water loss and metabolic water in starving argas reflexus nymphs (acari: argasidae).basic components of the water balance were determined in a. reflexus unfed second instar nymphs kept at 30 degrees c and different relative humidities in darkness. at 2.5% and 32.5% rh, a. reflexus survived for 170+/-60 and 246+/-71 days, respectively. at 56%, 75.5% and 96.5% rh, the experiment was terminated after 168 days without any mortality. the initial water content of hydrated a. reflexus kept at 85% rh was 70.3+/-1.8% while the water content was close to 50% in ticks dehydrated at </=32. ...199912770396
anaphylaxis after argas reflexus bite. 200010753029
anaphylactic shock caused by allergy to the venom of argas reflexus. 19827149342
arthropoda as zoonoses and their implications.some aspects of changing patterns of arthropodal infections and arthropod-borne diseases in mediterranean areas are briefly discussed. selected examples are given, with particular emphasis on the phenomenon of the synanthropic flea ctenocephalides felis felis and on health problems caused by human infections with argas reflexus, the common tick of urban pigeons in europe. finally, the risk of the emergence of lyme borreliosis (borrelia burgdorferi) is considered in relation to the increasing spr ...19921441188
detection and typing of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodes ricinus ticks attached to human skin by ixodes ricinus ticks attached to humans residing in germany were examined for borreliae by dark-field microscopy and pcr. borrelia species were identified by 16s rrna sequence analysis, which showed the presence of several species, some not yet defined, and a high prevalence of multiply infected ticks.19989774593
seasonal oviposition and temperature requirements of eggs may limit northern distribution of european argas reflexus (acari: argasidae).seasonal reproduction and embryonic development was investigated in argas reflexus (f.) throughout a 5-yr period. ticks were kept in desiccators at approximately 76% rh at 2 experimental sites--an attic and an outdoor aviary--that provided a natural photoperiod and temperature. tick oviposition was limited to the summer months (june through august) regardless of the year of investigation and of the seasonal time of tick feeding. engorged female ticks entered diapause between late july and late a ...19989542342
laboratory study on the significance of the tick argas reflexus fabricius in transmission of the tick-borne encephalitis virus. 196414152234
tunis virus: a new phlebovirus from argas reflexus hermanni ticks in tunisia.a new phlebovirus provisionally named tunis virus has been isolated from argas reflexus hermanni ticks parasitizing domestic pigeons. it is the first isolation of an arbovirus from tunisia and the fourth tick-borne virus to be isolated from the moghreb following soldado, essaouira and kala iris in morocco. the pathogenic potential of this virus is briefly discussed according to the behaviour of its vector and previous serosurveys in the country.19947726003
argas reflexus (the pigeon tick)--a household pest. 19979111846
[ticks as a reservoir of borrelia burgdorferi and coxiella burnetii on polish terrain].the aim of performed studies was to recognize the distribution of coxiella burnetii and borrelia burgdorferi infected ticks in poland. the 1580 ticks infesting animals and humans were collected in different parts of the country. they belonged to ixodes ricinus, dermacentor reticulatus and argas reflexus species. presence of b burgdorferi and c. burnetii dna in ticks has been sought with polymerase chain reaction test (pcr). b. burgdorferi bacteria have been detected in 12 i. ricinus ticks (0.77% ...19968927734
[farm animals as disease vectors of parasitic epizoonoses and zoophilic dermatophytes and their importance in dermatology].different pest arthropods and dermatophytes occurring primarily in farm animals may be transmissible to man and produce human dermatoses. the movement and cutaneous penetration habits of external parasites often cause crusted papules, severe itching and dermatitis or may damage their hosts by blood-sucking or by sensitizing them to their saliva. furthermore different dermatophytes should be considered a possible cause of human skin lesions. farm animals (cattle, pig, poultry, and rabbit) can tra ...199910501677
skin manifestations caused by pigeon ticks (argas reflexus).three adult patients (one woman and two men) presented with polymorphous skin manifestations caused by pigeon ticks (argas reflexus). these manifestations were characterized by wheals with a central hemorrhagic point in the first patient, crusted-ulcerative lesions in the second, and pustular lesions in the third patient. we observed specific ige against a somatic extract (antigen a) and the saliva (antigen b) of a. reflexus in two patients.19989466081
[tick-transmitted arbovirus in maghreb].the problem of arbovirus infections in maghreb has been relatively neglected in the pst in spite of a rich diversity of biotopes, the presence of potential reservoirs and vectors, and their position on the flight path of the palearctic-african bird migration systems, western branch. moreover, west nile virus has been isolated from southern algeria since 1968. from 1979 to 1989, ticks were collected from wild birds, pigeons, bats, rodents, poultry, camels, wild boars, domestic mammals and man, an ...19958555772
