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notes on placentation in the suina.we examined the gross and microscopic anatomy of placental tissues and umbilical cords from six species representing the three living families of the suina. these species included, of the suidae, the wart hog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), the giant forest hog (hylochoerus meinertzhageni), the domestic pig (sus scrofa), and the banded pig of malaysia (sus scrofa vittatus); of the tayassuidae, the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari); of the hippopotamidae, the hippopotamus (hippopotamus amphibius) ...19853991477
localization of the 18s, 5.8s and 28s rrna genes and the 5s rrna genes in the babirusa and the white-lipped peccary.the locations of the genes encoding 18s, 5.8s and 28s rrna and 5s rrna were studied in two relatives of the domestic pig, the babirusa (babyrousa babyrussa) and the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari). in the babirusa, the 18s, 5.8s and 28s rdna is located on chromosomes 6, 8 and 10. the genes on chromosomes 8 and 10 are actively transcribed, in contrast to those on chromosomes 6. in the white-lipped peccary, this rdna was found to be located on chromosomes 4 and 8. the genes on both of these ...19979284936
description of males of parabronema pecariae ivaschkin, 1960 (nematoda, habronematoidea) parasitizing peccaries (mammalia, tayassuidae) in brazil.nematodes studied herein and identified as parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the states of rio de janeiro and pará and in 1940 in the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil. this species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as parabronema sp. although the presence of males of p. pecariae was previously reported in brazil, their description was not provided. the present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of p. ...200011080772
white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari, artiodactyla: tayassuidae) diet and fruit availability in a costa rican rain forest.we studied fruit availability, diet and habitat use by white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari) in corcovado national park, southwest costa rica, from july 1996 to april 1997. the results show that the availability of important fruits for the white-lipped peccary differs between habitats and climatic seasons. fruit availability was highest in the primary forest than secondary and coastal forest. there was a period of shortage of fruits to ends of the wet season, during which the consumption of not ...200112189800
genotyping of clostridium perfringens isolated from domestic and exotic ruminants and swine.clostridium perfringens types a, b, c, d and e are known to cause severe enteritis/enterotoxaemia and diseases (especially caused by type a) belonging to the gas oedema complex in many species. samples from the small intestine as well as faeces of domestic and exotic animals suffering from enterotoxaemic signs or having died within days after first occurance of toxaemia were submitted for typing c. perfringens toxovars by multiplex pcr. the following species have been investigated: domestic shee ...200314535937
distance-dependence in two amazonian palms: effects of spatial and temporal variation in seed predator communities.animals aid population growth and fitness in tropical forest communities through dispersal and negatively impact populations through seed predation. the interaction between dispersal and seed predation can produce distance- or density-dependence; powerful mechanisms for maintaining species diversity incorporated in the janzen-connell model. large mammals, the highest biomass seed predators of intact amazonian communities and at risk due to human disturbance, are potentially central to these inte ...200415085424
placental glycosylation in peccary species and its relation to that of swine and dromedary.comparison has been made between glycans at the fetomaternal interface of two tayassu species (new world peccaries or wild pigs) and those of swine (true pigs) and dromedary, which have similar epitheliochorial placentae. plastic sections of near-term fetomaternal interface from tayassu tajacu (120 days gestation) and tayassu pecari (140 days gestation) were stained with 20 lectins and compared with those of swine (109 days) and dromedary (375 days). both tayassu species showed similar staining ...200415193872
comparative chromosome painting between the domestic pig (sus scrofa) and two species of peccary, the collared peccary (tayassu tajacu) and the white-lipped peccary (t. pecari): a phylogenetic perspective.the suidae and the dicotylidae (or tayassuidae) are related mammalian families, both belonging to the artiodactyl suborder suiformes, which diverged more than 37 million years ago. cross-species chromosome painting was performed between the domestic pig (sus scrofa; 2n = 38), a representative of the suidae, and two species of the dicotylidae: the collared peccary (tayassu tajacu; 2n = 30) and the white-lipped peccary (t. pecari; 2n = 26). g-banded metaphase chromosomes of the two peccaries were ...200415218266
