some comparative aspects of the organ distribution of superoxide dismutase activity in the freshwater turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans.1. superoxide dismutase activities in five tissues of the relatively anaerobic freshwater turtle were compared with sod activities in the same tissues of two mammalian species (mouse and rabbit) with a more usual pattern of dependence on o2 availability. 2. sod activities in brain, lung and skeletal muscle, but not liver or cardiac muscle, are significantly lower in the turtle. the turtle also shows differences in the pattern of relative sod activities in various tissues as compared to the two m ...1977318271
salmonella colonization in commercial pet turtles (pseudemys scripta elegans).an epidemiological survey was conducted on two commercial turtle farms in southern louisiana to determine the reason for an apparent increase in the prevalence of salmonella spp. in turtle hatchlings at the time of pre-export certification examination. pond water was consistently found to be contaminated (6/36 samples) with either salmonella newport, s. arizonae, or s. poona. environmental specimens obtained from eggs and turtle hatcheries (204 specimens) failed to yield salmonella spp. a sample ...19902209735
binding of [3h] muscimol to the retina of rabbit and turtle.1. we studied the binding of [3h]muscimol to membrane preparations of the retina of rabbit (lepus cuniculus) and turtle (pseudemys scripta elegans). 2. in both species, [3h]muscimol binding was maximal at 0 degrees c and decreased with increasing temperature, it was saturable, protein concentration dependent and specific. muscimol, gaba and bicuculline were the most effective displacers, whereas baclofen and diaminobutyric acid were ineffective. 3. in the turtle retina, scatchard analysis indica ...19892576736
light and electron microscopy of s-antigen- and opsin-immunoreactive photoreceptors in the retina of turtle, chicken, and hedgehog.s-antigen and opsin-immunoreactive sites were studied in the retina of turtle (pseudemys scripta elegans), chicken (gallus domesticus), and hedgehog, (erinaceus roumanicus) by light-microscopic avidin-biotin-peroxidase and electron-microscopic protein a-gold and immunoglobulin-gold (immunogold) techniques. in general, s-antigen and opsin immunoreactions were exclusively localized to certain photoreceptors of the retinae studied. in turtle and chicken, strong s-antigen immunoreactivity was found ...19862937651
a monoclonal antibody that binds to photoreceptors in the turtle retina.we have raised monoclonal antibodies to photoreceptor cells in the retina of the turtle (pseudemys scripta elegans). one of these antibodies, 15-18 (an igg1), was studied by immunoelectron microscopy using colloidal gold, and found to bind to the outer segments of all rods and some single cones, but did not stain turtle double cones. immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation show that antibody 15-18 binds to an antigen of apparent mr approximately 34,5000 which is probably turtle opsin. antibody 15 ...19883067443
hydroxylation and oxidation of nalidixic acid in the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans.the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans hydroxylates nalidixic acid into 7-hydroxynalidixic acid; this latter metabolite is oxidised into 7-carboxynalidixic acid. the elimination half-life of nalidixic acid in the turtle is 30 h. no glucuronides of nalidixic- and 7-hydroxynalidixic acid are formed, as they are in man.19883376413
characterization of renal prolactin-binding sites of two amphibians (ambystoma tigrinum and rana catesbeiana) and a reptile (pseudemys scripta elegans).the specific binding of 125i-ovine prolactin (oprl) to renal membrane preparations from pseudemys scripta elegans, ambystoma tigrinum, and rana catesbeiana was characterized. all three membranes showed specific oprl binding that was dependent upon time, temperature, ph, and membrane concentration. scatchard analysis of the binding of 125i-oprl revealed high-affinity sites with ka values of 2.1 x 10(10), 3.6 x 10(10), and 1.25 x 10(10) m-1 for kidney membranes of pseudemys, ambystoma, and rana, r ...19873495632
potential pathogens in the environment: isolation, enumeration, and identification of seven genera of intestinal bacteria associated with small green pet turtles.bacteriological analyses were performed on fecal swabs and the aquarium water of 27 individually purchased specimens of the small green pet turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans. representatives of aeromonas, citrobacter, enterobacter, klebsiella, proteus, salmonella, and serratia were isolated. enterobacter, klebsiella, and salmonella were encountered in 20% or more of the specimens, whereas aeromonas was isolated from 63%. klebsiella pneumoniae counts ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) per milliliter of a ...19734572984
mechanical basis for lung volume variability in the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans. 19715545687
the organization of motoneurons in the turtle lumbar spinal cord.the distribution of motoneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord of the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans was studied by using the technique of retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. a total of 19 different hindlimb muscles were injected with varying amounts of horseradish peroxidase. the resulting distribution of labeled motoneurons was studied in both longitudinal and transverse sections of spinal cord. motoneurons innervating a particular hindlimb muscle are clustered in longitudinally ...19846207212
immunoreactive opsin in the pineal organ of reptiles and birds.the presence of opsin was investigated with light microscopic immunocytochemistry in pinealocytes of reptiles and birds (emys orbicularis, pseudemys scripta elegans, lacerta agilis et viridis, gallus domesticus, columba livia, melopsittacus undulatus, serinus canaria, taeniopyga punctate). the outer segments of pinealocytes selectively bound antiopsin antibody as revealed by indirect immunocytochemical techniques, indicating the occurrence of a rhodopsin-like photopigment in these structures. th ...19826213109
comparison of the pineal complex, retina and cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurons by immunocytochemical antirhodopsin reaction.the presence of rhodopsin was investigated by an indirect immunocytochemical method in the pineal complex of various vertebrates (carassius auratus, cyprinus carpio, hypophthalamichthys molitrix, lucioperca lucioperca, triturus vulgaris, bombina bombina, rana esculenta, pseudemys scripta elegans, lacerta agilis et viridis, white leghorn chickens, rat), in the retina of lebistes reticulatus, lucioperca lucioperca, rana esculenta, lacerta agilis, pseudemys scripta elegans, the chicken and the rat, ...19807456628
species and tissue distribution of the regulatory protein of glucokinase.rat liver is known to contain a regulatory protein that inhibits glucokinase (hexokinase iv or d) competitively versus glucose. this inhibition is greatly reinforced by the presence of fructose 6-phosphate and antagonized by fructose 1-phosphate and by kcl. this protein was now measured in various rat tissues and in the livers of various species by the inhibition it exerts on rat liver glucokinase. rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea-pig and pig liver, all of which contain glucokinase, also contained bet ...19938373368
