papio cynocephalus endogenous retrovirus among old world monkeys: evidence for coevolution and ancient cross-species study the evolutionary history of papio cynocephalus endogenous retrovirus (pcev), we analyzed the distribution and genetic characteristics of pcev among 17 different species of primates. the viral pol-env and long terminal repeat and untranslated region (ltr-utr) sequences could be recovered from all old world species of the papionin tribe, which includes baboons, macaques, geladas, and mangabeys, but not from the new world monkeys and hominoids we tested. the old world genera cercopithecus ...200010627573
genetically engineered mengo virus vaccination of multiple captive wildlife species.encephalomyocarditis virus (emcv), has caused the deaths of many species of animals in zoological parks and research institutions. the audubon park zoo, (new orleans, louisiana, usa) attempted vaccination of several species with a killed emcv vaccine with mixed results. this paper reports an attempt at vaccination against emcv using a genetically engineered, live attenuated mengo virus (vmc0) at the audubon park zoo and miami metro zoo, (miami, florida, usa) from december 1996 to june 1997. seve ...199910231768
primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a two-month-old black and white colobus monkey.a 2-month-old male black and white colobus monkey (colobus guereza kikuyuensis) was euthanatized because of progressive physical deterioration, rear limb paralysis, lymphadenopathy, and the presence of facial and retroperitoneal lumbar masses. at necropsy, soft white masses were present in and around lumbar vertebrae, the subcutis of the face, multiple lymph nodes, and the fourth ventricle of the brain. histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of these masses revealed a primitive neoplasm wit ...19989545136
venereal papilloma and papillomavirus in a colobus monkey (colobus guereza).a papilloma on the penis of a colobus monkey was found to contain papilloma-virus group specific antigens by immunohistochemical analysis and virus-like particles in the nuclei of epithelial cells by transmission electron microscopy. in low-stringency southern blot hybridizations, dna from the lesion annealed with human papillomavirus 11 dna, but not with the dnas of 13 other papillomaviruses. using human papillomavirus 11 dna as a probe in southern blot hybridizations, dna from the penile papil ...19872835331
scanning electron microscopic analysis of dental wear on the heavily worn second molars of the wild japanese monkey (macaca fuscata).microscopic features on scanning electron micrographs of epoxy-replicas of the second molars of nine wild-caught adult female japanese monkeys, macaca fuscata, from oita takasakiyama, kyushu, were measured using a digitizer. these monkeys had been fed a monkey-diet during three or four days of captivity before replicas were made. six of these specimens showed such heavily worn second molars that narrow peripheral enamel bands surrounded large dentin exposures and the cusps of the others had been ...19911947932
contrasts in social structure among black-and-white colobus monkey groups.three types of colobus guereza groups may be distinguished on the bases of size and composition, namely small one-male groups, large, one-male groups and multi-male groups. the social structure of each type of group is described in terms of the distribution of non-agonistic interactions, the frequency and distribution of agonistic behaviour and the organization of the roles of vigilance, territorial defence and leadership. a number of differences are found between the group types which appear to ...1976817624
measles in recently imported colobus monkeys (colobus guereza). 1975813359
virus associated papillomas in colobus monkeys (colobus guereza).numerous papillomas ranging in size from 1--10 mm were seen in four colobus monkeys (colobus guereza). the lesions were confined to the fingers and toes and to the dorsal-lateral aspects of the hands and feet distal to the carpus and tarsus. electron microscopy of two of the lesions revealed compactly arranged crystalline arrays of intranuclear virus particles in the epidermis. the particles were seen only in cells of the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. by the negative stain technique, t ...19806253746
use of sleeping trees by black and white colobus monkeys (colobus guereza) in the kakamega forest, kenya.groups of black and white colobus monkeys, or guerezas (colobus guereza), observed in the kakamega forest, kenya, had weak fidelity for sleeping sites. groups often slept in trees near commonly used food sources, which might reduce the time and energetic costs of travel. although the home range of each group overlapped with four to seven others, groups seemed to avoid sleeping near other groups, which would give them immediate and exclusive access to nearby food sources in the morning. the numbe ...19989651650
positional behavior in five sympatric old world monkeys.observations of positional behavior and habitat use were recorded on focal individuals of five species of old world monkeys at kibale forest, uganda, through the dry season of 1990 and 1991. cercopithecus ascanius, cercopithecus mitis, cercocebus albigena, colobus badius, and colobus guereza commonly utilize five similar types of positional behavior (i.e., quadrupedalism, leaping, climbing, sitting, and standing), but in varying frequencies and situations. as a group, colobines use oblique suppo ...19957645673
catarrhine photopigments are optimized for detecting targets against a foliage background.the colour vision of many primates is trichromatic, whereas that of all other mammals is thought to be dichromatic or monochromatic. moreover, the triplets of cone pigments in different catarrhines (old world apes and monkeys) are strikingly similar in their spectral positions. we ask whether the selective advantage of trichromacy lies in an enhanced ability to find edible leaves or fruit. further, we ask whether any factor in these two search tasks has constrained the particular set of cone spe ...200010851115
some gastro-intestinal parasites of zoonotic (public health) importance commonly observed in old world non-human primates in kenya.a study was undertaken to categorise some gastro-intestinal (git) parasites commonly observed in kenyan non-human primates (nhps) on the basis of their health implications for humans. six species of locally available non-human primates, namely olive baboons (papio cyanocephalus anubis), vervet monkey (cercopithecus aethiops), sykes monkey (cercopithecus mitis), black and white colobus (colobus abyssinicus), debrazzas monkey (cercopithecus neglectus) and grey and black mangabeys (cercocebus torqu ...19989776144
