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resistance to babesia spp. and plasmodium sp. in mice pretreated with an extract of coxiella burnetii.mice injected intravenously with a commercially available extract of coxiella burnetii prepared for use as the antigen in the complement fixation diagnostic test for q fever were subsequently resistant to infection with babesia microti, babesia rodhaini, and plasmodium vinckei petteri. the parasites appeared to die inside circulating erythrocytes. protection was unaffected by exposing the pretreated mice to 900 rads on the day before they were infected. to explain these findings, it is postulate ...1979378850
hemoprotozoa in mourning doves and other small birds of western oklahoma.blood smears obtained from 370 birds live-trapped in western oklahoma were examined for hemoprotozoa. haemoproteus spp. were found in 189 (90.4%) mourning doves (zenaida macroura), one oriole (icterus galbula), two mockingbirds (mimus polyglottos), and three brown thrashers (toxostoma rufum). plasmodium sp. was present in one brown thrasher. haemoproteus spp. in the mourning dove were identified as h. sacharovi and h. maccallumi, with the latter species predominating. the average parasitemia for ...1975811816
pneumocystis carinii: taxing taxonomy.the detailed taxonomy of pneumocystis carinii has not been decided. most experts agree that it is either a fungus or a protozoan. in favor of a fungal designation are the recent reports that 16s and 18s rrna sequences of p. carinii have greater homology to saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa than to selected protozoa. other studies show that sequences of the 18s and 26s rrna, microtubular ultrastructure, membrane fusion potential and dna content per cell resemble protozoa more than fu ...19892477272
selected epidemiological and clinical aspects of malaria in the material of the institute of maritime and tropical medicine in gdynia.despite numerous endeavours to eradicate malaria remains a problem to be solved. this is reflected in high morbidity and mortality rates in endemic zones of this disease, and in the continually growing parasites resistance to the drugs applied within chemoprophylaxis and the treatment employed. in the compass of 1976-1987 a group of 20 thousand people, back from the tropics, was examined. in that number 415 having suffered from malaria while stay in the endemic zone of the disease, in 64 patient ...19883077994
hematozoan parasites of rio grande wild turkeys from southern texas.one hundred twenty-three of 300 blood samples (41%) taken from rio grande wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo intermedia) from three locations in southern texas (welder wildlife refuge, chaparrosa ranch, and campo alegre ranch) and subinoculated into domestic broad-breasted white turkey poults were positive for a plasmodium (novyella) sp. analysis of blood films from 350 turkeys revealed haemoproteus meleagridis in 76% of the birds. a significantly greater mean parasite intensity was observed in b ...19883127605
[attempted immunodepression of a lemur macaco macaco carrying plasmodium sp. utilization of corticoids]. 19883242426
plasmodium sp.: topography of intra- and extracellular parasites. 19734130524
plasmodium sp.: the relationship between erythrocyte morphology and parasitization in chickens, rats, and mice. 19725010603
parasitic infections of the grey-breasted helmet guinea-fowl (numida meleagris galeata) in nigeria.the major helminth parasites found in wild, semi-wild and golden sovereign stock guinea fowl were heterakis gallinarum, ascaridia galli, capillaria caudinflata, raillietina tetragona and r. echinobothrida, while eimeria species was the most important gastro-intestinal protozoan parasite. the incidence of the latter was higher in the semi-wild stock than in the wild stock. necropsy of dead guinea-fowl indicated that a. galli, h. gallinarum and eimeria species were indeed responsible for their dea ...19836683038
hemosporid parasitism of mallards at the southern periphery of their breeding range.thin blood smears from 37 juvenile mallards (anas platyrhynchos) collected in the playa lakes region of texas during summers 1990 and 1991 were examined for hemosporids. only one bird was infected with a plasmodium sp. parasite intensity was seven per 10,000 erthrocytes. the low prevalence of plasmodium sp. and the lack of other blood parasites in resident mallards suggests that hemosporid parasitism at the southern periphery of their breeding range is very different from that at the northern br ...19947702525
cytokines and t-cell response in malaria.the intracellular protozoan plasmodium sp induces a complex immune response which sometimes implies serious pathological effects for the host. according to in vitro studies and epidemiological surveys, several effector mechanisms are displayed against plasmodial blood stages and a large interaction between humoral and cell-mediated immunity is presumed to occur among protected individuals. the key role of t cells in the antiplasmodial immune response is now well established, but all the regulato ...19947919100
blood parasites in birds from monteverde, costa rica.in a survey of avian blood parasites in costa rica, 51 (11%) of 479 birds sampled were infected by at least one species of hematozoan. fourteen of the 60 species of birds in the survey were examined for the first time. infections were most common in ramphastids and emberizids and infrequent in other taxa. among resident species, infections were more commonly detected during the wet season when most birds breed than during the dry season when few birds breed. infections caused by haemoproteus sp. ...19938258853
complement does not facilitate plasmodial infections.the influence of the complement (c) system on plasmodial infections in vivo (plasmodium berghei in rats) and in vitro (plasmodium falciparum) has been determined. in rats c3 depletion by treatment of animals with the c3 inactivator isolated from cobra venom factor results in infection that develops more rapidly, reaches a higher peak of parasitemia and is associated with an increased mortality rate (60%), in contrast to a lower degree of parasitemia and lack of mortality in c3-intact rats. the i ...19817012239
observations on malaria in european perching birds (passeriformes).893 passeriformes birds belonging to 44 species and 14 families were investigated for blood parasites during a study running over 5 years. more than 1700 blood samples were taken. an average of 14% of the birds proved to be infected, most frequently with leucozytozoon and haemoproteus ( parahaemoproteus ). plasmodium sp. as well as other blood parasites were rarely found. positive findings were correlated to the number of birds investigated per species, to the frequency and mode of inspections, ...19846428078
resistance of ducks to a plasmodium sp. induced by a filterable agent. 19694987047
