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immunological characteristics of pep carboxylase from leaves of c3-, c4- and c3-c4 intermediate species of alternanthera--comparison with selected c3- and c4- plants.immunological cross-reactivity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc) in leaf extracts of c3-, c4- and c3-c4 intermediate species of alternanthera (along with a few other c3- and c4- plants) was studied using anti-pepc antibodies raised against pepc of amaranthus hypochondriacus (belonging to the same family as that of alternanthera, namely amaranthaceae). antibodies were also raised in rabbits against the purified pepc from zea mays (c4- monocot-poaceae) as well as alternanthera pungens (c4- ...200112019756
diet of eared doves (zenaida auriculata, aves, columbidae) in a sugar-cane colony in south-eastern brazil.farmers in the paranapanema valley (são paulo, brazil) have reported problems with flocks of eared doves (zenaida auriculata) eating sprouting soybeans. in this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. three weeds (euphorbia heterophylla, brachiaria plantaginea, and commelina benghalensis) were important. this information suggests that the doves adapted particul ...200112071322
effects of hand weeding strip and nitrogen fertilizer on corn plants.the objective of the present research was to evaluate effects of different strip weed control associated with nitrogen fertilizer on corn applied after planting. the experiment was set and conducted in botucatu, são paulo state, brazil, and the hybrid planted was dekalb 333-b. a completely randomized block design with four replications was used. experimental plots were disposed as a factorial scheme 2 x 2 x 4, constituted by two types of weeding on row (with or without manual hoeing), two types ...200515656170
influence of type and amount of straw cover on weed emergence.this research was undertaken during 2003-2004 growing season to evaluate the effects of type [forage sorghum "hybrid cober exp" (sorghum bicolor x sorghum sudanense), forage millet (pennisetum americanum "var. bn2"), finger millet (eleusine coracana), and st lucia grass (brachiaria brizantha)] and amount of straw cover (5.5 and 3.0 t ha(-1)) upon the emergence of bidens pilosa, chamaesyce spp., amaranthus spp., and commelina benghalensis, under field conditions of the brazilian cerrado, in the r ...200515656176
review of potential environmental impacts of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in brazil.transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeans (grs) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the western hemisphere, including brazil. worldwide, several studies have shown that previous and potential effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to those caused by the herbicides that they replace when grs are adopted. in the usa and argentina, the advent of glyphosate-resistant soybeans resulted in a significant shift to reduced- and no-tillage practic ...200717562462
antibacterial activity of some plant extracts used in folk medicine.in the present work, selected plants were screened for their potential antibacterial activity. for evaluating antibacterial activity, both aqueous and organic solvent methanol was used. the plants screened were ocimum sanctum, jatropha gossypifolia, boerhavia diffusa, azadirachta indica, solidago virgaurea, and commelina benghalensis. the antibacterial activity was assessed against six bacterial strains--pseudomonas testosteroni, staphylococcus epidermidis, klebsiella pneumoniae, bacillus subtil ...200718928141
15-lipoxygenase inhibition of commelina benghalensis, tradescantia fluminensis, tradescantia zebrina.to evaluate the 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of the methanol leaf extracts of commelina benghalensis, tradescantia fluminensis (t. fluminensis) and tradescantia zebrina.201425182435
antioxidant mediated ameliorative steroidogenesis by commelina benghalensis l. and cissus quadrangularis l. against quinalphos induced male reproductive toxicity.quinalphos (qp) is speculated to cause endocrine disruption through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ros) by oxidative stress (os). exposure of qp decreased testosterone level considerably which resulted in reduced viable sperms in mice. the qp induced toxicity is initiated by the formation of free radicals as it is evidenced from the increased lipid peroxidation (lpo) and diminution of antioxidant enzymes in testicular tissue. increased serum cholesterol and reduced testicular cholest ...201424581381
