[histopathology and ultrastructure of opportunistic infections of the digestive tract in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].light and electron microscopy studies of digestive tract biopsy specimens from aids patients are very useful for the detection of opportunistic pathogens which may be located in: the lumen (bacteria, candida albicans, giardia lamblia), enterocyte brush border (cryptosporidium sp), enterocyte cytoplasm (enterocytozoon bieneusi), enterocyte nuclei (cytomegalovirus), or cytoplasm of lamina propria macrophages (mycobacterium avium intracellulare). these studies may also be useful to detect combinati ...19921280409
improved light-microscopical detection of microsporidia spores in stool and duodenal aspirates. the enteric opportunistic infections working group.the diagnosis of infection with enterocytozoon bieneusi, a microsporidian organism that causes chronic diarrhea in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), has depended on invasive procedures. we have developed a new method to detect microsporidia spores in feces and duodenal aspirates.19921370122
diagnosis of encephalitozoon cuniculi infection by western blot and the use of cross-reactive antigens for the possible detection of microsporidiosis in humans.microsporidia are very primitive, eukaryotic, obligate, intracellular, protozoan parasites. encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microsporidian originally described from a rabbit infection, has been described in humans as well as in many species of laboratory animals. we report the detection of e. cuniculi by western blotting in a rabbit with torticollis that was obtained from an encephalitozoon-free colony. cross-reactivity of this serum was observed with antigens prepared from several genera of microsp ...19921443343
pulmonary and intestinal microsporidiosis in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.the microsporidian protozoan organism enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in enterocytes of the small intestine in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and it has been recognized as an important cause of chronic diarrhea in this patient group. we report the first case of a 41-yr-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in whom microsporidia were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, transbronchial lung biopsies, stool specimens, and ileal biopsies. he experienced ch ...19921456583
systemic dissemination by a newly recognized intestinal microsporidia species in aids.primarily to determine whether an intestinal microsporidian recently identified in aids patients disseminates from the bowel to infect other organs.19921466846
intestinal enterocytozoon bieneusi microsporidiosis in an hiv-infected patient: diagnosis by ileo-colonoscopic biopsies and long-term follow up.a 39-year-old patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was diagnosed as having intestinal enterocytozoon bieneusi microsporidiosis after persistent watery diarrhea for 30 months and a 16-kg weight loss. microsporidian parasites were found by light and electron microscopy in tissue specimens of the duodenum, jejunum, and terminal ileum, and by light microscopic examination of stool specimens. when duodenal tissue sections obtained 16 months previously were reviewed retrospectively, e. bien ...19921472831
localization of infection by the microsporidian enterocytozoon bieneusi in the gastrointestinal tract of aids patients with diarrhea.we compared the level of enterocytozoon bieneusi infection at different sites within the small intestine among patients with aids.19921558716
enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related sclerosing cholangitis.acalculous cholecystitis and sclerosing cholangitis due to cryptosporidium sp, and cytomegalovirus have been described in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). however, in about 40% of cases of aids-related biliary disease, no opportunistic pathogen is identified. the current case report describes the first case, to the best of the authors' knowledge, of aids-related sclerosing cholangitis associated with microsporidiosis. enterocytozoon bieneusi was detected in the duoden ...19921568589
simultaneous infection with two types of intestinal microsporidia in a patient with aids.we report the first case of a non-enterocytozoon bieneusi microsporidial infection in the small intestine of a european aids patient with diarrhoea. it is also the first case in which a double infection with two different types of microsporidia has been encountered.19921568668
a microsporidian previously undescribed in humans, infecting enterocytes and macrophages, and associated with diarrhea in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome date, the only microsporidian that has been associated with diarrhea and weight loss in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is the newly identified enterocytozoon bieneusi. a second species is now described that was associated with intestinal symptoms in a 32-year-old, human immunodeficiency virus- seropositive, native american male homosexual. stool studies and routine light microscopy of multiple small intestinal biopsies that showed atrophy with acute and chronic inflammation were ...19921612573
intestinal microsporidiosis as a cause of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a report of 20 cases.chronic diarrhea accompanied by weight loss is a common and often debilitating problem associated with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. enterocytozoon bieneusi, a newly identified species of the phylum of protozoa, microspora, has been reported associated with chronic diarrhea and wasting in 11 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) patients in the united states, europe, and africa. diagnosis has been based solely on the ultrastructural identification of this small, intracellular ...19901692561
characteristics of the microsporidian enterocytozoon bieneusi: a consequence of its development within short-living enterocytes.ultrastructural studies were done on developmental stages of enterocytozoon bieneusi obtained from hiv seropositive patients suffering from diarrhea. the presence of elaborate multilamellar structures suggest that they give rise to various membrane systems needed for rapid production of disseminating stages.19911818127
in vitro and in vivo investigations of human microsporidia.the numerous infections of microsporidia which have been diagnosed in patients with aids have revealed the potential of these organisms for establishing themselves when the immune status of the host is compromised. two species of encephalitozoon, e. cuniculi and e. hellem, have been diagnosed in man, the former infecting a variety of tissues, the latter restricted to the corneal and conjunctival epithelia. these species are morphologically indistinguishable even at the ultrastructural level but ...19911818210
