hepatitis in skunks caused by the virus of infectious canine hepatitis.two cases of acute, fatal, hepatitis occurred in young, striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) trapped in southern ontario. histologically, lesions in the liver were similar to infectious canine hepatitis. a virus was isolated which produced large intranuclear inclusions in dog kidney cell cultures. these inclusions were feulgen-positive and fluoresced green with acridine orange stain. the skunk hepatitis isolate was identified as the virus of infectious canine hepatitis by virus neutralization test ...1975172663
necrotizing encephalitis in skunks caused by herpes simplex virus.herpes simplex virus was isolated from the brain of a wild skunk (mephitis mephitis) which had clinical neurological disease. in the brain of this skunk and in brain of skunks inoculated intracerebrally, there were areas of necrosis in the grey matter of the cerebral cortex and to a lesser extent in the brain stem. intranuclear inclusions occurred in neurons and glial cells with vascular cuffing by mononuclear cells and a few neutrophils. skunks inoculated intravenously had extensive focal necro ...1977200319
toxoplasmosis, distemper, and herpesvirus infection in a skunk (mephitis mephitis).a striped skunk (mephitis mephitis) showing abnormal behavior had histopathologic lesions of toxoplasmosis and canine distemper in addition to intranuclear, eosinophilic inclusions in the reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen, liver and lung. the inclusions, on electron microscopic examination, were compatible with herpesvirus infection.1978204802
protides of the mustelidae: immunoresponse of mustelids to aleutian mink disease virus.members of north american mustelidae were tested for their response to inoculation with 10(6) infective doses of aleutian disease virus. in subfamily mustelinae, 3 species in the genus mustela (m vision, m erminea, and m putorius) and 2 species in genus martes (ma pennanti and ma americana) responded immunologically with some features resembling aleutian disease in mink. in subfamily mephitinae, only mephitis mephitis responded, and others of the subfamily did not, nor did members of subfamilies ...1978208431
powassan virus in ixodes cookei and mustelidae in new england.powassan virus was recovered from a pool of 3 nymphal and 1 adult female ixodes cookei removed from a striped skunk (mephitis mephitis) trapped in massachusetts during 1967 and from a pool of 9 nymphal i. cookei from a long-tailed weasel (mustela frenata) captured in connecticut during 1978. virus was detected in the blood of both mammals. hemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) antibody to powassan virus was demonstrated in 16.0% of the skunks sampled in connecticut, and neutralizing antibody was dete ...1979230364
experimental rabies in skunks: immunofluorescence light and electron microscopic studies.striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were inoculated into the abductor digiti quinti muscle with street rabies virus isolated from salivary glands of rabid skunks. using the immunofluorescence technique, antigen was detected in muscle cells at the inoculation site before it was detected in the central nervous system. neurons and their processes in nearly all regions of the brain, spinal cord, cerebrospinal ganglia, and peripheral nerves contained antigen in terminal stages of the disease. electron ...1979376938
experimental rabies in skunks: oral, nasal, tracheal and intestinal exposure.striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were exposed to challenge virus standard rabies virus by feeding infected mouse brain in suspension or as intact brain free choice, by forced feeding of suspension, and by intranasal, intratracheal and intraintestinal instillation of suspension. all of five skunks exposed intranasally, two of five exposed intratracheally and two of ten exposed by forced feeding developed rabies. none of the skunks exposed to challenge virus standard virus, by other methods, bec ...1979497886
leptospira interrogans serotype pomona in saskatchewan: isolation from a naturally infected striped skunk.leptospira interrogans serotype pomona was isolated from the kidneys of a normal striped skunk (mephitis mephitis hudsonicus) collected near kindersley, saskatchewan. although there were no gross lesions, small foci of chronic interstitial nephritis were observed microscopically. this is the first reported isolation of serotype pomona for the prairie provinces.1977597790
behavior and mortality of free-ranging raccoons, snowshoe hares, and striped skunks after exposure to 300 r gamma radiation. 1977847099
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild and domestic animals in northern california.wild and domestic animals from 3 geographic-climatologic areas in northern california were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii. a total of 2,796 serum samples representing 37 species of wild mammals, 35 species of wild birds, and 5 species of domestic animals were tested by the indirect hemagglutination test. of 1,174 wild mammal serums tested, 10.8% were positive, which compared with 14.7% of the 1,221 domestic mammal serums. of 229 wild carnivores tested, 45% were seropositive, inc ...1976977457
development of physaloptera maxillaris (nematoda: physalopteroidea) in skunk (mephitis mephitis) and the role of paratenic and other hosts in its life cycle. 19761083281
studies on the oral infectivity of rabies virus in carnivora.mature and immature red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were fed varying numbers of white mice infected with street isolates and a fixed strain of rabies virus. rabies deaths and the development of serum neutralizing antibody to rabies virus occurred in both species. the epizootiological implications of these findings are discussed.19751097742
paragonimus kellicotti infection in wild carnivores in southwestern ontario: i. prevalence and gross pathologic features.paragonimus kellicotti ward, 1908 was recovered from 16 of 105 mink (mustela vison), 14 of 244 striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), 10 of 446 red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 1 of 31 coyotes (canis latrans), 0 of 326 raccoons (procyon lotor) and 0 of 8 weasels (mustela spp.) collected from southwestern ontario. the majority of carnivores harboring p. kellicotti was collected from two counties (huron and bruce) bordering the east shore of lake huron where 6.0% of the animals (excluding raccoons) were in ...19751113433