[borrelia burgdorferi infection of ticks in some regions of poland].ixodes ricinus and dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected by flagging from the vegetation at five different locations in poland in may 1994. i. ricinus (n191) and d. reticulatus (n48), as well as 24 argas reflexus collected from katowice, kornie, szcyglice, urwitałt and zwierzyniec, were examined for the presence of borrelia spirochetes by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (ifa). borrelia were found in adult i. ricinus ticks at all 5 collection sites. nine out of 39 i. ricinus m ...19947597184
the pigeon tick (argas reflexus): its biology, ecology, and epidemiological aspects.the european pigeon tick, argas reflexus (f.), is in central europe predominantly an urban pest parasitizing wild and domesticated pigeons, columba livia. under certain circumstances, however, it also bites humans, occasionally causing an ige-mediated type-i allergy. control of a. reflexus is very difficult because of a number of remarkable morphological, physiological, and behavioural features of the tick. the present study aimed at elucidating the distribution and the frequency of occurrence o ...199910652727
[case of allergy to argas reflexus bites]. 19724147035
urticaria--angioedema syndrome caused by an argas reflexus sting. 19883219848
[anaphylaxis due to a sting by argas reflexus (the pigeon tick) a case report].a case of anaphylactic shock caused by an argas reflexus sting in a young woman with a history of recurrent undefined urticaria-angioedema syndrome, is reported. this tick is an ectoparasite which is found on pigeons who usually nest under the roofs of dwellings. the diagnosis was based on the history and through a dosage of ige specific antibodies with rast, using an extract of salivary gland of argas reflexus. this ectoparasite was also found in the home and identified through the microscope. ...19948079039
[case of argas reflexus (fabricius, 1974) infestation in man]. 19751163046
the use of a capillary-tube technique for artificially feeding argas reflexus reflexus ticks. 19685303417
cold hardiness, supercooling ability and causes of low-temperature mortality in the soft tick, argas reflexus, and the hard tick, ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodoidea) from central europe.seasonal supercooling points (scps=temperature of crystallization) and cold hardiness were investigated in the indigenous hard tick, i. ricinus, and in a. reflexus, a soft tick introduced to central europe from the south. both species proved to be freeze-susceptible as well as highly susceptible to inoculative freezing. none of the postembryonic developmental stages of either species showed any distinct seasonal pattern of scp. unexpectedly, the introduced a. reflexus exhibited a distinctly high ...199712770496
[life-threatening complications caused by argas reflexus (ixodoidea, argasidae)].injuries to health by argas reflexus (ixodoidea, argasidae) are known and have been published since about the middle of 19th century. argas reflexus was on outsider in health pests for a long time, but biological and medical interests increased during last years. the greatest part of injuries by far, brought about by stings of this parasite, takes either a harmless course or there are appearances of middle severity, which can be easy controlled by a physician. in some cases however, at often hap ...19902392846
[evolution of populations of ticks (ixodidae and argasidae) in relation to artificialization of the environment in the french alps. epidemiologic effects].the results presented in this study are based on observations made during some 10 years in the french alps and their surroundings. forest clusters, as they still cover comparatively large areas, are considered the most favorable foci for several ixodid species. recent studies, however, have shown that environment modified by man also harbours large populations of ticks. the spreading of certain species around and even into cities is actually taking place. the following categories of tick species ...19826131593
[parasitism in an infant by hexapode larvae of the acarian argas reflexus]. 196013742980
[the pigeon tick, argas reflexus, and hazard for human health].the massive presence of the pigeon (columba livia f. domestica) in urban areas not only is cause of serious aesthetic damages as decline of squares, of churches, of statues and buildings, but often creates many hygienic and medical problems. the pigeon, in fact, can transmit a great number of pathogenic agents and also be infested by several ectoparasites. among these, argas reflexus (acari: argasidae), the well known pigeon tick, is the most important ectoparasite that can involve also human he ...200415815109
allergy to pigeon tick (argas reflexus): demonstration of specific ige-binding components.the european tick, argas reflexus, is an urban pest parasitizing urban pigeons and may cause a wide range of allergic reactions.200415564770