a comparison of two microsporidian parasites in enterocytes of aids patients with chronic diarrhea.enterocytozoon bieneusi was first described by electron microscopy in 1985 in intestinal biopsies from an aids patient. it has subsequently been observed in many aids patients with chronic diarrhea from the u.s.a., africa, and europe. morphologically, this parasite meets the criteria for being a microsporidian but has unique features justifying the creation of a a new genus and family. it has organelles not seen in microsporida before, i.e. elongated nuclei, electron-lucent inclusions, electron- ...19911818224
[enterocytozoon bieneusi digestive microsporidiosis in 2 aids patients]. 19911828584
intestinal microsporidiosis due to enterocytozoon bieneusi: a new case report in an aids patient. 19911863418
intestinal microsporidiosis in a german patient with aids.since intestinal microsporidiosis might be of importance in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients infected with hiv, we examined duodenal biopsies of hiv-infected patients by electron microscopy. enterocytozoon bieneusi infection of the small intestine was found in one of 23 patients studied, which gives a 95% confidence interval for the prevalence rate between 0.1% and 22%. the infected patient was a 24-year-old homosexual male with aids who underwent upper endoscopy because ...19911942957
diagnosis of enterocytozoon bieneusi microsporidiosis in aids patients by recovery of spores from faeces. 19901975888
identification of spores of enterocytozoon bieneusi in stool and duodenal fluid from aids patients. 19901977998
enterocytozoon bieneusi (microspora): prevalence and pathogenicity in aids patients.microsporidia are unicellular organisms, which lack mitochondria. they have prokaryotic-like ribosomes and characteristic spores containing an extrusible polar tube which serves as a passage for inoculation of the infectious agent (sporoplasm) into host cells. clinically apparent infections in man appear to be limited to immunoprivileged sites or immunocompromised patients. one species, encephalitozoon cuniculi, has been reported several times in patients with neurological disorders and once cau ...19902117786
new aspects of parasitic zoonoses.selected parasitic zoonoses are discussed with emphasis on epidemiological, diagnostic and some chemotherapeutic aspects. pneumocystosis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis are briefly reviewed as "aids-related zoonoses". up to now 5 genera of microsporidia have been identified as causative agents of human infections, including encephalitozoon cuniculi, enterocytozoon bieneusi and pleistophora sp. which were found in aids patients. from the many "other parasitic zoonoses", gia ...19892669318
occurrence of a new microsporidan: enterocytozoon bieneusi n.g., n. sp., in the enterocytes of a human patient with aids.a new microsporidium is reported infesting the enterocytes of a haitian patients with aids. the stages observed were diplokaryotic cells, sporogonial plasmodia, unikaryotic sporoblasts, and spores. neither a sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblastic membrane) nor parasitophorous vacuole were differentiated around the developmental stages, which were in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. the polar tube (5-6 coils) was differentiated before fission of the sporogonial plasmodium. the mature s ...19854009510
failure of itraconazole to prevent enterocytozoon bieneusi infection. 19957490053
tissue diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis using the chromotrope-2r modified trichrome stain.light microscopic diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis is difficult with the use of routine histologic stains. this has led to an overreliance on transmission electron microscopic diagnosis. it was previously demonstrated that a modification of the standard gomori one-step trichrome stain, using a 10-fold higher concentration of chromotrope-2r, can be used to detect microsporidial spores in stool. the use of the stain has now been extended to the detection of spores in sections of formaldehy ...19937504441
a new trichrome-blue stain for detection of microsporidial species in urine, stool, and nasopharyngeal specimens.detection of microsporidia in clinical specimens has relied on electron microscopy, histology, or staining. this article describes further alterations to the modified trichrome staining method which make it easier to identify microsporidial spores. the changes are a decrease in the phosphotungstic acid level and the substitution of a colorfast counterstain, aniline blue, for the fast green of the original stain. the modified stain provides good contrast between microsporidial spores and backgrou ...19937508457
the warthin-starry stain in the diagnosis of small intestinal microsporidiosis in hiv-infected patients.a protocol for the handling of small intestinal biopsies from hiv-infected patients is presented. this protocol includes the warthin-starry stain for the detection of microsporidia. this stain has proved a reliable and sensitive diagnostic technique for microsporidial infections as it stains both enterocytozoon bieneusi and septata intestinalis in duodenal enterocytes. because the stain demonstrates septata intestinalis in lamina propria macrophages as well as enterocytes, it allows for the prac ...19937516907
staining of microsporidian spores by optical brighteners with remarks on the use of brighteners for the diagnosis of aids associated human microsporidioses.conditions for the effective fluorescence labelling of microsporidian spores by optical brighteners, based on the presence of chitin in the spore wall, are described. spores of vairimorpha ephestiae, v. necatrix, v. plodiae, nosema bombycis, n. apis, n. algerae, encephalitozoon cuniculi and enterocytozoon bieneusi were examined. the degree of binding of calcofluor white m2r (cfw) to untreated spores depends on the conditions and time of storage and the degree of bacterial contamination of the sp ...19937516908
microsporidium: modified technique for light microscopic diagnosis.microsporiodosis caused by enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the opportunistic infections in hiv positive patients with chronic diarrhea. the organism is difficult to diagnose because of its small size, previously the diagnosis of this infection relied on identification of the organism under electron microscope. until recently, the spores of this organism in stool specimens could be seen under light microscope by using various staining techniques. in this study, the modified trichrome staining t ...19957561548