paragonimus kellicotti infection in wild carnivores in southwestern ontario: ii. histopathologic features.pulmonary lesions associated with naturally acquired paragonimus kellicotti infection were studied in mink (mustela vison), striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and a coyote (canis latrans). in ,ink a fibrous capsule was formed around mature flukes in dilated bronchioles or bronchi, and there was mild focal interstitial pneumonitis adjacent to fluke eggs in alveoli and migrating parasites. a thick wall, infiltrated heavily with mononuclear cells and eosinophils, surroun ...19751152176
care, management, and biology of captive striped skunks (mephitis mephitis).the striped skunk has a number of characteristics that make it one of the most desirable wild carnivores for scientific study. this paper described in detail the care and management of this species in captivity. reproduction and factors which may affect productivity were discussed, including: duration of mating period, experience, and age of the female. two optimal mating periods resulted in the greatest productivity and survival of young: (1) 24 hours and (2) 24 hours followed by another mating ...19751237760
seasonal population changes of physaloptera maxillaris (nematoda: physalopteroidea) in striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). 19761260571
the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis on iowa swine farms with an emphasis on the roles of free-living mammals.multiparous sows from 19 central iowa swine farms were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii by the modified direct agglutination test. antibody titers of 1:32 or greater were considered positive. rodents, domestic cats, opossums (didelphis virginiana), raccoons (procyon lotor) and striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were live-trapped on each farm and similarly tested for antibodies. the overall prevalence of t. gondii antibodies in the species tested was 39/273 (14.3%) swine, 31/74 (41 ...19921496780
experimental inoculation of raccoons (procyon lotor) with rabies virus of skunk determine raccoon (procyon lotor) susceptibility and serum neutralizing antibody response to a skunk salivary gland rabies virus, raccoons were inoculated with a rabies virus isolated from a naturally-infected striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). raccoons were divided into four groups of three animals each. a dilution of the rabies virus suspension, 10(2.4), 10(3.4), or 10(4.8), mouse intracerebral lethal dose50 (micld50), was administered into the masseter muscles of each animal. three negativ ...19921548802
oral rabies vaccination of skunks and foxes with a recombinant human adenovirus vaccine.a new recombinant rabies vaccine (human adenovirus 5 containing the rabies glycoprotein gene) was given to striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes). groups of skunks received the vaccine in baits, by direct instillation into the mouth, or intramuscularly. foxes were given vaccine by direct instillation into the oral cavity (dioc). selected groups of vaccinated skunks and foxes were challenged with street rabies virus. there were high rates of seroconversion (generally wit ...19921550495
oral vaccination of skunks with raccoon poxvirus recombinants expressing the rabies glycoprotein or the nucleoprotein.twenty nine skunks (mephitis mephitis) were vaccinated orally with raccoon poxvirus (rcn) recombinants: 10 with a recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (rcnrg), 10 with rcnrg mixed with a recombinant expressing the rabies virus nucleoprotein (rcnrn) and nine with rcn alone. rabies virus neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the 20 skunks; five skunks (three given rcnrg, two given a mixture of recombinants) survived a rabies challenge that was lethal for nine skunks vacci ...19911758034
large-scale eradication of rabies using recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine.rabies infection of domestic and wild animals is a serious problem throughout the world. the major disease vector in europe is the red fox (vulpes vulpes) and rabies control has focused on vaccinating and/or culling foxes. culling has not been effective, and the distribution of five vaccine baits is the only appropriate method for the vaccination of wild foxes. although some european countries have conducted field vaccination campaigns using attenuated rabies virus strains, their use has not bee ...19911758494
ineffectiveness and comparative pathogenicity of attenuated rabies virus vaccines for the striped skunk (mephitis mephitis).three attenuated rabies virus vaccines (sad-b19, era/bhk-21, aza 2) were compared for efficacy and safety in the striped skunk (mephitis mephitis) by the oral and intranasal routes. the sad-b19 and era/bhk-21 vaccines were given orally; all three vaccines were given intranasally. oral administration of sad-b19 and era/bhk-21 vaccines induced neither seroconversion nor significant protection against rabies challenge. one skunk which consumed a sad-b19 vaccine-laden bait succumbed to vaccine-induc ...19902304207
intramuscular vaccination of skunks and raccoons against striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (procyon lotor) were immunized with inactivated rabies vaccine by intramuscular injection and released at the point of capture during a rabies control program in metropolitan toronto (ontario, canada). serum samples collected prior to and following vaccination revealed that 100% of the skunks and 98% of the raccoons seroconverted. rabies antibody was still detectable 314 to 757 days postvaccination. five of six skunks vaccinated in th ...19902338727
the role of medium-sized mammals as reservoirs of borrelia burgdorferi in southern new york.the ability of raccoons (procyon lotor), striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and opossums (didelphis virginiana) to serve as reservoirs of borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of lyme disease, was compared with that of white-footed mice (peromyscus leucopus). twenty-eight (28) medium-sized mammals and 34 white-footed mice were captured in westchester county, new york (usa) in summer 1986. animals were caged over pans of water for 1 to 2 days to recover engorged tick larvae (ixodes dammini) ...19902388356
sarcocystis sp. in mountain goats (oreamnos americanus) in washington: prevalence and search for the definitive host.during october and november 1986, sarcocystis sp. was detected in 24 of 56 (43%) tongues from hunter-killed mountain goats (oreamnos americanus) in washington (usa). sarcocysts had an unusual sessile polyp-shaped branched wall. mean size of 154 sarcocysts was 71.3 x 37.8 microns (range, 20 to 248 x 10 to 120 microns), and the mean intensity was 2.3 (range, 1 to 28). in an attempt to identify the definitive host, infected tongues were fed to four coyotes (canis latrans), eight domestic dogs, four ...19892509738