molecular epidemiology of crimean- congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome isolated from ticks of hamadan province of iran.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus is a tick-borne member of the genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae. cchfv has been isolated from at least 31 different tick species. the virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, or by direct contact with cchfv-infected patients or the products of infected livestock. this study was undertaken to study the genetic relationship and distribution of cchfv in the tick population of hamadan province of iran.201021178213
ticks (acari: ixodoidea: argasidae, ixodidae) of chile.the tick species recorded from chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: argas keiransi estrada-peña, venzal and gonzalez-acuña, a. neghmei kohls and hoogstraal; ornithodoros amblus chamberlin; otobius megnini (dugès); amblyomma parvitarsum neumann; a. tigrinum koch; ixodes auritulus neumann; i. chilensis kohls; i. cornuae arthur, i. sigelos keirans, clifford and corwin; i. stilesi neumann; i. uriae white; rhipicephalus sanguineus koch. (2) probably establishe ...200515777007
significance of argas reflexus fabricius in transmission of the tick-borne encephalitis virus. 196414211334
anaphylactic shock to argas reflexus bite.anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction, affecting both children and adults. the occurrence of anaphylaxis is not as rare as generally believed (1.21% to 15.04% of the us population). often the cause of this reaction remain unknown, mainly due to the difficulty in defining the outbreaking causes. herein, we describe an interesting case of a patient, who developed an anaphylactic reaction after the bite of a pigeon tick. during the last 2 years, in wintertime, the patient ofte ...200515859366
bites of the european pigeon tick (argas reflexus): risk of ige-mediated sensitizations and anaphylactic reactions.local and systemic reactions can occur after bites of argas reflexus (argas), a soft tick parasitizing pigeons.200616387605
isolation of west nile virus from the african bird argasid, argas reflexus hermanni, in egypt. 196414188830
[ixodes ricinus. health risks and approaches in prevention].ticks belong to the parasitical mites. there are more than 1000 different species worldwide which do need blood of warm-blooded organisms for their own development. as ticks are well known to be vectors of several pathogens which could cause insidious infectious diseases, they are important in human and veterinarian medicine as well. it is not possible to control ticks in nature. therefore the first step should be an effective prevention. in case of a bite the tick must be removed as soon as pos ...200616719260
ige-mediated anaphylaxis caused by bites of the pigeon tick argas reflexus: cloning and expression of the major allergen arg r 1.anaphylactic reactions caused by bites of the european pigeon tick argas reflexus are repeatedly reported. this soft-backed tick is a parasite of wild pigeons colonizing urban buildings and houses. occasionally the ticks can bite human beings, inducing anaphylactic reactions in sensitized patients.200515753913
[a case for diagnosis: argas reflexus]. 19968763755
bionomical and ecological characteristic of ticks (acari:ixodida) of significant medical importance on the territory of poland.among polish ticks species the most common in our country ixodes ricinus has the biggest medical importance. argasidae: argas reflexus, a. polonicus and ixodidae: ixodes trianguliceps, i. hexagonus and dermacentor reticulatus have significant medical meaning. argasidae are nests and burrows dwelling species having multi-host development cycle, they are mainly synanthropic and semisynanthropic, nocturnal active, with the peak seasonal activity in the middle of summer, dwelling semihumid or dry ha ...19968673794
[argas reflexus (fabricius, 1794) as a cause of acarosis in people].the studies were carried out between 1997-1999 within the administrative district of toruń. forty sports pigeon breeders together with their pigeonswere understudy annually. the collected material allowed noticing the following issues: in 1997 and 1998 the argas reflexus (fabricius, 1794) was present in dovecotes (individuals) and t he breeds' owners were pricked. in 1998 numerous specimens of the a. reflexus were obtained from the material from the sanitary-epidemiological station. the specimen ...200116888952
allergy to pigeon tick (argas reflexus) in upper silesia, poland.the pigeon tick argas reflexus is avian ectoparasite that typically feeds on pigeons. when devoid of a natural host, the ticks can also attack humans. in upper silesia, southern poland, people living in the vicinity of the birds' nesting sites are frequently bitten by a. reflexus. the bites can provoke serious allergic reactions, including fatal anaphylactic shock. in the present study, residents of 9 apartments invaded by pigeon ticks were invited to undergo medical examination, skin prick test ...200616841881
[local anomalies in ticks larvae (acari: ixodida)].three anomalies in the anus structure of hyalomma marginatum marginatum larvae, two anomalies in argas reflexus larvae, i.e. the lack of the left chelicera and the second pair of limbs at the right side, and disorder in chetotaxy of argas persicus larvae were examined in this research. these anomalies have not been described so far in the literature.200416859039