semi-purified extracts of commelina benghalensis (commelinaceae) induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in jurkat-t cells.commelina benghalensis (cb) is a small plant whose fleshy stems are used in south africa to treat skin conditions (e.g., cancerous skin outgrowths). this study was aimed at evaluating the effect of sub-fractions of acetone extracts of cb stems on growth-associated molecular events of apoptosis and cell division cycle of jurkat-t (jt) cells.201424555704
differential role of ethylene and hydrogen peroxide in dark-induced stomatal closure.regulation of stomatal aperture is crucial in terrestrial plants for controlling water loss and gaseous exchange with environment. while much is known of signaling for stomatal opening induced by blue light and the role of hormones, little is known about the regulation of stomatal closing in darkness. the present study was aimed to verify their role in stomatal regulation in darkness. epidermal peelings from the leaves of commelina benghalensis were incubated in a defined medium in darkness for ...201324517017
lutein and zeaxanthin in leafy greens and their bioavailability: olive oil influences the absorption of dietary lutein and its accumulation in adult rats.this study determined the lutein level in various green leafy vegetables (glvs) and the influence of olive and sunflower oils on the postprandial plasma and eye response of dietary lutein in adult rats, previously induced with lutein depletion (ld). fresh glvs (n = 35) were assessed for lutein (l) and its isomer zeaxanthin (z) levels by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. among glvs analyzed, commelina benghalensis l. contained a higher level of l ...200717602649
chemical interactions of brachiaria plantaginea with commelina bengalensis and acanthospermum hispidum in soybean cropping systems.previous results obtained in soybean-wheat rotations under no-tillage conditions showed reductions in the seedbank of the weed species commelina benghalensis, but no alteration in the seedbank of acanthospermum hispidum in areas infested with brachiaria plantaginea. analyses of the soluble fraction of b. plantaginea indicated the predominance of aconitic acid (aa) among the aliphatic acids and ferulic acid (fa) among the phenolic acids. laboratory bioassays using c. benghalensis and a. hispidum ...200415503532
the somatic and meiotic chromosomes of commelina benghalensis linn. 194620984232
energy supply for stomatal opening in epidermal strips of commelina benghalensis.the influence of light or darkness on stomatal opening in epidermal strips of commelina benghalensis was evaluated in the presence or absence of o(2) and/or metabolic inhibitors. opening was restricted in nitrogen and was promoted by nadh and acids of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate and alpha-ketoglutarate) in co(2)-free air in light as well as in darkness. the enhancement by light of stomatal opening was prevalent under nitrogen or in the presence of the respiratory inhibitors (sodium a ...198116661680
light-promoted diffusional amino acid efflux from commelina leaf disks : indirect control by proton pump activities.the release (=the measured loss) of amino acids was studied in commelina benghalensis leaf disks. the release is assumed to be the result of influx and efflux, therefore, both movements were investigated.the uptake of (14)c-labeled valine exhibited a biphasic isotherm. the uptake was ph-dependent, especially at low substrate concentrations (ph optimum 4.8). signals for amino acid/proton co-transport were observed: stimulation of the uptake by fusicoccin (fc), inhibition by diethylstilbestrol (de ...198124302378
analysis of valine uptake by commelina mesophyll cells in a biphasic active and a diffusional component.valine uptake by isolated commelina benghalensis l. mesophyll cells was measured over a wide concentration range (10(-6)-4·10(-2) mol l(-1)). the uptake data were subjected to iterative fitting. experiments with carbonyl cyanide mchlorophenyl hydrazone (cccp), diethylstilbestrol (des), and p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonic acid (pcmbs) provided evidence that the biphasic uptake kinetics of valine consists of a diffusional component and a biphasic active uptake. the data from the control experiments ...198224271869
stomatal opening in isolated epidermis of commelina benghalensis l. heterophasic response to kcl concentration.the pattern of stomatal opening in epidermal strips detached from leaves of commelina benghalensis was examined. two different phases could be distinguished in the stomatal response to kcl, one at low concentrations of kcl (up to 60 mm) and the other at high kcl concentrations (above 100 mm). the stomatal opening at low kcl concentrations was stimulated remarkably by light or fusicoccin and was suppressed by abscisic acid. at higher kcl concentrations, the stimulation by light or fc as well as t ...198424253516
