toxoplasma antibodies among bobcats and other carnivores of norther california.the prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii was investigated among five species of wild carnivores in norther ccalifornia. the highest prevalence was among bobcats (lynx rufus), with 15 of 21 tested being serologically positive. other results included serological evidence of toxoplasmosis in two of seven raccoons (procyon lotor), one of three badgers (taxidea taxus) and two of three coyotes (canis latrans). two gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) were serologically negative. oone badger ...19751142562
canine distemper in black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) from september and october 1985, six black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) were captured from the only known population, located near meeteetse, wyoming for captive propagation. two days following capture an adult male showed signs of canine distemper and an adult female displayed similar signs 7 days postcapture; these infections were undoubtedly acquired prior to capture. subsequently the four remaining captive black-footed ferrets also developed canine distemper and all eventually died. clini ...19883411697
steroid metabolism in corpora lutea of the western spotted skunk (spilogale putorius latifrons).the present study reports steroid metabolism by corpora lutea (cl) obtained from skunks with diapausing embryos ('delay' cl) and with activated embryos (activated cl). cl from both reproductive periods were incubated with various radioactive precursors. control incubations without any tissue or with 50 microliter of packed skunk blood cells were also conducted simultaneously. incubation of skunk cl with [3h]-pregnenolone for 3 h resulted in 36% of the precursor accumulating as progesterone. meta ...19846239920
serologic testing of badgers to monitor plague in southwestern idaho.serologic testing of badgers (taxidea taxus) was used to monitor plague (yersinia pestis) in a townsend ground squirrel (spermophilus townsendi) population in 10,000 ha of the snake river birds of prey study area, idaho. eighty-six percent of the 294 sera tested in 1975 and in 1976 were positive. significantly fewer (72%) seropositives occurred in 1977. seasonal changes in the percentage of seropositives and the decline in 1977 were probably due to the phenology of the townsend ground squirrel a ...19836842729
effects of a modified-live virus canine distemper vaccine on captive badgers (taxidea taxus).we vaccinated six captive badgers housed with five controls, and monitored blood antibody titers and white cell counts of both groups for 63 days postvaccination between 29 august and 3 december 1992. five vaccinated badgers responded with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024 by 63 days postvaccination, whereas the sixth badger did not respond. treatment badgers also had significant (p < 0.05) decreases in lymphocytes on days 16, 29, and 63. no badgers developed clinical signs of distempe ...19947760477
immunohistochemistry of parasitic subepidermal vesiculobullous disease in american badgers (taxidea taxus).some populations of free-ranging american badgers (taxidea taxus) develop a distinctive seasonal dermatitis due to the subcutaneous filariid filaria taxideae. subepidermal vesicles that contain filarial ova develop in thinly haired skin of the inguinal area, proximal thigh, and ventral abdomen. the purpose of this study was to establish by immunohistochemistry whether basement membrane components colocalized with the roof or floor of vesicles and to confirm that filarial ova occur in intradermal ...19948011785
ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized kansas species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in kansas; amblyomma americanum l., dermacentor variabilis (say), haemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard), ixodes cookei packard, i. kingi bishopp, i. sculptus neumann, and i. texanus banks. dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, a. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the ixodes spp. and h. leporispalustris were widely scattered. the most common tick found was d. varia ...19948057327
subepidermal vesiculobullous filarial dermatitis in free-ranging american badgers (taxidea taxus).skin and superficial lymph nodes from the 65 juvenile (< 1 year old) and adult free-ranging american badgers (taxidea taxus) of both sexes that were killed from late july to late october 1991 as part of the recovery program for the endangered black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) were examined for evidence of filaria taxideae. fifty-one badgers (51/64, 80%) were infected. both adult badgers (30/32, 94%) and juvenile badgers (21/32, 67%) were infected by adult filarial worms, which occurred most ...19938212456