climate change cannot explain the upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in the baltics.pathogens transmitted by ticks cause human disease on a greater scale than any other vector-borne infections in europe, and have increased dramatically over the past 2-3 decades. reliable records of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) since 1970 show an especially sharp upsurge in cases in eastern europe coincident with the end of soviet rule, including the three baltic countries, estonia, latvia and lithuania, where national incidence increased from 1992 to 1993 by 64, 175 and 1,065%, respectively. a ...200717551580
first record of argas reflexus (fabricius) latreille, 1796 from east africa. 195413161822
[morphology of tick tarsus (acari: ixodida)--modifications connected with life cycle, behaviour, and habitat].ticks are ectoparasites of wide variety of vertebrates living in various types of environment all over the world. morphological, biological, and physiological differences among tick species as well as among tick life stages are the result of tick adaptations to various life conditions. this paper presents morphological adaptations of tick tarsus to the hosts and the life conditions. the authors underline morphological differences of haller's organ and pretarsus in four tick species: argas reflex ...200416859038
structure, function, and evolution of biogenic amine-binding proteins in soft ticks.two highly abundant lipocalins, monomine and monotonin, have been isolated from the salivary gland of the soft tick argas monolakensis and shown to bind histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-ht), respectively. the crystal structures of monomine and a paralog of monotonin were determined in the presence of ligands to compare the determinants of ligand binding. both the structures and binding measurements indicate that the proteins have a single binding site rather than the two sites previously des ...200818445596
structural similarities of human and mammalian lipocalins, and their function in innate immunity and allergy.owners and their domestic animals via skin shedding and secretions, mutually exchange microbiomes, potential pathogens and innate immune molecules. among the latter especially lipocalins are multifaceted: they may have an immunomodulatory function and, furthermore, they represent one of the most important animal allergen families. the amino acid identities, as well as their structures by superposition modeling were compared among human lipocalins, hlcn1 and hlcn2, and most important animal lipoc ...201526497994
the structure of omci, a novel lipocalin inhibitor of the complement system.the complement (c) system is a potent innate immune defence system against parasites. we have recently characterised and expressed omci, a 16 kda protein derived from the soft tick ornithodoros moubata that specifically binds c5, thereby preventing c activation. the structure of recombinant omci determined at 1.9 a resolution confirms a lipocalin fold and reveals that the protein binds a fatty acid derivative that we have identified by mass spectrometry as ricinoleic acid. we propose that omci c ...200717445829
function, mechanism and evolution of the moubatin-clade of soft tick lipocalins.the "moubatin-clade" of soft tick lipocalins, although monophyletic, shows clear signs of paralogy as indicated by the various functions associated with this protein family. this includes anti-platelet (moubatin), anti-complement (omci) and toxic (tsgp2) activities in the vertebrate host. in order to understand the evolution of function and how it relates to the various paralogs in this clade, we characterized a number of different proteins in regard to undefined function and mechanism. by utili ...200818694828
acute urticaria caused by pigeon ticks (argas reflexus).a 28-year-old man was admitted to our institute because of acute urticaria appearing a few hours earlier. the patient stated that during sleep he had been bitten by a large number of "insects," which had dropped from wooden ceiling beams under the roof of his room. the patient was living in the center of milan in a very old house, where numerous pigeons had built their nests under the rooftop. the patient brought along with him some examples of these "insects," which were later classified as pig ...19968838926
effects of climate change on ticks and tick-borne diseases in europe.zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. data on the vector tick ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of dermacentor reticulatus. increased winter activity of i ...200919277106
chronic urticaria in adults: state-of-the-art in the new millennium.chronic urticaria has been explored in several investigative aspects in the new millennium, either as to its pathogenesis, its stand as an autoimmune or auto-reactive disease, the correlation with hla-linked genetic factors, especially with class ii or its interrelation with the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. new second-generation antihistamines, which act as good symptomatic drugs, emerged and were commercialized over the last decade. old and new drugs that may interfere with the pathoph ...025672302
mites and other indoor allergens - from exposure to sensitization and dust mites, cats and dogs are amongst the most frequent sources of indoor allergens in europe. the fact that the allergens of house dust mites cause allergic disease through inhalation of house dust was discovered in 1964. the diagnosis of mite allergy is regularly complicated by its often nonspecific symptoms, which frequently develop insidiously and by no means always include attacks of paroxysmal sneezing and itching. antibody-based immunological detection methods can be used to measure ...201526120549