persistent infections of a field strain of rabies virus in murine neuroblastoma (na-c1300) cell cultures.rabies virus from the brain of a striped skunk (mephitis mephitis) from ontario was inoculated into murine neuroblastoma (na-c1300) cell cultures. these cultures were incubated and the cells were subcultured every three to four days. the presence of viral antigen in the cell cultures was monitored by direct immunofluorescent staining and in the culture fluids by titration in either baby hamster kidney (bhk/c13) or na cells or in experimental mice. the virus-infected na cultures evolved from an i ...19892590871
host associations of ticks (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a lyme disease endemic area of southern new york.ticks of eight medium-sized mammal species were studied in an area of endemic lyme disease in westchester county, n.y., from 1 april 1984 to 31 march 1985. most (81%) of the 266 total mammal captures were raccoon, procyon lotor (l.) (47%), opossum, didelphis virginiana (kerr) (19%), and striped skunk, mephitis mephitis schreber (15%); these host species accounted for 91% of the 1,519 ticks collected. although the total number of ticks was rather evenly distributed among these mammals, species co ...19892724317
arbovirus infections in several ontario mammals, 1975-1980.serological studies for arboviruses were conducted on 725 animal sera collected in 22 ontario townships between 1975 and 1980 including 44 coyote (canis latrans), 277 red fox (vulpes vulpes), 192 raccoon (procyon lotor) and 212 striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to two flaviviruses, namely st. louis encephalitis and powassan were found in 50% of coyote, 47% of skunk, 26% of fox and 10% of raccoon sera. similarly, hemagglutination inhibition antibodies to a ...19863017527
trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem. iii. epidemiological investigations of trichinella spiralis in resident wild and feral part of a larger epidemiological study examining the transmission of trichinella spiralis in an agricultural ecosystem, resident wild and feral animals were trapped to determine the extent of their involvement in the natural, on-farm cycling of the parasite among swine. during a 21-mo-study, seven of 15 skunks (mephitis mephitis), one of three opossums (didelphis virginiana), two of two feral domestic cats and a raccoon (procyon lotor) were found to be infected, while five shrews (blarina bre ...19883193554
comparison of spongiform lesions in experimental scrapie and rabies in skunks.striped skunks were inoculated intracerebrally with the scrapie agent (suspension of brain from a naturally infected suffolk sheep) or intramuscularly with street rabies virus (suspension of salivary glands from naturally infected skunks). those given the scrapie agent developed clinical signs of weakness, posterior ataxia, and emaciation after incubated periods of 8 to 23 months. those inoculated with rabies virus developed clinical signs of rabies (aggressive behavior, hyperexcitability, ataxi ...19883213430
oral administration of an attenuated strain of canine adenovirus (type 2) to raccoons, foxes, skunk, and attenuated strain of canine adenovirus type-2 (cav-2) was administered orally to 2 foxes (vulpes fulva), 6 raccoons (procyon lotor), a skunk (mephitis mephitis), and a mongoose (herpestus auropunctatus). blood was collected weekly from the animals to monitor cav-2 virus-neutralizing antibody titers. all animals had increases in titers. sera from 8 foxes, 30 mongooses, 52 raccoons, and 22 skunks trapped in the field had naturally occurring antibody to cav-2.19883348527
growth characteristics in cell culture and pathogenicity in mice of two terrestrial rabies strains indigenous to canada.two strains of street rabies virus from striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were used to infect either a murine neuroblastoma (na 1300) or a baby hamster kidney (bhk-21/c13) cell culture and the cell infection rates were noted during 4 days postinfection. these cultures were then passaged for four consecutive passages, and the viruses obtained in the supernatant fluids of passage 4 were then treated as original isolates and used to infect both neuroblastoma and baby hamster kidney cells. the mort ...19883378201
experimental rabies in skunks: immune response and salivary gland infection.groups of striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were inoculated intramuscularly with graded doses of street rabies virus. at various intervals after inoculation, saliva and sera were tested for rabies virus and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. skunks that developed rabies were killed in terminal stages of the disease and the following examinations were made: titers of virus and antibody in submandibular salivary glands and brain, extent of immunofluorescence in submandibular salivary glands, ...19873427891
immune response in skunks to a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein.striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were vaccinated with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein. virus neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus were present at 14 days postvaccination by the following routes: scarification (6/6), intramuscular (4/4) and intestinal (5/8). six out of seven skunks that ate vaccine filled baits had virus neutralizing antibodies at 28 days. when challenged intramuscularly with street virus, the survival rates were 5/7 for the bait-fed gro ...19873651890
experimental rabies in skunks and foxes. pathogenesis of the spongiform lesions.the pathogenesis of rabies spongiform lesions in striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes) was studied by light and electron microscopy and peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemistry. studies in skunks included use of several street virus variants (different antigenic profiles as tested by monoclonal antibodies) different routes of inoculation (intranasal, intracerebral and intramuscular), immunosuppression of infected skunks, different preparations of virus (brain and ...19873695410
american trypanosomiasis (chagas' disease) in a striped skunk. 19853923215