neutral proteases involved in the reinvasion of erythrocytes by plasmodium merozoites.neutral proteases of plasmodium sp erythrocytic stages were studied by means of a sensitive fluorogenic method and gelatin-sds-page. the substrates gluconoyl-val-leu-gly-lys(or arg)-3-amido-9-ethylcarbazole were selectively hydrolyzed by an endopeptidase from rodent plasmodium berghei (pb) and plasmodium chabaudi (pc) and from human plasmodium falciparum (pf) parasites. these endopeptidases were purified from 100,000-g soluble schizont extract by high pressure liquid chromatography; they have a ...19883067801
[plasmodia of lemurs in madagascar].lemur macaco macaco from ambanja region was found polyparasitized by four different species of plasmodium: --plasmodium coulangesi recently described by lepers et al. (1989). --p. bucki n. sp.: its main differential characterisitics are the large numvber (32) of merozoites produced in mature schizonts and the stippling, resembling maurer's dots, in an hypertrophied pinkish erythrocyte. --p. percygarnhami n. sp. (= p. girardi sensu uilenberg, 1970 pro parte and sensu garnham et uilenberg, 1975 pr ...19892764452
[a new plasmodium species from a lemur: plasmodium coulangesi n. sp].the splenectomy of a female lemur macaco macaco, showing a scanty blood infection by haemosporidians and a trypanosome was followed by a dramatic increase of the rate of intra-erythrocytic parasitaemia. three species of plasmodium where then identified. the first species was unknown; it is described in this paper and named plasmodium coulangesi n. sp. it is characterised by--the low (6). constant number of merozoites in mature schizonts,--the disposition of the pigment, well apart from the paras ...19892764451
abnormalities of leukocyte histograms resulting from microorganisms.the authors report a series of 13 patients seen in their laboratory during october 1985 to august 1988 in which the presence of bacterial, fungal, or malarial parasites visible on peripheral smear was correlated with an abnormal leukocyte histogram. samples submitted for complete blood count and differential counts were analyzed with coulter s-plus vi (seven specimens) or s-plus stkr (six specimens) instrumentation. organisms visualized on the wright-stained peripheral smears included histoplasm ...19902321584
stage-specific ultrastructural effects of desferrioxamine on plasmodium falciparum in vitro.desferrioxamine (dfo) is an iron chelator that inhibits the in vitro and in vivo growth of rodent and human malarial parasites. previous studies with this chelator have suggested that it might interfere with the intraerythrocytic growth of plasmodium sp. by withholding iron from any of several essential iron-dependent parasite enzymes, including those involved in co2 fixation, mitochondrial electron transport, pyrimidine synthesis, and the reduction of ribonucleotides for dna synthesis. we studi ...19911951869
infection and mortality in captive wild-trapped canvasback ducks.fungal, bacterial and malarial infections, as well as malnutrition caused heavy mortality in a group of wild-trapped canvasbacks (aythya valisineria) held in 10 x 3 x 2 m open-water pens. deaths occurred between 21 and 158 days after confinement and were associated with infections of aspergillus fumigatus, escherichia coli, staphylococcus sp., streptococcus sp., klebsiella sp., enterobacter sp., and plasmodium sp. infection and mortality was believed to result from reduced resistance associated ...19761255909
mosquito-plasmodium interactions in response to immune activation of the vector.during the development of plasmodium sp. within the mosquito midgut, the parasite undergoes a series of developmental changes. the elongated ookinete migrates through the layers of the midgut where it forms the oocyst under the basal lamina. we demonstrate here that if aedes aegypti or anopheles gambiae, normally susceptible to plasmodium gallinaceum and p. berghei, respectively, are immune activated by the injection of bacteria into the hemocoel, and subsequently are fed on an infectious bloodm ...19999920043
sequence variation in the small-subunit rrna gene of plasmodium malariae and prevalence of isolates with the variant sequence in sichuan, china.by two pcr-based diagnostic methods, plasmodium malariae infections have been rediscovered at two foci in the sichuan province of china, a region where no cases of p. malariae have been officially reported for the last 2 decades. in addition, a variant form of p. malariae which has a deletion of 19 bp and seven substitutions of base pairs in the target sequence of the small-subunit (ssu) rrna gene was detected with high frequency. alignment analysis of plasmodium sp. ssu rrna gene sequences reve ...19989774600
[risk of transmission of infectious diseases by transfusion].in obstetric patients transfusion is a common procedure, it has many advantages but it also has severe risks. since the observation that human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection is transmitted by transfusion, the number of preventive measures to reduce the infectious diseases transmission by this procedure has increased. the microorganisms that can be transmitted through transfusion include: human t lymphotropic virus (htlv) i and ii, hepatitis b virus, hepatitis c virus, hepatitis d virus, ...19989737068
parasitic infections in sickle cell crisis: nigerian experience.data collected on 150 sickle cell patients in nigeria were analyzed to determine the frequency of parasitic infections in clinical and hematologic crisis. fifty-three adult and 97 pediatric patients (mean age: 27.6 years and 9.7 years, respectively) were studied. of these patients, 82 were males and 68 females. one hundred thirty-nine had the ss and 11 the sc genotype. blood samples collected from patients on admission for sickle cell-related illnesses were examined microscopically for evidence ...19979145635
hemosporid (apicomplexa, hematozoea, hemosporida) community structure off pattern in wintering wild turkeys.the hemosporid community of 76 wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo silvestris) from south carolina (usa) was examined using thin blood smears collected during january and february 1994. high prevalences and low abundances of hemosporids characterized this community. leucocytozoon smithi and haemoproteus meleagridis occurred in 100% and 54% of the turkeys, respectively; a plasmodium sp. was found in one bird. prevalence of h. meleagridis was significantly higher in juvenile turkeys than adults, but ...19958592366
blood parasites of wild and domestic animals from south kalimantan (borneo), indonesia.wild and domestic animals trapped from forests, villages, and rice fields in south kalimantan (3 degrees 20' s, 115 degrees 02' e, 25 m) were examined for blood parasites using giemsa stained thick and thin blood films and nuclepore filter preparations of peripheral vein and heart puncture blood. presbytis cristatus (silvered leaf monkey) (25%) and felis catus (domestic cat) (7%) were infected with brugia malayi and b. pahangi. in addition, p. cristatus was infected with wuchereria kalimantani ( ...19816789456