punique virus, a novel phlebovirus, related to sandfly fever naples virus, isolated from sandflies collected in tunisia.sandflies are widely distributed around the mediterranean basin. therefore, human populations in this area are potentially exposed to sandfly-transmitted diseases, including those caused by phleboviruses. whilst there are substantial data in countries located in the northern part of the mediterranean basin, few data are available for north africa. in this study, a total of 1489 sandflies were collected in 2008 in tunisia from two sites, bioclimatically distinct, located 235 km apart, and identif ...201020089800
interfaces between allergen structure and diagnosis: know your epitopes.allergy diagnosis is based on the patient's clinical history and can be strengthened by tests that confirm the origin of sensitization. in the past 25 years, these tests have evolved from the exclusive in vivo or in vitro use of allergen extracts, to complementary molecular-based diagnostics that rely on in vitro measurements of ige reactivity to individual allergens. for this to occur, an increase in our understanding of the molecular structure of allergens, largely due to the development of te ...025750181
[diseases caused by pigeon mites (argas reflexus)]. 19846730544
differences in prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma spp. infection among host-seeking dermacentor occidentalis, ixodes pacificus, and ornithodoros coriaceus ticks in northwestern california.previous studies revealed that the pacific coast tick (dermacentor occidentalis) is infected occasionally with the agents of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) or human granulocytic anaplasmosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum) and that it is an inefficient experimental vector of b. burgdorferi. the relationship of the pajahuello tick (ornithodoros coriaceus) to each of these bacterial zoonotic agents has not been reported. the primary bridging vector of both bacterial zoonotic agents to humans is t ...201021359090
the relevance of tick bites to the production of ige antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-a-1, 2009, we reported a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis to red meat that is related to serum ige antibodies to the oligosaccharide galactose-a-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). most of these patients had tolerated meat for many years previously. the implication is that some exposure in adult life had stimulated the production of these ige antibodies.201121453959
ixodes ricinus tick lipocalins: identification, cloning, phylogenetic analysis and biochemical characterization.during their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation of the inflammatory response.200819096708
implication of haematophagous arthropod salivary proteins in host-vector interactions.the saliva of haematophagous arthropods contains an array of anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that contribute to the success of the blood meal. the saliva of haematophagous arthropods is also involved in the transmission and the establishment of pathogens in the host and in allergic responses. this survey provides a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological activity and immunogenic properties of the main salivary proteins characterised in various haematophag ...201121951834
tick bites and red meat allergy.a novel form of anaphylaxis has been described that is due to ige antibody (ab) directed against a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). ongoing work regarding the cause and distribution of this ige response is reviewed.201323743512
ticks infesting humans in italy and associated pathogens.ticks may transmit a large variety of pathogens, which cause illnesses in animals and humans, commonly referred to as to tick-borne diseases (tbds). the incidence of human tbds in italy is underestimated because of poor surveillance and the scant amount of studies available.201425023709
interactions between tick and transmitted pathogens evolved to minimise competition through nested and coherent networks.natural foci of ticks, pathogens, and vertebrate reservoirs display complex relationships that are key to the circulation of pathogens and infection dynamics through the landscape. however, knowledge of the interaction networks involved in transmission of tick-borne pathogens are limited because empirical studies are commonly incomplete or performed at small spatial scales. here, we applied the methodology of ecological networks to quantify >14,000 interactions among ticks, vertebrates, and path ...201525993662
anaphylaxis to the carbohydrate side chain 2007, the monoclonal antibody cetuximab caused severe hypersensitivity reactions during the first infusion in a region of the southeastern united states. investigation of pretreatment sera established that they contained immunoglobulin (ig) e against the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), which is present on the fab of cetuximab. alpha-gal is a blood group substance of nonprimate mammals. these ige antibodies are also associated with delayed anaphylaxis to red meat (ie ...201525841549
