field evaluation of carbon dioxide baits for sampling ornithodoros turicata (acari: argasidae) in gopher tortoise burrows.field studies were conducted to assess the reliability of carbon dioxide baits in sampling ornithodoros turicata duges. tick response to about 50 g of dry ice placed at various distances away from tick-infested burrows was monitored over a 2-h period. in addition, tick attraction to different flow rates of carbon dioxide was monitored. tests were conducted over a 15-mo period, during which seasonal effects on o. turicata response to co2 were assessed. the efficacy of the baits was evaluated at n ...19911903452
life cycle of ornithodoros turicata americanus (acari: argasidae) in the laboratory. 19863735335
tick-borne relapsing fever in british columbia, canada: first isolation of borrelia hermsii.the spirochete that causes tick-borne relapsing fever, borrelia hermsii, was isolated in pure culture during 1995 and 1996 from three acutely ill human patients infected in southern british columbia, canada. the geographic area of exposure is a known focus of this disease dating back to 1930 when the first case was recognized in a human. analyses of plasmid dna, protein profiles, and reactivity with a species-specific monoclonal antibody identified the new isolates of spirochetes as b. hermsii, ...19989817862
in vitro activities of the everninomicin sch 27899 and other newer antimicrobial agents against borrelia burgdorferi.the in vitro activity of the everninomicin antibiotic sch 27899 against 17 isolates of borrelia spp. was investigated. mics ranged from 0.06 to 0.5 microg/ml. time-kill studies with the b31 strain of b. burgdorferi demonstrated >/=3-log10-unit killing after 72 h with concentrations representing four times the mic. the in vitro activity of four other newer antimicrobial agents, meropenem, cefepime, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and linezolid, was also tested against the b31 strain. meropenem was the ...199910390242
serodiagnosis of louse-borne relapsing fever with glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) from borrelia recurrentis.human louse-borne relapsing fever occurs in sporadic outbreaks in central and eastern africa that are characterized by significant morbidity and mortality. isolates of the causative agent, borrelia recurrentis, were obtained from the blood of four patients during a recent epidemic of the disease in southern sudan. the glpq gene, encoding glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, from these isolates was sequenced and compared with the glpq sequences obtained from other relapsing-fever spirochetes. ...200011015364
isogenic serotypes of borrelia turicatae show different localization in the brain and skin of mice.mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (scid mice) and infected with the relapsing fever agent borrelia turicatae develop manifestations that resemble those of disseminated lyme disease. we have characterized two isogenic serotypes, a and b, which differ in their variable small proteins (vsps) and disease manifestations. serotype a but not serotype b was cultured from the brain during early infection, and serotype b caused more severe arthritis, myocarditis, and vestibular dysfunction than s ...200111292762
pcr-reverse line blot typing method underscores the genomic heterogeneity of borrelia valaisiana species and suggests its potential involvement in lyme disease.detection of the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex in biological samples is currently done by conventional immunological and molecular biological methods. to improve on the accuracy of these methods and to simplify the procedure for testing large numbers of samples, a solid-phase sandwich hybridization system readily applicable to the detection of pcr products has been designed. this colorimetric detection system relies on the use of polybiotinylated detection probes and of specific captur ...200312904377
first isolation of the relapsing fever spirochete, borrelia hermsii, from a domestic north america, tick-borne relapsing fever of humans is most frequently caused by infection with the spirochete borrelia hermsii. prior to our investigation, this spirochete was not known to infect dogs although another species, borrelia turicatae, has been isolated from domestic canids in florida and texas. a clinically ill dog in washington, usa, was spirochetemic upon examination. spirochetes were isolated from the dog's serum and examined by pcr and multi-locus sequence typing. dna sequenc ...201324252262
genomic survey of the ectoparasitic mite varroa destructor, a major pest of the honey bee apis mellifera.the ectoparasitic mite varroa destructor has emerged as the primary pest of domestic honey bees (apis mellifera). here we present an initial survey of the v. destructor genome carried out to advance our understanding of varroa biology and to identify new avenues for mite control. this sequence survey provides immediate resources for molecular and population-genetic analyses of varroa-apis interactions and defines the challenges ahead for a comprehensive varroa genome project.201020973996