mycobacterium bovis in coyotes from michigan.during a survey for tuberculosis in wild carnivores and omnivores, mycobacterium bovis was cultured from pooled lymph nodes of three adult female coyotes (canis latrans) harvested by hunters in michigan (usa). no gross or histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis were seen in these animals. one coyote was taken from montmorency county and two coyotes from alcona county located in the north-eastern portion of michigan's lower peninsula where free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginia ...19989706576
rabies in skunks from enzootic focus of rabies in skunks in mexico is described. fifty three wild animals including two badgers (taxidea taxus), 32 bats (various species), one bobcat (lynx rufus), two coatis (nasua narica) three foxes (urocyon cineroargenteus), one raccoon (procyon lotor) and 12 skunks (see below) were tested for rabies by direct immunofluorescence assay from 1991 to 1997 in the central part of san luis potosi state, mexico. rabies occurrence was 21% of all tested mammals, with 19% in skunks and o ...199910479094
plague in free-ranging mammals in western north dakota.from july through october of 1996, 48 blood samples were collected from coyotes (canis latrans), badgers (taxidea taxus), and raccoons (procyon lotor) in western north dakota (usa) for the purposes of determining antibody titers to the plague bacterium, yersniia pestis. the passive hemagglutination paper-strip blood-sampling technique was utilized with hemagglutination inhibition controls. two positive samples were obtained from mckenzie county, one from a coyote with a titer of 1:64 and one fro ...199910479100
bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging carnivores from michigan.during a survey of carnivores and omnivores for bovine tuberculosis conducted in michigan (usa) since 1996, mycobacterium bovis was cultured from lymph nodes pooled from six coyotes (canis latrans) (four adult female, two adult male), two adult male raccoons (procyon lotor), one adult male red fox (vulpes vulpes), and one 1.5-yr-old male black bear (ursus americanus). one adult, male bobcat (felis rufus) with histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis was negative on culture but positive for ...200111272505
type i sts markers are more informative than cytochrome b in phylogenetic reconstruction of the mustelidae (mammalia: carnivora).we compared the utility of five nuclear gene segments amplified with type i sequence-tagged site (sts) primers versus the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene in resolving phylogenetic relationships within the mustelidae, a large and ecomorphologically diverse family of mammalian carnivores. maximum parsimony and likelihood analyses of separate and combined data sets were used to address questions regarding the levels of homoplasy, incongruence, and information content within and amo ...200314530127
energy requirements for gestation and lactation in a delayed implanter, the american badger.1. two adult female badgers were water-deprived and/or fasted during the last one-half to two-thirds of pregnancy while a third pregnant female received water ad libitum and was fed meat and dog food. 2. the litter size, birth weights, post partum energy consumption, growth rate, development of homeothermy, tooth eruption and date of weaning, as well as other developmental characteristics, were not significantly different between cubs born to the fed or fasted mothers. 3. the energy demands for ...198514575040
antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in canada.antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [cav-2], feline herpesvirus [fhv], phocine herpesvirus [phv-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [dmv], phocine distemper virus [pdv], parainfluenza virus type 3 [pi3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [drv], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, borrelia burgdorferi and toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mam ...200415338705
intoxication of nontarget wildlife with rodenticides in northwestern kansas.the perception of prairie dogs (cynomys spp.) both as a nuisance species and a keystone species presents a significant challenge to land, livestock, and wildlife managers. anticoagulant and nonanticoagulant rodenticides are commonly employed to control prairie dog populations throughout their range. chlorophacinone, and to a lesser extent zinc phosphide, are widely used in northwestern kansas for controlling black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) populations. although zinc phosphide poi ...201121270011
pathogen and rodenticide exposure in american badgers (taxidea taxus) in california.urban and agricultural land use may increase the risk of disease transmission among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans as we share ever-shrinking and fragmented habitat. american badgers (taxidae taxus), a species of special concern in california, usa, live in proximity to urban development and often share habitat with livestock and small peridomestic mammals. as such, they may be susceptible to pathogens commonly transmitted at this interface and to anticoagulant rodenticides used to contro ...201222493124