a survey for cyclospora spp. in kenyan primates, with some notes on its biology.from march 1999 through august 2000, 511 stool samples collected from 11 different primate species in 10 geographically distinct locations in kenya, east africa, were screened for the presence of cyclospora spp. oocysts. positive samples (43/102, 42%) were identified in vervet monkeys (cercopithecus aethiops) in 4 of 4 locations; 19/206 (9%) in yellow and olive baboons (papio cynocephalus, p. anubis, respectively) in 5 of 5 locations; and 19/76 (25%) in black and white colobus monkeys (colobus a ...200111780827
a craniometric study of the black and white colobus illiger 1811 (primates: ceropithecoidea).this study examines the craniometry of black and white colobus monkeys using 1072 specimens representing all the recognized subspecies (after rahm, '70) of the genus. seventy-six measurements were taken on each individual, and examined using canonical variates analysis and clustering by ward's error sum method. the assumptions of the analytical techniques are shown to be met, and the results demonstrated to be stable. examination of the populations for statistical difference and taxonomic distin ...1979114059
primate abundance along five transect lines at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda.using the line transect methods, i studied the primate density at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda for 18 months. comparisons with other studies show that the population of red colobus monkeys (procolobus rufomitratus) and blue monkeys (cercopithecus mitis) is declining, whereas the populations of black-and-white colobus (colobus guereza), red-tailed monkeys (cercopithecus ascanius), grey-cheeked mangabeys (lophocebus albigena), baboons (papio anubis), and chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) remain ...200717330309
an outbreak of poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus type i in captive black and white colobus monkeys (colobus abyssinicus kikuyuensis) in the latter part of 1982, three black and white colobus monkeys, colobus abyssinicus kikuyuensis, from a small breeding group maintained at the institute of primate research in kenya, became paralysed within one month. two of these cases were fatal and the third animal survived. the clinical and pathological findings suggested a poliomyelitis-like disease. this was confirmed by the isolation of wild strains of poliomyelitis virus type i from faeces, spleen, kidney, lung and central nervous sys ...19846095497
behavioral and endocrine dynamics associated with infanticide in a black and white colobus monkey (colobus guereza).infanticide has been observed in several colobines, but only one infanticide has previously been documented for black and white colobus monkeys (colobus guereza). this report describes an infanticide observed in kibale national park, uganda, in the summer of 2001. an adult male from a neighboring group attacked and killed a young infant whose mother subsequently remained in her own group and was observed mating 10 days later. she engaged in two mating periods of several days each, separated by a ...200314610731
mallophaga on catarrhine monkeys: colobus guereza, a natural host of procavicola colobi. 196414197401
the pathology of measles in abyssinian colobus monkeys (colobus guereza): a description of an outbreak.the pathological changes found in four abyssinian colobus monkeys (colobus guereza) dying of measles are described. warthin-finkeldey giant cells were plentiful in the lymphoid tissue and spleen, in the mucosa of the alimentary tract and in the lungs, where they accompanied a non-suppurative pneumonia. in the alimentary tract they were most frequent in the colon when an associated colitis was present. measles virus was recovered from the lung tissue of one animal, the virus being neutralised by ...1975814224
the social life of a black-and-white colobus monkey, colobus investigate relationships between ecology and social organization, observations were made on several populations of colobus guereza in east africa in 1970-74. study time was concentrated in the kibale forest and the kabalega national park, uganda. findings on social behaviour are reported in this paper. assessments of group composition were made. the repertoire of communicatory acts was analysed. during five-day continuous observation periods at kibale (12 consecutive months) and at kabalega ...1977414475
observations on acute gastric dilatation in nonhuman the years 1967-1977 we diagnosed 23 cases of acute gastric dilatation in monkeys. fourteen of these animals were macaca mulatta, five macaca fascicularis, and one each of macaca nemestrina, aotus trivirgatus, saimiri sciureus, and colobus guereza. fourteen of the animals were males, nine were females, and all were adults or subadults. mortality was 78% (18 of 23 animals). thirteen of the animals had received on anesthetic, immobilizing, or tranquilizing drug 1-2 days before developing acute g ...197898666
fatal infections with balamuthia mandrillaris (a free-living amoeba) in gorillas and other old world primates.balamuthia mandrillaris is a newly described free-living amoeba capable of causing fatal meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. because the number of human cases is rapidly increasing, this infection is now considered an important emerging disease by the medical community. a retrospective review of the pathology database for the zoological society of san diego (the san diego zoo and san diego wild animal park) for the period july 1965 through december 1994 revealed five cases of amoebic meni ...19979150541
listeriosis in a free-ranging colobus monkey (colobus guereza caudatus) in kenya. 200312585602
mapping homology between human and black and white colobine monkey chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization.we used in situ hybridization of chromosome specific dna probes ("chromosome painting") of all human chromosomes to establish homologies between the human and the white and black colobus (colobus guereza 2n = 44). the 24 human paints gave 31 signals on the autosomes (haploid male chromosomes homologus to human 14 and 15, 21 and 22, form colobine chromosomes 6 and 16, respectively. reciprocal translocations were found between human chromosomes 1 and 10, 1 and 17, as well as 3 and 19. the alternat ...19979261510