nomenclature, filling and angioarchitecture of lymph vessels in organs. scanning electron microscopy of the stomach of the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans using different injection methods.the gastric lymph vessel network of pseudemys scripta elegans shows all the characteristics of initial lymphatics. a differentiation of initial lymphatics in lymphatic capillaries and precollectors is not possible in the turtle. the scanning electron microscopic examination shows that ultrastructural analysis of initial lymphatics is possible after manual subserous injection of glutaraldehyde or application with the vacuum chamber. in the stomach of the turtle all characteristics of initial lymp ...19989505440
identification of renal podocytes in multiple species: higher vertebrates are vimentin positive/lower vertebrates are desmin positive.we sought to characterize podocytes in the kidneys of numerous species from amphibians to mammals because of the pivotal function of these cells in renal diseases. for this purpose, intermediate filament (if) proteins of podocytes were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratins, and desmin. these staining patterns were then compared to those of parietal cells of bowman's capsule and tubular cells of the first portion of the proximal tubule from the ...199910090571
warm-blooded isochore structure in nile crocodile and turtle.the genomes of warm-blooded vertebrates are characterized by a strong heterogeneity in base composition, with gc-rich and gc-poor isochores. the gc content of sequences, especially in third codon positions, is highly correlated with that of the isochore they are embedded in. in amphibian and fish genomes, gc-rich isochores are nearly absent. thus, it has been proposed that the gc increase in a part of mammalian and avian genomes represents an adaptation to homeothermy. to test this selective hyp ...199910555283
acetylation, deacetylation and hydroxylation of sulphamethoxazole and n4-acetylsulphamethoxazole in the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans.the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans is able to hydroxylate and acetylate sulphamethoxazole in a way that is comparable to man, i.e. the rate and yield of hydroxylation equals that of the acetylation. the hydroxy metabolites 5-hydroxy- and n4-acetyl-5-hydroxysulphamethoxazole are not glucuronidated. n4-acetylsulphamethoxazole is neither deacetylated nor hydroxylated.19873424645
a monoclonal antibody marker for the paraboloid region of cone photoreceptors in turtle retina.monoclonal antibodies that specifically label one or more cell types in retina have been produced; however, only a few antibodies that, in addition, recognize distinct subcellular structures in these cells have been reported. during a search for monoclonal antibodies that bind to specific cell types in the turtle (pseudemys scripta elegans) retina, we obtained an antibody (20 93; an igg) that labels the inner segment of cone photoreceptors. ultrastructural immunocytochemistry using immunogold an ...19892790933
oxygen transfer kinetics of red blood cells of the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans.the kinetics of o2 uptake into, and release from, the red blood cells (rbc) of the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans were determined with a stopped-flow technique at varied temperature (10-30 degrees c) and ph (7.5-7.9). the results were compared to those obtained for rbc of other vertebrates and related to morphometric and physiological data on gas/blood diffusion in turtle lungs. the o2 transfer conductance of rbc, g, for o2 release into high concentrations of dithionite, considered to represen ...19892717823
pet turtles: a continuing international threat to public health.the occurrence of salmonella spp. in red-eared (pseudemys scripta elegans) turtle eggs imported into canada from louisiana in june to september 1988 was examined. of 28 lots tested, six (21%) lots from three of four exporters harbored salmonellae. salmonella poona and salmonella arizonae were frequently encountered in both fertile eggs and packaging moss. turtles hatched in our laboratory from affected lots of eggs shed salmonella in tank water for up to 11 months. widespread use of gentamicin o ...19902372004
slow-tonic muscle fibers and their potential innervation in the turtle, pseudemys (trachemys) scripta elegans.a description is provided of the ratio of slow-tonic vs. slow- and fast-twitch fibers for five muscles in the adult turtle, pseudemys (trachemys) scripta elegans. the cross-sectional area of each fiber type and an estimation of the relative (weighted) cross-sectional area occupied by the different fiber types are also provided. two hindlimb muscles (flexor digitorum longus, fdl; external gastrocnemius, eg) were selected on the basis of their suitability for future motor-unit studies. three neck ...200515732049
diagnostic exercise: high mortality in red-eared slider turtles (pseudemys scripta elegans). 19921479815
binding of the benzodiazepine ligand [3h]-ro 15-1788 to membrane preparations of the rabbit and turtle retina.1. we have studied the binding of [3h]-ro 15-1788 to membrane preparations of the retina of rabbit (lepus cunicula) and turtle (pseudemys scripta elegans). 2. in both species, [3h]-ro 15-1788 binding was maximal at 0 degrees c and decreased with increasing temperature. it was saturable, protein concentration-dependent and specific. flunitrazepam, unlabelled ro 15-1788 and ethyl-beta-carboline were the most effective displacers, whereas ro 5,4864 was ineffective. 3. in both turtle and rabbit reti ...19921354109
two new species of the genus caminacarus (acarina: cloacaridae) from turtles in louisiana.caminacarus chrysemys sp. n. and caminacarus terrapenae sp. n. are described from the cloaca of chrysemys scripta elegans and terrapene carolina in louisiana. the former species is very similar to caminacarus deirochelys but differs in the form of the dorsal shield which has longer lateral elongations and the median dorsal elongation does not extend to the genital sclerite, structure of the anterodorsal wall of the gnathosomal base which is closed forming a ringlike apodeme, and structure of the ...19751117354
activation of latent salmonella and arizona organisms by dehydration of red-eared turtles, pseudemys scripta-elegans.salmonella and arizona organisms could not be isolated from water samples, feces, and tissues of turtles prior to the experiment. after stressing, salmonella organisms were isolated from tissues of 7 of 27 stressed turtles and from only 1 of 12 unstressed turtles. arizona organisms were isolated from 9 of 36 stressed turtles whereas results for all 12 unstressed turtles were negative.1978637401
characterization of a novel reptilian tolloid-like gene in the pond turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans.the tolloid metalloproteases are pleiotropic enzymes that are important for many developmental processes. this study describes the isolation and characterization of a novel tolloid family member from the pond turtle pseudemys scripta elegans. the turtle tolloid, designated ttll, is found in two forms. the first, ttlls, contains a signal sequence which may provide a mechanism for secretion. the second, ttllc, does not contain a signal sequence and is likely cytoplasmic. sequence analysis of ttll ...200717493594