a novel surface antigen of relapsing fever spirochetes can discriminate between relapsing fever and lyme a previous immunoproteome analysis of borrelia hermsii, candidate antigens that bound igm antibodies from mice and patients infected with relapsing fever spirochetes were identified. one candidate that was identified is a hypothetical protein with a molecular mass of 57 kda that we have designated borrelia immunogenic protein a (bipa). this protein was further investigated as a potential diagnostic antigen for b. hermsii given that it is absent from the borrelia burgdorferi genome. the bipa l ...201020147497
characterization of a novel relapsing fever spirochete in the midgut, coxal fluid, and salivary glands of the bat tick carios kelleyi.bat ticks, carios kelleyi, from iowa were examined for the presence of relapsing fever group borreliae. a novel spirochete was characterized by dna sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplicons for the 16s rrna, flab, and glpq genes in either triturated tick pools or single ticks. all loci and the concatenated dna sequence of 3,289 bases identified the carios bacterium as a relapsing fever spirochete most closely related to, but distinct from, borrelia turicatae. spirochetes reactive ...200919281412
rrp1, a cyclic-di-gmp-producing response regulator, is an important regulator of borrelia burgdorferi core cellular functions.two-component systems (tcs) are universal among bacteria and play critical roles in gene regulation. our understanding of the contributions of tcs in the biology of the borrelia is just now beginning to develop. borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of lyme disease, harbours a tcs comprised of open reading frames (orfs) bb0419 and bb0420. bb0419 encodes a response regulator designated rrp1, and bb0420 encodes a hybrid histidine kinase-response regulator designated hpk1. rrp1, which contains a ...200919210621
oms38 is the first identified pore-forming protein in the outer membrane of relapsing fever spirochetes.relapsing fever is a worldwide, endemic disease caused by several spirochetal species belonging to the genus borrelia. during the recurring fever peaks, borreliae proliferate remarkably quickly compared to the slow dissemination of lyme disease borrelia and therefore require efficient nutrient uptake from the blood of their hosts. this study describes the identification and characterization of the first relapsing fever porin, which is present in the outer membranes of b. duttonii, b. hermsii, b. ...200818757545
spirochetemia caused by borrelia turicatae infection in 3 dogs in texas.spirochetemia was diagnosed in 2 siberian huskies and a rottweiler from the northwestern region of texas between june 1999 and october 2001. clinical findings were nonspecific; tick exposure was documented in 2 of the dogs. hematologic abnormalities included anemia (n=2), neutrophilia (n=2, including 1 with a left shift), lymphopenia (n=3), eosinopenia (n=3), and thrombocytopenia (n=2). one anemic dog had a positive coombs' test. in 1 dog, western blot analysis of serum yielded multiple positive ...200717523100
assessment of the geographic distribution of ornithodoros turicata (argasidae): climate variation and host diversity.ornithodoros turicata is a veterinary and medically important argasid tick that is recognized as a vector of the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia turicatae and african swine fever virus. historic collections of o. turicata have been recorded from latin america to the southern united states. however, the geographic distribution of this vector is poorly understood in relation to environmental variables, their hosts, and consequently the pathogens they transmit.201626829327
purine salvage pathways among borrelia species.genome sequencing projects on two relapsing fever spirochetes, borrelia hermsii and borrelia turicatae, revealed differences in genes involved in purine metabolism and salvage compared to those in the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. the relapsing fever spirochetes contained six open reading frames that are absent from the b. burgdorferi genome. these genes included those for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hpt), adenylosuccinate synthase (pura), adenylosuccinate lya ...200717502392
chromosome and linear plasmid sequences of a 2015 human isolate of the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete, borrelia turicatae.the sequences of the complete linear chromosome and 7 linear plasmids of the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia turicatae are presented in this report. the 925,547 bp of chromosome and 380,211 bp of plasmid sequence were predicted to contain a total of 1,131 open reading frames, with an average g+c content of 29.7%.201627417836
relapsing fever spirochetes contain chromosomal genes with unique direct tandemly repeated sequences.genome sequencing of the relapsing fever spirochetes borrelia hermsii and borrelia turicatae identified three open reading frames (orfs) on the chromosomes that contained internal, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences that were absent in the lyme disease spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. the predicted amino acid sequences of these genes (bh0209, bh0512, and bh0553) have hydrophobic n termini, indicating that these proteins may be secreted. b. hermsii transcribed the three orfs in vitro, and the ...200515845510