the mic1 microneme protein of toxoplasma gondii contains a duplicated receptor-like domain and binds to host cell surface.the cdna encoding the toxoplasma gondii microneme protein mic1 and the corresponding gene have been cloned and sequenced. the mic1 gene contains three introns. the cdna encodes a 456 amino acid (aa) sequence, with a typical signal sequence and no other trans-membrane domain. the protein contains a tandemly duplicated domain with conservation of cysteines and presents distant homology with the plasmodium sp. microneme protein trap-ssp2. the mic1 protein from tachyzoite lysates and a pmal recombin ...19969027753
[control of blood transfusion malaria in an endemic and in a non-endemic region in brazil].the aim of the present work was to establish appropriate criteria for screening of donor blood from regions with distinct malaria epidemiological characteristics. three locations with different screening criteria were studied: são paulo, sp (with no vectorial transmission), belém, pa (with low active transmission) and matupá and peixoto de azevedo, mt (with high active transmission). the malaria parasite--plasmodium sp--was searched for by "thick film", qbc test and antigen immunofluorescence te ...19989477695
plasmodium relictum as a cause of avian malaria in wild-caught magellanic penguins (spheniscus magellanicus).avian malaria (plasmodium relictum) caused significant mortality in wild-caught magellanic penguins (spheniscus magellanicus) in 1986 at the blank park zoo in des moines, iowa (usa). in early winter, wild birds were captured off the southern coast of chile and flown to detroit, michigan for a 38 day quarantine. after quarantine, 18 birds were dispersed to lansing, michigan, six to a facility in maine, and 46 to des moines, iowa. upon arrival in des moines, several penguins became weak and inacti ...19883193555
plasmodium sp infecting turkeys in northern nigeria. 19744450382
shotgun dna microarrays and stage-specific gene expression in plasmodium falciparum malaria.malaria infects over 200 million individuals and kills 2 million young children every year. understanding the biology of malarial parasites will be facilitated by dna microarray technology, which can track global changes in gene expression under different physiological conditions. however, genomes of plasmodium sp. (and many other important pathogenic organisms) remain to be fully sequenced so, currently, it is not possible to construct gene-specific microarrays representing complete malarial ge ...200010632873
analysis of polymorphic region of gam-1 gene in plasmodium vivax korean isolates.the identification, characterization and quantification of plasmodium sp. genetic polymorphism are becoming increasingly important in the vaccine development. we investigated polymorphism of plasmodium vivax gam-1 (pvgam-1) gene in 30 korean isolates. the polymorphic region of the pvgam-1 gene, corresponding to nt 3792-4029, was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) followed by sequencing. all of the p. vivax korean isolates were one type of gam-1 gene, which were identical to that of ...200111775332
daughter cell assembly in the protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii.the phylum apicomplexa includes thousands of species of obligate intracellular parasites, many of which are significant human and/or animal pathogens. parasites in this phylum replicate by assembling daughters within the mother, using a cytoskeletal and membranous scaffolding termed the inner membrane complex. most apicomplexan parasites, including plasmodium sp. (which cause malaria), package many daughters within a single mother during mitosis, whereas toxoplasma gondii typically packages only ...200211854415
phosphatidylcholine formation is the predominant lipid biosynthetic event in the hemoparasite babesia bovis.this work examines the lipid composition and metabolism of bovine red blood cells infected by apicomplexan babesia parasites, organisms closely related to plasmodium sp. we found that erythrocytes infected with babesia bovis (i-rbc) accumulate lipids and show striking increases in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol and cholesteryl esters as compared to uninfected erythrocytes cultured under the same conditions (n-rbc). a similar pattern was observed in cultures of erythrocyte ...200010743618
malaria in a captive emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) from florida.severe anemia and intraerythrocytic stages of an unusual plasmodium sp. were identified in the blood of a 5-month-old female emu (dromaius novaehollandiae) that had a 4-week history of malaise. examination of blood taken 3 days prior to the death of the bird revealed a packed cell volume of 10%. erythrocytes showed a marked regenerative response. approximately 4% of erythrocytes had intracytoplasmic inclusions, mainly within immature cells, resembling malarial parasites. the schizonts were a com ...19968790903
lyophilisation and resuscitation of sporozoites of theileria parva: preliminary experiments.lyophilisation of theileria parva sporozoite stabilates used for immunisation of cattle against east coast fever would greatly improve vaccine storage and delivery. we report three attempts to lyophilise and resuscitate the sporozoites of t. parva. sporozoites survived lyophilisation and were effective for immunisation. lyophilised stabilate survived for 2 weeks at 5 degrees c and for 12 weeks at -20 degrees c. although the viability of the stabilates was severely reduced during lyophilisation, ...200314615148
performance of optimal(r) in the diagnosis of plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum infections in a malaria referral center in colombia.alternative, non-microscopic methods for the diagnosis of malaria have recently become available. among these, rapid dipstick methods stand out. one such test, optimal(r), is based on the immunochromatographic detection of plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pldh) and has the capacity to detect and distinguish infections caused by p. falciparum and plasmodium sp. this capacity is particularly important in countries where different species of plasmodium co-exist. in this study we evaluated the perf ...200212219143
acquired immune responses to the n- and c-terminal regions of plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 in individuals exposed to malaria.in this study, we evaluated the naturally acquired immune response to plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (pvmsp1) in individuals with recent clinical episodes of malaria from the state of para, brazil. ten recombinant proteins representing the first 682 amino acids (aa) of the n-terminal region and one representing the final 111 aa of the c-terminal region were expressed in escherichia coli as glutathione s-transferase fusion proteins. both of these regions have been suggested as candi ...19979125537
plasmodium sp.: optimal protocols for pcr detection of low parasite numbers from mosquito (anopheles sp.) samples. 200010831396