effect of dry versus wet bowl environment on pet turtles.recently hatched, certified salmonella-free, red-eared slider turtles (pseudemys scripta elegans) were obtained from a commercial breeder. half of the turtles were kept in a traditional wet-bowl environment, whereas the other half lived in individual dry-bowl environments, except for 30 minutes each day when they were immersed in water and were fed. both groups were fed commercial turtle food. during the 26 weeks of the study, individual weight and general observations were recorded for each tur ...1978629431
observations on the structure of two human 7sk pseudogenes and on homologous transcripts in vertebrate species.a comparison of the sequence of two human 7sk rna pseudogenes, covering approx. 190 and 240 base-pairs of the structural gene, is presented. both repeated elements are flanked by direct repeats and begin at the 5' end of the gene. each terminates approx. 90 base-pairs short of the 3' end, the latter representing a continuous sequence and the former carrying an internal deletion of about 40 base-pairs, this region being flanked in the progenitor gene by short repeated sequences. southern blotting ...19873663152
evolutionary adaptation to temperature. viii. effects of temperature on growth rate in natural isolates of escherichia coli and salmonella enterica from different thermal environments.are enteric bacteria specifically adapted to the thermal environment of their hosts? in particular, do the optimal temperatures and thermal niches of the bacterial flora reflect seasonal, geographic, or phylogenetic differences in their hosts' temperatures? we examined these questions by measuring the relationship between the temperature-dependent growth rates of enteric bacteria in a free-living ectothermic host. we sampled two species of enteric bacteria (escherichia coli and salmonella enteri ...200111263744
embryonic development of connections in turtle pallium.we are interested in similarities and conserved mechanisms in early development of the reptilian and mammalian thalamocortical connections. we set out to analyse connectivity in embryonic turtle brains (pseudemys scripta elegans, between stages 17 and 25), by using carbocyanine dye tracing. from the earliest stages studied, labelling from dorsal and ventral thalamus revealed backlabelled cells among developing thalamic fibres within the lateral forebrain bundle and striatum, which had similar mo ...199910464368
regulation of the heat shock response under anoxia in the turtle, trachemys scripta elegans.the effects of 20 h of anoxic submergence in cold water and 5 h of aerobic recovery on the heat shock response were analyzed in four organs of the anoxia-tolerant turtle trachemys scripta elegans. immunoblotting was used to analyze levels of active and inactive forms of the heat shock transcription factor 1 (hsf1), nuclear translocation of hsf1, and the levels of six heat shock proteins (hsps). pcr was also used to retrieve the turtle hsf1 nucleotide sequence; its deduced amino acid sequence sho ...201019834715
[non-indigenous and non-specific parasitic nematodes--the background and the consequences].introduction of the host is the main reason behind introduction of the parasite, e. g., nematodes. the introduction of the japanese eel (anguilla japonica) in europe in the 1980s resulted in expansion of the swimbladder nematode anguillicola crassus which soon invaded not only populations of the european eel (a. anguilla), but also other local fish. the raccoon (procyon lotor) is native to north america. it is the specific host of strongyloides procyonis and baylisascaris procyonis. more than 90 ...200920209803
a mammalian melanopsin in the retina of a fresh water turtle, the red-eared slider (trachemys scripta elegans).a mammalian-like melanopsin (opn4m) has been found in all major vertebrate classes except reptile. since the pupillary light reflex (plr) of the fresh water turtle takes between 5 and 10 min to achieve maximum constriction, and since photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (iprgcs) in mammals use opn4m to control their slow sustained pupil responses, we hypothesized that a opn4m homolog exists in the retina of the turtle. to identify its presence, retinal tissue was dissected from seven turtles, a ...201021050869
a commentary on the segmental motor system of the turtle: implications for the study of its cellular mechanisms and interactions.a commentary is provided on the segmental motor system of the turtle pseudemys (trachemys) scripta elegans with an emphasis on neuronal, neuromuscular, and muscular mechanisms that control the development of force under normal, fatiguing, and pathophysiological conditions. for the central neuronal component of the segmental motor system, it has recently been shown that intracellular analysis of the firing properties of motoneurons and interneurons can be undertaken for relatively long periods of ...19957666438
fiber-type composition of hindlimb muscles in the turtle, pseudemys (trachemys) scripta elegans.a description is provided of the fiber-type composition of several hindlimb muscles of the adult turtle, pseudemys (trachemys) scripta elegans. in addition, cross-section areas of each fiber type and an estimation of the relative (weighted) cross-section area (wcsa) occupied by the different fiber types are also provided. seven muscles were selected for study, based on their suitability for future neurophysiological analysis as components of the segmental motor system, and on their homologies wi ...19957666437
staining of the dorsal root primary afferent fibers by anterograde movement of horseradish peroxidase and retrograde labelling of motoneurons and preganglionic autonomic cells in the turtle spinal cord.the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (hrp) has been applied to the proximal stumps of severed thoracic and lumbar dorsal roots in the turtles pseudemys scripta elegans and testudo hermanni. the results obtained confirm the distribution pattern observed with anterograde degeneration techniques. primary afferent terminal structures, however, could be demonstrated in more detail. commonly, ventral roots were also more or less damaged which resulted in the presence of retrogradely labeled motoneurons a ...199993720
ganglion cells in the turtle retina contain the neuropeptide lant-6.this study investigated the presence of the neurotensin-related hexapeptide, lant-6, in retinal ganglion cells and their central projections in the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans. immunocytochemical techniques demonstrated that many of the cells in the ganglion cell layer of the turtle retina could be labeled with an antiserum specific for lant-6. radioimmunoassay and chromatographic analysis confirmed the presence of lant-6-related peptides in retina, as well as brain. several molecular forms ...20113339403
properties of centre-hyperpolarizing, red-sensitive bipolar cells in the turtle retina.1. responses of centre-hyperpolarizing, red-sensitive bipolar cells were studied by intracellular recording in the retina of the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans. the identity of these cells was confirmed by procion yellow marking. 2. circles of light produced hyperpolarizing waves that were graded with intensity and could exceed -30mv in amplitude. the operating intensity range was similar to that of turtle cones. 3. flashes in the form of an annulus evoked graded depolarizations which could b ...20051151785
