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proposals to unify the genera grahamella and bartonella, with descriptions of bartonella talpae comb. nov., bartonella peromysci comb. nov., and three new species, bartonella grahamii sp. nov., bartonella taylorii sp. nov., and bartonella doshiae sp. nov.polyphasic methods were used to examine the taxonomic positions of three newly identified grahamella species. a comparison of the 16s rrna gene sequences of these organisms with the sequences available for other bacteria revealed that these three species form a tight monophyletic cluster with members of the genus bartonella. this cluster is only remotely related to other members of the order rickettsiales. determinations of the levels of dna relatedness between grahamella species and bartonella ...19957857789
cosegregation of a novel bartonella species with borrelia burgdorferi and babesia microti in peromyscus leucopus.during surveillance for various tickborne pathogens in the upper midwest during the summer and early fall of 1995, a bartonella-like agent was detected in the blood of mice that were concurrently infected with borrelia burgdorferi or babesia microti (or both). the organism was isolated in pure culture after inoculation of blood from wild-caught mice into c.b-17 scid/scid mice. phylogenetic analysis of the 16s rrna and the citrate synthase genes showed that the novel bartonella species and a bart ...19989466529
rats of the genus rattus are reservoir hosts for pathogenic bartonella species: an old world origin for a new world disease?bartonella species were isolated from the blood of 63 of 325 rattus norvegicus and 11 of 92 rattus rattus from 13 sites in the united states and portugal. infection in both rattus species ranged from 0% (e.g., 0/87) to approximately 60% (e.g., 35/62). a 337-bp fragment of the citrate synthase (glta) gene amplified by polymerase chain reaction was sequenced from all 74 isolates. isolates from r. norvegicus were most similar to bartonella elizabethae, isolated previously from a patient with endoca ...199910353885
demonstration of bartonella grahamii dna in ocular fluids of a patient with neuroretinitis.we describe the clinical and laboratory features of a 55-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative female patient who presented with bilateral intraocular inflammatory disease (neuroretinitis type) and behavioral changes caused by a bartonella grahamii infection. diagnosis was based on the pcr analysis of dna extracted from the intraocular fluids. dna analysis of the pcr product revealed a 100% identity with the 16s rrna gene sequence of b. grahamii. the patient was successfully treated wit ...199910565926
a bacteriophage-like particle from bartonella bacilliformis.bartonella bacilliformis and bartonella henselae, the respective agents of oroya fever and cat-scratch disease in humans, are known to produce bacteriophage-like particles (blps) that package 14 kbp segments of the host chromosome. data from this study suggest that other bartonella species including bartonella quintana, bartonella doshiae and bartonella grahamii also contain similar blps, as evidenced by the presence of a 14 kbp extrachromosomal dna element in their genomes, whereas bartonella e ...200010746763
factors affecting the component community structure of haemoparasites in bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) from the mazury lake district region of poland.the prevalence and abundance of infections with haemoparasites were studied over a 3 year period in clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole, n = 420) sampled from forests in the ne of poland. total species richness was 5 (prevalence = haemobartonella sp. 63.1%, bartonella grahamii 27.4%, hepatozoon erhardovae 31.4%, trypanosoma evotomys 15% and babesia microti 1.0%) with 81.9% of the voles carrying at least 1 species and a mean infracommunity species richness of 1.4. variation in species richness was ...200111197763
molecular phylogeny of the genus bartonella: what is the current knowledge?species of the genus bartonella are involved in an increasing variety of human diseases. in addition to the 14 currently recognized species, several bartonella strains have been recovered from a wide range of wild and domestic mammals in europe and america. such a high diversity of geographic distributions, animal reservoirs, arthropod vectors and pathogenic properties makes clarification of our knowledge about the phylogeny of bartonella species necessary. phylogenetic data have been inferred m ...200111410341
cutting edge: antibody-mediated cessation of hemotropic infection by the intraerythrocytic mouse pathogen bartonella grahamii.the genus bartonella includes important human-specific and zoonotic pathogens which cause intraerythrocytic bacteremia in their mammalian reservoir host(s). it is accepted that cellular immunity plays a decisive role in the host's defense against most intracellular bacteria. bartonella sp. infection in the immunocompetent host typically leads to immunity against homologous challenge. the basis of this immunity, be it cellular or humoral, is unclear. in this study, the course of bartonella graham ...200111418625
