collected and classified using standard taxonomic keys. the following tick species were identified: amblyomma variegatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, hyalomma trunctum, hyalomma nitidum, rhipicephalus lunulatus, rhipicephalus ...200415139086
genetic diversity of anaplasma marginale strains from cattle farms in the province of palermo, sicily.bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the tick-borne rickettsia anaplasma marginale, is endemic in sicily and results in economic loss to the cattle industry. this study was designed to characterize strains of a. marginale at the molecular level from cattle in the province of palermo, sicily. seropositivity of cattle >or=1 year old for a. marginale in the study area ranged from 62% to 100%. the observed prevalence of a. marginale infections in cattle herds ranged from 25% to 100%. two predominant a. ma ...200516115096
the distribution of ticks (acari: ixodidae) of domestic livestock in portugal.this paper introduces the first countrywide faunistic study of the tick parasites on ruminants in portugal. the aim of this study was to map accurately the distribution of the ticks dermacentor marginatus, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, r. bursa, hyalomma m. marginatum, h. lusitanicum and ixodes ricinus in portugal. additional information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been obtained through the use of abiotic (temperature- and vegetation-derived) variables have been rec ...200516132737
detection of babesia and theileria species infection in cattle from portugal using a reverse line blotting method.babesiosis and theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. in portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of babesia and theileria sp. identified: rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, ixodes ricinus and haemaphysalis punctata. all these potential babesia and theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in portugal, although they are predominant in the sout ...201021036481
[detection of the circulation of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the piedmont steppes of the north caucasus].the laboratory verified cases of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) in the piedmont steppes of the north caucasus (malgobeksky district, republic of ingushetia) are first described. the source of the first infection was ixodidae ticks; three subsequent sources were contacts with the bloody discharges from patients. cchf virus genome was detected in the blood of the cattle from an epidemic focus and in the pools of the ixodes ticks haemaphysalis parva neum., 1897 and boophilus annulatus say, ...200516250591
prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle in mazandaran province, iran.a survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in mazandaran province, iran. a total of 953 ticks were collected from 86 infested cattle during activating seasons of ticks during 2004-2005. nine species were identified: boophilus annulatus (51.3%), rhipicephalus bursa (16.8%), haemaphysalis punctata (6.3%), ixodes ricinus (6.8%), hyalomma marginatum (12.5%), hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (5.2%), hyalomma asiaticum (0.6%), hyalomma detritum ...200718165714
competitive exclusion between piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis agents within cattle. 200818225951
molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a functional gstmu class from the cattle tick boophilus annulatus.a full-length cdna of a glutathione s-transferase (gst) was cloned from a cdna library of the local egyptian cattle tick boophilus annulatus. the 672 bp cloned fragment was sequenced and showed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 223 amino acids. comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with gsts from other species revealed that the sequence is closely related to the mammalian mu-class gst. the cloned gene was expressed in e. coli under t7 promotor of pet-30b vector, and purified un ...200818241993
pathogenicity of metarhizium anisopliae (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) to tick eggs and the effect of egg cuticular lipids on conidia development.the ovicidal efficacy of two entomopathogenic hyphomycetes fungi--metarhizium anisopliae variety acridum (m. an. ac.) driver and milner (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and metarhizium anisopliae variety anisopliae (m. an. an.) (metschn.) sorokin (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae)--was evaluated against eggs of three tick species (acari: ixodidae)--hyalomma excavatum (koch), rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus (say), and rhipicephalus sanguineus (latereille)--by placing eggs, laid by surface-sterilize ...200919496424
experimental transmission of field anaplasma marginale and the a. centrale vaccine strain by hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus ticks.the cattle rickettsia anaplasma marginale is distributed worldwide and is transmitted by about 20 tick species, but only rhipicephalus simus, a strictly african tick species, has been shown to transmit the vaccine strain of a. centrale. the aim of the present study was to examine transmission of field strains of a. marginale and of the vaccine strain of a. centrale by three tick species -hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus - to susceptible calves. ...200918823724
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