molecular cloning and characterization of the dna of two papillomaviruses from monkeys.benign and malignant lesions from monkeys were analyzed for the presence of papillomavirus (pv) dna. by hybridization with different pv dna probes under conditions of lowered stringency, two tumors were found to contain pv-specific dna sequences: (1) a cutaneous papilloma from a colobus monkey; and, (2) a lymph node metastasis of a squamous cell carcinoma of the penis from a rhesus monkey. analysis of the dna of the papilloma from the colobus monkey indicated the presence of extrachromosomal dna ...19882842954
taxonomy and phylogeny of black-and-white colobus monkeys. inferences from an analysis of loud call variation.field recordings of male loud calls (or roars) from each major form of black-and-white colobus monkey have been analyzed spectrographically, and features of tempo and pitch measured. considered together with data on cranial dimensions, coat pattern, and geographical distribution, the results of this analysis suggest that there are five species of black-and-white colobus: colobus angolensis, c. guereza, c. polykomos, c. satanas, and c. vellerosus. c. guereza and c. vellerosus may have differentia ...19836862326
chromosomal painting shows that "marked chromosomes" in lesser apes and old world monkeys are not homologous and evolved by convergence.cytogeneticists have long held that the single pair of metacentric, nor-bearing "marked chromosomes" in lesser apes (hylobatidae) and old world monkeys (cercopithecidae) are homologous. hylobatids have sometimes been excluded from hominoidea (great apes and humans) and phylogenetically allied with the lower primates, primarily on the basis of this shared "trait." however, in situ hybridization of human chromosome-specific dna probes to chromosomes of hylobates lar, h. syndactylus, h. concolor, c ...19957956365
life on the edge: gastrointestinal parasites from the forest edge and interior primate groups.humans are responsible for massive changes to primate habitats, and one unanticipated consequence of these alterations may be changes in host-parasite interactions. edges are a ubiquitous aspect of human disturbance to forest landscapes. here we examine how changes associated with the creation of edges in kibale national park, uganda, alter the parasite community that is supported by two species of african colobines: the endangered red colobus (piliocolobus tephrosceles) and the black-and-white ...200616534810
artificially generated cultural variation between two groups of captive monkeys, colobus guereza kikuyuensis.the majority of studies of social learning in primates have tested subjects in isolation and investigated the effects of learning over very short periods of time. we aimed to test for social learning in two social groups of colobus monkeys, colobus guereza kikuyuensis. subjects were shown video footage of familiar monkeys either pushing or pulling a plastic flap to obtain a food reward, while they were given simultaneous access to the same apparatus. action frequencies showed a significant diffe ...200717049751
mating behavior and endocrine profiles of wild black and white colobus monkeys (colobus guereza): toward an understanding of their life history and mating and white colobus monkeys (colobus guereza, "guerezas") show no external signs of estrus, and little is known about their mating behavior or reproductive endocrinology. to learn more about the life history characteristics and mating system of guerezas, we documented the mating behavior and ovarian hormone profiles of 10 cycling, lactating, and pregnant females in a wild population. we studied six groups of guerezas in kibale national park, uganda, and collected ad libitum data on their mat ...200616534807
partial molecular characterization of two simian immunodeficiency viruses (siv) from african colobids: sivwrc from western red colobus (piliocolobus badius) and sivolc from olive colobus (procolobus verus).in order to study primate lentivirus evolution in the colobinae subfamily, in which only one simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) has been described to date, we screened additional species from the three different genera of african colobus monkeys for siv infection. blood was obtained from 13 west african colobids, and hiv cross-reactive antibodies were observed in 5 of 10 piliocolobus badius, 1 of 2 procolobus verus, and 0 of 1 colobus polykomos specimens. phylogenetic analyses of partial pol se ...200312477880
characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus (sivmonng1) genome sequence from a mona monkey (cercopithecus mona).a novel simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) sequence has been recovered from rna extracted from the serum of a mona monkey (cercopithecus mona) wild born in nigeria. the sequence was obtained by using novel generic (degenerate) pcr primers and spans from two-thirds into the gag gene to the 3' poly(a) tail of the sivmonng1 rna genome. analysis of the open reading frames revealed that the sivmonng1 genome codes for a vpu protein, in addition to gag, pol, vif, vpr, tat, rev, env, and nef proteins. ...200312768007
significance of color, calories, and climate to the visual ecology of we describe correlations among visual ecology and the physiochemical properties of fruits and leaves consumed by four species of catarrhine primate: cercopithecus ascanius, colobus guereza, pan troglodytes, and piliocolobus badius. collectively, their diet was diverse, with each species relying on fruits and leaves to different extents. the mean chromaticity of both foods, as perceived by the green-red and yellow-blue signals that catarrhines decode, was distinct from background foliage. ho ...200415027092
a comparative study of basal metabolism and thermoregulation in a folivorous (colobus guereza) and an omnivorous (cercopithecus mitis) primate species.1. abdominal temperatures (tab) and oxygen consumption (vo2) were measured in two males each of colobus and sykes monkeys. 2. tab in both species had the same range (36 38.5 c), but there were marked differences in the daily rhythms. 3. low ambient temperatures (ta) had little effect on tab; at ta = 33.5 35.5 c. however, tab rose quickly to above 40 c. 4. the thermoneutral zone (tnz) extended from about 5 to 28 c in both species. 5. in the colobus monkeys the basal metabolic rate (bmr) was consi ...19836131775