adiaspiromycosis in striped skunks in alberta, canada.pulmonary adiaspiromycosis was diagnosed in seven of 25 striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) in east-central alberta. the infection varied from mild, where only microscopic lesions were seen, to severe, where gross lesions of grayish-white nodules were observed in the lung parenchyma. mild lesions were restricted to the lung, while severe lesions extended to the tracheobronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes. histologically, the lesions were characterized by a centrally located fungal spherule, surr ...19863951052
studies on the scent glands and musk of rabid skunks (mephitis mephitis). 19734265546
the relationship of physaloptera maxillaris (nematoda: physalopteroidea) to skunk (mephitis mephitis). 19734706041
the development, route of migration, and pathogenesis of crenosoma mephitidis in the skunk (mephitis mephitis). 19744837263
babesia mephitis sp. n. (protozoa: piroplasmida), a hematozoan parasite of the striped skunk, mephitis mephitis. 19704994127
sinus worm skrjabingylus spp. (nematoda: pseudaliidae) from rabid skunks (mephitis mephitis) in california. 19695815929
the renal carrier state of experimenal leptospira pomona infections in skunks (mephitis mephitis). 19676017273
response of mink, skunk, red fox and raccoon to inoculation with mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus and prevalence of antibody to parvovirus in wild carnivores in ontario.mink virus enteritis, feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus-2 were inoculated separately into groups of raccoon, mink, red fox and striped skunk. raccoons were highly susceptible to mink virus enteritis and feline panleukopenia, with animals developing clinical illness, and several dying within six to ten days of inoculation with lesions typical of parvovirus infection. both viruses were shed in high titre in the feces of infected raccoons, and high antibody titres were stimulated. raccoons ...19836309349
rotavirus-associated diarrhea in young raccoons (procyon lotor), striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes).electron microscopy and a commercial elisa test for rotavirus antigen were used to diagnose rotavirus infection in diarrheic raccoons (procyon lotor), striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes). gross and histopathological changes in two raccoons and two red foxes were found to be very similar to those described previously in rotavirus mediated diarrhea in other animals. while an etiology for the diarrhea is not definitively established, it would appear to involve rotavirus ...19846330385
experimental rabies in skunks: mechanisms of infection of the salivary glands.striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were inoculated into the right submandibular salivary gland with street rabies virus. they were killed at various times after inoculation and several tissues were examined by immunofluorescence and light microscopy. right and left superior cervical, nodose and trigeminal ganglia, medulla oblongata and at least three regions of right and left submandibular salivary glands were examined by the fluorescent antibody technique. intracerebral titrations of salivary g ...19836357414
experimental rabies in skunks: effects of immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide.striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were inoculated with street rabies virus and immunosuppressed with several doses of cyclophosphamide. control skunks were inoculated with street virus only. the skunks were killed in terminal stages of the disease and several tissues were collected for examination by immunofluorescence, light microscopy and viral titration. sera collected at euthanasia from most of the principals did not contain detectable rabies neutralizing antibodies, whereas high titers occ ...19846370390
rabies: spongiform lesions in the brain.striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) experimentally infected with street rabies virus developed spongiform lesions that light- and electron-microscopically were indistinguishable from those found in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of man and animals. these previously unreported lesions were also detected in naturally occurring cases of rabies. the spongiform lesions consisted of round or oval vacuoles in the neuropil, rarely in neuronal perikarya. the most severely affected areas wer ...19846464676
rabies virus in the salivary glands and nasal mucosa of naturally infected skunks.several salivary glands and the nasal mucosa of rabid skunks (mephitis mephitis) contained rabies virus. generally titers were high in the submandibular, moderate in the parotid and low to moderate in the zygomatic, molar and sublingual salivary glands. the nasal mucosa (glands and epithelium) contained virus at low to moderate titers that occasionally were equal to titers in brain.19846478304
presence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in striped skunks from areas free of skunk rabies in alberta.nine percent of 198 serum samples from striped skunks, mephitis mephitis (schreber) from five areas of alberta were positive for rabies neutralizing antibody. positive samples were minimal (2%) from specimens sampled in an area enzootic for rabies and occurred at greater rates in areas negative for skunk rabies. transmission of rabies virus to skunks may have been from a source other than skunks in those areas, most probably from bats.19846492318
an experimental infection of trypanosoma cruzi in striped skunks (mephitis mephitis).four adult (3 male, 1 female) captive-raised, decented, striped skunks (mephritis mephitis) were infected experimentaly with a field strain (texas-tulane) of trypanosoma cruzi, originally isolated from a naturally-infected dog. two skunks were injected intravenously with approximately 4.5 x 10(6) viable t. cruzi trypomastigotes. two skunks were inoculated per os and per conjunctivum with 10 ml of phosphate buffered saline containing macerated, t. cruzi-infected triatomine intestines and intestin ...19806774112
transmission of sarcocystis rileyi to the striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). 19816796701
experimental transmission of sarcocystis sp. (protozoa: sarcocystidae) between the shoveler (anas clypeata) duck and the striped skunk (mephitis mephitis).muscle containing macroscopic cysts of sarcocystis sp. from naturally infected wild shoveler (anas clypeata) ducks was fed to two captive striped skunks (mephitis mephitis). the skunks passed sporocysts in their feces beginning 19 and 22 days post-infection, and continued to pass small numbers of sporocysts sporadically to 63 and 51 days post-infection, respectively. sporocysts from the skunks were administered orally to four laboratory-reared shovelers. no cysts were found in ducks examined 56 ...19816796702