uptake of [(14)c]sucrose in isolated minor-vein networks of commelina benghalensis l.maceration with pectinase (4.5h) of commelina benghalensis l. leaves stripped at either side yielded isolated vein networks consisting of four to five secondary veins and tertiary cross veins (=minor veins). examination with evans blue and injection of fluorescein f showed that 80% of the veins were viable. proof of normal functioning of isolated minor veins was that [(14)c]sucrose fed to an apical vein network attached to the remaining intact part of the leaf was absorbed and finally arrived in ...198524249605
action of proline on stomata differs from that of abscisic acid, g-substances, or methyl jasmonate.methyl jasmonate (mj) and a mixture of g(1), g(2), and g(3) (g-substances) inhibited stomatal opening in abaxial epidermis of commelina benghalensis and complete closure occurred at 10(-6) molar mj, or 10(-3) molar g-substances compared to 10(-5) molar abscisic acid (aba). proline, even at 10(-3) molar caused only a partial stomatal closure. apart from aba, other endogenous plant growth regulators do regulate stomata. reduction in the stimulation by fusicoccin and complete stomatal closure, at 3 ...198716665328
symplastic transfer of fluorescent dyes from mesophyll to sieve tube in stripped leaf tissue and partly isolated minor veins of commelina benghalensis.we have stripped small (3 x 3 mm) fields of the upper and the opposite lower epidermis of commelina benghalensis leaves. pectinase treatment of the resulting chlorenchyma windows produced free-lying viable minor veins with small lumps of mesophyll cells attached. these veins were still connected with the intact remainder of the leaf. fluorescent dyes were injected into mesophyll cells or mestome sheath cells. continuous following of the dye from the moment of injection and use of the simple vein ...198816666366
ultrastructural indications for coexistence of symplastic and apoplastic phloem loading in commelina benghalensis leaves : differences in ontogenic development, spatial arrangement and symplastic connections of the two sieve tubes in the minor vein.the ultrastructural ontogeny of commelina benghalensis minor-vein elements was followed. the mature minor vein has a restricted number of elements: a sheath of six to eight mestome cells encloses one xylem vessel, three to five vascular parenchyma cells, a companion cell, a thin-walled protophloem sieve-tube member and a thick-walled metaphloem sieve-tube member. the protophloem sieve-tube member (diameter 4-5 μm; wall thickness 0.12 μm) and the companion cell originated from a common mother cel ...198824220769
involvement of calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase in blue light-dependent h pumping by guard cell protoplasts from vicia faba l.signal transduction processes involved in blue light-dependent proton pumping were investigated using guard cell protoplasts from vicia faba.n-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, an inhibitor of cyclic amp- and cyclic gmp-dependent protein kinases, had no effect. 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (h-7) and calphostin c, inhibitors of protein kinase c, produced slight inhibition of the blue light-dependent proton pumping. 1-[n, o-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-n-methyl-l-ty ...199216669053
guard-cell chloroplasts provide atp required for h(+) pumping in the plasma membrane and stomatal opening.to elucidate the role of guard-cell chloroplasts (gccs) in stomatal movement, we investigated the effects of oligomycin, an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation, and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (dcmu), an inhibitor of photosystem ii, on fusicoccin (fc)-induced h(+) pumping and stomatal opening. fc was found to induce h(+ )pumping in guard-cell protoplasts (gcps) from vicia faba and stomatal opening in the epidermis of commelina benghalensis; and, red light (rl) slightly stimulated ...200111522904
weed seedbank evaluating method to generate spatial distribution maps.the objective of this work was to develop a fast and practical method of weed seedbank evaluation to generate spatially distributed maps for use in site-specific weed management. soil cores were collected at 0.20 m depth, air-dried, and then submitted to seedling growth in greenhouse. the sampling grid of 20 by 20 m was georeferenced by global positioning system, obtaining 73 soil cores with three replicates. during the greenhouse trial, there were two peaks of weed seedling growth: one in 119 d ...200515656180