structure and chemistry of apicidins, a class of novel cyclic tetrapeptides without a terminal alpha-keto epoxide as inhibitors of histone deacetylase with potent antiprotozoal activities.apicidins are a class of cyclic tetrapeptides that do not contain the classical electrophilic alpha-keto epoxide yet are potent (nm) inhibitors of histone deacetylase and antiprotozoal agents. these compounds showed broad-spectrum activities against the apicomplexan family of protozoa including plasmodium sp (malarial parasite), toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium sp., and eimeria sp. these cyclic peptides contain a beta-turn amino acid (r)-pip or (r)-pro, (s)-n-methoxy trp, (s)-ile, or (s)-val, ...200211856024
[national network study to perpetuate the surveillance of plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to antimalarials in madagascar].to redefine strategy and policy to cure or to prevent malaria, there is a need to get relevant and updated data on plasmodium sp sensitivity level to antimalarial drugs. thus, in september 1999, the madagascan ministry of health and the institut pasteur de madagascar (ipm) formed a network named rer for malaria resistance surveillance. to alleviate the lack of experienced medical teams within the health centres, and due to technical and logistic matters, as part of the network activities, it was ...200212643098
a pcr test for avian malaria in hawaiian birds.the decline of native hawaiian forest birds since european contact is attributed to factors ranging from habitat destruction to interactions with introduced species. remaining populations of hawaiian honeycreepers (fringillidae: drepanidinae) are most abundant and diverse in high elevation refuges above the normal range of disease-carrying mosquitoes. challenge experiments suggest that honeycreepers are highly susceptible to avian malaria (plasmodium sp.) but resistance exists in some species. i ...19958564006
a survey of hemoparasite infections in free-ranging mammals and reptiles in french guiana.blood smears of 1,353 free-ranging mammals (35 species) and 112 reptiles (31 species) from french guiana were examined for hemoparasites. parasites from 3 major groups were recorded: apicomplexa (including hemogregarines, piroplasms, and plasmodium spp.), trypanosomatidae, and filaroidea. fifty percent of the individuals (86% of the species) were infected by parasites from at least 1 group. hemogregarines, identified as hepatozoon sp., infected numerous snakes with high prevalences (30-100%); in ...200011128476
genetic vaccination against malaria infection by intradermal and epidermal injections of a plasmid containing the gene encoding the plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite protein.the circumsporozoite protein (csp) from the surface of sporozoite stage plasmodium sp. malaria parasites is among the most important of the malaria vaccine candidates. gene gun injection of genetic vaccines encoding plasmodium berghei csp induces a significant protective effect against sporozoite challenge; however, intramuscular injection does not. in the present study we compared the immune responses and protective effects induced by p. berghei csp genetic vaccines delivered intradermally with ...200010992502
preliminary results of an anticircumsporozoite dna vaccine trial for protection against avian malaria in captive african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).captive juvenile african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) housed in an outdoor enclosure at the baltimore zoo have an average 50% mortality from avian malarial (plasmodium sp.) infection each year without intense monitoring for disease and chemotherapeutic intervention. during the 1996 malaria transmission season, the safety and efficacy of an anti-circumsporozoite (csp) dna vaccine encoding the plasmodium gallinaceum csp protein against p. relictum were studied. the goal was to reduc ...200415305509
antibody recognition of rodent malaria parasite antigens exposed at the infected erythrocyte surface: specificity of immunity generated in hyperimmune mice.in regions where malaria is endemic, inhabitants remain susceptible to repeated reinfection as they develop and maintain clinical immunity. this immunity includes responses to surface-exposed antigens on plasmodium sp.-infected erythrocytes. some of these parasite-encoded antigens may be diverse and phenotypically variable, and the ability to respond to this diversity and variability is an important component of acquired immunity. characterizing the relative specificities of antibody responses d ...200111254617
clinical pathology and morphometrics of african fish eagles in uganda.packed cell volumes (pcvs) and plasma chemistry parameters were measured in 15 adult and 18 nestling african fish eagles (haliaeetus vocifer) sampled from june 2002 through january 2003 in uganda. morphologic measurements were obtained from 15 adult eagles. all eagles were examined for blood parasites and sexed by examination of dna from red blood cells. ten adults and eight nestlings were sampled from lake mburo and five adults and 10 nestlings were sampled from lake victoria near entebbe, ugan ...200415465720
re-examination of inhibitor resistance conferred by qo-site mutations in cytochrome b using yeast as a model system.cytochrome b from yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae meyer ex hansen) provides a convenient model system for the study of qo-site inhibitor (qoi) resistance mutations from a variety of organisms. qoi resistance mutations from fungal plant pathogens (g143a and f129l), malaria agent plasmodium sp (y279c/s), and pneumocystis carinii (l275f), an opportunistic pathogenic fungus of man, were introduced into yeast cytochrome b and their effect on the binding of a variety of natural (myxothiazol and stigma ...200515912560
a type ii pathway for fatty acid biosynthesis presents drug targets in plasmodium falciparum.it has long been held that the malaria parasite, plasmodium sp., is incapable of de novo fatty acid synthesis. this view has recently been overturned with the emergence of data for the presence of a fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in the relict plastid of p. falciparum (known as the apicoplast). this pathway represents the type ii pathway common to plant chloroplasts and bacteria but distinct from the type i pathway of animals including humans. specific inhibitors of the type ii pathway, thiolac ...200312499205
a plasmodium sp. from a glossy tree-starling (aplonis panayensis strigatus). 196514306412
[a case with fever of unknown origin during treatment for malaria: multi-drug resistant salmonella typhi infection].typhoid fever is an acute infectious disease caused by salmonella serotype typhi, leading to endemic or epidemic outbreaks in tropical/ subtropical countries (especially in india, southeast asia, central and south africa). in this report, a 27 years old male patient with malaria has been presented. the patient was diagnosed to have malaria while working in afghanistan, and received malaria treatment since one month. he admitted to our hospital because of still continuing high fever, and other co ...200515900841
a plasmodium sp. from the crested agamid lizard (gonyocephalus grandis) in peninsular malaysia. 19744432107