spatial distribution of primates in a mosaic of colonizing and old growth forest at ngogo, kibale national park, uganda.primate censuses were conducted in a mosaic of colonizing (two locations) and old-growth forests using line transect methods at the ngogo study site, kibale national park, uganda. black and white colobus monkeys (colobus guereza) were encountered more frequently in the colonizing forests than in the old growth forest, while chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) were encountered more frequently in the old growth forest than in colonizing forests. although not significant, results suggest that blue monkey ...200616479411
predicting folivorous primate abundance: validation of a nutritional model.understanding the determinants of animal abundance has become more vital as ecologists are increasingly asked to apply their knowledge to the construction of informed management plans. however, there are few general models are available to explain variation in abundance. some notable exceptions are studies of folivorous primates, in which the protein-to-fiber ratio of foods has been shown to predict biomass. here we examine the generality of milton's [american naturalist 114:363-378, 1979] prote ...200414983464
giardia sp. and cryptosporidium sp. infections in primates in fragmented and undisturbed forest in western june 2005, we collected 115 fecal samples from wild primates in western uganda and examined them for cryptosporidium sp. and giardia sp. with the use of immunofluorescent antibody (ifa) detection. we sampled primates from an undisturbed forest in kibale national park and from 3 highly disturbed forest fragments outside the park. of disturbed forest samples, red colobus (pilocolobus tephrosceles) and red-tailed guenons (cercopithecus ascanius) harbored species of cryptosporidium or giardia, bu ...200717539436
group size in folivorous primates: ecological constraints and the possible influence of social factors.the ecological-constraints model assumes that food items occur in depletable patches and proposes that an increase in group size leads to increased day range due to more rapid patch depletion. smaller groups become advantageous when an increase in travel costs is not repaid by an increase in energy gained or some other fitness advantage. on the other hand, we also know that group size can be influenced by social factors. here we contrast the diet and group size of red colobus (procolobus badius) ...200515197599
red colobus as prey: the leaping habits of five sympatric old world monkeys.this study explored the leaping habits of five sympatric old world monkeys (colobus badius, colobus guereza, cercopithecus ascanius, cercopithecus mitis and cercocebus albigena) in an attempt to determine why chimpanzees prefer to hunt red colobus. we videotaped the leaps of the monkeys for 3 months in uganda's kibale national park. data were collected on leap preparation time as well as several other variables of the leaps. the leap preparation time of red colobus was found to be about double t ...200515775681
variation in diet and ranging of black and white colobus monkeys in kibale national park, uganda.recently, considerable intraspecific variation in the diets and ranging behavior of colobine monkeys has been described, although in most cases this has involved documenting variation between, not within, sites. some african colobines, such as guerezas (colobus guereza), are relatively abundant in disturbed habitats that are very heterogeneous, raising the intriguing possibility that even groups with overlapping home ranges may exhibit large behavioral differences. if such differences occur, it ...200717429575
recent evolutionary origin within the primate lineage of two pseudogenes with similarity to members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily.using a search engine called motifer, we searched the public database of the human genome for genes matching a consensus pattern of cysteine residues derived from members of the transforming growth factor-beta (tgf-beta) superfamily. we identified two genes (named mdf451 and mdf628) that display sequence similarity to members of the tgf-beta superfamily in the arrangement of six conserved cysteine residues. phylogenetic analyses revealed that mdf451 and mdf628 constitute a distinct subgroup with ...200414999407
gastrointestinal parasites of the colobus monkeys of uganda.from august 1997 to july 2003, we collected 2,103 fecal samples from free-ranging individuals of the 3 colobus monkey species of uganda-the endangered red colobus (piliocolobus tephrosceles), the eastern black-and-white colobus (colobus guereza), and the angolan black-and-white colobus (c. angolensis)--to identify and determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites. helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoan cysts were isolated by sodium nitrate flotation and fecal sedimentation. coprocultures ...200516108549
neither genetic nor observational data alone are sufficient for understanding sex-biased dispersal in a social-group-living species.complex sex-biased dispersal patterns often characterize social-group-living species and may ultimately drive patterns of cooperation and competition within and among groups. this study investigates whether observational data or genetic data alone can elucidate the potentially complex dispersal patterns of social-group-living black and white colobus monkeys (colobus guereza, "guerezas"), or whether combining both data types provides novel insights. we employed long-term observation of eight neig ...200919302351
the alarm call system of two species of black-and-white colobus monkeys (colobus polykomos and colobus guereza).vervet monkey alarm calling has long been the paradigmatic example of how primates use vocalizations in response to predators. in vervets, there is a close and direct relationship between the production of distinct alarm vocalizations and the presence of distinct predator types. recent fieldwork has however revealed the use of several additional alarm calling systems in primates. here, the authors describe playback studies on the alarm call system of two colobine species, the king colobus (colob ...200919450021
full-length genome characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus lineage (sivolc) from olive colobus (procolobus verus) and new sivwrcpbb strains from western red colobus (piliocolobus badius badius) from the tai forest in ivory coast.simian immunodeficiency viruses (sivs) are found in an extensive number of african primates and humans continue to be exposed to these viruses by hunting and handling of primate bushmeat. full-length genome sequences were obtained from sivs derived from two colobinae species inhabiting the taï forest, ivory coast, each belonging to a different genus: sivwrc from western red colobus (piliocolobus badius badius) (sivwrcpbb-98ci04 and sivwrcpbb-97ci14) and sivolc (sivolc-97ci12) from olive colobus ...200918922864