relation of spectral types to oil droplets in cones of turtle retina.the spectral sensitivities and color of oil droplets of cone photoreceptors in the retina of the red-eared turtle (pseudemys scripta elegans) were investigated by intracellular recording and injections of lucifer yellow dye. six morphological types of cones could be distinguished by the color of the oil droplets located in the outermost inner segments. single cones containing either red or pale green oil droplets were sensitive to red light, cones with yellow oil droplets to green, and cones wit ...20144023716
identification and distribution of neurons presumed to give rise to cerebellar climbing fibers in turtle. a retrograde axonal flow study using radioactive d-aspartate as a marker.radioactive d-aspartate and horseradish peroxidase were injected into the cerebellar cortex in turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans. while neurons retrogradely labeled with horseradish peroxidase were found in various regions of the spinal cord and brainstem, labeled cells following aspartate injections were only observed in circumscribed regions of the caudal medulla. in rat it was recently reported that climbing fibers, but no other cerebellar afferents, were retrogradely labeled with d-aspartate ...19827172016
distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunopositive structures in the brain of the red-eared freshwater turtle (pseudemys scripta elegans).the distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfap)-immunoreactivity is described in serial vibratome sections of the turtle brain. the results are discussed in relation to our previous studies of rat and chicken brains. in the turtle brain, the distribution of gfap-positive elements is rather evenly abundant as compared to that observed in the chicken and rat. the gfap-positive structures are fibers of different length and orientation, but the stellate cells are not gfap-positive. the ba ...19947522421
light- and electron-microscopic demonstration of immunoreactive opsin in the pinealocytes of various antibody to opsin isolated from rod outer segments of the frog retina was applied in light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemical studies to the pineal organ of various vertebrates (cyprinus carpio, carassius auratus, rana esculenta, emys orbicularis, pseudemys scripta elegans, lacerta agilis and viridis. gallus domesticus, columba livia, melopsittacus undulatus, serinus canaria, taeniopyga punctata, didelphis virginiana, erinaceus roumanicus, myotis myotis, rabbit, rat, cat).19816458362
organization of on-off cells in the retina of the turtle.1. the organization of central and peripheral responses for one type of spike-producing cell in the retina of the turtle (pseudemys scripta elegans) has been studied. these cells produced a short burst of spikes following the onset and offset of a small spot of illumination (i.e. on-off cells). the effect of increasing the area of illumination was to include a peripheral inhibition. intracellular on and off responses were, however, affected differently.2. on-off cells marked intracellularly with ...19734702424
[structural and ultrastructural studies of the epiphysis of a reptile: pseudemys scripta elegans]. 20164893054
morphology of lumbar motoneurons innervating hindlimb muscles in the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans: an intracellular horseradish peroxidase study.motoneurons in the turtle lumbar spinal cord, electrophysiologically identified as innervating a muscle belonging to a functional group, were injected with horseradish peroxidase by electrophoresis. a total of 45 motoneurons were reconstructed from transverse sections. eleven motoneurons were identified as innervating knee extensor muscles, eight as innervating hip retractor and knee flexor muscles, 14 as supplying ankle and/or toe extensors, and 12 as innervating ankle and/or toe flexor muscles ...19846520242
a new plasma kinin in the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans. 19705485284
pacap inhibits anoxia-induced changes in physiological responses in horizontal cells in the turtle retina.pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (pacap) has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects against various cytotoxic agents in vitro, and ischemia in vivo. anoxia tolerance is most highly developed in some species of turtles. recently, we have demonstrated high levels of pacap38 in the turtle brain, exceeding those in corresponding rat and human brain areas by 10- to 100-fold. the aim of the present study was to investigate with electrophysiological methods the protective effects of ...200212409217
eimeria pseudemydis lainson, 1968, from the red-eared turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans, in arkansas. 20051142563
antioxidant systems and anoxia tolerance in a freshwater turtle trachemys scripta elegans.the effects of anoxic submergence (20 h at 5 degrees c) and subsequent 24 h aerobic recovery on the antioxidant systems of six organs were examined in freshwater turtles, trachemys scripta elegans. both xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase were detected in turtle tissues with xanthine oxidase composing 36-75% of the total activity. turtle organs displayed high constitutive activities of catalase (cat), superoxide dismutase (sod), and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (ahr). measurements of li ...19979144333
the influence of center-surround antagonism on light adaptation in cones in the retina of the turtle.the influence of center-surround antagonism on light adaptation in cone photoreceptors was investigated by intracellular recording from red-sensitive cones in the retina of the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans. test flashes of 0.15-mm diameter were applied at the center of background fields of 0.25-mm or 2.2-mm diameter. immediately upon expanding the background from 0.25 to 2.2 mm, the membrane potential depolarized by about 1-4 mv. the test flash response was enhanced if the depolarization wa ...19958924411
motor pool organization of the external gastrocnemius muscle in the turtle, pseudemys (trachemys) scripta elegans.the spinal cord of the adult turtle, pseudemys (trachemys) scripta elegans, is now considered a promising model for the study of the segmental motor system in the generalized tetrapod. to facilitate such studies we have examined the location, soma geometry, soma size, and number of motoneurons innervating the external gastrocnemius (eg) muscle in this species, as this muscle is ideally suited to the study of interrelations between the neuronal and muscular components of the segmental motor syste ...19968568906
microvascularization of the cerebellum in the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans (reptilia). a scanning electron microscope study of microvascular corrosion casts, including stereological measurements.cerebellar blood supply and microvascular patterns were studied in 12 freshwater turtles pseudemys scripta elegans by scanning electron microscopy (sem) of microvascular corrosion casts and histology. vascular densities were estimated by point counting methods from casts and thin sections (7 microns). short a2-arterioles and recurrent branches from a3-arterioles supply the capillary bed of the molecular layer, while v2 and v3 venules drain it. the purkinje cell layer is supplied by horizontal br ...19957726392