four cases of hodgkin's disease in striped skunks (mephitis mephitis).twelve of 152 striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) necropsied at the ontario veterinary college between 1970 and 1980 had neoplasms. tumors occurred in one of 86 wild skunks, and 11 of 66 captive skunks. captive skunks were primarily from one source and were older animals. tumors in four skunks resembled those found in hodgkin's disease of man. this diagnosis was based on the presence of sternberg-reed cells, the cellular pattern, and the malignant behavior of the neoplasms. in two of these skunks ...19836836878
delayed implantation in mustelids, with special emphasis on the spotted skunk.three distinct reproductive patterns are exhibited by mustelids. some species (ferret and least weasel) breed during spring and summer and do not exhibit delayed implantation. others (mink and striped skunk) exhibit variable gestation periods with brief periods of delayed implantation occurring only if the females are mated early in the season. most mustelids (western spotted skunk, badgers, marten, wolverine, etc.) always exhibit a prolonged period of delayed implantation lasting several months ...19817014860
rabies virus titer from tissues of naturally infected skunks (mephitis mephitis).rabies virus was titrated from the hippocampus and salivary glands (mandibular, parotid, and sublingual) of 19 naturally infected skunks. selection of the skunks was based on a positive fluorescent antibody test (fat) on the hippocampus. one fat- and virus isolation-negative skunk served as a control. the fat was positive on 19 mandibular salivary glands, 16 parotid glands, and 17 sublingual glands. rabies virus was subsequently isolated in albino swiss mice from all (ie, 19) hippocampi and mand ...19817034605
rabies virus tropism in naturally infected skunks (mephitis mephitis). 19817041707
experimental infection of neonatal striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.experimental infection of neonatal skunks (mephitis mephitis) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv) caused fatal systemic infection. virus isolation and immunofluorescence tests were used to demonstrate a direct association between ibrv and the lesions. histopathologic studies revealed multiple focal necrosis in the liver and the adrenal glands.19807189559
transplacental transmission of rabies virus from a naturally infected skunk.a female skunk (mephitis mephitis) was submitted to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory for routine rabies diagnosis. rabies infection was confirmed by fluorescent rabies antibody examination on brain tissue. additional tissues, including uterus, ovaries, and 6 embryos, were collected to study rabies pathogenesis. the fluorescent rabies antibody examination showed rabies virus antigen in 1 embryo, the uterus, and ovaries.19817332132
dermatophilus congolensis infections in wildlife in new york state.dermatophilus congolensis infection is described for the first time in a woodchuck (marmota monax) and a striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). this actinomycete was also recovered from a raccoon (procyon lotor) carcass which had been frozen for a year. encrusted lesions or denuded patches or both were seen during necropsy on the head, thorax, abdomen, and legs of each carcass. d. congolensis was demonstrated in strained smears or paraffin sections or both from the three animals and was recovered fr ...19817334073
experimental rabies in skunks: persistence of virus in denervated muscle at the inoculation site.striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) were inoculated into the denervated abductor digiti quinti muscle with street rabies virus. they were killed at various times after inoculation and several tissues were examined by immunofluorescence and light microscopy. muscle at the inoculation site was examined electron microscopically. rabies antigen was detected in muscle fibers first on day 7 and persisted until day 28. light and electron microscopic lesions at the inoculation site included atrophic and ...19817337867
a serological survey of leptospira interrogans serotype pomona in alberta and saskatchewan striped skunks and possible transmission between cattle and skunks.the range of known occurrence of leptospira interrogans serotype pomona is extended to alberta in striped skunks (mephitis mephitis); no evidence of l. sejroe was found. reacting sera from skunks were confined to the southern portion of alberta and adjacent saskatchewan, although a number of reactors were found sufficiently further north in saskatchewan suggesting that a different mode of infection may be functioning there. of 95 skunk sera from near a dairy farm infected with serotype pomona 40 ...19817343072
prevalence of antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in striped skunks from saskatchewan and alberta.fifteen percent (81 of 542) of striped skunks, mephitis mephitis, collected in the prairie of alberta and saskatchewan during 1974 to 1978, were positive for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii. the seropositive rates varied from 8% (6 of 78) for skunks less than six months of age to 47% (9 of 19) in animals three or more years old. spring and summer transmission was indicated by a preponderance of high titres (greater than or equal to 1:1024) in seropositive skunks collected april through sept ...19807431517
effect of deer exclusion on the abundance of immature ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing small and medium-sized mammals.effects of deer exclusion on abundance of immature ixodes scapularis say parasitizing small and medium-sized mammals, and the role mammals have in introducing ticks to exclosure areas, were examined at two sites in westchester county, new york. in total, 686 mammal captures representing nine species were obtained, with white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus rafinesque, composing > 80% of all captures, followed by raccoons, procyon lotor (l.); opossums, didelphis virginiana (kerr); and striped sk ...19957869342
a molecular epidemiological study of rabies virus in central ontario and western quebec.rabies persists in ontario wildlife in two predominant species: the red fox (vulpes vulpes) and the striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). a protocol applying reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (rt/pcr) and restriction endonuclease analysis (rea) to the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene was previously reported by nadin-davis et al. (journal of general virology 74, 829-837, 1993) to be useful for discrimination of rabies virus variants in ontario. four main types, which showed no host spec ...19947931145