the role played by sympatric collared peccary (tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari), and feral pig (sus scrofa) as maintenance hosts for trypanosoma evansi and trypanosoma cruzi in a sylvatic area of brazil.the brazilian pantanal has been considered one of the richest and most diverse wetland ecosystems in the world. it is occupied by cattle ranching, and a variety of wildlife species share the same habitats with domestic livestock. we investigated infections of trypanosoma evansi and trypanosoma cruzi in the sympatric suiformes-collared peccary (tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari), and feral pig (sus scrofa) by parasitological, serological, and molecular tests. additionally, we ...200818493795
[nutritional values in the diet of white-lipped peccary tayassu pecari (artiodactyla: tayassuidae) in corcovado national park, costa rica].we determined the potential nutritional levels in 25 species of plants, and in earthworms, that constitute part of the diet of white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari) in corcovado national park, costa rica, from january 1998 to march 1999. the highest content of fat and energy was found in seeds of the myristicacea family. the highest content of calcium was found in vegetative parts of dieffenbachia spp. nutritious contents differed among plant parts (seeds, fruits, stems and leaves). fat and ener ...200618494335
hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16s rdna) of amblyomma dubitatum (acari: ixodidae).we supply information about hosts and distribution of amblyomma dubitatum. in addition, we carry out an analysis of genetic divergence among specimens of a. dubitatum from different localities and with respect to other neotropical amblyomma species, using sequences of 16s rdna gene. although specimens of a. dubitatum were collected on several mammal species as cattle horse, tapirus terrestris, mazama gouazoubira, tayassu pecari, sus scrofa, cerdocyon thous, myocastor coypus, allouata caraya, glo ...201020084537
prevalence of leptospira interrogans antibodies in free-ranging tayassu pecari of the southern pantanal, brazil, an ecosystem where wildlife and cattle interact.we surveyed a wild population of white-lipped peccaries (tayassu pecari) in the brazilian pantanal for evidence of leptospira interrogans. serum samples from 71 free-ranging t. pecari were obtained between 2003 and 2005 in the southern pantanal of mato grosso do sul state. we used microscopic microagglutination to test for antibodies against 14 l. interrogans serovars (antibody titers ≥ 1:100 were considered seropositive). seventy percent of captured animals tested positive for leptospirosis ant ...201020596776
toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari) from peru.in the peruvian amazon, the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari) is a desirable game species and is important for the local rural economy. blood samples from 101 white-lipped peccaries from peru were collected from 3 different conservation areas located in the municipalities of manu and tambopata, southeastern region of the peruvian amazon. antibodies were assayed using the modified agglutination test (mat, cut of value of 25). antibodies to toxoplasma gondii were found in 89.1% (90 of 101) of ...201021158643
use of a mycoplasma suis-pcr protocol for screening a population of captive peccaries (tayassu tajacu and tayassu pecari).mycoplasma suis is a hemotropic bacteria of red blood cells and the causative agent of swine eperythrozoonosis. diagnosis of infection may be reached by direct examination of blood smears; however, the use of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) of the 16s rna gene of m. suis improves the sensitivity and specificity of detection. the aim of this study was to screen peccaries (tayassu tajacu and t. pecari) for m. suis infection using a specific conventional pcr. a total of 28 blood samples from captiv ...201121439238
evaluation of genetic variability in the collared peccary pecari tajacu and the white-lipped peccary tayassu pecari by microsatellite markers.in this study, the microsatellite technique was used to evaluate the genetic variability in populations of collared and white-lipped peccaries kept in captivity. six primers developed for domestic pigs were used and amplified in both species. they revealed the presence of five polymorphic loci and one monomorphic locus. the polymorphic loci included 4 of the 16 alleles in collared peccaries, and 3 of the 10 alleles in the white-lipped peccaries. polymorphic information content (pic) in both spec ...201021637606
characterization of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from brazilian tayassu pecari.erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes a variety of diseases in many animal species, including human beings. most human infections caused by this pathogen are related to occupational exposure, and swine are considered to be the most important reservoir of e. rhusiopathiae. the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari) is an ungulate that has some genetic relationship to swine, and since the demand for t. pecari meat has recently increased in brazil and nothing is known about the relationship of this pe ...201121915617
genetic characterization of toxoplasma gondii from brazilian wildlife revealed abundant new genotypes.this study aimed to isolate and genotype t. gondii from brazilian wildlife. for this purpose, 226 samples were submitted to mice bioassay and screened by pcr based on 18s rrna sequences. a total of 15 t. gondii isolates were obtained, including samples from four armadillos (three dasypus novemcinctus, one euphractus sexcinctus), three collared anteaters (tamandua tetradactyla), three whited-lipped peccaries (tayassu pecari), one spotted paca (cuniculus paca), one oncilla (leopardus tigrinus), on ...201425426424