importance of cd8 t cell-mediated immune response during intracellular parasitic infections and its implications for the development of effective vaccines.obligatory intracellular parasites such as plasmodium sp, trypanosoma cruzi, toxoplasma gondii and leishmania sp are responsible for the infection of hundreds of millions of individuals every year. these parasites can deliver antigens to the host cell cytoplasm that are presented through mhc class i molecules to protective cd8 t cells. the in vivo priming conditions of specific cd8 t cells during natural infection are largely unknown and remain as an area that has been poorly explored. the antip ...200314605680
autologous lymphoblastoid cell lines stably transfected with plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein as targets in cytotoxic t-lymphocyte assays.to produce cell lines that can be used as a continuous source of antigen presenting cells for stimulating t-cell lines and clones and as targets in cytotoxic t-lymphocyte (ctl) assays, we used a retroviral vector with a simian virus (sv40) early promotor to transfer a plasmodium falciparum circumporozoite (pfcsp) gene into human ebv transformed b-lymphoblastoid cell lines (b-lcl). we herein report successful, stable transfection and cell surface expression of this gene, as confirmed by pcr, west ...19979161886
the cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein is a member of a multigene family and has a homolog in toxoplasma.coccidian parasites are transmitted via a fecal oocyst stage that is exceptionally resistant to environmental stress and harsh chemical treatments, which allows parasites to stably persist outside a host. because of its oocyst durability cryptosporidium parvum is a significant water- and food-borne pathogen of humans, as well as animals of agricultural importance. to date, only one apicomplexan oocyst membrane protein has been identified, cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein 1 (cowp1). cowp1 has ...200414742544
targeting and processing of nuclear-encoded apicoplast proteins in plastid segregation mutants of toxoplasma gondii.the apicoplast is a distinctive organelle associated with apicomplexan parasites, including plasmodium sp. (which cause malaria) and toxoplasma gondii (the causative agent of toxoplasmosis). this unusual structure (acquired by the engulfment of an ancestral alga and retention of the algal plastid) is essential for long-term parasite survival. similar to other endosymbiotic organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts), the apicoplast contains proteins that are encoded in the nucleus and post-translati ...200111319231
identification of regulatory elements in the plasmodium falciparum genome.there is little information regarding regulatory sequences in the newly sequenced genome of the malaria parasite, plasmodium falciparum. thus, for the first time, a bioinformatic strategy was utilized to identify regulatory elements in this genome using the p. falciparum heat shock protein (hsp) gene family as a model system. our analysis indicates that the p. falciparum hsp genes do not contain standard eukaryotic regulatory elements. however, a novel g-rich regulatory element named the g-box w ...200414747145
mosquito mortality and the evolution of malaria virulence.several laboratory studies of malaria parasites (plasmodium sp.) and some field observations suggest that parasite virulence, defined as the harm a parasite causes to its vertebrate host, is positively correlated with transmission. given this advantage, what limits the continual evolution of higher parasite virulence? one possibility is that while more virulent strains are more infectious, they are also more lethal to mosquitoes. in this study, we tested whether the virulence of the rodent malar ...200314761058
a plastid segregation defect in the protozoan parasite toxoplasma gondii.apicomplexan parasites--including the causative agents of malaria (plasmodium sp.) and toxoplasmosis (toxoplasma gondii)--harbor a secondary endosymbiotic plastid, acquired by lateral genetic transfer from a eukaryotic alga. the apicoplast has attracted considerable attention, both as an evolutionary novelty and as a potential target for chemotherapy. we report a recombinant fusion (between a nuclear-encoded apicoplast protein, the green fluorescent protein and a rhoptry protein) that targets to ...200111157740
age grading anopheles arabiensis: their gorging and surviving responses using a membrane feeding system.literature on artificial membrane feeding has traditionally supported the notion that mosquitoes have to be enough old to present a high gorging rate and enough young to present a high surviving rate. in order to know the best mosquito age to perform a plasmodium sp. experimental infection revealed by oocyst examination, anopheles arabiensis of known ages were fed on baudruche membrane with fresh human blood thermostated at 37 degrees c. the response was evaluated in term of gorging after ten mi ...19989754303
taxonomic status and re-description of plasmodium relictum (grassi et feletti, 1891), plasmodium maior raffaele, 1931, and description of p. bigueti n. sp. in sparrows.the first accurate re-description of plasmodium relictum (grassi et feletti, 1891) in its type host was provided by raffaele in 1931, and the name relictum should thus refer to this work. in his article, raffaele noted the presence of an associated but distinct species, p. maior. the work of raffaele has since remained overlooked, and the taxon relictum has been applied rather loosely to parasites found in numerous birds of diverse geographic origin. examination of passer domesticus specimens co ...200315267099
low sensitivity of nested pcr using plasmodium dna extracted from stained thick blood smears: an epidemiological retrospective study among subjects with low parasitaemia in an endemic area of the brazilian amazon region.the success of pcr technique depends on many factors, such as high quality dna pellets obtained from blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. taking these limitations into account, a retrospective epidemiological study for malaria diagnosis was conducted in a mesoendemic area in the brazilian amazon.200415056392
song as an indicator of parasitism in the sedge warbler.we studied female choice and reproductive success in a marked population of sedge warblers acrocephalus schoenobaenus, from 1995 to 1996. three genera of parasitic blood protozoans, namely haemoproteus sp. trypanosoma sp. plasmodium sp., were identified from blood samples taken from all breeding adults. relatively high prevalence values of 19.5% in 1995 and 37.5% in 1996 were associated with increased levels of white blood cells relative to the number of red blood cells. compared with nonparasit ...199910049469
[characteristics of the immune response in protozoan infections].introduction: when protozoa enter the blood stream or tissues they can often survive and replicate because they adapt to the resisting natural host defenses. the interaction of immune system with infectious organisms is a dynamic interplay of host mechanisms aimed at eliminating infections and microbial strategies designed to permit survival in the face of powerful effector mechanisms. protozoa cause chronic and persistent infections, because natural immunity against them is weak and because pro ...200315080050