multiorgan microsporidiosis: report of five cases and review.we describe five cases and review 34 reported cases of multiorgan microsporidiosis. most of the patients with multiorgan involvement have been adults with aids. organs most commonly infected include the small intestine, urinary tract, biliary tree, and eye; involvement of the respiratory tract, nasal sinuses, and central nervous system is also described but appears to be less frequent. although patients with multiorgan disease may be asymptomatic, clinical presentation usually relates to the inv ...19957578757
small subunit ribosomal dna phylogeny of various microsporidia with emphasis on aids related forms.phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit ribosomal dna of a broad range of representative microsporidia including five species from humans (enterocytozoon bieneusi, nosema corneum, septata intestinalis, encephalitozoon hellem and encephalitozoon cuniculi), reveals that human microsporidia are polyphyletic in origin. septata intestinalis and e. hellem are very similar to the mammalian parasite e. cuniculi. based on the results of our phylogenetic analysis, we suggest that s. intestinalis be des ...19957581329
[microsporidiosis: a new protozoan disease in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)].the list of infections, threatening patients with impaired immunological system, especially infected with hiv, prolongs systematically. since early eighties many authors pay attention to little known type of protozoan: microspora. more and more often new microsporidia species are described as a cause of disease, especially in patients with aids. we present review of literature data concerning species known up to now as pathogenic for man: encephalitozoon cuniculi, encephalitozoon hellem, nosema ...19947597182
observations on the pathological spectrum and clinical course of microsporidiosis in men infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: follow-up study.the purposes of this research were to determine whether microsporidian infection is accompanied by structural alterations of the duodenal mucosa and to characterize the clinical and morphological evolution of intestinal microsporidiosis. in a previous systematic electron microscopic evaluation of mucosal biopsy specimens from patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, we detected enterocytozoon bieneusi in the duodenal tissue of 31 men. this report concerns a follow-up study of these ...19957620003
[a very up-to-date stage in the fate of infectious diseases: parasitic and fungal opportunistic infections].opportunistic parasitosis and mycosis are becoming ever more widespread, mainly under the influence of major immunodeficiencies, either acquired (aids) or therapeutic. in this general overview, their main aspects, both clinical and epidemiological, are underlined. in terms of epidemiology, three types of phenomena have been observed: 1) emergence of human parasitosis unknown before (microsporidiosis due to enterocytozoon bieneusi, encephalitozoom hellem or septata intestinalis); 2) among the hum ...19957648314
identification of microsporidia in stool specimens by using pcr and restriction endonucleases.we report the development of a pcr-based assay for the detection of microsporidia in clinical specimens. a single primer pair complementary to conserved sequences of the small-subunit rrna enabled amplification of dna from the four major microsporidian pathogens of humans: encephalitozoon cuniculi, encephalitozoon hellem, enterocytozoon bieneusi, and septata intestinalis. the extraction method allowed pcr amplification of e. bieneusi and s. intestinalis dna from sodium hypochlorite-treated stool ...19957665639
microsporidia in the small intestine of hiv-infected patients. a new diagnostic technique and a new determine whether microsporidian infections occur in australian patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), to assess the incidence, and to discuss microscopic detection methods.19937683076
intestinal microsporidiosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome--report of three more german cases.intestinal microsporidiosis with enterocytozoon bieneusi was diagnosed in three of 18 hiv-infected patients with chronic diarrhoea. in two cases all known stages of the life cycle of e. bieneusi (merogonial plasmodia, sporogonial plasmodia, sporoblasts, spores) were found in duodenal biopsies by electron microscopical examination, whereas in the third case only merogonial and sporogonial stages were seen. spores were also visible by light microscopy in semithin sections. two patients were treate ...19947698840
the presence of enterocytozoon bieneusi spores in the lamina propria of small bowel biopsies with no evidence of disseminated microsporidiosis. enteric opportunistic infections working group.enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently reported microsporidial infection of humans. in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, enterocytozoon infects the lining epithelial cells of the small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, and gallbladder. because enterocytozoon has been thought to be limited to infecting lining epithelial cells, the mechanism of spread of e bieneusi within the intestine, to the biliary tract, and, in two case reports, to distant organs remains unknown. thi ...19957748069
does the choice of pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis influence the prevalence of enterocytozoon bieneusi microsporidiosis in aids patients? 19957755923
[persistent diarrhea in hiv infected patients: role of enterocytozoon bieneusi].to determine the epidemiologic, clinical and aetiologic features of chronic diarrhoea in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection.19957770414
[new parasitic diseases in man: infections caused by microsporida and cyclospora species].the non-taxonomic term microsporidia relates to a group of organisms belonging to the order microsporida of the phylum microspora. microsporidia are obligate intracellular spore-forming protozoa and have no metabolically active stages outside the host cell. their host range is extensive and includes most invertebrates and all 5 classes of vertebrates. more than 100 microsporidial genera and almost 1000 species have now been identified. 5 genera (enterocytozoon, encephalitozoon, septata, pleistop ...19957770752