phylogenetic classification of bartonella species by comparing groel sequences.bartonella is a bacterial genus classified in the alpha-proteobacteria on the basis of 165 rdna sequence comparison. the highly conserved heat-shock chaperonin protein, groel, has proved to be a valuable resolving tool to classify ten bartonella species. the groel gene was amplified and sequenced from ten bartonella isolates: bartonella alsatica, bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, bartonella taylorii, bartonella tribocorum, bartonella birtlesii, bartonella henselae marseille (urlly8), b. hens ...200211837299
characterization of the cryptic plasmid pbgr1 from bartonella grahamii and construction of a versatile escherichia coli-bartonella spp. shuttle cloning vector.we report herein the isolation and molecular characterization of pbgr1, the first native plasmid isolated from the genus bartonella. cloning and sequencing revealed a 2725-base pair (bp) cryptic plasmid comprising two open reading frames of considerable length, which were designated rep and mob. the regions containing rep and mob are separated by 140-bp inverted repeat sequences and display a difference in g + c content from one another. a 1435-bp saci-bcli fragment containing the rep gene is su ...200312584000
bartonella infection in sylvatic small mammals of central sweden.sylvatic small mammals were captured in rural habitats near uppsala, sweden, to measure the prevalence of bartonella infections, characterize bacterial isolates and identify their host range, and increase our understanding of host-pathogen ecology. during 7 nights of trapping at 3 localities, 236 small mammals were captured (trap success 30%). bartonella were isolated from bloods of apodemus flavicollis (19 of 110 tested), apodemus sylvaticus (6/25), clethrionomys glareolus (9/60), microtus agre ...200312613756
bartonella grahamii infecting rodents display high genetic diversity over short geographic distances. 200312860632
[bilateral retinal artery branch occlusions revealing bartonella grahamii infection]. 200312951187
flea-borne bartonella grahamii and bartonella taylorii in bank voles.bartonella species are increasingly associated with a range of human and animal diseases. despite this, we have a poor understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of many species, especially those circulating in wild populations. previous studies have demonstrated that a diverse range of bartonella species are abundant in wild rodent populations; little is known regarding their modes of transmission, although both direct and indirect routes have been suggested. in this study, with bank voles ( ...200415200860
[wild small mammals are the reservoir hosts of the bartonella genus bacteria in the south of moscow region].a total of 103 blood samples collected from wild small mammals captured in the prioksko-terrasny reserve on the south of moscow region were studied to determine the bartonellae prevalence. the examined species were the yellow-necked mice apodemus flavicollis (35 samples), the european wood mouse apodemus uralensis (10 samples), the bank vole clethrionomys glareolus (51 samples), the house mouse mus musculus (3 samples), the common vole microtus arvalis (2 samples), and the shrew sorex araneus (2 ...200617094651
molecular detection of bartonella species infecting rodents in slovenia.rodents, collected in three zoogeographical regions across slovenia, were tested for the presence of bartonellae using direct pcr-based amplification of 16s/23s rrna gene intergenic spacer region (its) fragments from splenic dna extracts. bartonella dna was detected in four species of rodents, apodemus flavicollis, apodemus sylvaticus, apodemus agrarius and clethrionomys glareolus, in all three zoogeographic regions at an overall prevalence of 40.4%. the prevalence of infection varied significan ...200717374132
evolutional and geographical relationships of bartonella grahamii isolates from wild rodents by multi-locus sequencing analysis.to clarify the relationship between bartonella grahamii strains and both the rodent host species and the geographic location of the rodent habitat, we have investigated 31 b. grahamii strains from ten rodent host species from asia (japan and china), north america (canada and the usa), and europe (russia and the uk). on the basis of multi-locus sequencing analysis of 16s rrna, ftsz, glta, groel, ribc, and rpob, the strains were classified into two large groups, an asian group and an american/euro ...200919219487
identification of a bartonella species in the harbor seal (phoca vitulina) and in seal lice (echinophtirius horridus).to explore whether harbor seals (phoca vitulina) are exposed to bartonella spp., 35 seal lice (echinophtirius horridus) were collected from seven seals, during their rehabilitation period in the seal rehabilitation and research center at pieterburen, the netherlands. forty-eight spleen samples were collected during necropsies of other harbor seals that died during rehabilitation, or had stranded dead and were brought to the seal rehabilitation and research center for postmortem investigation. li ...200919402763