the hospital- and field-based performances of the optimal test, for malaria diagnosis and treatment monitoring in central india.the performance of the optimal test, to detect and differentiate plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax, was evaluated in central india. the subjects were either symptomatic patients, who presented at a referral hospital in urban jabalpur, or the inhabitants of remote, tribal, forested villages where malaria is a major public-health problem. in each setting, the results of conventional microscopy were used as the 'gold standard'. under hospital conditions, the test had excellent sensitivity (100%), ...200312662417
some studies on parasites affecting egyptian kite.a total of 20 egyptian kites (milvus migrans aegypticus) were examined. sixteen (80%) had mallophagous lice; craspedorhynchus spathulatus and 2 of which had in addition colpocephalum heterosoma (10%). the blood protozoa were (7/20, 35%), plasmodium sp. (2/20, 10%) and haemoproteus sp. (5/20, 25%). the enteric protozoa were (4/20, 20%), isospra aegyptia (3/20, 15%) and eimeria maxima (1/20, 5%).200616927863
temporal and spatial variation of hematozoans in scandinavian willow warblers.we examined temporal and geographical distribution of haemoproteus sp. and plasmodium sp. parasites in swedish willow warblers, phylloscopus trochilus. parasite lineages were detected with molecular methods in 556 birds from 41 sites distributed at distances up to 1,500 km. two mitochondrial lineages of haemoproteus sp. were detected, ww1 in 56 birds and ww2 in 75 birds, that differed by 5.2% sequence divergence. we discuss the reasons behind the observed pattern of variation and identify 3 poss ...200312760661
comparative study of amino acid production in erythrocytes parasitized by plasmodium sp. and babesia hylomysci.parasitized red blood cells are incubated in an isotonic buffer and the release of amino acids is determined in the cells and the buffer according to time. erythrocytes parasitized by p. yoelii nigeriensis showed an intense release of amino acids whereas those parasitized by b. hylomysci behaved almost like the uninfected erythrocytes. a large amount of the amino acids produced by proteolysis are thus released out of the red blood cell. red blood cells parasitized by p. berghei and p. berghei ch ...19836872523
expansion of the receptor-like kinase/pelle gene family and receptor-like proteins in arabidopsis.receptor-like kinases (rlks) are a family of transmembrane proteins with versatile n-terminal extracellular domains and c-terminal intracellular kinases. they control a wide range of physiological responses in plants and belong to one of the largest gene families in the arabidopsis genome with more than 600 members. interestingly, this gene family constitutes 60% of all kinases in arabidopsis and accounts for nearly all transmembrane kinases in arabidopsis. analysis of four fungal, six metazoan, ...200312805585
plasmodium spp. in raptors on the eurasian-african migration route.examination of blood smears obtained from raptors trapped while on migration at eilat, israel, demonstrated plasmodium infection in accipiter brevipes and buteo buteo. the following species are described, from a. brevipes: plasmodium alloelongatum n. sp., p. accipiteris n. sp. and from b. buteo: p. buteonis n. sp. and plasmodium sp. for which we lack sufficient data for adequate species description. overall prevalence of infection with plasmodium spp. was very low: among 38 examined a. brevipes ...200718225420
serological expression cloning of novel immunoreactive antigens of babesia microti.increased recognition of the prevalence of human babesiosis in the united states, together with rising concern about the potential for transmission of this infection by blood transfusion, has provided motivation to develop definitive serologic and molecular tests for the causative agent, babesia microti. to develop more sensitive and specific assays for b. microti, we screened a genomic expression library with patient serum pools. this screening resulted in the identification of three classes of ...200010768973
population structure and genetic divergence in anopheles nuneztovari (diptera: culicidae) from brazil and colombia.anopheles nuneztovari is considered an important vector of human malaria in several localities in venezuela and colombia. its status as a vector of human malaria is still unresolved in areas of the brazilian amazon, in spite of have been found infected with plasmodium sp.. for a better understanding of the genetic differentiation of populations of a. nuneztovari, electrophoretic analysis using 11 enzymes was performed on four populations from brazil and two from colombia. the results showed a st ...199910403335
'fas't inhibition of malaria.malaria, a tropical disease caused by plasmodium sp., has been haunting mankind for ages. unsuccessful attempts to develop a vaccine, the emergence of resistance against the existing drugs and the increasing mortality rate all call for immediate strategies to treat it. intense attempts are underway to develop potent analogues of the current antimalarials, as well as a search for novel drug targets in the parasite. the indispensability of apicoplast (plastid) to the survival of the parasite has a ...200415315475
[malaria control in the post-genomic era].with the publication of seminal articles on the genomic sequence of plasmodium falciparum and p. yoelii yoelii last autumn following the articles on genome of anopheles gambiae, man, and mice, malariology stepped indubitably into a new era. a major finding of genome annotation is that nearly 60% of plasmodium sp. have no functional attribution and that a high proportion of p. falciparum sequences have no counterpart in p. yoelii. in the light of these findings it will now be possible to explore ...200314579459
pharmacological inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases.cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) regulate the cell division cycle, apoptosis, transcription and differentiation in addition to functions in the nervous system. deregulation of cdks in various diseases has stimulated an intensive search for selective pharmacological inhibitors of these kinases. more than 50 inhibitors have been identified, among which >20 have been co-crystallized with cdk2. these inhibitors all target the atp-binding pocket of the catalytic site of the kinase. the actual selectiv ...200212237154
natural plasmodium infections in brazilian wild monkeys: reservoirs for human infections?four hundred and forty-eight samples of total blood from wild monkeys living in areas where human autochthonous malaria cases have been reported were screened for the presence of plasmodium using microscopy and pcr analysis. samples came from the following distinct ecological areas of brazil: atlantic forest (n=140), semideciduous atlantic forest (n=257) and cerrado (a savannah-like habitat) (n=51). thick and thin blood smears of each specimen were examined and plasmodium infection was screened ...200818620330