the alpha-gal story: lessons learned from connecting the dots.anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and fatal, and therefore establishing its cause is pivotal to long-term risk management. our recent work has identified a novel ige antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). ige to alpha-gal has been associated with 2 distinct forms of anaphylaxis: (1) immediate-onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab and (2) delayed-onset anaphylaxis 3 to ...201525747720
[not available]. 194720270439
[argas reflexus, the pigeon tick. a case report].the importance of this case, an episode of anaphylactic reaction for argas reflexus, the pigeon tick, is due to the ever-increasing presence in urban areas of the pigeon. the knowledge of existence of this parasite and of his biological characteristics is essential to make a correct and timely diagnosis, to avoid the frequent relapse of symptoms, to take the necessary therapeutical and preventive measures.200818595634
ticks of poland. review of contemporary issues and latest research.the paper presents current knowledge of ticks occurring in poland, their medical importance, and a review of recent studies implemented in the polish research centres on ticks and their significance in the epidemiology of transmissible diseases. in the polish fauna there are 19 species of ticks (ixodida) recognized as existing permanently in our country: argas reflexus, argas polonicus, carios vespertilionis, ixodes trianguliceps, ixodes arboricola, ixodes crenulatus, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes li ...201223444797
[invasion of man by argas reflexus]. 19705529984
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in iran.the presence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) in iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. since that time, the number of cases of cchf in iran has markedly increased. through january 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (cfr) of 17.6%. the disease has been seen in 26 of the country's 31 prov ...201323872313
prevalence of parasites and associated risk factors in domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica) and free-range backyard chickens of sistan region, east of iran.this study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica) from december 2010 to november 2011 to determine the prevalence, intensity and species of internal and external parasites in sistan region, east of iran. of the total of 59 (27 males and 32 females) free-range backyard chickens and 46 (26 males and 20 females) domestic pigeons inspected, 55 (93.22 %) and 39 (84.78 %) were infected respectively. ten species of free-range backyard chickens par ...201224082532
biocontrol of pigeon tick argas reflexus (acari: argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae (ascomycota: hypocreales).the pigeon tick argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. as a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. in this study, the efficacy of three strains (v245, 685 and 715c) of entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae for biological c ...201124031777
folk knowledge of invertebrates in central europe - folk taxonomy, nomenclature, medicinal and other uses, folklore, and nature conservation.there is scarce information about european folk knowledge of wild invertebrate fauna. we have documented such folk knowledge in three regions, in romania, slovakia and croatia. we provide a list of folk taxa, and discuss folk biological classification and nomenclature, salient features, uses, related proverbs and sayings, and conservation.201627729074
cockroach, tick, storage mite and other arthropod allergies: where do we stand with molecular allergy diagnostics?: part 15 of the series molecular allergology.arthropods form a broad phylum within the animal kingdom, comprising widely varying members such as insects, arachnids, crabs and centipedes. in addition to common allergies to house dust mites or hymenoptera venom, there are also rarer allergies that can be attributed to three major sources of allergens: cockroaches, ticks and storage mites. other less known allergen sources include spiders, mosquitos, horseflies, red chironomid larvae, silverfish and ladybugs, as well as a variety of storage p ...201426146603
structure of allergens and structure based epitope predictions.the structure determination of major allergens is a prerequisite for analyzing surface exposed areas of the allergen and for mapping conformational epitopes. these may be determined by experimental methods including crystallographic and nmr-based approaches or predicted by computational methods. in this review we summarize the existing structural information on allergens and their classification in protein fold families. the currently available allergen-antibody complexes are described and the e ...201323891546
dermatosis caused by corythuca ciliata (say, 1932) (heteroptera, tingidae). diagnostic and clinical aspects of an unrecognized pseudoparasitosis.the present article discusses three cases of human infestation by corythuca ciliata (lace bugs), a parasite of plane trees. the cases were all in the piedmont region of northwest italy and the symptoms involved a large number of hives on the subjects' bodies which were scarcely or not at all itchy and which spontaneously cleared up in all the cases in less than 24 hours. it can be concluded that the lace bug can be an agent of insect-caused dermatosis and this should be considered in examining s ...024397008