reproductive bionomics of the soft tick, ornithodoros turicata (acari: argasidae).the effects of different temperatures and relative humidities (rhs) were tested on various reproductive parameters of ornithodoros turicata, an argasid tick that inhabits gopher tortoise burrows in florida, usa. the pre-oviposition, oviposition and incubation periods of the ticks decreased as temperature increased. these periods were also affected by the rh. the number of eggs oviposited was affected significantly by the combined effect of temperature and rh. fewer eggs were laid by ticks in the ...19968771770
respiratory metabolism of the soft tick, ornithodoros turicata (dugès).the rate of oxygen consumption was investigated in fed larval, nymphal and adult ornithodoros turicata ticks and in starved nymphal and adult ticks. oxygen consumption rate of fed adult ticks increased with increasing temperature. the metabolic rate of adult ticks was affected by starvation whereby starved adult ticks showed a significantly lower oxygen consumption than their fed counterparts. the oxygen consumption rate of fed female ticks was significantly higher than that of fed males but, th ...19957656729
evidence of common and genus-specific epitopes on ornithodoros spp. tick (acari: argasidae) salivary zealand white rabbits were repeatedly infested with ornithodoros turicata (duges), ornithodoros talaje (guérin-méneville), and ornithodoros coriaceus (koch) at 2-wk intervals. blood samples were taken from each animal 10 d after each infestation and the titer of anti-tick antibody was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. subsequent cross-reactivity studies demonstrated that the antitick antisera nonspecifically bound to salivary gland extract proteins prepared from several other ...19957544412
the fate of hepatozoon species naturally infecting florida black racers and watersnakes in potential mosquito and soft tick vectors, and histological evidence of pathogenicity in unnatural host species.haemogregarine parasites, derived from the florida snakes coluber constrictor and nerodia fasciata and ingested by aedes aegypti, completed sporogony within the hemocoeles of nearly all fed mosquitoes in 14-18 days, and produced oocysts typical of hepatozoon. however, mortalities and morbidity were high in the culex which had fed on the coluber. oocysts were not found in any ornithodoros turicata (argasidae) which fed upon either snake host, but many sections of fed ticks had gametocyte-like cel ...19911683862
what is the risk for exposure to vector-borne pathogens in united states national parks?united states national parks attract > 275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. we assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal national park service documents and organismal ...201323540107
development of genetic system to inactivate a borrelia turicatae surface protein selectively produced within the salivary glands of the arthropod vector.borrelia turicatae, an agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, is an example of a pathogen that can adapt to disparate conditions found when colonizing the mammalian host and arthropod vector. however, little is known about the genetic factors necessary during the tick-mammalian infectious cycle, therefore we developed a genetic system to transform this species of spirochete. we also identified a plasmid gene that was up-regulated in vitro when b. turicatae was grown in conditions mimicking the tic ...201324205425
parasites and vector-borne pathogens of southern plains woodrats (neotoma micropus) from southern texas.from 2008 to 2010, southern plains woodrats (neotoma micropus) from southern texas, were examined for parasites and selected pathogens. eight helminth species were recovered from 97 woodrats including, trichuris neotomae from 78 (prevalence = 80%), ascarops sp. from 42 (43%), nematodirus neotoma from 31 (32%), raillietina sp. from nine (9%), taenia taeniaeformis larvae from eight (8%), and an unidentified spiurid, a scaphiostomum sp. and a zonorchis sp. each from a single woodrat. besnotia neoto ...201122108764
photoperiodic response in the soft tick, ornithodoros turicata.the effects of photoperiod on the feeding, development and quiescent behavior of the burrow-dwelling soft tick, ornithodoros turicata (dugès) were investigated. ticks were assigned randomly to either continuous darkness (dd), a short-day photoperiod (l:d 10:14), a long-day photoperiod (l:d 14:10) or constant light (ll). ticks reared under constant light succumbed to much higher mortality than those reared under the other conditions. however, photoperiod did not induce quiescent behavior in o. tu ...19968875308
laboratory identification of arthropod ectoparasites.the collection, handling, identification, and reporting of ectoparasitic arthropods in clinical and reference diagnostic laboratories are discussed in this review. included are data on ticks, mites, lice, fleas, myiasis-causing flies, and bed bugs. the public health importance of these organisms is briefly discussed. the focus is on the morphological identification and proper handling and reporting of cases involving arthropod ectoparasites, particularly those encountered in the united states. o ...201424396136