the occurrence of pathogens in an endangered population of american badgers (taxidea taxus jacksoni) in ontario, canada.american badgers ( taxidea taxus jacksoni) at the periphery of the species' range in ontario, canada, are listed as endangered because of an estimated population size of <200 mature individuals. the main threats faced by this population include habitat loss and road mortality. however, on 18 november 2013, a radio-implanted badger was found nonresponsive in an agricultural field with signs consistent with canine distemper virus infection, which was subsequently confirmed. this prompted our inves ...201727749192
antibody detection and molecular characterization of toxoplasma gondii from bobcats (lynx rufus), domestic cats (felis catus), and wildlife from minnesota, usa.little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in minnesota. here, we evaluated toxoplasma gondii infection in 50 wild bobcats (lynx rufus) and 75 other animals on/near 10 cattle farms. antibodies to t. gondii were assayed in serum samples or tissue fluids by the modified agglutination test (mat, cut-off 1:25). twenty nine of 50 bobcats and 15 of 41 wildlife trapped on the vicinity of 10 farms and nine of 16 adult domestic cats (felis catus) and six of 14 domestic dogs resident on farms we ...201626824935
filarial dermatitis in a striped skunk.a striped skunk (mephitis mephitis) from kansas (usa) with severe diffuse dermatitis characterized by extensive alopecic areas, thickened skin, and multiple, scattered cutaneous abscesses on the dorsal aspect of the head, neck, and trunk was submitted for diagnostic evaluation. more than 50 nematodes identified as filaria taxideae were found in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue. histologic examination of the skin revealed multifocal pyogranulomatous inflammation with intralesional larvated nematode ...19979391974
sexual differences in spatio-temporal interaction among badgers.i tested the following hypotheses of territorial polygyny on badgers (taxidea taxus: carnivora; mustelidae): competition among adult females for food should result in intrasexual territoriality, while male competition for females should result in larger territories that encompass multiple female territories. the sagebrush-grassland study area (wyoming, usa) contained a depauperate terrestrial fauna with a dense badger population preying on high densities of ground squirrels (spermophilus armatus ...199328313656
tests of spatial and temporal interaction among animals.i report a method for analyzing interaction between two animals around a common object or resource (simple association) or within a shared area (spatial-temporal interaction in home range overlap). the pair's association is reduced to binomial events forming a 2 x 2 classification; each is either present or not in the shared area. for the most common home range overlap description, observed frequencies of presence and absence for each animal are compared to expected frequencies based on two null ...199227759210
filaria taxideae n. sp. (filarioidea: filarüdae) from the badger, taxidea taxus taxus from wyoming. 19695392748
explicit not implicit preferences predict conservation intentions for endangered species and biomes.conservation of biodiversity is determined in part by human preferences. preferences relevant to conservation have been examined largely via explicit measures (e.g., a self-reported degree of liking), with implicit measures (e.g., preconscious, automatic evaluations) receiving relatively less attention. this is the case despite psychological evidence from other contexts that implicit preferences are more informative of behavior. thus, the type of measure that predicts conservation intentions for ...201728135298
sharp-tailed grouse nest survival and nest predator habitat use in north dakota's bakken oil field.recent advancements in extraction technologies have resulted in rapid increases of gas and oil development across the united states and specifically in western north dakota. this expansion of energy development has unknown influences on local wildlife populations and the ecological interactions within and among species. our objectives for this study were to evaluate nest success and nest predator dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse (tympanuchus phasianellus) in two study sites that represented areas ...201728081245
patterns of gastrointestinal parasitism among five sympatric prairie carnivores: are males reservoirs?male vertebrates are believed to be disproportionately vulnerable to parasites, but empirical support for this contention is mixed. we tested the hypothesis of higher levels of parasitism in males with the use of counts of gastrointestinal helminths in 5 sympatric mammalian carnivores (american badgers, coyotes, red foxes, raccoons, striped skunks) from central saskatchewan. parasite burdens for females and males of each host species were compared with the use of prevalence (percentage of hosts ...200717626341