characterization of a novel simian immunodeficiency virus from guereza colobus monkeys (colobus guereza) in cameroon: a new lineage in the nonhuman primate lentivirus family.exploration of the diversity among primate lentiviruses is necessary to elucidate the origins and evolution of immunodeficiency viruses. during a serological survey in cameroon, we screened 25 wild-born guereza colobus monkeys (colobus guereza) and identified 7 with hiv/siv cross-reactive antibodies. in this study, we describe a novel lentivirus, named sivcol, prevalent in guereza colobus monkeys. genetic analysis revealed that sivcol was very distinct from all other known siv/hiv isolates, with ...200111134299
epizootic fatal amebiasis in an outdoor group of old world monkeys.entamoeba (e.) histolytica is an obligate parasite of humans and non-human primates.201020202078
trichuris suis and trichuris trichiura are different nematode this paper, a morphological and biometrical study by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (sem) of trichuris suis isolated from different hosts (sus scrofa domestica and sus scrofa scrofa) and trichuris trichiura isolated from chimpanzee, has been carried out. our results demonstrate the existence of typical pericloacal papillae in both species. biometrical parameters of t. suis and t. trichiura overlapped but males and females of t. trichiura tended to be shorter and thinner ...200919467214
extensive survey on the prevalence and genetic diversity of sivs in primate bushmeat provides insights into risks for potential new cross-species evaluate the risk of cross-species transmissions of sivs from non-human primates to humans at the primate/hunter interface, a total of 2586 samples, derived from primate bushmeat representing 11 different primate species, were collected at 6 distinct remote forest sites in southeastern cameroon and in yaoundé, the capital city. siv prevalences were estimated with an updated siv lineage specific gp41 peptide elisa covering the major part of the siv diversity. siv positive samples were confirme ...201019393772
widely varying siv prevalence rates in naturally infected primate species from cameroon.although it is now well established that a substantial proportion of wild-living primates in sub-saharan africa harbor siv, no study to date has examined to what extent the various species are naturally infected. in this study, we first describe the development and validation of sensitive and specific siv antibody detection assays representing all major known primate lentiviral lineages on a panel of 207 sera from 11 different primate species with known infection status. the newly developed assa ...200616257029
nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck trabecular architecture and its relationship to locomotor mode.functional analyses of human and nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck structure have largely ignored the trabecular bone. we tested hypotheses regarding differences in the relative distribution and structural anisotropy of trabecular bone in the femoral neck of quadrupedal and climbing/suspensory anthropoids. we used high-resolution x-ray computed tomography to analyze quantitatively the femoral neck trabecular structure of ateles geoffroyi, symphalangus syndactylus, alouatta seniculus, colo ...200717514766
plant dna sequences from feces: potential means for assessing diets of wild primates.analyses of plant dna in feces provides a promising, yet largely unexplored, means of documenting the diets of elusive primates. here we demonstrate the promise and pitfalls of this approach using dna extracted from fecal samples of wild western gorillas (gorilla gorilla) and black and white colobus monkeys (colobus guereza). from these dna extracts we amplified, cloned, and sequenced small segments of chloroplast dna (part of the rbcl gene) and plant nuclear dna (its-2). the obtained sequences ...200717216626
fecal microbiomes of non-human primates in western uganda reveal species-specific communities largely resistant to habitat perturbation.primate gastrointestinal microbial communities are becoming increasingly appreciated for their relevance to comparative medicine and conservation, but the factors that structure primate "microbiomes" remain controversial. this study examined a community of primates in kibale national park, uganda, to assess the relative importance of host species and location in structuring gastrointestinal microbiomes. fecal samples were collected from primates in intact forest and from primates in highly distu ...201324285224
colobus guereza: territoriality and group composition.troops of the black and white colobus colobus guereza in the bueclongio forest, uganda, average eight animals with a typical composition of one adult male, four adult females, two subadults, one juvenile, and one infant. solitary males and small all-male groups also occur. troops of mixed sexes have well-defined territories which coincide roughly with the home range. territories of five groups averaged 0.062 square mile (0.137 kmn(2)) in area agreeing closely with territory-sizes of asian colobi ...196917780181
naturally transmitted herpesvirus papio-2 infection in a black and white colobus monkey.a 6.5-year-old female eastern black and white colobus monkey (colobus guereza) was evaluated after acute onset of ataxia and inappetence.200718081530
variability of metapodials in primates with rudimentary digits: ateles geoffroyi, colobus guereza, and perodicticus potto.a tenet of evolutionary theory is that, within a species, phenotypic variability is inversely related to the intensity of stabilizing selection. a corollary is that a rudimentary or vestigial structure should be highly variable. this relationship between rudimentation and variability, however, may simply be part of a continuum, as several studies have shown that variability and size of a structure are inversely related. this study tests whether the first metacarpal (mc1) in ateles geoffroyi and ...200211842399
co-infection and cross-species transmission of divergent hepatocystis lineages in a wild african primate community.hemoparasites of the apicomplexan family plasmodiidae include the etiological agents of malaria, as well as a suite of non-human primate parasites from which the human malaria agents evolved. despite the significance of these parasites for global health, little information is available about their ecology in multi-host communities. primates were investigated in kibale national park, uganda, where ecological relationships among host species are well characterized. blood samples were examined for ...201323603520