the non-transmission of the relapsing fever spirochete, borrelia dugesii (mazzotti, 1949) by the argasid tick ornithodoros turicata (dugès, 1876). 195313118437
population structure and seasonal intra-burrow movement of ornithodoros turicata (acari: argasidae) in gopher tortoise burrows.burrows of the gopher tortoise, gopherus polyphemus daudin, were sampled for ornithodoros turicata (dugès) infestation using carbon dioxide baits and vacuum extraction. ticks were captured, marked, released, and recaptured, and population estimates were made using the lincoln index. estimated population ranged from 47 to 1,338 ticks per burrow. the tick population consisted predominantly of nymphs, with a significant increase in the larval population during the months of june and july. adult sex ...19892769706
host associations and genomic diversity of borrelia hermsii in an endemic focus of tick-borne relapsing fever in western north unrecognized focus of tick-borne relapsing fever caused by borrelia hermsii was identified in 2002 when five people became infected on wild horse island in flathead lake, montana. the terrestrial small mammal community on the island is composed primarily of pine squirrels (tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus), neither of which was known as a natural host for the spirochete. thus a 3-year study was performed to identify small mammals as hosts for b. hermsii.201627832805
genomic insights into the ixodes scapularis tick vector of lyme disease.ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. we describe the 2.1 gbp nuclear genome of the tick, ixodes scapularis (say), which vectors pathogens that cause lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. the large genome reflects accumulation of repetitive dna, new lineages of retro-transposons, and gene architecture patterns resembling ancient metazoans rather than pancrustaceans. annotation of scaffolds representing ∼57% of the ge ...201626856261
tick-borne relapsing fever.each year, many residents of and visitors to endemic regions of the western united states are exposed to the tick vectors of tick-borne relapsing fever (tbrf), ornithodoros hermsi, ornithodoros turicata, or ornithodoros parkeri. this disease is remarkable because the human host is unaware of the tick bite, usually becomes very ill, may experience an exacerbation of symptoms rather than improvement shortly after beginning appropriate treatment, and, despite often high numbers of the etiologic org ...200818755384
sequence analysis and serological responses against borrelia turicatae bipa, a putative species-specific antigen.relapsing fever spirochetes are global yet neglected pathogens causing recurrent febrile episodes, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pregnancy complications. given these nonspecific clinical manifestations, improving diagnostic assays for relapsing fever spirochetes will allow for identification of endemic foci and expedite proper treatment. previously, an antigen designated the borrelia immunogenic protein a (bipa) was identified in the north american species borrelia hermsii. thus far, bipa appear ...201324069498
real-time monitoring of disease progression in rhesus macaques infected with borrelia turicatae by tick bite.the hallmark of disease caused by tick- and louse-borne relapsing fever due to borrelia infection is cyclic febrile episodes, which in humans results in severe malaise and may lead to death. to evaluate the pathogenesis of relapsing fever due to spirochetes in an animal model closely related to humans, disease caused by borrelia turicatae after tick bite was compared in 2 rhesus macaques in which radiotelemetry devices that recorded body temperatures in 24-hour increments were implanted. the rad ...201424879799
transmission dynamics of borrelia turicatae from the arthropod vector.with the global distribution, morbidity, and mortality associated with tick and louse-borne relapsing fever spirochetes, it is important to understand the dynamics of vector colonization by the bacteria and transmission to the host. tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes are blood-borne pathogens transmitted through the saliva of soft ticks, yet little is known about the transmission capability of these pathogens during the relatively short bloodmeal. this study was therefore initiated to unders ...201424699275
phylogenetic analysis of the spirochetes borrelia parkeri and borrelia turicatae and the potential for tick-borne relapsing fever in florida.isolates of borrelia turicatae, borrelia parkeri, and the florida canine borrelia (fcb) were examined to further phylogenetically characterize the identities of these spirochetes in the united states. dna sequences of four chromosomal loci (the 16s rrna gene, flab, gyrb, and glpq) were determined for eight isolates of b. turicatae and six isolates of b. parkeri, which grouped the spirochetes into two distinct but closely related taxa (>98% sequence identity) separate from borrelia hermsii. the f ...200516081922
correction: assessment of the geographic distribution of ornithodoros turicata (argasidae): climate variation and host diversity. 201626953571