epidemiology of bartonella infection in rodents and shrews in taiwan.during the period of august 2002 and november 2004, an epidemiological investigation for bartonella infection was conducted in small mammals in taiwan. using whole blood culture on chocolate agar plates, bartonella species were successfully isolated from 41.3% of the 310 animals tested. the isolation rate of bartonella species varied among different animal species, including 52.7% of the 169 rattus norvegicus, 28.6% of the 126 sucus murinus, 10% of the 10 rattus rattus and 66.7% of the three rat ...201019538457
detection of bartonella species in small mammals from zhejiang province, china.to estimate the prevalence of bartonella in small mammals of different species, during different seasons, and at different study sites, and to provide baseline data for the risk assessment of human bartonella infection, we captured small mammals using snap traps in zhejiang province, china. bartonella species were detected in small-mammal samples by polymerase chain reaction and positive amplicons were sequenced. bartonella dna was detected in 47% (90/192) of apodemus agrarius, 31% (14/45) of ra ...201020090031
rapid diversification by recombination in bartonella grahamii from wild rodents in asia contrasts with low levels of genomic divergence in northern europe and america.bartonella is a genus of vector-borne bacteria that infect the red blood cells of mammals, and includes several human-specific and zoonotic pathogens. bartonella grahamii has a wide host range and is one of the most prevalent bartonella species in wild rodents. we studied the population structure, genome content and genome plasticity of a collection of 26 b. grahamii isolates from 11 species of wild rodents in seven countries. we found strong geographic patterns, high recombination frequencies a ...201020465583
molecular detection of bartonella spp. in terrestrial leeches (haemadipsa rjukjuana) feeding on human and animal blood in gageo-do, republic of korea.leeches can transmit pathogens and are therefore potentially hazardous to human and animal health. however, only a few studies of diseases transmitted by land leeches have been reported. the purpose of the present study was to analyse which pathogens are carried in haemadipsa rjukjuana, the first recorded sanguivorous land leech in the republic of korea (rok).201627267358
a gene transfer agent and a dynamic repertoire of secretion systems hold the keys to the explosive radiation of the emerging pathogen bartonella.gene transfer agents (gtas) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. a novel putative gta was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium bartonella grahamii. although gtas are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 mb in size, including six novel genomes from bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. a ...201323555299
cat scratch disease caused by bartonella grahamii in an immunocompromised patient.bartonella grahamii colonizes rodents worldwide and has been detected in questing ixodes ricinus ticks. here, the first human b. grahamii infection confirmed by multilocus sequence typing is reported. the route of transmission and clinical picture of the patient are similar to those seen in patients with cat scratch disease, which is typically diagnosed as a bartonella henselae infection.201323740723
prevalence and diversity of bartonella species in commensal rodents and ectoparasites from nigeria, west africa.bartonellae are fastidious bacteria causing persistent bacteremia in humans and a wide variety of animals. in recent years there is an increasing interest in mammalian bartonelloses in general and in rodent bartonelloses in particular. to date, no studies investigating the presence of bartonella spp. in rodents and ectoparasites from nigeria were carried out.201323738028
bartonella, rodents, fleas and ticks: a molecular field study on host-vector-pathogen associations in saxony, eastern germany.bartonellae cause zoonotic diseases and are transmitted by arthropods. rodents are reservoirs for most bartonella spp. as the knowledge about bartonella in rodents and their parasitizing ectoparasites is scarce in germany, this study's objectives were to investigate bartonella spp. in small mammals and in their ectoparasites. a total of 79 small mammals (seven species) were captured and their ectoparasites collected at seven sites around leipzig, saxony, germany, in 2010 and 2011. altogether, 79 ...201627220973
prevalence and diversity of bartonella species in rodents from georgia (caucasus).bartonella infections are widespread and highly prevalent in rodents. several rodent-associated bartonella species have been related to human diseases. recently, bartonella species was reported as the etiology of a human case in the country of georgia (caucasus). however, information on bartonella in rodents in georgia is absent. rodent hearts were collected from georgia to investigate the presence and diversity of bartonella species. bartonella bacteria were cultured from 37.2% (16/43) of roden ...201627162268
prevalence and diversity of bartonella species in wild small mammals in asia.we collected 641 small mammals belonging to 17 species of rodentia and four species of soricomorpha in japan, korea, russia, taiwan, and thailand and investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of bartonella species. apodemus (field mice) and rattus (rats) were the most-common genera captured, making up 56.0% and 23.1% of the total specimens, respectively. bartonellae were isolated from 54.6% of the collected animals, and the prevalence varied depending on the host species and the country ...201626528573
