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sudden death of a bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) possibly caused by newcastle disease virus.an adult female bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) in the tel aviv university research zoo was found dead without previous clinical signs. the predominant pathologic changes were considerable bloody content in the intestines and enlargement of the liver, which had a rubbery consistency with color changes. microscopic lesions consisted of multifocal histiocytic infiltration in the liver. newcastle disease virus (ndv) was isolated from a cloacal swab and from the lungs and liver. intracerebral pa ...200111569753
testing the goodness of supplementary feeding to enhance population viability in an endangered vulture.human-predator conflicts are directly or indirectly threatening many species with extinction. thus, biologists are urged to find simple solutions to complex situations while avoiding unforeseen conservation outcomes. the provision of supplementary food at artificial feeding sites (afs) is frequently used in the conservation of scavenger bird populations currently suffering from indirect poisoning, although no scientific studies on its effectiveness have been conducted.200819115009
serosurvey of west nile virus and other flaviviruses of the japanese encephalitis antigenic complex in birds from andalusia, southern spain.abstract flaviviruses of the japanese encephalitis virus (jev) antigenic complex, including west nile virus (wnv), are recognized as emerging and reemerging pathogens. circulation of flaviviruses has been recently detected in different mosquito and vertebrate species in several european countries. a serosurvey study was carried out to evaluate the circulation of wnv and other flaviviruses of the jev antigenic complex in different wild bird species in spain between 2006 and 2009. seropositiviy ag ...201021142954
livestock drugs and disease: the fatal combination behind breeding failure in endangered bearded vultures.there is increasing concern about the impact of veterinary drugs and livestock pathogens as factors damaging wildlife health, especially of threatened avian scavengers feeding upon medicated livestock carcasses. we conducted a comprehensive study of failed eggs and dead nestlings in bearded vultures (gypaetus barbatus) to attempt to elucidate the proximate causes of breeding failure behind the recent decline in productivity in the spanish pyrenees. we found high concentrations of multiple veteri ...201021152405
late neandertals and the intentional removal of feathers as evidenced from bird bone taphonomy at fumane cave 44 ky b.p., italy.a large and varied avifaunal bone assemblage from the final mousterian levels of grotta di fumane, northern italy, reveals unusual human modifications on species that are not clearly relatable to feeding or utilitarian uses (i.e., lammergeier, eurasian black vulture, golden eagle, red-footed falcon, common wood pigeon, and alpine chough). cut, peeling, and scrape marks, as well as diagnostic fractures and a breakthrough, are observed exclusively on wings, indicating the intentional removal of la ...201121368129
seropositivity and risk factors associated with toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from spain.toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. to date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of t. gondii and the risk factors associated with t. gondii infection in wild bird populations. in the present study, t. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including falconiformes (n = 610), strigiformes (n = 260), ciconi ...201122216311
ochre bathing of the bearded vulture: a bio-mimetic model for early humans towards smell prevention and health.since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. one of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( gypaetus barbatus ), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. why? primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration o ...201626784238
the importance of the nutritive value of old bones in the diet of bearded vultures gypaetus barbatus.vultures are central-place foragers and need to optimize their foraging behaviour to offset travel costs by increasing their energy gain. this process is more obvious in certain vulture species that do not feed their young by regurgitation and so must carry food items back to the nest. the bearded vulture gypaetus barbatus is the only species with a bone-diet based. we analysed the chemical composition of bones and the age-related changes in their nutritive value to assess the differences in ene ...201728808326
actinomyces liubingyangii sp. nov. isolated from the vulture gypaetus barbatus.two strains (vul4_1t and vul4_2) of gram-staining-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming short rods were isolated from rectal swabs of old world vultures (gypaetus barbatus) in the tibet-qinghai plateau, china. analysis of morphological characteristics and biochemical tests indicated that the two strains closely resembled each other but were distinct from other species of the genus actinomyces previously described. based on the results of 16s rrna gene sequence comparison and genome anal ...201728629506
how to plan reintroductions of long-lived birds.reintroductions have been increasingly used for species restoration and it seems that this conservation tool is going to be more used in the future. nevertheless, there is not a clear consensus about the better procedure for that, consequently a better knowledge of how to optimize this kind of management is needed. here we examined the dynamics of released long-lived bird populations (lesser kestrel, falco naumanni, bonelli's eagle aquila fasciata, and bearded vulture gypaetus barbatus) in objec ...201728445473