flow cytometry as a possible method of isolation of spores of the microsporidian enterocytozoon bieneusi. 19947804229
first case of enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in the czech republic: comments on the ultrastructure and teratoid sporogenesis of the parasite. 19947804236
enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in an immunocompetent patient who had acute diarrhea and who was not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.enterocytozoon bieneusi is a microsporidian species that has been detected exclusively in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) who are severely immunocompromised. we report what we believe is the first case of e. bieneusi infection in an hiv-negative patient with acute, self-limited diarrhea whose cd4+ cell count was not depressed.19947811871
microsporidial infections in immunodeficient and immunocompetent patients.microsporidia are obligate, intracellular, spore-forming protozoal parasites. their host range is extensive and includes most invertebrates and all classes of vertebrates. five microsporidial genera (enterocytozoon, encephalitozoon, septata, pleistophora, and nosema) and unclassified microsporidia have been associated with human disease, which appears to manifest primarily in immunocompromised persons. the clinical manifestations of microsporidiosis are diverse and include intestinal, pulmonary, ...19947811872
isolation and identification of encephalitozoon hellem from an italian aids patient with disseminated microsporidiosis.microsporidia are primitive mitochondria-lacking spore-forming eukaryotic protozoa that infect a wide variety of animals and also humans. of the five genera (encephalitozoon, enterocytozoon, septata, nosema and pleistophora) that cause infections in humans, enterocytozoon bieneusi, septata intestinalis, and encephalitozoon hellem are being increasingly identified in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). e. bieneusi causes gastrointestinal disease, s. intestinalis causes gastro ...19947833001
human microsporidial infections.microsporidia are obligate intracellular spore-forming protozoal parasites belonging to the phylum microspora. their host range is extensive, including most invertebrates and all classes of vertebrates. more than 100 microsporidial genera and almost 1,000 species have now been identified. five genera (enterocytozoon spp., encephalitozoon spp., septata spp., pleistophora sp., and nosema spp.) and unclassified microsporidia (referred to by the collective term microsporidium) have been associated w ...19947834600
in vitro model to assess effect of antimicrobial agents on encephalitozoon cuniculi.we have developed a new micromethod to study the effect of drugs on microsporidia, using mrc5 fibroblasts infected by 10(5) spores of encephalitozoon cuniculi. after 3 days of incubation with various concentrations of drugs, parasitic foci were counted in stained cultures. the inhibition of microsporidial growth exceeding 90% with albendazole (0.005 microgram/ml), fumagillin (0.001 microgram/ml), 5-fluorouracil (3 micrograms/ml), and sparfloxacin (30 micrograms/ml) was observed. chloroquine, pef ...19947840584
use of cross-reactive antigens of the microsporidian glugea atherinae for the possible detection of enterocytozoon bieneusi by western blot.the microsporidia enterocytozoon bieneusi is reported in 10-30% of those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. the parasite appears to be a cause of gastralgia, malabsorption, and diarrhea. a western blot technique using another microsporidian species, glugea atherinae, has demonstrated an antigenic similarity between this parasite and e. bieneusi. preliminary results show the variability of the antigenic profiles obtained from the sera of immunodeficient patients infected with e. bien ...19957856832
[intestinal microsporidiosis in patients with aids: study of 3 cases].enterocytozoon bieneusi is a protozoa belonging to the microsporidia family which prevalence has increased in aids patients. although diagnosis is performed by the demonstration of the parasite in the epithelium of the small intestine by light and electron microscopy, techniques allowing diagnosis from stools or duodenal or biliary aspirates have recently been described. three cases of intestinal microsporidiosis diagnosed by the mentioned method are reported. the patients were 3 males with chro ...19957877372
clinical features of microsporidiosis in patients with aids.microsporidia are protozoan parasites responsible for significant gastrointestinal disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. we report the clinical features of 20 patients with chronic diarrhea for whom microsporidian spores were identified by modified trichrome staining of stool smears and confirmed by biopsy and/or electron microscopy of stool. of the 18 microsporidian protozoa identified to the species level, 14 (78%) were enterocytozoon bieneusi and four (22%) were sept ...19947915548
microsporidiosis in hiv positive patients: current methods for diagnosis using biopsy, cytologic, ultrastructural, immunological, and tissue culture techniques.microsporidiosis is an increasingly important opportunistic infection in hiv-positive patients. five species of microsporidia (enterocytozoon bieneusi, encephalitozoon hellem and e. cuniculi, septata intestinalis, and pleistophora sp.) have been reported to occur in aids, with each agent producing a different clinicopathologic spectrum of disease. this communication reviews routine and specialized methods for diagnosis of these important pathogenic protozoa, including biopsy, cytology, ultrastru ...19947927059
utility of microsporidian rrna in diagnosis and phylogeny: a review.this paper summarizes work done in this laboratory over the last two years on the cloning of microsporidian rrna by homology pcr and its subsequent use in diagnostic tests and phylogenetic studies. using highly conserved primers in the 16s or small subunit rrna (ssu-rrna) these genes were cloned from human intestinal biopsies with transmission electron microscopy proven enterocytozoon bieneusi and septata intestinalis. the ssu-rrna genes were then used to design and test several primer pairs for ...19947927064
septata intestinalis frequently isolated from stool of aids patients with a new cultivation method.two species of microsporidia, enterocytozoon bieneusi and septata intestinalis have been reported as intestinal parasites of aids patients. in attempts to establish e. bieneusi in vitro, spores were concentrated from stool samples from 4 aids patients with biopsy-proven e. bieneusi infections. after sterilization of the concentrate in antibiotic solution, the spores were added to monolayers of rk13 cells grown on the membranes of transwells. cultures were established from 7 stool samples from th ...19947970885