diet overlap and foraging activity between feral pigs and native peccaries in the pantanal.inter-specific competition is considered one of the main selective pressures affecting species distribution and coexistence. different species vary in the way they forage in order to minimize encounters with their competitors and with their predators. however, it is still poorly known whether and how native species change their foraging behavior in the presence of exotic species, particularly in south america. here we compare diet overlap of fruits and foraging activity period of two sympatric n ...201526536608
can scat analysis describe the feeding habits of big cats? a case study with jaguars (panthera onca) in southern pantanal, brazil.large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. from november 2001 to april 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using gps telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern pantanal. during this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. we compared the frequencies of prey found through each met ...201627002524
swine infectious agents in tayassu pecari and pecari tajacu tissue samples from brazil.peccaries and pigs, tayassuidae and suidae respectively, diverged approximately one million years ago from a common ancestor. because these families share some pathogens, peccaries can act as reservoirs of infectious pathogens for domestic and wild swine. we evaluated the presence of swine infectious agents in the spleen and lung tissues of white-lipped peccaries (wlp; tayassu pecari) and collared peccaries (cp; pecari tajacu) in brazil. samples from 10 adult cp and three wlp, which had been hun ...201424484498
use of filter papers to determine seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii among hunted ungulates in remote peruvian amazon.toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan toxoplasma gondii, and it is found worldwide. to determine whether ungulates are reservoirs of t. gondii in an isolated and remote region of the northeastern peruvian amazon, antibodies to t. gondii were determined in 5 species of ungulates by the modified agglutination test (mat). these animals were hunted by subsistence hunters along the yavarí-mirín river, in the northeastern peruvian amazon. blood samples were collected by hunters on filter ...201424918073
serosurvey of anti- leptospira sp. and anti- toxoplasma gondii antibodies in capybaras and collared and white-lipped peccaries.brazilian native species are reemerging as increasingly free-ranging populations.201728562764
morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular characterization of intestinal tetratrichomonads isolated from non-human primates in southeastern brazil.non-human primates are our closest relatives and represent an interesting model for comparative parasitological studies. however, research on this topic particularly in relation to intestinal parasites has been fragmentary and limited mainly to animals held in captivity. thus, our knowledge of host-parasite relationships in this species-rich group of mammals could be considered rudimentary. the current study combined morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular analyses to characterize isolates ...201728702802
novel anaplasma and ehrlichia organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the brazilian amazon.during 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the amazon biome of brazil. animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays targeting dna of the bacterial family anaplasmataceae (genera anaplasma, ehrlichia, wolbachia) and the genus borrelia. overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. all birds and reptiles were negative by all pcr assays, as well as all mammals for the borrelia pcr assay. anaplasmat ...201728690147
the potential connectivity of waterhole networks and the effectiveness of a protected area under various drought scenarios.landscape connectivity is considered a priority for ecosystem conservation because it may mitigate the synergistic effects of climate change and habitat loss. climate change predictions suggest changes in precipitation regimes, which will affect the availability of water resources, with potential consequences for landscape connectivity. the greater calakmul region of the yucatan peninsula (mexico) has experienced a 16% decrease in precipitation over the last 50 years, which we hypothesise has af ...201424830392
nitrogen requirements of white-lipped peccary (mammalia, tayassuidae).a study was conducted to determine the protein requirement of the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari) performing a nitrogen (n) balance digestion trial. in a 4 × 4 latin square design, four adult captive male peccaries were fed four isoenergetic diets containing four different levels of n (13.3, 19.2, 28.7, and 37.1 g n/kg dry matter). after 15 days of adaptation, the total collection of feces and urine was carried out for five consecutive days. by regression analysis between n intake and n in ...201424958733