ticks (acari: ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized kansas species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in kansas; amblyomma americanum l., dermacentor variabilis (say), haemaphysalis leporispalustris (packard), ixodes cookei packard, i. kingi bishopp, i. sculptus neumann, and i. texanus banks. dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, a. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the ixodes spp. and h. leporispalustris were widely scattered. the most common tick found was d. varia ...19948057327
experimental rabies infection of non-nervous tissues in skunks (mephitis mephitis) and foxes (vulpes vulpes).non-neural tissues, from three male and four female stripped skunks (mephitis mephitis), 5 to 7 months old, and one male and two female red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 12 to 16 months old, experimentally infected with street rabies virus, were examined by light microscopic immunohistochemical and electron microscopic methods. this is the first report of ultrastructural lesions in rabies-infected adrenal medulla, cornea, and nasal glands. using the streptavidin biotin peroxidase technique, antigen was ...19948140732
further studies on the susceptibility of raccoons (procyon lotor) to a rabies virus of skunk origin and comparative susceptibility of striped skunks (mephitis mephitis).two raccoons (procyon lotor) were inoculated in the masseter muscles with 10(5.9) mouse intracerebral lethal dose50 (micd50) of a rabies virus isolated from a naturally infected iowa (usa) striped skunk (mephitis mephitis). five striped skunks were inoculated with either 10(0.7) or 10(2.1) micld50 of the same isolate. all five skunks died within 35 days following inoculation. both raccoons survived 273 days without adverse effects, and virus was not isolated from saliva samples taken at between ...19938355351
identification of regional variants of the rabies virus within the canadian province of ontario.although rabies outbreaks in most parts of the world tend to be host species-specific the rabies currently enzootic in the canadian province of ontario is hosted by two wildlife species, the red fox and the striped skunk. previous studies employing monoclonal antibody panels failed to identify any host-specific differences in ontario rabies virus street isolates, but certain observations suggested the existence of more than one viral strain in terrestrial mammals of this region. the extent of va ...19938492088
identification of opossums (didelphis virginiana) as the putative definitive host of sarcocystis neurona.sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan that causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (epm) in north and south america. horses appear to be an aberrant host, because the merozoites continually divide in the central nervous system, without encysting. the natural host species has not previously been identified. the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssurna) gene of s. neurona was compared to those of sarcocystis muris, sarcocystis cruzi, toxoplasma gondii, and cryptosporidium parvum to identify a unique ...19958544064
early events in rabies virus infection of the central nervous system in skunks (mephitis mephitis).twenty-four striped skunks were inoculated intramuscularly (long digital extensor muscle of right pelvic limb) with street rabies virus. groups of two clinically normal skunks were killed at various times after inoculation; skunks that developed rabies were killed in early stages of the clinical signs. four clinically normal skunks (numbered 1-4) had slight infection in lumbar spinal ganglia, spinal cord and brain. these four skunks were used for detailed immunohistochemical (rabies antigen) stu ...19968773152
the long incubation period in rabies: delayed progression of infection in muscle at the site of exposure.the striped skunk (mephitis mephitis) is a host of rabies in large areas of canada and the united states. in each of two experiments, equal numbers of skunks in two groups were inoculated intramuscularly with low doses of a field strain of rabies virus (street rabies virus). in each experiment, skunks in one group surviving to 2 months were killed at this time and selected tissues were used for examination by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method or by immunohistochemistry for rabies antige ...19979224533
efficacy of an oral vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine in controlling epidemic raccoon rabies in new jersey.a field trial to evaluate the efficacy of an oral vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine in controlling epidemic raccoon (procyon lotor) rabies was conducted by distributing 180,816 doses (10(8.2)tcid50/ml) of vaccine in wax ampules within fish-meal polymer baits at a rate of 64 doses/km2/treatment throughout a 552 km2 area, forming an 18 km wide band across the northern cape may peninsula of new jersey (usa). vaccination treatments were conducted in the spring and fall between m ...19989813845
seroprevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging mammals in iowa.serum samples from raccoons (procyon lotor), striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), virginia opossums (didelphis virginiana), and free-ranging house cats trapped in iowa between 1984 and 1988 were tested for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii using the modified direct agglutination test (mat). antibody titers > or = 1:32 were considered indicative of infection. prevalence rates by species were estimated for raccoons at 134/885 (15%), skunks at 38/81 (47%), opossums at 12/53 (23%), and cats at 16/ ...19989813854
typing of rabies virus isolates by dna enzyme immunoassay.alternatives to antigenic typing are needed for epidemiologic surveys of the rabies virus associated with translocated coyotes and foxes, especially in areas where a closely related rabies virus is transmitted by striped skunks.199910073409
cryptosporidium parvum infection involving novel genotypes in wildlife from lower new york state.cryptosporidium, an enteric parasite of humans and a wide range of other mammals, presents numerous challenges to the supply of safe drinking water. we performed a wildlife survey, focusing on white-tailed deer and small mammals, to assess whether they may serve as environmental sources of cryptosporidium. a pcr-based approach that permitted genetic characterization via sequence analysis was applied to wildlife fecal samples (n = 111) collected from september 1996 to july 1998 from three areas i ...200111229905