detection of septata intestinalis in stool specimens and coprodiagnostic monitoring of successful treatment with albendazole.we describe two patients with aids and chronic diarrhea in whom the microsporidian septata intestinalis was detected with use of light and electron microscopic coprodiagnostic techniques. the ultrastructure of the microsporidian spores found in their stool specimens was distinctly different from that of enterocytozoon bieneusi, another intestinal microsporidian found in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. electron microscopic examination of duodenal biopsy specimens available fr ...19947986914
the phospholipids in enterocytozoon bieneusi: an electron spectroscopic imaging study.the treatment with ferriosmium of meronts and sporonts of the microsporidian enterocytozoon bieneusi has shown the lamellar organization of the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and of the nuclear envelope. the electron spectroscopy imaging (esi), (ottensmeyer and andrew 1980) of unstained ultrathin sections of meronts showed the presence of phosphorus in the lamellar structures thus confirming their phospholipidic composition. phosphorus was also detected in the lamellar polaroplast of the ...19938013927
ribosomal rna sequences of enterocytozoon bieneusi, septata intestinalis and ameson michaelis: phylogenetic construction and structural correspondence.the microsporidian species enterocytozoon bieneusi, septata intestinalis and ameson michaelis were compared by using sequence data of their rrna gene segments, which were amplified by polymerized chain reaction and directly sequenced. the forward primer 530f (5'-gtgccatccagccgcgg-3') was in the small subunit rrna (ssu-rrna) and the reverse primer 580r (5'-ggtccgtgtttcaagacgg-3') was in the large subunit rrna (lsu-rrna). we have utilized these sequence data, the published data on encephalitozoon ...19948049683
aids and the gut.there are increasing challenges for the practising gastroenterologist in treating aids-related gastrointestinal diseases. the differential diagnoses of dysphagia and odynophagia include cytomegalovirus (cmv) and herpes simplex virus (hsv) infection, non-specific aphthous ulceration and non-aids oesophageal diseases, especially reflux oesophagitis. chronic subacute abdominal pain with nausea, vomiting, early satiety and weight loss is suggestive of an obstructive lesion caused by lymphoma or kapo ...19948054532
[prevalence of enterocytozoon bieneusi spores in the stool of aids patients and african children not infected by hiv].enterocytozoon bieneusi is a newly described microsporidia in humans thought to be responsible for chronic diarrhoea in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) patients. the epidemiology of this parasite is still unknown; it could be a strictly opportunistic agent or a human enteropathogen. e. bieneusi spores were searched for in stool smears of two populations using a modified chromotrope 2r staining. the first population consisted of 60 patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus ( ...19938124104
detection of microsporidia by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.during a screening for monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the microsporidian encephalitozoon hellem, three murine hybridoma cell lines producing strong enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) reactivities were cloned twice, were designated c12, e9, and e11, and were found to secrete mabs to the immunoglobulin m isotype. on subsequent elisas, the three mabs reacted most strongly to e. hellem, and they reacted somewhat less to encephalitozoon cuniculi and least to nosema corneum, two other microspo ...19948195366
[microsporidioses].microsporidia are worldwide ubiquitous intracellular protozoan parasites infecting most major groups of the animal kingdom. in humans, microsporidiosis has recently emerged as a significant cause of morbidity in immunocompromised patients, and particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). parasites of the genus encephalitozoon cause keratoconjunctivitis and disseminated infections. in 15 to 30% of patients with advanced stage aids, enterocytozoon bieneusi is the causat ...19948208694
[microsporida microsporidiosis].microsporidia were infrequent in man until 1985. a new species, enterocytozoon bieneusi, responsible for diarrhea, was described in aids patients in 1985. little is known about the parasite; its diagnosis is difficult, and its incidence certainly underestimated. this work summarizes current knowledge on microsporidia (parasitology, clinical features, diagnosis and drug therapy).19948210072
short-term in vitro culture and molecular analysis of the microsporidian, enterocytozoon bieneusi.the microsporidium, enterocytozoon bieneusi, causes a severe, debilitating, chronic diarrhea in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. specific diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis, especially due to enterocytozoon, is difficult and there is no known therapy that can completely eradicate this parasite. preliminary studies indicate that a short term (about 6 months) in vitro culture of this parasite yielding low numbers of spores, may be established by inoculating human lung fi ...19957581324
use of furazolidone for the treatment of microsporidiosis due to enterocytozoon bieneusi in patients with aids.the efficacy of furazolidone for treatment of intestinal microsporidiosis due to enterocytozoon bieneusi was studied in three patients with aids. all patients had chronic diarrhoea and weight loss. mean cd4 cell count was 34.6/mm3. a course of furazolidone (100 mg orally four times a day) was given for 20 days. the drug was well tolerated and neither side effects nor alterations in the laboratory parameters were noted. diarrhoea ceased within a mean of 12 days of starting treatment and clearance ...19957501904
[intestinal microsporidiosis. 3 cases in hiv seropositive patients].three cases of intestinal microsporidiosis are reported, in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, with a chronic diarrhea. the first case is associated with an intestinal cryptococcosis and with a cytomegalovirus infection and the second case was diagnosed on ileal biopsy specimen. since the first description of enterocytozoon bieneusi in 1985. 49 cases of intestinal microsporidiosis are reported in the literature, all in aids patients and the frequency of this infection is probably under ...19911908678