plasmodium falciparum resistant to chloroquine and to pyrimethamine in comoros.we report the outcome of chloroquine treatment and the prevalence of mutations at codon 86 of the pfmdr1 gene, at codon 76 of the pfcrt gene, and at codon 108 of the pfdhfr gene in clinical isolates of plasmodium falciparum collected from 30 children under 10 years of age living in the comoros union. this in vivo study was carried out in february and march 2001 in moroni. chloroquine treatment failed in 23 children (76.6%; 95% confidence interval: 57.7 to 90.1%). subsequent genotyping showed tha ...200415638145
dynamic rna profiling in plasmodium falciparum synchronized blood stages exposed to lethal doses of artesunate.translation of the genome sequence of plasmodium sp. into biologically relevant information relies on high through-put genomics technology which includes transcriptome analysis. however, few studies to date have used this powerful approach to explore transcriptome alterations of p. falciparum parasites exposed to antimalarial drugs.200818706115
[malaria in poland in 2001].in 2001, 27 malaria cases were registered in poland. all of them were imported, mainly from africa (18 cases). plasmodium vivax infection was confirmed in eleven cases, p. falciparum--in ten, p. falciparum/p. vivax--in four, p. malariae--in one and plasmodium sp.--in one. among 27 malaria cases 17 were men and 16 in 20-49 years old group. twelve persons travelled abroad as tourists, five--as missionaries, three--in the connection with their job. in 2001 malaria deaths were not notified.200312926326
[hematozoon cenoses of small rodents and insectivora in the orenburg region].a total of 2942 specimens of 15 species of ground rodents and insectova in the orenburg region were caught and examined during long-term studies. the investigators detected 7 taxonomic groups of hematozoons: rickettsia (anaplasma sp., grahamella sp., haemobartonella sp.), protozoa (trypanosoma sp., plasmodium sp., piroplasma sp.), and nematodes (filariidae spp., larval stages). the authors give information on the species composition and infection extensiveness of individual systematic groups of ...200717912832
detection of a malaria parasite (plasmodium mexicanum) in ectoparasites (mites and ticks), and possible significance for transmission.two species of sandflies (lutzomyia) are competent vectors of plasmodium mexicanum, a malaria parasite of lizards. the very patchy distribution of sites with high p. mexicanum prevalence in the lizards, and often low or even nil sandfly density at such sites, provoked an evaluation of 2 common lizard ectoparasites, the tick ixodes pacificus and the mite geckobiella occidentalis, as potential passive vectors. plasmodium sp.-specific polymerase chain primers were used to amplify a long segment of ...200616729709
munumbicins, wide-spectrum antibiotics produced by streptomyces nrrl 30562, endophytic on kennedia nigriscans.munumbicins a, b, c and d are newly described antibiotics with a wide spectrum of activity against many human as well as plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria, and a plasmodium sp. these compounds were obtained from streptomyces nrrl 3052, which is endophytic in the medicinal plant snakevine (kennedia nigriscans), native to the northern territory of australia. this endophyte was cultured, the broth was extracted with an organic solvent and the contents of the residue were purified by bioassay-guid ...200212213914
a new challenge for malaria control in brazil: asymptomatic plasmodium infection--a review.the evolution of malaria in brazil, its morbidity, the malaria control programs, and the new challenges for these programs in the light of the emergence of asymptomatic infection in the amazon region of brazil were reviewed. at least six brazilian research groups have demonstrated that asymptomatic infection by plasmodium is an important impediment to malaria control, among mineral prospectors in mato grosso and riverside communities in rondônia and, in our group, in the middle and upper reaches ...200616862314
plasmodium diversity in non-malaria individuals from the bioko island in equatorial guinea (west central-africa).in this paper we analyse the plasmodium sp. prevalence in three villages with different isolation status on the island of bioko (equatorial guinea) where malaria is a hyper-endemic disease. we also describe the genetic diversity of p. falciparum, using several plasmodia proteins as markers which show a high degree of polymorphism (msp-1 and msp-2). the results obtained from three different populations are compared in order to establish the impact of human movements and interventions.200616784527
parasites in a biodiversity hotspot: a survey of hematozoa and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of plasmodium in new guinea skinks.a sample of 204 skinks (squamata: scincidae) from 10 genera representing 24 species were collected from 10 different localities in new guinea and examined for blood parasites. hemogregarines, trypanosomes, microfilarial worms, and 8 infections showing 2 distinct morphological types of malaria parasites (plasmodium sp.) were observed. molecular sequence data, in the form of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences from the plasmodium infections, showed 2 distinct clades of parasites, 1 in sphenomorph ...200616995395
detection of plasmodium sp. in capybara.in the present study, we have microscopically and molecularly surveyed blood samples from 11 captive capybaras (hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the sanctuary zoo for plasmodium sp. infection. one animal presented positive on blood smear by light microscopy. polymerase chain reaction was carried out accordingly using a nested genus-specific protocol, which uses oligonucleotides from conserved sequences flanking a variable sequence region in the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssrrna) of all plasmodi ...200919411142
[usefulness of the "optimal rapid malaria test" for rapid detection of malaria imported to poland].in this survey the use of optimal test for rapid diagnosis of malaria was evaluated. it was proved that this test allowed to diagnose the plasmodium sp. antigen in 72% of examined blood specimens, 82% for p. falciparum infection and 69% for p. vivax, whereas p. ovale was not detected at all. the test sensitivity depended on the parasitemia level. it showed a sensitivity of 100% for parasitemia density exceeded 1%, 95.4% with the parasitemia ranging from 0.1-0.99%. for lower parasite density, the ...200416862709
clotrimazole, ketoconazole, and clodinafop-propargyl as potent growth inhibitors of equine babesia parasites during in vitro culture.the antifungal agents clotrimazole (clt) and ketoconazole (kc) and the herbicide clodinafop-propargyl (cp) inhibit growth of plasmodium sp., toxoplasma sp., and trypanosoma sp. in the present study, we evaluated these drugs against the in vitro growth of the equine protozoan parasites babesia equi and b. caballi. clotrimazole (ic50: 2 and 17 microm), kc (ic50: 6 and 22 microm), and cp (ic50: 450 and 354 microm) were effective growth inhibitors. interestingly, intraerythrocytic kc-treated babesia ...200312880264