[seasonal diet of tayassu pecari (artiodactyla: tayassuidae) in corcovado national park, costa rica ].the diet of the white-lipped peccari tayassu pecari was studied from july 1996 to april 1997 in corcovado national park, costa rica, through fecal analysis and direct observations. the feces consisted of 61.6% fruits, 37.5% vegetative parts, 0.4% invertebrates and 0.5% unidentified material. these proportions are similar to those reported for white-lipped peccaries diet in south america, but the species consumed were different. in corcovado, the white-lipped peccary fed on parts of 57 plant spec ...200011354977
when roads appear jaguars decline: increased access to an amazonian wilderness area reduces potential for jaguar conservation.roads are a main threat to biodiversity conservation in the amazon, in part, because roads increase access for hunters. we examine how increased landscape access by hunters may lead to cascading effects that influence the prey community and abundance of the jaguar (panthera onca), the top amazonian terrestrial predator. understanding such ecological effects originating from anthropogenic actions is essential for conservation and management of wildlife populations in areas undergoing infrastructu ...201829298311
ungulate biomass in relation to feeding strategy within amazonian forests.the relationship between diet and biomass was examined in the amazonian ungulates (red brocket deer, grey brocket deer, collared peccary, white-lipped peccary, and lowland tapir) of northeastern peru. tropical forest ungulates have lower biomasses than savanna or grassland ungulates, because in tropical forests the majority of primary production occurs in the canopy, well out of reach from terrestrial herbivores. within the amazonian ungulates, species that supplement their diet with animal mate ...198928312652
influence of digestive morphology on resource partitioning in amazonian ungulates.resource partitioning of diet and habitat use was studied in the entire amazonian ungulate community of northeastern peru, which comprises the red brocket deer (mazama americana), grey brocket deer (m. gouazoubira), collared peccary (tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (t. pecari), and lowland tapir (tapirus terrestris). each ungulate species partitioned at least one type of resource from every other species. digestive morphology had a greater influence on resource partitioning of diet than bo ...199128312040
macroscopic and microscopic aspects of collared peccary and white-lipped peccary placenta.this study examines middle and late gestational placentae from 13 tayassu tajacu (collared peccary) and 3 tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), which are artiodactyla belonging to the family tayassuidae. the chorionic sac of tayassu species is diffuse and chorioallantoic. these epitheliochorial placentae show no trophoblast invasion into the uterine epithelium and there is interdigitation between fetal and maternal microvilli. two distinct regions of the fetomaternal interface can be identified ...200616338470
fate of native and introduced seeds consumed by captive white-lipped and collared peccaries (tayassu pecari, link 1795 and pecari tajacu, linnaeus 1758) in the atlantic rainforest, brazil.we studied the role of white-lipped and collared peccaries (tayassu pecari and pecari tajacu) as seed predators and dispersers in the atlantic rainforest of brazil. the atlantic rainforest ecosystem is highly threatened and has experienced dramatic declines in its populations of large mammals. local extinctions can disrupt essential plant-animal interactions such as seed dispersion and seed predation. we tracked seeds from time of consumption to germination to assess the direct impact peccaries ...201020231959
molecular phylogenetics of the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari) did not confirm morphological subspecies in northwestern south america.we sequenced the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region of 59 peccaries (44 white-lipped peccaries, tayassu pecari, and 15 collared peccaries, pecari tajacu). we also genotyped 3 dna microsatellites from 78 white-lipped peccaries representing the 4 putative morphological subspecies (i.e., spiradens, aequatoris, pecari, and albirostris) present in northwestern south america (i.e., colombia, ecuador, peru, and bolivia). our results showed: 1) the estimated diversity of the mtdna control region i ...201526125732
implications of climatic seasonality on activity patterns and resource use by sympatric peccaries in northern pantanal.we evaluated the effects of climate seasonality from a thermal and water availability perspective on the activity patterns and resource use of pecari tajacu and tayassu pecari during wet and dry seasons in the northeastern brazilian pantanal. we used camera traps and temperature sensors to record species activity patterns in relation to temperature, established five habitat categories based on flooding intensity and local vegetation characteristics, assessed the activity patterns of each species ...201626219606
environmental factors influencing the abundance of four species of threatened mammals in degraded habitats in the eastern brazilian amazon.on the latest 60 years the degradation and fragmentation of native habitats have been modifying the landscape in the eastern brazilian amazon. the adaptive plasticity of an organism has been crucial for its long-term survival and success in these novel ecosystems. in this study, we investigated the response of four endangered species of large terrestrial mammals to the variations in the quality of their original habitats, in a context of high anthropogenic pressure. the distribution of the myrme ...202032101578