variation in hunting behaviour in neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the budongo forest, uganda.hunting and sharing of meat is seen across all chimpanzee sites, with variation in prey preferences, hunting techniques, frequencies, and success rates. here, we compared hunting and meat-eating behaviour in two adjacent chimpanzee communities (pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of budongo forest, uganda: the waibira and sonso communities. we observed consistent between-group differences in prey-species preferences and in post-hunting behaviour. sonso chimpanzees show a strong prey preference for g ...201728636646
identification of a derived dental trait in the papionini relative to other old world monkeys.variation in the shape of teeth provides an immense amount of information about the evolutionary history and adaptive strategy of a mammalian lineage. here, we explore variation in the expression of a purported molar lingual remnant (the interconulus) across the old world monkeys (primates: cercopithecidae) with the aim of elucidating a component of the adaptive radiation of this family. this radiation is characterized by a wide geographic range (asia and africa) as well as diverse dietary niche ...201425100299
diurnal primate densities and biomass in the kakamega forest: an evaluation of census methods and a comparison with other forests.line-transect surveys were conducted at the isecheno study site in the kakamega forest, western kenya to estimate diurnal primate densities. the estimates from several different methods of analysis of census data were compared to "true" density values based on home range size and overlap for two species. the whitesides method [whitesides et al., 1988], which incorporates species-specific mean group spread into its formula for estimating transect width, provided the most accurate density estimate ...200010676710
spontaneous pancreatic islet cell tumor in a black and white colobus monkey (colobus guereza kikuyuensis).a 12-year-old, male black and white colobus monkey (colobus guereza kikuyuensis) from a small community zoo presented with a 6-month history of mild, slowly progressive ataxia and paresis culminating in an acute episode of recumbency, depression, and seizures. the animal was humanely euthanatized. gross post-mortem examination revealed significant abnormalities including diffuse pallor of the carcass and a firm, pale, 8-cm diameter mass, adherent to the serosa of the proximal duodenum and colon, ...200818269522
Evaluating the suitability of planted forests for African forest monkeys: a case study from Kakamega forest, Kenya.As natural forest cover declines, planted forests have come to occupy an increasing percentage of the earth's surface, yet we know little about their suitability as alternative habitat for wildlife. Although some primate species use planted forests, few studies have compared primate populations in natural and nearby planted forests. From March 2006 to July 2010, we conducted line transect surveys and assessed group sizes and compositions in natural and nearby 60-70 year old mixed indigenous plan ...201222076861
parasite prevalence and richness in sympatric colobines: effects of host density.factors that influence proximity and the number and duration of contacts among individuals can influence parasite transmission among hosts, and thus parasite prevalence and species richness are expected to increase with increasing host density. to examine this prediction we took advantage of a unique situation. following the clearing of a forest fragment that supported red colobus (piliocolobus tephrosceles) and black-and-white colobus (colobus guereza), the animals moved into a neighboring frag ...200516229007
catarrhine primate divergence dates estimated from complete mitochondrial genomes: concordance with fossil and nuclear dna evidence.accurate divergence date estimates improve scenarios of primate evolutionary history and aid in interpretation of the natural history of disease-causing agents. while molecule-based estimates of divergence dates of taxa within the superfamily hominoidea (apes and humans) are common in the literature, few such estimates are available for the cercopithecoidea (old world monkeys), the sister taxon of the hominoids in the primate infraorder catarrhini. to help fill this gap, we have sequenced the en ...200515737392
craniofacial variation and dietary adaptations of african colobines.african colobine monkeys show considerable craniofacial variation among species, although the evolutionary causes of this diversity are unclear. in light of growing evidence that diet varies considerably among colobine species, we investigated whether colobine craniofacial morphology varies as a function of their diet. we compared craniofacial morphology among five african species: colobus angolensis, c. guereza, c. polykomos, piliocolobus badius, and p. verus. matrix correlation analysis indica ...200919447469
newly discovered bale monkey populations in forest fragments in southern ethiopia: evidence of crop raiding, hybridization with grivets, and other conservation threats.until recently, the bale monkey (chlorocebus djamdjamensis), an arboreal primate endemic to the southern ethiopian highlands, remained virtually unstudied, and its distribution pattern inadequately documented. to broaden our knowledge of the species' distribution and abundance, we carried out interviews with local people and total count surveys for bale monkeys across 67 fragmented forest sites in human-dominated landscapes in the oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and people's regions, ...201222311711
characterization of the fecal microbiome from non-human wild primates reveals species specific microbial microbes comprise an integral part of animal digestive systems and these interactions have a long evolutionary history. it has been hypothesized that the gastrointestinal microbiome of humans and other non-human primates may have played significant roles in host evolution by facilitating a range of dietary adaptations. we have undertaken a comparative sequencing survey of the gastrointestinal microbiomes of several non-human primate species, with the goal of better understanding ...201021103066