isolation and characterization of borrelia hermsii associated with two foci of tick-borne relapsing fever in california.relapsing fever, caused by the spirochete borrelia hermsii and transmitted by the soft tick ornithodoros hermsi, is endemic in many rural mountainous areas of california. between 1996 and 1998, 12 cases of relapsing fever associated with two exposure sites in northern california were investigated. follow-up at exposure sites included collection of soft ticks and serum specimens from sylvatic rodents. attempts to cultivate spirochetes were made through inoculation of patient blood into mice and b ...200415004063
case report: a retrospective serological analysis indicating human exposure to tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes in texas. 201525856342
analysis of the ability of spirochete species associated with relapsing fever, avian borreliosis, and epizootic bovine abortion to bind factor h and cleave c3b.some borrelia species associated with lyme disease bind the complement-regulatory protein factor h (fh), a process that may aid in immune evasion. in this report we demonstrate that some borrelia species associated with relapsing fever bind fh, but not those associated with avian borreliosis and epizootic bovine abortion. cell-bound fh was also found to mediate cleavage of exogenously supplied human c3b, demonstrating the biological relevance of fh binding and its possible importance in the path ...200312904415
glycerol-3-phosphate acquisition in spirochetes: distribution and biological activity of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) among borrelia species.relapsing-fever spirochetes achieve high cell densities (>10(8)/ml) in their host's blood, while lyme disease spirochetes do not (<10(5)/ml). this striking contrast in pathogenicity of these two groups of bacteria suggests a fundamental difference in their ability to either exploit or survive in blood. borrelia hermsii, a tick-borne relapsing-fever spirochete, contains orthologs to glpq and glpt, genes that encode glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) and glycerol-3-phosphate transporte ...200312562805
identification and comparative analysis of subolesin/akirin ortholog from ornithodoros turicata ticks.subolesin is an evolutionary conserved molecule in diverse arthropod species that play an important role in the regulation of genes involved in immune responses, blood digestion, reproduction and development. in this study, we have identified a subolesin ortholog from soft ticks ornithodoros turicata, the vector of the relapsing fever spirochete in the united states.201525889484
mevalonate-farnesal biosynthesis in ticks: comparative synganglion transcriptomics and a new perspective.juvenile hormone (jh) controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. for many years, the general assumption has been that jh regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. although researchers have not been able to find the common insect jhs in hard and soft tick species and jh applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to jh are made in t ...201626959814
diagnosis and management of borrelia turicatae infection in febrile soldier, texas, august 2015, a soldier returned from field exercises in texas, usa, with nonspecific febrile illness. culture and sequencing of spirochetes from peripheral blood diagnosed borrelia turicatae infection. the patient recovered after receiving doxycycline. no illness occurred in asymptomatic soldiers potentially exposed to the vector tick and prophylactically given treatment.201728418310
an in vitro blood-feeding method revealed differential borrelia turicatae (spirochaetales: spirochaetaceae) gene expression after spirochete acquisition and colonization in the soft tick ornithodoros turicata (acari: argasidae).in the midwestern, southwestern, and southern part of the united states, the soft tick ornithodoros turicata transmits the spirochete borrelia turicatae, the causative agent of relapsing fever in humans. in this study, we report a simplified and an efficient method of in vitro feeding to evaluate o. turicata-b. turicatae interactions. both nymphal and adult female ticks successfully acquired spirochetes upon in vitro feeding on the b. turicatae-infected blood. we also noted transstadial transmis ...201728399292
imaging of borrelia turicatae producing the green fluorescent protein reveals persistent colonization of the ornithodoros turicata midgut and salivary glands from nymphal acquisition through transmission.relapsing fever (rf) spirochetes colonize and are transmitted to mammals primarily by ornithodoros ticks, and little is known regarding the pathogen's life cycle in the vector. to further understand vector colonization and transmission of rf spirochetes, borrelia turicatae expressing a green fluorescent protein (gfp) marker (b. turicatae-gfp) was generated. the transformants were evaluated during the tick-mammal infectious cycle, from the third nymphal instar to adult stage. b. turicatae-gfp rem ...201727986725