enterocytozoon salmonis n. sp.: an intranuclear microsporidium from salmonid fish.the developmental stages of a recently described microsporidian from the nucleus of hematopoietic cells of salmonid fish were found to be unique among the microsporida. all observed stages, including meronts, sporonts, and spores were in direct contact with the host cell nucleus (principally hematopoietic cells) of chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha). there is no parasitophorous vacuole and sporogony does not involve formation of a pansporoblastic membrane as with other members of the subo ...19911880764
[intestinal microspora infections in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].a 24 year old man with aids diagnosed in 1989 and a history of several episodes of pulmonary pneumocystosis developed chronic diarrhea and severe epigastric pain. endoscopy revealed a granular intestinal mucosa. there was atrophy of villi and giemsa, ziehl-nielsen and gram staining identified 1.5 to 2 u spores in the cytoplasm of intestinal cells. transmission electron microscopy of the spores revealed a thick wall, a sporoplasm with a nucleus, ribosomes, a posterior vacuole and a polar filament ...19911844296
light microscopic diagnosis of human microsporidiosis and variable response to octreotide.microsporida are protozoan parasites that have recently been identified as a cause of human disease in immunocompromised patients. because of their small size, they have been recognized primarily by electron microscopy. this has limited the study of their prevalence, incidence, and association with large-volume diarrhea. the present report describes two cases of enterocytozoon bieneusi infection of the small intestine in patients with intractable diarrhea in whom the diagnosis was made by light ...19911700961
detection of microsporidia (enterocytozoon bieneusi) in intestinal biopsy specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients by pcr.intestinal microsporidiosis has been implicated as a major cause of chronic diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected patients. so far diagnosis depends on direct visualization of the parasites by light and transmission electron microscopy. we evaluated the diagnostic value of microsporidian dna amplification by pcr on duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from patients with and without intestinal microsporidiosis caused by enterocytozoon bieneusi. thirteen hiv-infected patients (all ...19957494017
the role of microsporidia in the pathogenesis of hiv-related chronic determine whether infection with microsporidia leads to diarrhea in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection.19938215001
intestinal coinfection with enterocytozoon bieneusi and cryptosporidium in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected child with chronic diarrhea.the microsporidian enterocytozoon bieneusi has been recognized as an important cause of chronic diarrhea in severely immunodeficient adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). we report the first case of intestinal e. bieneusi infection in a child. the 9-year-old boy with connatal hiv infection presented with failure to thrive, chronic diarrhea, and intermittent abdominal pain. his cd4 lymphocyte count was 0.05 x 10(9)/l and dropped to 0.01 x 10(9)/l. no hiv-associated opportunisti ...19938218693
electron microscopic changes in enterocytozoon bieneusi following treatment with identify and describe electron microscopic changes occurring in enterocytozoon bieneusi in patients treated with albendazole.19938227404
small subunit rrna sequence of enterocytozoon bieneusi and its potential diagnostic role with use of the polymerase chain the past several years, microsporidia have become recognized as another important group of opportunistic infections of immunocompromised patients, especially those with aids. enteric infections with the noncultivatable microsporidian parasite enterocytozoon bieneusi have been diagnosed from aids patients with chronic diarrhea, malabsorption, and wasting. the incidence of infection and mechanism of transmission of these organisms in humans is unknown. several recent tests for human pathogens h ...19938245549
comparative pathology of microsporidiosis.the obligate intracellular protozoan parasites belonging to the phylum microspora are ubiquitous. they parasitize insects and all five classes of vertebrates. only one genus infects mammals and birds but at least four genera affect humans. two genera have been isolated from human specimens and both infect experimental animals. some genera (eg, enterocytozoon and pleistophora) seem to be limited to a very few tissues but others (encephalitozoon and the encephalitozoon-like genus septata) can infe ...19938250691
detection of microsporidian spores in clinical samples by indirect fluorescent-antibody assay using whole-cell antisera to encephalitozoon cuniculi and encephalitozoon hellem.three polyclonal mouse antisera, to encephalitozoon cuniculi, nosema algerae, and nosema corneum, and two polyclonal rabbit antisera, to e. cuniculi and encephalitozoon hellem, were used in an indirect fluorescent-antibody assay (ifa) with enterocytozoon bieneusi, e. cuniculi, and encephalitgozoon. hellem spores (spores of the last two were taken from culture). enterocytozoon bieneusi cannot be cultured. by ifa, antisera to e. cuniculi and e. hellem reacted strongly and equally with each other's ...19938263205
treatment with albendazole for intestinal disease due to enterocytozoon bieneusi in patients with determine the efficacy and safety of albendazole for treatment of intestinal microsporidosis due to enterocytozoon bieneusi, 29 patients with aids were studied. all had chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and evidence of malabsorption. after 1 month of treatment with albendazole (400 mg orally twice a day), the mean number of bowel movements decreased from 7.0 to 3.8 stools/day (p < .0001) and the mean weight gain was 0.56 kg (p = .259). albendazole at this dose did not clear e. bieneusi on follow ...19948277179
first cases of microsporidiosis in scandinavian patients with aids.the first 2 cases of infection with enterocytozoon bieneusi in denmark and scandinavia are reported. both patients were women and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of e. bieneusi in female aids patients. both had late stage aids, and both had complained of intermittent diarrhoea for more than 1 year. at the time microsporidiosis was diagnosed, no other pathogens causing diarrhoea were found. immunodeficient patients with chronic unexplained diarrhoea should be investigated fo ...19938284654