anaphylaxis syndromes related to a new mammalian cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant.anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can rapidly progress and occasionally be fatal. in instances in which the triggering allergen is not obvious, establishing the cause of anaphylaxis is pivotal to long-term management. assigning cause is limited, however, by the number of known exposures associated with anaphylaxis. therefore identification of novel causative agents can provide an important step forward in facilitating new, allergen-specific approaches to management. in contrast to t ...019815111
flying ticks: anciently evolved associations that constitute a risk of infectious disease spread.ticks are important vectors of emerging zoonotic diseases affecting human and animal health worldwide. ticks are often found on wild birds, which have been long recognized as a potential risk factor for dissemination of ticks and tick-borne pathogens (tbp), thus raising societal concerns and prompting research into their biology and ecology. to fully understand the role of birds in disseminating some ticks species and tbp, it is important to consider the evolutionary relationships between birds, ...201526467109
the new locality of argas reflexus fabricius, 1794 in warsaw, poland.the new locality of argas reflexus in warsaw, poland is recorded. the ticks occur in the lof of apartment blocks, inhabited by pigeons. when the birds were removed by cleaning services, the ticks began to look for a new host and penetrate the flats. some of the lodgers had been bitten by tick larvae and nymphs.200717912811
prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against ixodes ricinus ticks (acari: ixodidae).abstract:200818397516
spatial disaggregation of tick occurrence and ecology at a local scale as a preliminary step for spatial surveillance of tick-borne diseases: general framework and health implications in belgium.the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing in europe. sub national information on tick distribution, ecology and vector status is often lacking. however, precise location of infection risk can lead to better targeted prevention measures, surveillance and control.201323800283
anaphylactic reactions to bites of the pigeon tick argas reflexus. 201020123639
ectoparasites from feral pigeons affecting humans.feral pigeons pose a considerable health risk to the human population. they are vectors of infectious diseases and source of antigens causing allergic diseases. breeding and roosting sites of pigeons harbor parasites that may infest humans. in the present article, a concomitant parasitization of a young female with 3 different ectoparasites, the bedbug cimex lectularius, the pigeon tick argas reflexus and the red mite dermanyssus gallinae, is reported. the parasites invaded the apartment from a ...201020016127
prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica) and turkeys of kermanshah province, west of iran.this study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (columba livia domestica) and turkeys from may 2012 to april 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in kermanshah province, west of iran. of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. eleven ecto ...201627413319
[a woman with a biting arthropod].a 36-year-old woman presented with a red, itching bump on her back and brought the arthropod that had bitten her. the diagnosis, a bite of a soft tick, was made by determination of the arthropod as a pigeon tick (argas reflexus). pigeon ticks only occasionally bite humans and can transmit multiple infectious diseases.201222871245
the influence of physiological age of argas reflexus larvae (acari: argasidae) and of temperature and photoperiod on induction and duration of diapause.the occurrence of diapause and quiescence was investigated in argas reflexus engorged larvae, nymphs i and nymphs ii. for diapause experiments, larvae were maintained at five different locations: at constant 20°c long day (ld; 17 h light:7 h dark) or short day (sd; 10 h light:14 h dark), at two locations with natural photoperiod and temperature and at one location with natural photoperiod but constant 15°c. at 20°c, diapause incidence was low in physiologically young larvae, increased with larva ...199728307293
orphan immunotherapies for allergic confirmed by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, allergen immunotherapy is clinically effective in the treatment of allergic diseases. in particular, subcutaneous immunotherapy is a pivotal treatment in patients with severe reactions to hymenoptera venom, whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy are indicated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma by inhalant allergens. other allergies related to animal dander (other than cat, which is the most studied), suc ...201626837608