possible applications of the immune response of laboratory mice to the feeding of argasid ticks.immunization of cd1 mice with various crude extracts of argasid tick parts in two different adjuvants induced high host iggl antibody levels that could be detected in the hemolymph of recently fed argasid ticks. in the case of the fast feeding ornithodoros turicata (dugés), host immunization had no immediate effect on tick survival. in the case of the longer feeding species o. talaje (gueín-meneville), it induced a significant (p less than 0.05) 32% reduction in tick survival comparable to that ...19912056506
variable tick protein in two genomic groups of the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia hermsii in western north america.borrelia hermsii is the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in north america. when its tick vector, ornithodoros hermsi, acquires these spirochetes from the blood of an infected mammal, the bacteria switch their outer surface from one of many bloodstream variable major proteins (vmps) to a unique protein, vtp (vsp33). vtp may be critical for successful tick transmission of b. hermsii; however, the gene encoding this protein has been described previously in only one isolate. here we ident ...200516177341
recovery of relapsing fever spirochetes from ornithodoros turicata (duges), 1876, in california. 194416560874
the possible role of ticks as vectors of leptospirae. i. transmission of leptospira pomona by the argasid tick, ornithodoros turicata, and the persistance of this organism in its tissues. 195613375683
biological and physiological characterization of in vitro blood feeding in nymph and adult stages of ornithodoros turicata (acari: argasidae).biological and physiological aspects of blood feeding in nymph and adult ornithodoros turicata were investigated using an in vitro technique combined with electrophysiological recordings and respirometry. the duration of blood feeding through a parafilm® membrane was similar (19.2-22.6 min) in both developmental stages. the mean (±sd) size of blood meal ingested by nymphs, females, and males was 44.2±17.9, 150.6±48.7, and 74.2±36.9 mg, respectively, representing a 2.5-, 2.8- and 3.0-fold increas ...201525783956
identification and characterization of a histamine-binding lipocalin-like molecule from the relapsing fever tick ornithodoros turicata.lipocalins are low molecular weight membrane transporters that are abundantly expressed in the salivary glands and other tissues of ticks. in this study, we identified a lipocalin-like molecule, designated as otlip, from the soft ticks ornithodoros turicata, the vector for the relapsing fever causing spirochete borrelia turicatae. we noted that the expression of otlip was developmentally regulated, with adult ticks expressing significantly higher levels in comparison to the larvae or nymphal tic ...201729164729
blood feeding of ornithodoros turicata larvae using an artificial membrane artificial membrane system was adapted to feed ornithodoros turicata (ixodida: argasidae) larvae from a laboratory colony using defibrinated swine blood. aspects related to larval feeding and moulting to the first nymphal instar were evaluated. a total of 55.6% of all larvae exposed to the artificial membrane in two experimental groups fed to repletion and 98.0% of all fed larvae moulted. mortality rates of first instar nymphs differed significantly depending on the sorting tools used to hand ...201728150885
the distribution of rickettsia in the tissues of insects and the absence of a satisfactory definition of rickettsia the observations herein recorded were arbitrarily limited to bacterium-like organisms which are intracellular and gram-negative. rickettsia of this type were found in the following species: amblyomma americana, amblyomma hebraeum, boophilus decoloratus, atomus sp., casinaria infesta, chrysopa oculata, ctenocephalus canis, dermacentor variabilis, lepisma saccharina, lucoppia curviseta, margaropus annulatus, margaropus annulatus australis, ...192319868737
discovery of sarolaner: a novel, orally administered, broad-spectrum, isoxazoline ectoparasiticide for dogs.the novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide, sarolaner, was identified during a lead optimization program for an orally-active compound with efficacy against fleas and ticks on dogs. the aim of the discovery program was to identify a novel isoxazoline specifically for use in companion animals, beginning with de novo synthesis in the zoetis research laboratories. the sarolaner molecule has unique structural features important for its potency and pharmacokinetic (pk) properties, including spiroazetidin ...201626961590
comparison of synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors and their gene expression in response to feeding in ixodes scapularis (ixodidae) vs. ornithodoros turicata (argasidae).illumina gaii high-throughput sequencing was used to compare expressed genes for female synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors of the soft tick ornithodoros turicata with the hard tick ixodes scapularis. gene ontology molecular level three mapping revealed no significant differences amongst the same categories represented in o. turicata and i. scapularis. transcripts predicting 22 neuropeptides or their receptors in the o. turicata synganglion were simil ...201626783017
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