extensive gross genomic rearrangements between chicken and old world vultures (falconiformes: accipitridae).the karyotypes of most birds consist of a small number of macrochromosomes and numerous microchromosomes. intriguingly, most accipitrids which include hawks, eagles, kites, and old world vultures (falconiformes) show a sharp contrast to this basic avian karyotype. they exhibit strikingly few microchromosomes and appear to have been drastically restructured during evolution. chromosome paints specific to the chicken (gga) macrochromosomes 1-10 were hybridized to metaphase spreads of three species ...200616484785
vulture mortality resulting from illegal poisoning in the southern balkan peninsula.a study was carried out to determine the incidents of illegal poisoning of griffon vulture (gyps fulvus), egyptian vulture (neophron percnopterus), black vulture (aegypius monachus), and bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) in the southern balkan peninsula between 1982 and 2017. a total of 38 poisoning cases affecting 224 vultures were analyzed to identify their causes and the primary target species for poisoning. nine different compounds were used in these incidents and the most frequently appli ...201829101695
evolutionary history of new and old world vultures inferred from nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.the phylogeny of 11 species of old world vultures (aves: accipitriformes, aegypiinae), three species of new world vultures (cathartidae) and theri nearest relatives within and outside the order accipitriformes was investigated based on 1026 nucleotides of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. the data support the contention that new world vultures are not birds of prey, but phylogenetic information was insufficient to identify whether they are closer to storks (ciconiidae) or to accipitriformes. ...19958577858
isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) and cross-amplification in three old world vulture species. 200011123649
phylogeography, genetic structure and diversity in the endangered bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus, l) as revealed by mitochondrial dna.bearded vulture populations in the western palearctic have experienced a severe decline during the last two centuries that has led to the near extinction of the species in europe. in this study we analyse the sequence variation at the mitochondrial control region throughout the species range to infer its recent evolutionary history and to evaluate the current genetic status of the species. this study became possible through the extensive use of museum specimens to study populations now extinct. ...200414717893
modeling habitat suitability for complex species distributions by environmental-distance geometric mean.this paper presents a new habitat suitability modeling method whose main properties are as follows: (1) it is based on the density of observation points in the environmental space, which enables it to fit complex distributions (e.g. nongaussian, bimodal, asymmetrical, etc.). (2) this density is modeled by computing the geometric mean to all observation points, which we show to be a good trade-off between goodness of fit and prediction power. (3) it does not need any absence information, which is ...200315015699
organization and variation of the mitochondrial control region in two vulture species, gypaetus barbatus and neophron percnopterus.we report the first entire mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region sequences in two endangered vulture species, the bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) and the egyptian vulture (neophron percnopterus). results showed that the general organization of vulture control regions was very similar to other birds, with three distinct domains: a left variable domain (di), a central conserved one (dii) including the f, e, d, and c boxes, and a right domain (diii) containing the csb1 sequence. however, due ...200815247313
density-dependent productivity depression in pyrenean bearded vultures: implications for conservation.the main objective of many conservation programs is to increase population size by improving a species' survival and reproduction. however, density dependence of demographic parameters may confound this approach. in this study we used a 25-year data set on bearded vultures (gypaetus barbatus) in spain to evaluate the consequences of population growth on reproductive performance. unlike its coefficient of variation (cv), mean annual productivity decreased with increasing population size. after co ...200617069362
melanin-based color variation in the bearded vulture suggests a thermoregulatory function.we document a case of intraspecific variation in plumage colouration in bearded vultures that may have arisen as a functional response to climate conditions. two subspecies, gypaetus barbatus barbatus (eurasia and north africa populations) and gypaetus barbatus meridionalis (eastern and southern africa), have been described on the basis of plumage colour differences. the plumage of g. b. barbatus tends to be darker in comparison with that of g. b. meridionalis. the plumage of the two subspecies ...200818060818
assessing the risk of lead exposure for the conservation of the endangered pyrenean bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) population.acute and chronic lead (pb) poisoning have been recognized as some of the most important causes of mortality for raptors worldwide. we simultaneously examined the recent, medium-term and long-term lead exposure of the endangered bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) from the pyrenees (northern spain and southern france). one hundred and one blood samples from 87 captured individuals and tissue samples (liver and bone) from a further 43 dead individuals were analyzed for lead residues. the majority ...200919501352
hematology and blood chemistry reference values and age-related changes in wild bearded vultures (gypaetus barbatus).normal hematologic and blood chemistry values for clinical use and age-related changes are reported as reference values for the endangered bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus). blood samples were obtained from 21 nestlings and 26 free-living subadults and adults. no significant differences were found between subadults and adults or between sexes for any of the studied parameters. reference ranges have been established for bearded vulture nestlings (less than 3 mo of age) and for free-living beard ...201020688632