spatial interactions between sympatric carnivores: asymmetric avoidance of an intraguild predator.interactions between intraguild species that act as both competitors and predator-prey can be especially complex. we studied patterns of space use by the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes), a prairie dog (cynomys spp.) specialist, and the american badger (taxidea taxus), a larger generalist carnivore that competes for prairie dogs and is known to kill ferrets. we expected that ferrets would spatially avoid badgers because of the risk of predation, that these patterns of avoidance might diffe ...201526306165
spatial patterns of immunogenetic and neutral variation underscore the conservation value of small, isolated american badger populations.small and isolated populations often exhibit low genetic diversity due to drift and inbreeding, but may simultaneously harbour adaptive variation. we investigate spatial distributions of immunogenetic variation in american badger subspecies (taxidea taxus), as a proxy for evaluating their evolutionary potential across the northern extent of the species' range. we compared genetic structure of 20 microsatellites and the major histocompatibility complex (mhc drb exon 2) to evaluate whether small, ...201627877205
high gene flow in the american badger overrides habitat preferences and limits broadscale genetic structure.habitat associations are a function of habitat preferences and dispersal capabilities, both of which can influence how species responded to quaternary climatic changes and contemporary habitat heterogeneity. predicting resultant genetic structure is not always straightforward, especially in species where high dispersal potential and habitat preferences yield opposing predictions. the american badger has high dispersal capabilities that predict widespread panmixia, but avoids closed-canopy forest ...201627862522
fine-scale landscape genetics of the american badger (taxidea taxus): disentangling landscape effects and sampling artifacts in a poorly understood species.landscape genetics is a powerful tool for conservation because it identifies landscape features that are important for maintaining genetic connectivity between populations within heterogeneous landscapes. however, using landscape genetics in poorly understood species presents a number of challenges, namely, limited life history information for the focal population and spatially biased sampling. both obstacles can reduce power in statistics, particularly in individual-based studies. in this study ...201626243136
depth of the biologically active zone in upland habitats at the hanford site, washington: implications for remediation and ecological risk management.soil invertebrates, mammals, and plants penetrate and exploit the surface soil layer (i.e., the biologically active zone) to varying depths. as the us department of energy remediates radioactive and hazardous wastes in soil at the hanford site, a site-specific definition of the biologically active zone is needed to identify the depth to which remedial actions should be taken to protect the environment and avoid excessive cleanup expenditures. this definition may then be considered in developing ...201525209119
tracking animal movement by comparing trace element signatures in claws to spatial variability of elements in soils.biogeochemical markers in ecology have provided a useful means for indicating geographic origin and movement patterns of species on various temporal and spatial scales. we used trace element analysis to resolve spatial and habitat-specific environmental gradients in elemental distributions that could be used to infer geographic origin and habitat association in a model terrestrial carnivore: american badger (taxidea taxus jacksoni). to accomplish this, we generated element base-maps using spatia ...201424061061
architectural specialization of the intrinsic thoracic limb musculature of the american badger (taxidea taxus).evaluation of the relationships between muscle structure and digging function in fossorial species is limited. badgers and other fossorial specialists are expected to have massive forelimb muscles with long fascicles capable of substantial shortening for high power and applying high out-force to the substrate. to explore this hypothesis, we quantified muscle architecture in the thoracic limb of the american badger (taxidea taxus) and estimated the force, power, and joint torque of its intrinsic ...201322987341