expression of alpha sm actin in terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates.alpha-smooth muscle (alpha sm) actin of endothermic vertebrates is selectively recognized by the monoclonal antibody anti-alpha sm-1. immunoreactivity to this antibody has been shown to be localized in the nh2-terminal sequence ac-eeed (chaponnier et al. 1994). among terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates, two amphibian (triturus vulgaris, rana esculenta) and three reptilian species (pseudemys scripta elegans, natrix natrix, podarcis sicula) were screened to investigate if their vascular and viscer ...19957553770
antigen trapping in the spleen of the turtle, chrysemys scripta elegans.using horse-radish peroxidase (hrp)-anti-hrp immune complexes, 'antigen trapping' was studied in the spleen of the turtle, chrysemys scripta elegans. it was found that antigen-trapping cells were situated in the periellipsoidal lymphocyte sheath of the white pulp only. the antigen-trapping cells have a dendritic character and a large lobulated nucleus. carbon injections revealed that these cells do not phagocytose. the results are discussed with respect to the phylogeny of antigen-trapping cells ...19836840808
characterization of lipoproteins from the turtle, trachemys scripta elegans, in fasted and fed states.the lipid and apolipoprotein composition of vldl, idl, ldl, hdl(2) and hdl(3) were examined in the turtle, trachemys scripta elegans, in fasted and fed states. the lipid composition of turtle lipoproteins was very similar to their human counterparts. the major apolipoprotein found in ldl, idl and vldl, which has a molecular weight of approximately 550 kd, is a homologue of apob100. the major apolipoprotein found in both hdl(2) and hdl(3), has a molecular weight of 28-kd and is homologous to huma ...200312814787
purification and properties of glutathione reductase from liver of the anoxia-tolerant turtle, trachemys scripta elegans.glutathione reductase (gr) is a homodimeric flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized glutathione (gssg) using nadph as a cofactor. the enzyme is a major component of cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative injury. in this study, gr was purified from the liver of the anoxia-tolerant turtle, trachemys scripta elegans. the overall fold purifications were 13.3- and 12.1-fold with final specific activities of 5.5 and 1.44 u/mg of protein for control and anoxic turtle gr, respective ...200717075686
experimental transmission and induction of ranaviral disease in western ornate box turtles (terrapene ornata ornata) and red-eared sliders (trachemys scripta elegans).an experimental transmission study was designed to determine whether a causal relationship exists between a ranavirus (bstrv) isolated from a burmese star tortoise that died and the lesions observed in that tortoise. a pilot study was performed with 3 box turtles (terrapene ornata ornata) and 3 red-eared sliders (ress; trachemys scripta elegans) to assess their suitability in a larger study. based on the outcome of this study, ress were selected, and 2 groups of 4 ress received either an oral (p ...200717491069
inability to induce tympanic squamous metaplasia using organochlorine compounds in vitamin a-deficient red-eared sliders (trachemys scripta elegans).previously, we reported that wild eastern box turtles (terrapene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses contained higher body burdens of organochlorine (oc) compounds than those without the lesion. this lesion in captive chelonians is associated with turtles that are fed diets deficient in vitamin a. to examine the pathophysiology of this lesion and evaluate the relationship between oc burdens and vitamin a metabolism, we maintained red-eared sliders (trachemys scripta elegans) under different ...200818689652
reptilian heart development and the molecular basis of cardiac chamber evolution.the emergence of terrestrial life witnessed the need for more sophisticated circulatory systems. this has evolved in birds, mammals and crocodilians into complete septation of the heart into left and right sides, allowing separate pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems, a key requirement for the evolution of endothermy. however, the evolution of the amniote heart is poorly understood. reptilian hearts have been the subject of debate in the context of the evolution of cardiac septation: do th ...200919727199
membrane properties and monosynaptic retinal excitation of neurons in the turtle accessory optic system.using an eye-attached isolated brain stem preparation of a turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans, in conjunction with whole cell patch techniques, we recorded intracellular activity of accessory optic system neurons in the basal optic nucleus (bon). this technique offered long-lasting stable recordings of individual synaptic events. in the reduced preparation (most of the dorsal structures were removed), large spontaneous excitatory synaptic inputs [excitatory postsynaptic potentials (epsps)] were f ...19979307099
pathogenicity of frog virus 3-like virus in red-eared slider turtles (trachemys scripta elegans) at two environmental temperatures.ranaviral disease has affected several species of reptiles, but disease progression and mortality in relation to environmental temperature has yet to be determined. in this study, two separate trials challenged adult female red-eared slider turtles (trachemys scripta elegans) with a ranavirus (frog virus 3-like virus; fv3) isolate at environmental temperatures of 22 °c (n = 4) and 28 °c (n = 4). the mortality rates in the turtles in the 22 °c and 28 °c trials were 100% and 50%, respectively. med ...201323582975
pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide is highly abundant in the nervous system of anoxia-tolerant turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans.the levels of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (pacap) were measured in the central nervous system and in peripheral organs of the anoxia-tolerant freshwater turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans by radioimmunoassay. the concentration of pacap38 was strikingly high in the central nervous system and lower but considerable immunoreactivity was detected in the peripheral organs. levels of pacap38 in the turtle brain exceed those measured in rat and human brain areas by 10-100-fold ...200111390016
replication and persistence of vhsv ivb in freshwater turtles.with the emergence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv) strain ivb in the great lakes of north america, hatchery managers have become concerned that this important pathogen could be transmitted by animals other than fish. turtles are likely candidates because they are poikilotherms that feed on dead fish, but there are very few reports of rhabdovirus infections in reptiles and no reports of the fish rhabdoviruses in animals other than teleosts. we injected common snapping turtles chelydr ...201121790064