[molecular genetic characterization of the gissar virus (gsrv) (bunyaviridae, phlebovirus, uukuniemi group) isolated from the ticks argas reflexus fabricius, 1794 (argasidae) collected in dovecote in tajikistan].the gissar virus (gsrv) was originally isolated from the ticks argas reflexus, fabricius, 1794 collected in a dovecote of gissar village in tajikistan (38 degrees 40' n, 68 degrees 40' e). using electron microscopy, gsrv was classified to bunyaviridae without referring to genus due to the absence of the antigenic relation with known bunyaviruses. in the present paper genome of gsrv was sequenced (miseq, illumina). molecular genetics and phylogenetic analysis showed. gsrv has a high level of homo ...201625566592
tick pests and vectors (acari: ixodoidea) in european towns: introduction, persistence and management.ticks have always been a part of fauna in and around human settlements, and their significance changed concurrently with the enlargement of settlements and their transformation into towns. the increased rate of urbanization during the last decades has created a new reality for tick existence. two groups of ticks are of major concern for modern towns: those living under natural conditions of urban surroundings and those well-adapted to urban conditions. during the process of urbanization, encroac ...201424183576
prevalence of external parasites of pigeon in zabol, southeast of iran.external parasites or ectoparasites, are arthropods that live on or in the skin or feathers, using the host as both shelter and food source. ectoparasites can have significant impacts on animal health and productivity. the aim of this research was to estimate the prevalence and ectoparasites diversity in pigeons of zabol, southeast of iran. a total of 264 pigeons were selected randomly (175 males and 89 females) to evaluate the presence of different ectoparasites. ectoparasites were collected fr ...201627876980
an overview on sardinia's soft ticks (ixodida: argasidae).knowledge about soft ticks (ixodida: argasidae) in sardinia is incomplete and distribution data need to be updated. this work studies soft ticks on the island focusing on two species, argas reflexus and ornithodoros maritimus, both recently recorded. a total number of 12 specimens of these species of interest were collected between 2004 and 2015. this study reports for the first time the presence of o. maritimus in a coastal area in italy, and more generally in a coastal area rather than small i ...201626940844
host finding of the pigeon tick argas reflexus.the medically and veterinary important feral pigeon tick argas reflexus (ixodida: argasidae) fabricius usually feeds on pigeons, but if its natural hosts are not available, it also enters dwellings to bite humans that can possibly react with severe allergic reactions. argas reflexus is ecologically extremely successful as a result of some outstanding morphological, physiological, and ethological features. yet, it is still unknown how the pigeon tick finds its hosts. here, different host stimuli ...201626959079
characterization of the uukuniemi virus group (phlebovirus: bunyaviridae): evidence for seven distinct species.evolutionary insights into the phleboviruses are limited because of an imprecise classification scheme based on partial nucleotide sequences and scattered antigenic relationships. in this report, the serologic and phylogenetic relationships of the uukuniemi group viruses and their relationships with other recently characterized tick-borne phleboviruses are described using full-length genome sequences. we propose that the viruses currently included in the uukuniemi virus group be assigned to five ...201323283959
mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern romania.although cases of mediterranean spotted fever (msf) have been reported for decades in southeastern romania, there are few published data. we retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with msf at the national institute of infectious diseases "prof. dr. matei bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about msf in certain regions of romania. according to the raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. mean age was 52.5 years. one hundred and fifty-five (90.6% ...201324024190
evidence for widespread infection of african bats with crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever-like viruses.crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) is a highly virulent tick-borne pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. the geographic range of human cchf cases largely reflects the presence of ticks. however, highly similar cchfv lineages occur in geographically distant regions. tick-infested migratory birds have been suggested, but not confirmed, to contribute to the dispersal. bats have recently been shown to carry nairoviruses distinct from cchfv. in order to assess the presence of c ...201627217069
pigeon tick bite: a neglected cause of idiopathic nocturnal anaphylaxis.anaphylaxis is a serious systemic allergic reaction with rapid onset and potentially life-threatening. we report in detail a case of severe nocturnal anaphylaxis due to pigeon tick bite showing the diagnostic value of the extract and the recombinant allergen in the diagnostic procedures (basophil activation test, ige immunoblot, and experimental immunocap). apart from the presented case, we describe that during the last 10 years, we have collected 28 cases of allergy to argas reflexus from sever ...201729083476
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