misleading population estimates: biases and consistency of visual surveys and matrix modelling in the endangered bearded vulture.conservation strategies for long-lived vertebrates require accurate estimates of parameters relative to the populations' size, numbers of non-breeding individuals (the "cryptic" fraction of the population) and the age structure. frequently, visual survey techniques are used to make these estimates but the accuracy of these approaches is questionable, mainly because of the existence of numerous potential biases. here we compare data on population trends and age structure in a bearded vulture (gyp ...201122039550
the present pyrenean population of bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus): its genetic characteristics.the pyrenean population of the endangered bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) is the largest natural population in europe. in this study, its current genetic variability was assessed using 110 animals of the recent population in order to know what the present situation. sex identification by dna methodology in the 110 bearded vultures, mitochondrial dna (mtdna) and eight microsatellite markers in 87 bearded vultures have been analysed. our results for sex identification present a number of 49 ma ...201222922193
uneven large-scale movement patterns in wild and reintroduced pre-adult bearded vultures: conservation implications.after the quasi-extinction of much of the european vertebrate megafauna during the last few centuries, many reintroduction projects seek to restore decimated populations. however, the future of numerous species depends on the management scenarios of metapopulations where the flow of individuals can be critical to ensure their viability. this is the case of the bearded vulture gypaetus barbatus, an old world, large body-sized and long-lived scavenger living in mountain ranges. although persecutio ...201323776559
detection and characterization of a trichomonas isolate from a rehabilitated bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus).a hatching-year bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented for clinical examination after being found unable to fly. upon admission, routine wet-mount microscopy detected no trichomonads. five months later, oral cavity inspection found no abnormalities, but the eagle was swabbed for research on trichomonosis in maritime birds. the swab was used to inoculate an inpouch tf culture and trichomonads were visible within 24 hr. genotyping (its) revealed a trichomonas isolate that was 100% ide ...201324450084
man-induced activities modify demographic parameters in a long-lived species: effects of poisoning and health policies.recent changes in sanitary policies within the european union (eu) concerning disposal of carcasses of domestic animals and the increase of non-natural mortality factors, such as illegal poisoning, are threatening european vultures. however, the effects of anthropogenic activities on demographic parameters are poorly studied. using a long-term study (1994-2011) of the threatened pyrenean bearded vulture gypaetus barbatus population, we assess the variation in the proportion of breeding pairs, eg ...201424834731
differential range use between age classes of southern african bearded vultures gypaetus barbatus.bearded vulture gypaetus barbatus movements were investigated in southern africa to determine whether an individual's age, sex or breeding status influenced its ranging behaviour and to provide the information required to guide conservation activities. data from satellite transmitters fitted to 18 individuals of four age classes were used to determine range size and use. because of the nature of the movements of marked individuals, these data could be used to determine the overall foraging range ...201425551614
risk assessment of bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) exposure to topical antiparasitics used in livestock within an ecotoxicovigilance framework.between 2004 and 2013, 486 suspected scavenger poisoning cases, including 24 bearded vultures (gypaetus barbatus), were investigated in the pyrenees and surrounding areas in spain as part of a monitoring programme regarding accidental and intentional poisoning of wildlife. poisoning was confirmed in 36% of all analysed cases where scavenger species were found dead within the distribution range of bearded vultures. organophosphates and carbamates were the most frequently detected poisons. four of ...201526254071
assessing the impact of removal scenarios on population viability of a threatened, long-lived avian scavenger.the removal of eggs or chicks from wild populations to create captive populations, reinforce free-ranging populations or reintroduce species into the wild is a restoration tool that requires an assessment of potential detrimental effects upon the donor population. this is an absolute prerequisite when wild donor populations are scarce and small. here, we forecast the population trend of the largest european population of the bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) over the next 30 years under differ ...201526593059
lead ingestion as a potential contributing factor to the decline in vulture populations in southern africa.vulture populations in southern africa have been on the decline for years, which unlike the asian vulture crisis, has no one specific cause. reasons attributable are deliberate and secondary poisonings, drowning, power line injuries, electrocutions, traditional medicine ("muti" trade) and calcium deficiencies. however, lead toxicity as a potential causal factor is hardly mentioned. the potential for lead toxicity needs to be considered as substantial game hunting occurs in the region with little ...201727771569