enterobacterial colonization in captive red-eared sliders (trachemys scripta elegans).the handling of turtles and other reptiles can be associated with risk of pathogenic enterobacteria transmission, mainly salmonella spp. the aim of this study was to identify the enterobacteria in cloacal swabs of 39 red-eared sliders (trachemys scripta elegans). cloacal swabs from 39 captive individuals were analyzed. after sample enrichment in brain-heart infusion broth and 1% peptone water, bacterial isolation was performed through cultivation in blood, macconkey and xylose lysine desoxychola ...201425632683
coordinate action of pre- and postsynaptic brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for ampar trafficking and acquisition of in vitro classical conditioning.brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) has been implicated in mechanisms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (ltp), but its role in associative learning remains largely unknown. in the present study, we investigated the function of bdnf and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase b (trkb) in an in vitro model of classical conditioning using pond turtles, pseudemys scripta elegans. conditioning resulted in a significant increase in bdnf and phospho (p)-trk expression. bath app ...200818639615
helminth communities of the exotic introduced turtle, trachemys scripta elegans in southwestern spain: transmission from native turtles.we report the prevalence and diversity of helminth parasites found in native turtles mauremys leprosa and emys orbicularis from three localities in southwestern spain and we describe the helminth communities of exotic turtles trachemys scripta elegans coexisting in the wild with both native turtle species. five nematodes species were identified, of which serpinema microcephalus was the only species common between two localities, although infection parameters were different between them. this is ...200918799176
effects of ranavirus infection of red-eared sliders (trachemys scripta elegans) on plasma proteins.ranavirus is an emerging disease that infects fish, amphibians, and reptiles. ranavirus induces an inflammatory response leading to death in many susceptible species. red-eared sliders (res; trachemys scripta elegans) are vulnerable to ranavirus infection and are economically significant chelonians kept in the pet trade and utilized in research. early identification of res with inflammatory diseases would allow for isolation of affected individuals and subsequent disease investigation, including ...201425000690
transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. the goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a frog virus 3 (fv3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from d ...201424667325
a severe salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi b infection in a child related to a pet turtle, trachemys scripta elegans.our report highlights a case of severe childhood salmonellosis related to a pet turtle, a red-eared slider (trachemys scripta elegans). a 6-year-old girl had gastroenteritis complicated with sepsis caused by serotype paratyphi b, which shared the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles with the organism isolated from a pet turtle. based on our literature survey on childhood invasive salmonellosis acquired from reptiles, this case is the first documented reptile-associated salmonellosis in ...200616632917
evaluation of a combination of sodium hypochlorite and polyhexamethylene biguanide as an egg wash for red-eared slider turtles (trachemys scripta elegans) to suppress or eliminate salmonella organisms on egg surfaces and in evaluate a combination of 2 nonantibiotic microbicide compounds, sodium hypochlorite (naocl) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (phmb), as a treatment to suppress or eliminate salmonella spp from red-eared slider (res) turtle (trachemys scripta elegans) eggs and hatchlings.200717269881
detection of salmonellae in different turtle species within a headwater spring ecosystem.sediments and water from the slough arm of spring lake, the headwaters of the san marcos river, texas, usa, as well as swabs from biofilms on carapaces and from the cloacae of 18 common musk turtles (sternotherus odoratus), 21 red-eared sliders (trachemys scripta elegans), nine texas river cooters (pseudemys texana), one snapping turtle (chelydra serpentina serpentina), and three guadalupe spiny soft-shell turtles (apalone spinifera guadalupensis), caught at the same site, were analyzed for salm ...200818436690
insulin-like growth factor-i in the plasma of two reptiles: assay development and validations.radioimmunoassays (rias) of insulin-like growth factor-i (igf-i) in nonmammals are complicated by two problems: decreased specificity due to heterologous assays and assay interference from igf binding proteins. we have developed and validated an ria for the detection of igf-i in reptilian plasma that circumvents these problems. biochemical validations show parallelism between standard curves, plasma dilutions, and internal standards. further, biological validations indicate that (1) plasma igf-i ...19957781962
plasma amino acids in reptiles after feeding protein or amino acids and after injecting amino acids.turtles (pseudemys scripta elegans) and alligators (alligator mississipiensis) were fed fish, casein, or free amino acid mixtures, or were injected with free amino acid mixtures, quantities in each case being equivalent to about 42 mmoles of amino acids/kg body weight. the experiments were designed to determine whether protein synthesis normally precedes catabolism of the amino acids absorbed from digesting food. both animals disposed of free or food-derived amino acids more rapidly than could b ...1976939990
high density of neuropeptide y-innervation in the myenteric plexus of the turtle midgut. an immunocytochemical study.using an indirect immunocytochemical method, a high density of npy-containing neural network is revealed in the myenteric plexus of the midgut of the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans. the labelled elements included strongly stained small nerve cells and generally weakly labelled large ones of the plexus, as well as a substantial proportion of the nerve fibres within both the myenteric plexus and around blood vessels. pericellular baskets around nonstained nerve cells and in some cases around we ...20052131706
prolonged depolarization in turtle cones evoked by current injection and stimulation of the receptive field surround.1. responses evoked by stimulation of the receptive field surround were recorded intracellularly from cone photoreceptors in the retina of the turtle (pseudemys scripta elegans). 2. a distinctive depolarizing response was evoked by flashing an annulus of light while steadily illuminating the centre of the receptive field. the response, here called 'the prolonged depolarization', was found in 67% of a sample of 125 cones and could reach some 20 mv in amplitude. 3. the prolonged depolarization is ...20123256619
cellular physiology of the turtle visual cortex: distinctive properties of pyramidal and stellate neurons.the electrophysiological properties of neurons in the three-layered dorsal cortex of the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans, have been studied in vitro. intracellular recordings suggested two distinct classes of neuronal behavior. cell labeling with either lucifer yellow or horseradish peroxidase revealed that these behaviors correlated with the two morphological classes of cortical neurons: pyramidal cells and stellate cells. examination of golgi-stained neurons of dorsal cortex did not uncover ...20143944618