elimination of rabies from red foxes in eastern ontario.the province of ontario (canada) reported more laboratory confirmed rabid animals than any other state or province in canada or the usa from 1958-91, with the exception of 1960-62. more than 95% of those cases occurred in the southern 10% of ontario (approximately 100,000 km2), the region with the highest human population density and greatest agricultural activity. rabies posed an expensive threat to human health and significant costs to the agricultural economy. the rabies variant originated in ...200111272485
emergency response to raccoon rabies introduction into ontario.during 15 july to 4 october, 1999, rabies control programs were implemented with the objective being to contain the first three confirmed cases of raccoon rabies in canada. the strategy, called point infection control (pic) involved the use of three tactics: population reduction (pr), trap-vaccinate-release (tvr) and oral rabies vaccination with baits (orv), to control the spread of raccoon rabies. a total of 1,202 raccoons (procyon lotor) and 337 skunks (mephitis mephitis) were captured and eut ...200111310877
a phylogenetic approach to following west nile virus in connecticut.the 1999 outbreak of west nile (wn) virus in the northeastern united states was the first known natural occurrence of this flavivirus in the western hemisphere. in 1999 and 2000, 82 independent connecticut wn virus isolates were cultured from nine species of birds, five species of mosquitoes, and one striped skunk. nucleotide sequences obtained from these isolates identified 30 genetic changes, compared with wn-ny99, in a 921-nt region of the viral genome beginning at nucleotide position 205 and ...200111606791
molecular evolution of leptin.leptin, a hormone produced mainly by adipocytes, is involved in the regulation of food intake, metabolism, and reproduction. the objective of this study was to determine the evolutionary relationships of leptin genes. partial nucleotide sequences of leptin were cloned and sequenced from six mammalian species: large hairy armadillo (chaetophractus villosus), rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) [corrected], striped skunk (mephitis mephitis), raccoon (procyon lotor), an ...200111703084
an outbreak of primary pneumonic tularemia on martha's the summer of 2000, an outbreak of primary pneumonic tularemia occurred on martha's vineyard, massachusetts. the only previously reported outbreak of pneumonic tularemia in the united states also occurred on the island in 1978.200111757506
oral efficacy of an attenuated rabies virus vaccine in skunks and raccoons.raccoons and skunks are major rabies reservoirs in north america. oral vaccination is one method to consider for disease control in these carnivores. under field conditions in the usa, only one oral rabies vaccine has been used. it is efficacious in wildlife such as raccoons (procyon lotor), coyotes (canis latrans), and foxes (vulpes vulpes) but not in skunks (mephitis mephitis). the objectives of this study were to evaluate an attenuated sag-2 rabies virus vaccine for safety, immunogenicity, an ...200212038142
safety studies of the oral rabies vaccine sad b19 in striped skunk (mephitis mephitis).safety of the modified live rabies virus vaccine, sad b19, was studied in striped skunks (mephitis mephitis). seven skunks received 10(7.9) foci formatting units by direct oral administration. in four cages, a vaccinated animal was placed with a control animal, the other three vaccinated skunks were housed individually. saliva and nasal swabs were collected 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 72 hr post-vaccination. from all vaccinated and control animals (n = 11) blood samples were collected 0, 28, 56, 84, an ...200212038143
sarcocystis mephitisi n. sp. (protozoa: sarcocystidae), sarcocystis neurona-like and toxoplasma-like infections in striped skunks (mephitis mephitis).two structurally distinct types (a, b) of microscopic sarcocysts were found in muscles of 4 of 5 feral skunks. type a sarcocysts had sarcocyst walls of up to 6 microm thick. the villar protrusions (vp) on the sarcocyst wall were up to 5 microm long. the vp were constricted at the base, expanded in the middle, and had a blunt tip. numerous microtubules were present in the vp and in the granular layer. bradyzoites were up to 11 microm long and up to 3.2 microm wide. based on the distinctiveness of ...200212053950
streptococcus equisimilis infection in striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) in saskatchewan.three radio-collared striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) found dead during a field study of winter ecology of striped skunks near willowbrook, saskatchewan, canada were examined. streptococcus equisimilis was identified as the primary agent causing necrotizing purulent pneumonia in one skunk and suppurative meningoencephalitis in another. both streptococcus equisimilis and streptococcus canis were isolated from lesions of purulent myocarditis and pyothorax in the third skunk. these are apparently ...200212238389
prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to sarcocystis neurona in skunks (mephitis mephitis), raccoons (procyon lotor), and opossums (didelphis virginiana) from connecticut.equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is the most important protozoan disease of horses in north america and is usually caused by sarcocystis neurona. natural cases of encephalitis caused by s. neurona have been reported in skunks (mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (procyon lotor). opossums (didelphis spp.) are the only known definitive host. sera from 24 striped skunks, 12 raccoons, and 7 opossums (d. virginiana) from connecticut were examined for agglutinating antibodies to s. neurona using the s. ...200212435152
comparison of the reservoir competence of medium-sized mammals and peromyscus leucopus for anaplasma phagocytophilum in the northeastern united states, anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge), is transmitted by the tick vector ixodes scapularis. the white-footed mouse peromyscus leucopus is a competent reservoir for this agent, but the reservoir competence of non-peromyscus hosts of i. scapularis has not been studied. here, we report data confirming reservoir competence of medium-sized mammals for a. phagocytophilum. raccoons, virginia opossums, gray squirrels, and striped ...200212737542
comparative cultural results of renal tissue and urine of striped skunks for leptospires. 196414193057
filaroides milksi (nematoda: filaroididae) in the lungs of a striped skunk, mephitis mephitis. 196514339378