bartonella infection in small mammals and their ectoparasites in lithuania.the bartonella pathogen is an emerging zoonotic agent. epidemiological studies worldwide have demonstrated that small mammals are reservoir hosts of bartonella spp. and their ectoparasites are potential vectors. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bartonella infections in small mammals (rodentia, insectivora) and their ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) in lithuania. a total of 430 small mammals representing nine species were captured with live-traps in lithuania during 2013- ...201626344603
molecular detection of anaplasma, bartonella, and borrelia species in ticks collected from migratory birds from hong-do island, republic of korea.bird migration is a recurring annual and seasonal event undertaken by more than 100 species of birds in the southeast asian and northeast palearctic regions that pass through or remain for short periods from april to may and september to november at hong-do island, republic of korea (rok). a total of 212 ticks (40 haemaphysalis flava, 12 h. longicornis, 146 ixodes turdus, 13 i. nipponensis, and 1 i. ornithophila) were collected from 65/2,161 (3.0%) migratory birds consisting of 21 species that w ...201323428091
molecular detection of bartonella grahamii and b. schoenbuchensis-related species in korean water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus).we determined the prevalence of bartonella spp. and investigated which species of bartonella naturally infects korean water deer (kwd, hydropotes inermis argyropus) in the republic of korea (rok). a total of 70 spleens from kwd carcasses were collected by the conservation genome resource bank for korean wildlife (cgrb) in the rok between 2008 and 2009. nested pcrs were performed using the rpob gene and internal transcribed spacer (its) region primers to amplify the dna fragment of bartonella. us ...201323473217
prevalence, isolation and molecular characterization of bartonella species in republic of korea.to determine the prevalence of bartonella species and identify which species of bartonella naturally infects the striped field mouse (apodemus agrarius) in the republic of korea (rok), spleens from 200 mice were assayed by nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr) targeting the rna polymerase subunit beta (rpob) gene and the 16s-23s internal transcribed spacer (its) region for members of the genus bartonella. utilizing pcr techniques, the prevalence of bartonella spp. ranged from 31.5% (63/200) to ...201624661833
identification of novel bartonella spp. in bats and evidence of asian gray shrew as a new potential reservoir of bartonella.many studies indicated that small mammals are important reservoirs for bartonella species. using molecular methods, several studies have documented that bats could harbor bartonella. this study was conducted to investigate the relationship of bartonella spp. identified in bats and small mammals living in the same ecological environment. during may 2009 and march 2010, a total of 102 blood specimens were collected. by whole blood culture and molecular identification, a total of 6 bats, 1 rodent a ...201122005177
variability of bartonella genotypes among small mammals in spain.in order to study which bartonella genotypes are circulating among small mammals in spain, we analyzed the spleens of 395 animals from three different areas-247 animals from the basque country (northern spain), 121 animals from catalonia (northeastern spain), and 27 animals from madrid (central spain)-by a triplex pcr combined with a reverse line blot previously described by our group. the prevalence of bartonella was 26.8% (106/395), and in 4.8% (19/395) of the animals more than one bartonella ...201020935117
genome dynamics of bartonella grahamii in micro-populations of woodland rodents.rodents represent a high-risk reservoir for the emergence of new human pathogens. the recent completion of the 2.3 mb genome of bartonella grahamii, one of the most prevalent blood-borne bacteria in wild rodents, revealed a higher abundance of genes for host-cell interaction systems than in the genomes of closely related human pathogens. the sequence variability within the global b. grahamii population was recently investigated by multi locus sequence typing, but no study on the variability of p ...201020202191
run-off replication of host-adaptability genes is associated with gene transfer agents in the genome of mouse-infecting bartonella grahamii.the genus bartonella comprises facultative intracellular bacteria adapted to mammals, including previously recognized and emerging human pathogens. we report the 2,341,328 bp genome sequence of bartonella grahamii, one of the most prevalent bartonella species in wild rodents. comparative genomics revealed that rodent-associated bartonella species have higher copy numbers of genes for putative host-adaptability factors than the related human-specific pathogens. many of these gene clusters are loc ...200919578403
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