Diversity and host specificity of Blastocystis in syntopic primates on Rubondo Island, Tanzania.The isolated ecosystem of Rubondo Island National Park, Tanzania is an interesting model site, inhabited by an assembly of primate species with various histories: two introduced primate species, Pantroglodytes (chimpanzee) and Colobus guereza (colobus), and a single indigenous species Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus (vervet monkey). Apart from important lessons for future introduction/re-introduction projects, Rubondo National Park offers a unique place to study the patterns of transmission of ...201121854778
diet versus phylogeny: a comparison of gut microbiota in captive colobine monkey species.both diet and host phylogeny shape the gut microbial community, and separating out the effects of these variables can be challenging. in this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the impact of diet and phylogeny on the gut microbiota of nine colobine monkey species (n = 64 individuals). colobines are leaf-eating monkeys that fare poorly in captivity-often exhibiting gastrointestinal (gi) problems. this study included eight asian colobines (rhinopithecus brelichi, rhinopithecus ...201728735426
predator and non-predator long-distance calls in guereza colobus monkeys.east african guereza colobus monkey males are known for their conspicuous roaring behaviour; a spectacle that can dominate the predawn hours of african forests. recent research has shown that these monkeys also produce roars during daytime hours in response to predators. while roars to leopards and eagles differ in how roaring phrases are assembled into sequences, there are no obvious structural differences between predawn roars and roars to eagles. although recipients could use daytime informat ...201222622195
dental eruption sequence among colobine development is one aspect of growth that is linked to diet and to life history but has not been investigated among colobines since the work of schultz [1935]. this study establishes the dental eruption sequence for several colobine species and compares it to that of other catarrhines. the mandibles and maxillae of two hundred and four juvenile colobine specimens were scored for presence or absence of permanent teeth and for stages of partial eruption. eruption was defined as ranging betwe ...200010766945
feeding behaviour of red colobus and black and white colobus in east africa.the feeding behaviour of one troop of red colobus (colobus badius tephrosceles) was observed between august 1969 and june 1970 in the gombe national park. similar observations were made on two troops of red colobus and two of black and white colobus (c. guereza uellensis) in kibale forest reserve, uganda, between august and october 1970. the red colobus at gombe were highly selective in their choice of food, feeding on the leaves, shoots, flowers and fruit of a wide variety of tree species. the ...1975805763
coinfection of ugandan red colobus (procolobus [piliocolobus] rufomitratus tephrosceles) with novel, divergent delta-, lenti-, and spumaretroviruses.nonhuman primates host a plethora of potentially zoonotic microbes, with simian retroviruses receiving heightened attention due to their roles in the origins of human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (hiv-1) and hiv-2. however, incomplete taxonomic and geographic sampling of potential hosts, especially the african colobines, has left the full range of primate retrovirus diversity unexplored. blood samples collected from 31 wild-living red colobus monkeys (procolobus [piliocolobus] rufomitratus te ...200919692478
voice discrimination in four accepted function of vocalisations is to convey information about the signaller, such as its age-sex class, motivation, or relationship with the recipient. yet, in natural habitats individuals not only interact with conspecifics but also with members of other species. this is well documented for african forest monkeys, which form semi-permanent mixed-species groups that can persist for decades. although members of such groups interact with each other on a daily basis, both physically and voc ...201323800631
distribution of interstitial telomeric sequences in primates and the pygmy tree shrew (scandentia).it has been hypothesized that interstitial telomeric sequences (itss), i.e., repeated telomeric dna sequences found at intrachromosomal sites in many vertebrates, could be correlated to chromosomal rearrangements and plasticity. to test this hypothesis, we hybridized a telomeric pna probe through fish on representative species of 2 primate infraorders, strepsirrhini (lemur catta, otolemur garnettii, nycticebus coucang) and catarrhini (erythrocebus patas, cercopithecus petaurista, chlorocebus aet ...201728423373
forest fragmentation, the decline of an endangered primate, and changes in host-parasite interactions relative to an unfragmented forest.forest fragmentation may alter host-parasite interactions in ways that contribute to host population declines. we tested this prediction by examining parasite infections and the abundance of infective helminths in 20 forest fragments and in unfragmented forest in kibale national park, uganda. over 4 years, the endangered red colobus (procolobus rufomitratus) declined by 20% in fragments, whereas the black-and-white colobus (colobus guereza) in fragments and populations of both colobines in unfra ...200817879941
trichuris colobae n. sp. (nematoda: trichuridae), a new species of trichuris from colobus guereza the present work, a morphological and biometrical study of whipworms trichuris roederer, 1761 (nematoda: trichuridae) parasitizing colobus guereza kikuyensis has been carried out. biometrical and statistical data showed that the mean values of individual variables between trichuris suis and trichuris sp. from c. g. kikuyensis differed significantly (pā€‰<ā€‰0.001) when student's t test was performed: seven male variables (width of esophageal region of body, maximum width of posterior region of bo ...201424853537
variability of a vestigial structure: first metacarpal in colobus guereza and ateles geoffroyi.a tenet of evolutionary theory is that, under conditions of stabilizing selection, phenotypic variability is inversely related to selection intensity. correspondingly, a nonfunctional, vestigial structure is expected to be highly variable relative to its functional homologue. this study tests the hypothesis that species with a vestigial pollex, colobus guereza and ateles geoffroyi, have a first metacarpal whose length is both highly variable relative to, and poorly correlated with, the lengths o ...199728565353