hepatosplenic gammadelta t-cell lymphoma following seven malaria infections.hepatosplenic gammadelta t-cell lymphoma (hstl) is a clinicopathological entity associated with an immunocompromised status in approximately 25% of patients. herein is described a case of hstl in a 53-year-old brazilian man with seven previous malaria infections, initially misdiagnosed as a hyperreactive splenomegaly due to chronic malaria. a characteristic lymphoid infiltrate was observed in spleen, liver and bone marrow sinusoids/sinuses. neoplastic cells had a cd45ro+, cd2+, cd7+, cd3+, cd5-, ...200617040289
avian haemosporidian parasites infection in wild birds inhabiting minami-daito island of the northwest pacific, japan.haemosporidian parasites infection among wild birds inhabiting minami-daito island was studied. blood films from 183 birds representing 4 species of 4 families were examined microscopically. avian haemosporidian parasites were detected in 3 species with an overall prevalence of 59.6%. none of the 30 daito scops owls (otus scops interpositus) examined were infected. either haemoproteus sp. or plasmodium sp. infection was found in 14 of 31 (45.2%) borodino islands white-eyes (zosterops japonicus d ...200818525175
stronger activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors against clinical isolates of plasmodium vivax than against those of p. falciparum.recent studies using laboratory clones have demonstrated that several antiretroviral protease inhibitors (pis) inhibit the growth of plasmodium falciparum at concentrations that may be of clinical significance, especially during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and malaria coinfection. using clinical isolates, we now demonstrate the in vitro effectiveness of two hiv-1 aspartic pis, saquinavir (sqv) and ritonavir (rtv), against p. vivax (n = 30) and p. falciparum (n = 20) from populati ...200818443130
self-reactivities to the non-erythroid alpha spectrin correlate with cerebral malaria in gabonese children.hypergammaglobulinemia and polyclonal b-cell activation commonly occur in plasmodium sp. infections. some of the antibodies produced recognize self-components and are correlated with disease severity in p. falciparum malaria. however, it is not known whether some self-reactive antibodies produced during p. falciparum infection contribute to the events leading to cerebral malaria (cm). we show here a correlation between self-antibody responses to a human brain protein and high levels of circulati ...200717460756
selection by flow-sorting of genetically transformed, gfp-expressing blood stages of the rodent malaria parasite, plasmodium berghei.this protocol describes a methodology for the genetic transformation of the rodent malaria parasite plasmodium berghei and the subsequent selection of transformed parasites expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp) by flow-sorting. it provides methods for: transfection of the schizont stage with dna constructs that contain gfp as the selectable marker; selection of fluorescent mutants by flow-sorting; and injection of flow-sorted, gfp-expressing parasites into mice and the subsequent collection ...200617406288
immobilization of the type xiv myosin complex in toxoplasma gondii.the substrate-dependent movement of apicomplexan parasites such as toxoplasma gondii and plasmodium sp. is driven by the interaction of a type xiv myosin with f-actin. a complex containing the myosin-a heavy chain, a myosin light chain, and the accessory protein gap45 is attached to the membranes of the inner membrane complex (imc) through its tight interaction with the integral membrane glycoprotein gap50. for the interaction of this complex with f-actin to result in net parasite movement, it i ...200717538016
an outbreak of malaria in penguins at the farm-land zoo.in june of 1983 authors had investigated the occurrence of the avian malaria in the humboldt penguins imported from japan to the farm-land zoo in central district of korea. the disease was characterized by acute course and high mortality. the peripheral blood smears from the affected penguins demonstrated different developmental stages of plasmodium sp. in the mature erythrocytes. the predominant gross lesions noticed were pulmonary and epicardial edema and hepato-splenomegaly. microscopically t ...198412891023
bacteria of the genus asaia stably associate with anopheles stephensi, an asian malarial mosquito vector.here, we show that an alpha-proteobacterium of the genus asaia is stably associated with larvae and adults of anopheles stephensi, an important mosquito vector of plasmodium vivax, a main malaria agent in asia. asaia bacteria dominate mosquito-associated microbiota, as shown by 16s rrna gene abundance, quantitative pcr, transmission electron microscopy and in situ-hybridization of 16s rrna genes. in adult mosquitoes, asaia sp. is present in high population density in the female gut and in the ma ...200717502606
interaction between artemisinin and heme. a density functional theory study of structures and interaction energies.malaria is an infectious disease caused by the unicellular parasite plasmodium sp. currently, the malaria parasite is becoming resistant to the traditional pharmacological alternatives, which are ineffective. artemisinin is the most recent advance in the chemotherapy of malaria. since it has been proven that artemisinin may act on intracellular heme, we have undertaken a systematic study of several interactions and arrangements between artemisinin and heme. density functional theory calculations ...200818375130
blood parasites in wood storks (mycteria americana) from the southeastern united states.wood storks (mycteria americana) are endangered throughout their breeding range in the united states. because of this, researchers have had little opportunity to thoroughly examine the continental wood stork population for endoparasites. the blood protozoan haemoproteus crumenium has been identified from several populations of wood storks in north america. however, there have been no reports of wood storks being infected with species of plasmodium or leucocytozoon. during 2003, 42 nestling wood ...200818576809
plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1: comparative recognition of different domains by antibodies induced during natural human infection.the apical membrane antigen-1 (ama-1) of plasmodium sp. has been suggested as a vaccine candidate against malaria. this protein seems to be involved in merozoite invasion and its extra-cellular portion contains three distinct domains: di, dii, and diii. previously, we described that plasmodium vivax ama-1 (pvama-1) ectodomain is highly immunogenic in natural human infections. here, we expressed each domain, separately or in combination (di-ii or dii-iii), as bacterial recombinant proteins to map ...200818692152
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