the eye of the red-eared slider turtle: morphologic observations and reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic perform a descriptive investigation of the red-eared slider turtle (trachemys scripta elegans) eye, performing selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests with the aim of establishing normal reference values for this species.201525209440
signal transmission from red cones to horizontal cells in the turtle retina.1. intracellular recordings were made from l-type horizontal cells in the retina of the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans. the responses were evoked by 500 msec pulses of 'white' light. 2. l-type horizontal cells were classified as either, 'small receptive field' s.r.f. or 'large receptive field' l.r.f. based upon (1) receptive field size and (2) kinetics of responses to test flashes covering small and big spots. 3. constant illumination of the entire receptive field, with any intensity studied, ...1982220415
afferent connections of the cerebellum in various types of reptiles.the origin of cerebellar afferents was studied in various types of reptiles, viz., the turtles pseudemys scripta elegans and testudo hermanni, the lizard varanus exanthematicus, and the snake python regius, with retrograde tracers (the enzyme horseradish peroxidase and the fluorescent tracer "fast blue"). projections to the cerebellum were demonstrated from the nucleus of the basal optic root, the interstitial nucleus of the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, the vestibular ganglion, and the ve ...19827107986
the retinopetal system in the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans.injections of 125i wheat-germ agglutinin or horseradish peroxidase into the eyes of turtles labeled retrogradely cells in a mesencephalic reticular area lying between the trochlear and the isthmic nuclei. their number was small and they were found predominantly contralateral to the injected eye. these reticular neurons were not labeled following control injections into the orbital cavity and therefore are considered to project to the retina similar to correspondingly located neurons in some othe ...19836640619
cerebellar corticonuclear projections in the red-eared turtle pseudemys scripta the present study the organization of the corticonuclear projections of the cerebellum in the red-eared turtle pseudemys scripta elegans was investigated. to find out whether a zonal pattern exists in the cerebellar cortex, a topological analysis was made of the purkinje cell layer of a nissl-stained series of the cerebellum. this analysis showed a distinct, longitudinally oriented zonal pattern of purkinje cells. in each cerebellar half a medial, an intermediate, and a lateral zone could be ...19836304155
spinocerebellar projections in the turtle. observations on their origin and terminal organization.spinocerebellar projections were studied in the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans, by both anterograde (injections of 35s-methionine into various spinal segments) and retrograde (injections of horseradish peroxidase into the cerebellar cortex) tracing techniques. after unilateral hrp injections, labeled neurons were found on both sides of the spinal cord. the total number of retrogradely labeled spinocerebellar tract neurons was relatively small and neuronal aggregations were not observed. most ...19836201378
primary afferent projections to the spinal cord and the dorsal column nuclear complex in the turtle pseudemys.primary afferent projections from cervical and lumbar levels were studied in the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans. injections of radioactive amino acids, wheat germ agglutinin and horseradish peroxidase were made into the dorsal root ganglia or the spinal cord. previous reports on the terminal distribution of primary afferents within the ipsilateral segment of entry were confirmed (kusuma and ten donkelaar 1979, 1980) and additional dorsal root projections were demonstrated to the contralateral ...19836846858
independent eye movements in the order to evaluate the normal eye movements of the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans, the positions of each eye were recorded simultaneously using two search-coil contact lenses. optokinetic nystagmus (okn) was strikingly unyoked in this animal such that one eye's slow-phase velocity was substantially independent of that of the other eye. on the other hand, the fast-phase motions of both eyes occurred more or less in synchrony. an eye's slow-phase gain is primarily dependent on the direction a ...19942271458
organization of motor pools supplying the cervical musculature in a cryptodyran turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans. i. dorsal and ventral motor nuclei of the cervical spinal cord and muscles supplied by a single motor this and the accompanying paper (yeow and peterson, '86) we characterize motor nuclei of the cervical spinal cord in pseudemys scripta and the motor pools of eight cervical muscles. we have identified three motor nuclei that supply the cervical musculature by using serial reconstructions of nissl-stained spinal cords cut in three cardinal planes, and in experimental cases in which horseradish peroxidase (hrp) was applied to individual neck muscles. these nuclei are named according to their po ...19863944274
distribution and structural characterization of neurons giving rise to descending spinal projections in the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans.descending spinal projections were investigated in the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans following injections of horseradish peroxidase and/or radioactive wheat germ agglutinin into the spinal cord at various levels. using various planes of section the cells of origin in the brainstem, cerebellum, and diencephalon were characterized according to their size, dendritic tree, and precise location. projections to levels as far caudal as the lumbar spinal cord were found to arise from medial and later ...19827161413
dietary exposure of bde-47 and bde-99 and effects on behavior, bioenergetics, and thyroid function in juvenile red-eared sliders (trachemys scripta elegans) and common snapping turtles (chelydra serpentina).juvenile red-eared sliders (trachemys scripta elegans) and snapping turtles (chelydra serpentina) were fed food dosed with brominated diphenyl ether-47 (bde-47) or bde-99 for 6 mo beginning approximately 9 mo posthatch. during the exposure period, measurements of growth, bioenergetics, and behavior were made; thyroid function and accumulation were quantified postexposure. whole-body concentrations of both congeners were lower in red-eared sliders compared with snapping turtles after 6 mo of expo ...201425210006
functional morphologies of retinal ganglion cells in the turtle.retinal ganglion cells in the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans, were examined by intracellular recording with a protocol of stationary and moving lights. responses were apportioned among off, on, and on-off categories, and directional selectivity. cells were injected with neurobiotin, then later conjugated with avidin-horseradish peroxidase in standard procedure. morphological analysis of the stained cells included measurements of soma and dendritic field sizes, dendritic stratification, number ...19947890834