relative abundance of american badger (taxidea taxus) and red fox (vulpes vulpes) in landscapes with high and low rodenticide poisoning levels.over the past decade, extensive poisoning campaigns have been conducted in southern saskatchewan to control richardson's ground squirrel spermophilus richardsonii (sabine, 1822) populations. such campaigns might impact on predator abundance by decreasing prey levels, and also through secondary poisoning. using spotlighting, we investigated the relative abundance of american badgers taxidea taxus (schreber, 1777) and red fox vulpes vulpes (linnaeus, 1758) in 2 study areas with road access and cro ...201222405447
complication associated with abdominal surgical implantation of a radio transmitter in an american badger (taxidea taxus).radio telemetry has greatly advanced the understanding of wild animal ecology. telemetry studies must ensure that placement of transmitters does not influence the health and behavior of study animals. here, 10 american badgers (taxidea taxus) were implanted with beeswax-coated abdominal radio transmitters under general anesthesia and tracked for an average of 14 mo. behavior and movements of all badgers indicated successful short-term recovery from implantation; however, three mortalities were o ...201020722276
use of buspirone and enrichment to manage aberrant behavior in an american badger (taxidea taxus).a captive adult female american badger (taxidea taxus) suffered periodic episodes of agitation and self-mutilation over the course of its lifetime. initially environmental enrichment curtailed the aberrant behavior; however, intensifying clinical signs periodically required the use of diazepam for amelioration of the problem. when diazepam treatment failed to effectively manage a series of escalating behavioral problems, alternative therapy with buspirone, an azaperone anxiolytic, was initiated. ...200517312776
epithelioid leiomyosarcoma in the visceral peritoneum of an american badger (taxidea taxus).a 12-year-old female american badger was presented to the taipei city zoo veterinary ward with anorexia and weakness. treatments were ineffective, and the badger died of chronic interstitial nephritis and uremia. at necropsy, numerous firm white nodules, measuring 0.5-2.0 cm, were present on the surface of the liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, pancreas, and diaphragm. most nodules were encapsulated and well demarcated from the organs to which they were attached. a poorly demarcated mass, ...200515690961
seasonal serum urea-creatinine ratios in wild and captive american badgers, taxidea taxus.1. blood samples were taken from 22 american badgers in the field during different seasons and analysed for urea and creatinine. 2. the urea-creatinine ratio (u/c) of these animals did not decrease during the winter as previously reported for black bears. this suggests that the badger, unlike the bear, does not demonstrate a winter physiological state of protein conservation. 3. this may be the consequence of intermittent ingestion of protein by the badger during the winter, or due to biochemica ...19901968814
molt in the north american badger, taxidea taxus. 19751185082
dental annulation in the american badger. 19751113048
cardiovascular calcification associated with nephritis in a badger.calcification of the endocardium of the left artrium, and to a lesser extent the media of the pulmonary artery and aorta, was found associated with nephritis in a badger (taxidea taxus).19751113429
steroid metabolism by badger (taxidea taxus) ovarian tissue homogenates. 19694241699
functional aspects of the jaw-articulation in the north american badger, with comments on adaptiveness of tooth-wear. 19655893427
dental abnormalities in north american badgers, genus taxidea. 19655863815
filarial dermatitis caused by filaria taxideae in domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) from the western united states.filaria taxideae is a common subcutaneous filarial parasite of american badgers (taxidea taxus) that has also been reported in skunks in the western usa. dermatitis associated with this parasite has been reported in badgers and skunks; however, many individuals have no gross lesions. with the exception of a captive red panda in california, there have been no reports of f. taxidae infection in domestic or exotic/pet animals. in this case series, we document f. taxideae in domestic ferrets from ca ...201831014722
spatiotemporal analyses suggest the role of glacial history and the ice-free corridor in shaping american badger population genetic variation.recurring glacial cycles through the quaternary period drastically altered the size and distribution of natural populations of north american flora and fauna. the "southerly refugia model" has been the longstanding framework for testing the effects of glaciation on contemporary genetic patterns; however, insights from ancient dna have contributed to the reconstruction of more complex histories for some species. the american badger, taxidea taxus, provides an interesting species for exploring the ...202032788984
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