tropical spiderwort (commelina benghalensis l.) increases growth under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.although considerable effort is being spent studying exotic plant pests, little consideration has been given as to how invasive plants might react to the increasing concentration of co(2) in the atmosphere. tropical spiderwort (commelina benghalensis l.) is considered one the world's worst weeds and is becoming more of a problem in agricultural settings of the southeastern usa. growth responses of tropical spiderwort were evaluated using plants grown in containers with a soilless potting medium ...201319244494
sedative and anxiolytic effects of different fractions of the commelina benghalensis linn.the present study was designed to investigate sedative and anxiolytic properties of the four different fractions (chloroform, pet ether, n-butanol and hydromethanol soluble fractions, coded as cfcb, pecb, nbcb and hmcb, respectively) of the aerial parts of commelina benghalensis using rodent behavioral models, such as hole cross, open field and thiopental sodium induced sleeping time tests for sedative property and elevated plus-maze (epm) test for anxiolytic potential, respectively. all fractio ...200922495632
sex expression and breeding strategy in commelina benghalensis l.this paper describes the results of a series of experiments conducted to unravel the patterns of sex expression and reproductive output in a fascinating species with high variation in sexuality. commelina benghalensis l., an andromonoecious rainy season weed, bears male and bisexual flowers in axillary spathes of all the plants investigated. bisexual flowers are of two types; chasmogamous (ch) and cleistogamous (cl). the former are borne on subaerial and the latter on subterranean shoots, in add ...200920093751
population dynamics of dichelops melacanthus (dallas) (heteroptera: pentatomidae) on host plants.the stink bug dichelops melacanthus (dallas) has become one of the major pests of corn and wheat in brasil, mainly after a shift from the conventional tillage system to the no tillage cultivation system. this fact may be due to the simultaneous occurrence of second planting corn with wheat cultivation, and the presence of wild hosts. this study aimed to evaluate the population dynamics of d. melacanthus on wild hosts adjacent to areas cultivated with corn, wheat, and soybean during the season an ...201323949747
a survey of herbal weeds for treating skin disorders from southern thailand: songkhla and krabi province.skin diseases are common health problems which affecting to all ages. in thailand, the number of patients diagnosed with skin diseases is increasing every year. nowadays, the ministry of public health is supporting and promoting herbs for treating various disorders, including disorders of the skin to reduce the problem of antibiotic resistance and adverse drug reactions. this study aimed to: (1) enumerate the herbal weeds for treating skin disorders; (2) study local knowledge of weed utilization ...201627693346
effects of nozzle types and 2,4-d formulations on spray deposition.the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nozzle types and 2,4-d formulations on spray deposition on different targets. two field experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design, and treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme. species in experiment 1 were sumatran fleabane (conyza sumatrensis) and brazil pusley (richardia brasiliensis) and in experiment 2 were soybeans (glycine max) and benghal dayflower (commelina benghalensis). for both experiments, the firs ...201627768529
allelopathic activity of extracts from different brazilian peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) cultivars on lettuce (lactuca sativa) and weed plants.peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. in this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (lactuca sativa) and two weed plants (commelina bengh ...201728396881
phylogenetic and molecular variability studies reveal a new genetic clade of citrus leprosis virus c.citrus leprosis virus c (cilv-c) causes a severe disease affecting citrus orchards in the western hemisphere. this study reveals the molecular variability of the virus by analyzing four genomic regions (p29, p15, mp and rna2-intergenic region) distributed over its two rnas. nucleotide diversity (π) values were relatively low but statistically different over the analyzed genes and subpopulations, indicating their distinct evolutionary history. values of πp29 and πmp were higher than those of πp15 ...201627275832
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