population monitoring in support of a rabies vaccination program for skunks in arizona.three population monitoring methods were evaluated in support of a trap/vaccinate/release program for controlling a bat variant of rabies virus in skunks (mephitis mephitis) in flagstaff, arizona (usa). skunks were the primary species targeted for population monitoring during the program, but feral cats were also monitored as they represented an abundant secondary vector species capable of rabies transmission. skunks were vaccinated and released, except for a subset tested for rabies. all captur ...200314567243
redescription of the sarcocysts of sarcocystis rileyi (apicomplexa: sarcocystidae).the intermediate hosts for sarcocystis rileyi (stiles 1893) minchin 1913 are ducks (anas spp.), and the striped skunk (mephitis mephitis) is its definitive host. the structure of sarcocysts from an experimentally infected shoveler duck (anas cylpeata) fed sporocysts from an experimentally-infected m. mephitis was studied and compared with type specimens from a naturally infected duck. the experimentally infected duck was killed 154 d after feeding sporocysts. by light microscopy the sarcocyst wa ...200314733440
a serosurvey of leptospirosis in connecticut peridomestic wildlife.recently, leptospirosis has gained attention as a re-emerging infection in domestic dogs in the northeastern united states. in order to gain insight into the epizootiology of leptospirosis in this region, 109 small wild mammals (31 raccoons (procyon lotor), 30 skunks (mephitis mephitis), 28 opossums (didelphis virginiana), and 20 gray squirrels (sciurus carolinensis)) collected between february 27 and september 17, 2001 were tested for serologic evidence of exposure to five common leptospira ser ...200314733671
molecular phylogeny of arctoids (mammalia: carnivora) with emphasis on phylogenetic and taxonomic positions of the ferret-badgers and skunks.phylogenetic relationships among the ferret-badger melogale moschata, the skunk mephitis mephitis, and 21 other arctoid carnivorans, representing mustelidae (mustelinae: mustela, martes, gulo; lutrinae: enhydra; melinae: meles), procyonidae (procyon), and ursidae (ursus, melursus), were evaluated through maximum-parsimony phylogenetic analysis of concatenated partial nucleotide sequences of the nuclear recombination-activating gene 1 (rag1) and gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding p ...200414745111
observation of helicobacter-like organisms in gastric mucosa of grey foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus) and bobcats (lynx rufus).archival specimens of gastric mucosa of 10 raccoons (procyon lotor), 9 porcupines (erethizon dorsatum), 6 grey foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), 6 bobcats (lynx rufus), 4 skunks (mephitis mephitis), and 3 black bears (ursus americanus) were microscopically examined for evidence of helicobacter-like organisms. such organisms were seen in the specimens from the grey foxes and bobcats only. histochemical stains (modified steiner and carbol fuchsin methods) revealed long spiral organisms within lumi ...200415188962
biologic and molecular characteristics of toxoplasma gondii isolates from striped skunk (mephitis mephitis), canada goose (branta canadensis), black-winged lory (eos cyanogenia), and cats (felis catus).toxoplasma gondii isolates can be grouped into 3 genetic lineages. type i isolates are considered virulent to outbred mice, whereas type ii and iii isolates are not. in the present report, viable t. gondii was isolated for the first time from striped skunk (mephitis mephitis), canada goose (branta canadensis), and black-winged lory (eos cyanogenia). for the isolation of t. gondii, tissues were bioassayed in mice, and genotyping was based on the sag2 locus. toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 3 o ...200415562622
genetic divergence of rabies viruses from bat species of colorado, usa.molecular epidemiological studies have linked many cryptic human rabies cases in the united states with exposure to rabies virus (rv) variants associated with insectivorous bats. in colorado, bats accounted for 98% of all reported animal rabies cases between 1977 and 1996. the genetic divergence of rv was investigated in bat and terrestrial animal specimens that were submitted for rabies diagnosis to the colorado department of public health and environment (cdphe), colorado, usa. rv isolates fro ...200516417429
toxoplasmosis: a serological survey in ontario wildlife.sera from seven species of wild animals in ontario were examined for antibody to toxoplasma gondii using the sabin-feldman dye test. of 158 sera tested, 53% of the red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 56% of the striped skunks (mephitis mephitis), 78% of the coyotes (canis latrans), 33% of the black bears (ursus americanus), 18% of the short tailed shrews (blarina brevicauda) and none of the field voles (microtus pennsylvanicus) had antibody. antibody to t. gondii was present in sera from wild animals cap ...197616502687
the susceptibility of five species of wild animals to experimental infection with leptospira grippotyphosa.five species of wild animals including opossums, didelphis marsupialis, striped skunks, mephitis mephitis, red, vulpes vulpes, and gray foxes, urocyon cinereoargenteus and raccoons, procyon lotor, were inoculated intraperitoneally with varying numbers of leptospira grippotyphosa, organisms. clinical signs were not detected, however, leptospiremia, leptospiruria and antibodies for the homologous organism, were demonstrated. lesions attributed to leptospirosis were observed in liver and kidney tis ...197016512129
local production of antibodies to leptospira pomona in kidneys of chronically infected skunks (mephitis mephitis).the kidneys of skunks chronically infected with leptospira pomona contained a conspicuous number of plasma cells. from comparative studies of overall gammaglobulin content and specific antibody titers in sera and kidney extracts it was concluded that specific antibodies to l. pomona were synthesized in the kidneys of skunks with renal leptospirosis.197016512131
rabies detection in road-killed skunks (mephitis mephitis).three diagnostic techniques (1) microscopic examination for negri bodies, (2) mouse inoculation and (3) fluorescent antibody tagging were compared as to their ability to detect rabies virus in 14 experimentally infected striped skunks (mephitis mephitis) exposed to normal summer weather conditions after death. the fluorescent antibody technique correctly identified rabies virus longer than either of the other methods. rabies incidence in 61 road-killed skunks collected on the day following death ...197016512164
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