spatial and temporal movements in pyrenean bearded vultures (gypaetus barbatus): integrating movement ecology into conservation practice.understanding the movement of threatened species is important if we are to optimize management and conservation actions. here, we describe the age and sex specific spatial and temporal ranging patterns of 19 bearded vultures gypaetus barbatus tracked with gps technology. our findings suggest that spatial asymmetries are a consequence of breeding status and age-classes. territorial individuals exploited home ranges of about 50 km(2), while non-territorial birds used areas of around 10 000 km(2) ( ...201627779179
detection and assessment of electrocution in endangered raptors by infrared thermography.most european birds of prey find themselves in a poor state of conservation, with electrocution as one of the most frequent causes of unnatural death. since early detection of electrocution is difficult, treatment is usually implemented late, which reduces its effectiveness. by considering that electrocution reduces tissue temperature, it may be detectable by thermography, which would allow a more rapid identification. three individuals from three endangered raptor species [spanish imperial eagl ...201323880357
trichomonas gypaetinii n. sp., a new trichomonad from the upper gastrointestinal tract of scavenging birds of prey.in the context of an epidemiological study carried out by several wildlife recovery centers in spain, trichomonads resembling trichomonas gallinae were found in the oropharyngeal cavity of 2 egyptian vultures (neophron percnopterus) and 14 cinereous vultures (aegypius monachus) which did not show any symptoms of trichomonosis. in order to characterize them, these isolates along with seven other t. gallinae isolates obtained from different hosts and from different geographical origin were analyze ...201525273632
cosmetic colouring by bearded vultures gypaetus barbatus: still no evidence for an antibacterial function.bearded vultures regularly visit ferruginous springs for cosmetic purposes to obtain their reddish plumage colouration. different hypotheses have been proposed to explain this deliberate application of adventitious colouration: (1) to signal individual dominance status; (2) to exploit an anti-bacterial effect of iron oxides or ochre to reduce feather degradation by bacteria and, in parallel (3) to enable incubating birds to transfer this protection to their developing embryos to increase hatchin ...201931143529
what do minerals in the feces of bearded vultures reveal about their dietary habits?the diet of bearded vultures gypaetus barbatus consists mainly of bones, which are completely digested in the gastrointestinal tract, unwanted bone minerals being discarded via the feces. chemical analyses of feces therefore provide a noninvasive technique for studying the diet of this species. we analysed the inorganic and organic remains in feces collected from bearded vulture nests in the spanish pyrenees and discussed these results with the diet of individuals determined by video camera obse ...202032570318
drivers of daily movement patterns affecting an endangered vulture flight activity.the development of satellite tracking technology enables the gathering of huge amounts of accurate data on animal movements over measured time intervals, to reveal essential information about species' patterns of spatial use. this information is especially important in optimizing the design of conservation and management strategies for endangered species. in this study, we analysed the main drivers of daily patterns in the flight activity of the threatened bearded vulture gypaetus barbatus. we s ...201830268111
changes in eggshell thickness and ultrastructure in the bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) pyrenean population: a long-term analysis.the spanish bearded vulture (gypaetus barbatus) population has suffered from negative trends in a number of reproductive parameters that could jeopardize its long-term viability. from 1989 to 2012, 27 entire eggs and 63 eggshell fragments were collected from nests after breeding failure and/or fledging. longer-term changes in eggshell thickness were made by examining 69 eggs collected in spain from 1858 to 1911, and now held in european museums. low levels of contamination with organochlorine pe ...201829272840
seasonal and circadian biases in bird tracking with solar gps-tags.global positioning system (gps) tags are nowadays widely used in wildlife tracking. this geolocation technique can suffer from fix loss biases due to poor satellite gps geometry, that result in tracking data gaps leading to wrong research conclusions. in addition, new solar-powered gps tags deployed on birds can suffer from a new "battery drain bias" currently ignored in movement ecology analyses. we use a gps tracking dataset of bearded vultures (gypaetus barbatus), tracked for several years wi ...201729020062
low genetic diversity and shallow population structure in the endangered vulture, gyps coprotheres.globally, vulture species are experiencing major population declines. the southern african cape vulture (gyps coprotheres) has undergone severe population collapse which has led to a listing of endangered by the iucn. here, a comprehensive genetic survey of g. coprotheres is conducted using microsatellite markers. analyses revealed an overall reduction in heterozygosity compared to other vulture species that occur in south africa (gypaetus barbatus, necrosyrtes monachus, and gyps africanus). bay ...201930940898
acute and chronic lead exposure in four avian scavenger species in switzerland.despite irrefutable evidence of its negative impact on animal behaviour and physiology, lethal and sublethal lead poisoning of wildlife is still persistent and widespread. for scavenging birds, ingestion of ammunition, or fragments thereof, is the major exposure route. in this study, we examined the occurrence of lead in four avian scavengers of switzerland and how it differs between species, regions, and age of the bird. we measured lead concentration in liver and bone of the two main alpine av ...201830238146
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