identification of the microsporidian parasite, enterocytozoon bieneusi in faecal samples and intestinal biopsies from an aids patient.the microsporidian parasite, enterocytozoon bieneusi, is currently recognized as a potentially important cause of chronic diarrhoea in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). faecal concentrates from a 38-year-old, hiv-seropositive patient examined by light and electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous microsporidian spores. the structural characteristics of the spores were consistent with those previously described for enterocytozoon bieneusi. each spore conta ...19938300290
intestinal microsporidiosis in a chilean patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids).a 24-year-old male patient with aids diagnosed in 1989, and with several episodes of pneumocystosis, was admitted because of a chronic diarrheic syndrome and severe epigastric pain. endoscopy showed a granular duodenal mucosa. light microscopy showed a moderate villous atrophy with round-cell inflammatory infiltration of the chorion. giemsa, ziehl-neelsen, and gram stains showed microsporidial spores measuring between 1.5 and 2 microns in the supranuclear cytoplasm of some enterocytes. electron ...19938321750
prevalence of intestinal protozoans in french patients infected with assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoans in french hiv-infected patients, stool samples, duodenojejunal biopsies, and/or colorectal biopsies from 81 patients were studied for parasites, viruses, and bacteria. pathogens were found in 70.6% of aids patients with diarrhea or malabsorption. the respective prevalence of protozoa in aids patients with diarrhea was cryptosporidium sp.: 37.3%, blastocystis hominis: 13.7%, giardia intestinalis: 5.8%, isospora belli: 2%, enterocytozoon bieneusi: ...19938340892
pathological features of intestinal microsporidiosis in hiv positive patients. a report of 13 new cases.enterocytozoon bieneusi is a microsporidian parasite found only in the enterocytes of the small bowel of hiv positive patients, producing chronic diarrhea and malabsorption. since january 1990, we have seen the 13 first mediterranean cases, diagnosed on duodenal pinch biopsy samples. diarrhea was the major symptom in all instances, and e. bieneusi was the sole identified pathogen in 6 cases. the diagnosis was made on hes or giemsa-stained paraffin sections and on giemsa-stained smears (9 cases). ...19938351238
genetic evidence for the occurrence of extra-intestinal enterocytozoon bieneusi infections. 19938371992
enterocytozoon bieneusi detection in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection and chronic diarrhoea: response to albendazole treatment.diarrhoea is a common symptom among hiv-infected subjects. an infective cause is often missed. however, more recent knowledge about pathogens has led to the identification of newly recognized unusual microorganisms, such as microsporidia. we report a case of infestation with these agents in an hiv-infected subject with chronic diarrhoea.19938400369
microsporidia infection in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus and unexplained cholangitis.cholangitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) is usually associated with opportunistic infections by cryptosporidium species or cytomegalovirus, but in about a third of cases no opportunistic agent is identified. we suspected some of these cases of biliary disease might be explained by infection with the microsporidia species enterocytozoon bieneusi, an obligate intracellular protozoan that causes chronic diarrhea in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency ...19938416439
intestinal microsporidiosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with chronic unexplained diarrhea: prevalence and clinical and biologic features.eighteen patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and with chronic unexplained diarrhea were prospectively studied to investigate the prevalence and clinical and biologic features of intestinal microsporidiosis. all patients underwent extensive evaluation for bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. enterocytozoon bieneusi was found in 9 patients (50%; 95% confidence interval, 27-73) in stools and duodenal and jejunal biopsies. in 8 patients, it was the sole pathogen found. other pa ...19938418171
septata intestinalis n. g., n. sp., an intestinal microsporidian associated with chronic diarrhea and dissemination in aids patients.intestinal microsporidiosis in patients diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and having chronic diarrhea was first reported in 1985 and the associated microsporidian was named enterocytozoon bieneusi. the intracellular developmental cycle of e. bieneusi in enterocytes has been demonstrated and many cases have been reported worldwide. this report presents the life cycle of a second intestinal microsporidian, associated with the same symptoms, in five aids patients. this new mi ...19938457797
tissue diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis using a fluorescent stain with uvitex detect intestinal microsporidiosis in paraffin wax embedded biopsy specimens using a fluorescence technique incorporating optical brighteners.19958543621
microsporidiosis as an aids-related opportunistic infection.the clinical manifestations of aids-related microsporidiosis range from mild or asymptomatic infections to debilitating illness involving the gastrointestinal, respiratory, or urogenital tracts or the eyes. intestinobiliary infections with enterocytozoon bieneusi are the most common microsporidial diseases, but disseminated infections with encephalitozoon hellem, encephalitozoon cuniculi, and septata intestinalis are being increasingly recognized. the isolation of infective microsporidial spores ...19958547514
understanding intestinal spore-forming protozoa: cryptosporidia, microsporidia, isospora, and summarize recent information about the "new" gastrointestinal protozoal pathogens (cryptosporidia, microsporidia, isospora, and cyclospora) and to help practicing clinicians integrate this information into their clinical databases by emphasizing the similarities among these organisms.19968554253
[microsporidiosis in patients with chronic diarrhea and aids, in hiv asymptomatic patients and in patients with acute diarrhea].microsporidia are intracellular protozoa that mainly affect aids patients and chronic diarrhea, caused by the strains enterocytozoon bieneusi and septata intestinalis, is the most common clinical manifestation. the diagnosis is made in intestinal biopsies, however the recently developed trichromic stain with chromotrope 2r, is able to detect microsporidia in stools and has a good correlation with the biopsy. using this technique, we studied 43 asymptomatic hiv infected subjects, 89 aids patients ...19958560116