nodular worm infections in wild non-human primates and humans living in the sebitoli area (kibale national park, uganda): do high spatial proximity favor zoonotic transmission?nodular oesophagostomum genus nematodes are a major public health concern in some african regions because they can be lethal to humans. their relatively high prevalence in people has been described in uganda recently. while non-human primates also harbor oesophagostomum spp., the epidemiology of this oesophagostomosis and the role of these animals as reservoirs of the infection in eastern africa are not yet well documented.201526451592
patch depletion behavior differs between sympatric folivorous competition in group-living animals is commonly accepted as a critical determinant of foraging strategies and social organization. here we examine food patch depletion behavior in a leaf-eating (folivorous) primate, the guereza (colobus guereza). snaith and chapman (2005) studied the sympatric folivorous red colobus (procolobus rufomitratus), which shares many food resources with the guereza. they determined that red colobus deplete the patches (feeding trees) they use, while we found contr ...201221909710
macronutrient balancing affects patch departure by guerezas (colobus guereza).foraging strategies are central in shaping social structure and grouping patterns in primates. we address colobus guereza foraging strategies by investigating their patch departure decisions in relation to diet composition and nutrition. we examine whether guerezas are constrained in their intake of food in patches and thereby forage according to a fixed amount strategy that dictates patch departure. additionally, we assess whether guereza employ a fixed time strategy or attempt to balance nutri ...201726479160
hand preference for feeding in captive colobus guereza. 200612065943
articular structure and function in hylobates, colobus, and has been demonstrated in clinical and experimental studies that subarticular trabecular bone responds to mechanical loads transmitted across joints through changes in mass and structural organization. we investigated differences in mass, volume, and density of subarticular trabecular bone of the humeral and femoral head in hylobates syndactylus, colobus guereza, and papio cynocephalus. our hypothesis was that variations in trabecular properties between taxa may reflect differences in mechanic ...19947943193
cellular hiv-1 inhibition by truncated old world primate apobec3a proteins lacking a complete deaminase domain.the apobec3 (a3) deaminases are retrovirus restriction factors that were proposed as inhibitory components of hiv-1 gene therapy vectors. however, a3 mutational activity may induce undesired genomic damage and enable hiv-1 to evade drugs and immune responses. here, we show that a3a protein from colobus guereza (cola3a) can restrict hiv-1 replication in producer cells in a deaminase-independent manner without inducing dna damage. neither hiv-1 reverse transcription nor integration were significan ...201425262471
ecology and population dynamics of colobus guereza in ethiopia. 19744214737
behavioral thermoregulation in a group of zoo-housed colobus monkeys (colobus guereza).although wild primates are known to modify behavior in response to thermal stress, less is known about behavioral thermoregulation in zoo-housed primates. zoo exhibits expose individuals to unique thermal environments and may constrain the thermoregulatory strategies available to individual animals. in this study, we observed a group of seven colobus monkeys (colobus guereza) living on a concrete "monkey island" style exhibit that featured limited shade and limited arboreal space. behaviors were ...201424977787
semicircular canal size and locomotion in colobine monkeys: a cautionary tale.the semicircular canals of the inner ear constitute the organ of balance, tracking head rotation during movement and facilitating stabilisation of vision. morphological characteristics of the canals are correlated with agility scores related to locomotion. to date, however, the relationship between canal morphology and specific locomotor behaviours, such as leaping, is unclear. knowledge of such a relationship could strengthen the inferences of locomotion of extinct taxa. to test this, crania of ...201627780160
evolutionary patterns of killer cell ig-like receptor genes in old world monkeys.killer cell ig-like receptors (kirs) modulate the cytotoxic effects of natural killer cells. kir genes are encoded in the leucocyte receptor complex and are characterized by their high haplotypic diversity and polymorphism. the kir system has been studied in only three species of old world monkeys, the rhesus macaque, the cynomolgus macaque, and the sabaeus monkey, displaying a complexity rivaling that of hominids (human and apes). here we analyzed bacterial artificial chromosome draft sequences ...201021185924
incisor microwear and diet in three species of colobus.examination of incisor microwear in three species of colobus revealed that the predominantly folivorous c. badius more closely resembles c. satanas, a seed predator/folivore, than c. guereza, another predominantly folivorous species. this demonstrates that species of the same broad dietary category can have very different patterns of incisor microwear, indicative of differences in food procurement behavior and/or the physical properties of dietary items for some portion of the diet. conversely, ...20072227724
a novel hepacivirus with an unusually long and intrinsically disordered ns5a protein in a wild old world virus b (gbv-b; family flaviviridae, genus hepacivirus) has been studied in new world primates as a model for human hepatitis c virus infection, but the distribution of gbv-b and its relatives in nature has remained obscure. here, we report the discovery of a novel and highly divergent gbv-b-like virus in an old world monkey, the black-and-white colobus (colobus guereza), in uganda. the new virus, guereza hepacivirus (ghv), clusters phylogenetically with gbv-b and recently described hepacivir ...201323740998
discovery and full genome characterization of two highly divergent simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting black-and-white colobus monkeys (colobus guereza) in kibale national park, uganda.african non-human primates (nhps) are natural hosts for simian immunodeficiency viruses (siv), the zoonotic transmission of which led to the emergence of hiv-1 and hiv-2. however, our understanding of siv diversity and evolution is limited by incomplete taxonomic and geographic sampling of nhps, particularly in east africa. in this study, we screened blood specimens from nine black-and-white colobus monkeys (colobus guereza occidentalis) from kibale national park, uganda, for novel sivs using a ...201324139306
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