lympho-epithelial interactions in the turtle chrysemys scrypta elegans.the morphological relationships present in the areas of lymphoid infiltration found in the esophagus in chrysemys scripta elegans were studied by the use of light and transmission electron microscopy. these infiltrations are widespread and can be observed in the lamina propria and the covering epithelium. electron microscopy reveals the presence of epithelial cells with differing characteristics at the apex of the lymphoid infiltrations. the introduction of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) into the ...19901695064
a mycoplasma species of emydidae turtles in the northeastern usa.mycoplasma infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in captive and wild chelonians. as part of a health assessment of endangered bog turtles (glyptemys muhlenbergii) in the northeastern us, choanal and cloacal swabs from these and other sympatric species, including spotted turtles (clemmys guttata), eastern box turtles (terrapene carolina carolina), wood turtles (glyptemys insculpta), and common snapping turtles (chelydra serpentina) from 10 sampling sites in the states (us) of d ...201525574806
the nucleus magnocellularis in the red-eared turtle, chrysemys scripta elegans: eighth nerve endings and neuronal types.eighth nerve endings and neuronal types in the nucleus magnocellularis were analyzed in the red-eared turtle (chrysemys scripta elegans). one group of turtles had horseradish peroxidase (hrp) injected into the surgically exposed inner ear. following injection the animals survived for 3-5 days and then their 8th nerve fibers and endings were analyzed. a second group of turtles were impregnated by the golgi-kopsch technique. this also demonstrated 8th nerve endings and neurons in the nucleus magno ...19883384760
morphology of retinogeniculate terminals in the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans.the dorsal lateral geniculate complex in turtles receives a bilateral, topographic projection from the retina and projects to the telencephalon. this study examined the morphology of individual retinogeniculate terminals that were filled with horseradish peroxidase by injections in the optic tract or optic tectum. a large number of retinogeniculate terminals were successfully filled and detailed drawings were prepared of 87 terminals. terminals were classified into three types based on the size ...19854044902
extensive homology of chicken macrochromosomes in the karyotypes of trachemys scripta elegans and crocodylus niloticus revealed by chromosome painting despite long divergence times.we report extensive chromosome homology revealed by chromosome painting between chicken (gallus gallus domesticus, gga, 2n = 78) macrochromosomes (representing 70% of the chicken genome) and the chromosomes of a turtle, the red-eared slider (trachemys scripta elegans, tsc, 2n = 50), and the nile crocodile (crocodylus niloticus, cni, 2n = 32). our data show that gga1-8 arms seem to be conserved in the arms of tsc chromosomes, gga1-2 arms are separated and homologous to cni1p, 3q, 4q and 5q. in ad ...201222572532
reassessment of genome size in turtle and crocodile based on chromosome measurement by flow karyotyping: close similarity to chicken.the genome size in turtles and crocodiles is thought to be much larger than the 1.2 gb of the chicken (gallus gallus domesticus, gga), according to the animal genome size database. however, gga macrochromosomes show extensive homology in the karyotypes of the red eared slider (trachemys scripta elegans, tsc) and the nile crocodile (crocodylus niloticus, cni), and bird and reptile genomes have been highly conserved during evolution. in this study, size and gc content of all chromosomes are measur ...201222491763
terminations of primary afferents on lumbar motoneurons in the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans.the existence of monosynaptic contacts between primary afferents and motoneurons in the lumbar spinal cord of the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans was demonstrated by intracellular injections of horseradish peroxidase. three afferent-motoneuron combinations were satisfactorily labeled and revealed 1, 4 and 6 contacts respectively. all contacts were made on the dorsal dendritic tree of the motoneurons. it is suggested that the contacting primary afferents are from muscle spindles.19854027610
descending pathways from the brain stem to the spinal cord in some reptiles. i. the present study of the origin of the pathways descending from the brain stem to the spinal cord has been investigated in the reptiles testudo hermanni, pseudemys scripta elegans, tupinambis nigropunctatus and python reticulatus. these reptiles, using highly different types of progression, have been selected, because fundamental variations in the organization of the central motor apparatus are to be expected. the origin of the descending pathways has been demonstrated by recording the occurr ...19761270628
morphology of primary afferents to the spinal cord of the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans.the morphology of primary afferents to the spinal cord of the turtle pseudemys scripta elegans was studied by means of intra-axonal injections of horseradish peroxidase. a total of 74 collaterals arising from 34 different afferents in 22 animals was investigated. within this sample, a division into three morphologically distinct collateral types appeared possible. collaterals of the same parent axon could always be classified to the same type. type a collateral arborizations could be found withi ...19853985359
the ascending connections of the torus semicircularis central nucleus in chrysemys scripta elegans.horseradish peroxidase was injected into the torus semicircularis central nucleus of the red-eared turtle chrysemys scripta elegans. the following observations were made. axons originating in the central nucleus project ipsilaterally through the tectoreuniens tract to the ipsilateral nucleus reunions. a second tract leaves the central nucleus medioventrally, courses under the floor of the cerebral aqueduct and terminates as an axonal field in the contralateral central nucleus. finally, there was ...19836662825
substrate color-induced melanization in eight turtle species from four chelonian groups.background color convergence of prey occurring through local adaptation or phenotypically plastic responses can reduce predation rates by visual predators. we assessed the capacity for substrate color-induced melanization in eight turtle species within the groups chelydridae, emydidae, kinosternidae, and trionychidae by rearing individuals on black or white substrates for 160 days. in all aquatic turtle species, integuments of the head and carapace of the individuals that were reared on a black ...201424993507
supraspinal cell populations projecting to the cerebellar cortex in the turtle (pseudemys scripta elegans).neuronal cell populations giving rise to cerebellar projections in the turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans, were analysed following injections of horseradish peroxidase into the cerebellar cortex. the most prominent retrograde cell labeling occurred bilaterally within the caudal rhombencephalon and especially in the ventral portion of the inferior reticular field. based on the structural parameters of the labeled cells (size, dendritic tree), their location and laterality of projection, attempts w ...19836861928
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