high prevalence of enterocytozoon bieneusi infections among hiv-positive individuals with persistent diarrhoea in harare, zimbabwe.infection with the microsporidian parasite enterocytozoon bieneusi may be a major cause of prolonged diarrhoea in individuals also infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). the parasite has been reported from europe, australia and the americas, with a prevalence of 7-29%. faecal specimens were obtained from 202 adults and 106 children in harare, zimbabwe, all of whom were in hospital and had diarrhoea. hiv serology was available for 119 adults: 106 were hiv seropositive. there were clini ...19958560514
comparative development of two microsporidian species: enterocytozoon bieneusi and enterocytozoon salmonis, reported in aids patients and salmonid fish, respectively.enterocytozoon bieneusi and enterocytozoon salmonis are reported in hiv-infected patients and in salmonid fish, respectively. both species share the early development of the extrusion apparatus of the spores, which is completed prior to fission of the sporogonic syncytium into sporoblasts, and the early synthesis of polar tube constituents, but they differ in other developmental and sporogenetic processes. enterocytozoon bieneusi develops in direct contact with the cytoplasm of epithelial cells ...19968563709
intestinal microsporidiosis with septata intestinalis in a patient with aids--response to albendazole.microsporidiosis is a common finding in hiv-infected patients who have diarrhoea. the species most commonly causing gastrointestinal disease is enterocytozoon bieneusi. recently septata intestinalis has been described as a cause of diarrhoea and disseminated infection in patients with aids. a 44-year-old homosexual man with severe immunodeficiency (cd4 cell count 40/microliters) had a history of watery diarrhoea for 2 weeks. microsporidian spores measuring 1.2 to 1.5 x 2.5 to 3.0 microns were fo ...19958586846
genetic evidence for latent septata intestinalis infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with intestinal microsporidiosis.sequence data of the small subunit rrna (ssu-rrna) gene were used to identify septata intestinalis in biopsies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), southern blot hybridization, cloning, and comparative genetic sequencing. dna products of correct size could be amplified from all examined tissues with s. intestinalis infection but also from 2 biopsies with enterocytozoon bieneusi and from 1 biopsy with encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. southern bl ...19968603948
adenovirus masquerading as microsporidia.enterocytozoon bieneusi is a microsporidian that causes a severe, debilitating, chronic diarrhea in some patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. specific diagnosis of e. bieneusi currently requires an invasive biopsy procedure and time-consuming preparation of specimens for electron microscopy. our attempts to establish an in vitro culture system using mammalian cell cultures inoculated with duodenal aspirates, biopsy, or both, from 2 infected patients resulted in inadvertent cocul ...19968604104
self-limited traveller's diarrhea due to a dual infection with enterocytozoon bieneusi and cryptosporidium parvum in an immunocompetent hiv-negative child. 19958605909
[3 emerging protozoal infections in the netherlands: cyclospora, dientamoeba, and microspora infections].increased international travelling, an increased number of patients with immunosuppression caused by hiv infection, and renewed interest in known but little studied microorganisms, resulted in a more frequent finding of certain medically important parasites. three emerging protozoal infection, cyclospora cayetanensis, dientamoeba fragilis and microspora (enterocytozoon bieneusi and encephalitizoon) are causative agents of diarrhoea. encephalitozoon infections are also associated with hepatitis, ...19968618637
cholecystectomy in patients with aids: clinicopathologic correlations in 107 cases.the etiologic and clinical features of cholecystisis in infection due to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) were studies retrospectively. the charts and histopathologic specimens of 136 hiv-infected patients who underwent cholecystectomy between february 1987 and may 1993 at a large tertiary care center were reviewed. opportunistic pathogens infecting the 107 patients with aids included microsporidia (eight cases-- enterocytozoon bieneusi in six and septata intestinalis in two); cytomegalovirus ...19958645829
clinical and microscopical features of small-intestinal microsporidiosis in patients with aids.intestinal microsporidiosis by enterocytozoon bieneusi is an increasingly recognized infection in aids patients. we report eight cases of microsporidiosis. all patients were severely immunodepressed. clinical features were highly variable. patients were followed up for a mean period of 7.8 months. all patients had persistent infection during the follow-up and spore excretion remained constant. two patients became asymptomatic during the follow-up. none of the patients presented clinical and echo ...19958655207
specific detection of the microsporidia encephalitozoon intestinalis in aids patients.the microsporidia encephalitozoon intestinalis is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for severe gastrointestinal diseases and disseminated infection in aids patients. no light-microscopical method allows the specific detection of this unicellular parasite and up to this date, only electron microscopy could confirm the diagnosis of the species. we propose a method combining the non specific labelling of microsporidian spores by the fluorochrome uvitex 2b and an indirect immunofluorescent assay ...19968673618
direct amplification and species determination of microsporidian dna from stool specimens.microsporidia are recognized as a major aetiological agent in chronic diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients. their detection by light microscopy is hampered by the small size of the spores. a simple and rapid dna extraction method has been developed for the detection of microsporidian dna by pcr directly from stool specimens. it can be performed at room temperature in a 1.5-ml microcentrifuge tube format in less than 1 hour. the subsequent nested polymerase chain reaction permits the detection ...19968673842
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