Necrotic enteritis in collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries.An outbreak of necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens type C was diagnosed in captive collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries housed in the Laboratory of Applied Ethology of Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz located in Ilhéus, State of Bahia, Brazil. Four collared peccaries and three white-lipped peccaries, all juveniles (25-105 days old), were affected. For all affected animals, lethargy and inappetance were followed by sudden death within 24 hours. ...201122204072
sex ratio and breeding of white-lipped peccaries tayassu pecari (artiodactyla: tayassuidae) in a costa rican rain forest.white-lipped peccaries are non-seasonal breeders in south america, but little is known about their reproduction in central america. there are few studies about the sex ratio of this species in the field. we studied the reproduction and sex ratio of white-lipped peccaries during 200 hours of field observation of four radiomarked and two unmarked herds, from july 1996 to april 1997, in corcovado national park, costa rica. sex ratio data of three additional, radiomarked herds observed in 1998 were ...200111795168
serologic survey for selected viral and bacterial swine pathogens in colombian collared peccaries ( pecari tajacu) and feral pigs ( sus scrofa).in south america, wild populations of peccaries coexist with domestic and feral pigs, with poorly understood consequences. we captured 58 collared peccaries ( pecari tajacu) and 15 feral pigs ( sus scrofa) in locations of colombia where coexistence of these species is known. blood samples were tested for antibodies against four viral agents, classical swine fever virus (csfv), aujeszky's disease virus (adv), porcine circovirus (pcv-2), and vesicular stomatitis virus (new jersey and indiana subty ...201829902129
dietary breadth of the animal protein consumed by riverine communities in the tapajós national forest, brazil.in small-scale human settlements, the acquisition of animal protein is strictly related to subsistence activities, and yours dietary habits are determined by the availability and the selectivity permitted by the diversity of these resources. this study analyzed the consumption of animal protein sources in seven traditional riverine communities of the tapajos national forest, located in eastern brazilian amazonia, considering fish, game meat and domestic animals. the analysis of animal protein co ...201323894979
anatomicohistological characteristics of the female genital organs of the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari) in the peruvian amazon.this study examined the anatomical and histological characteristics of the genital organs of the female white-lipped peccary in the wild in different reproductive stages, collected by rural hunters in the north-eastern peruvian amazon. mean ovulation rate was 2.12 +/- 0.83 follicles and litter size was 1.78 +/- 0.41 embryos or fetuses per pregnant female, resulting in a low rate of reproductive wastage, averaging 0.33 +/- 0.66 (16.04%) oocytes or embryos per pregnancy. the ovulation rate and the ...200919793087
kinetics of spermatogenesis in the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari).this study aimed to characterize the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle by the tubular morphology method, and to determine the number of differentiated spermatogonia generations in the adult white-lipped peccary. twenty adult white-lipped peccaries, obtained from commercial slaughterhouse, were used. fragments of the testicular parenchyma were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde and embedded into a methacrylate resin. the number of germ and sertoli cells was estimated by the analysis of cell pop ...201121367543
the effects of feeding unpredictability and classical conditioning on pre-release training of white-lipped peccary (mammalia, tayassuidae).some authors have suggested that environmental unpredictability, accompanied by some sort of signal for behavioral conditioning, can boost activity or foster exploratory behavior, which may increase post-release success in re-introduction programs. thus, using white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari), a vulnerable neotropical species, as a model, we evaluated an unpredictable feeding schedule. associating this with the effect of classical conditioning on behavioral activities, we assessed the inclu ...201424475072
does trapping influence decision-making under ambiguity in white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari)?the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari) is an endangered species whose bold anti-predator behaviour in comparison to related species may increase its vulnerability to hunting and predation. we used a judgement bias test to investigate whether captive peccaries that had recently experienced a trapping event made more 'pessimistic' decisions under ambiguity. if so, this would indicate (i) that the procedure may induce a negative affective state and hence have welfare implications, and (ii) that ...201526061658
using data mining and network analysis to infer arboviral dynamics: the case of mosquito-borne flaviviruses reported in mexico.given the significant impact of mosquito-borne flaviviruses (mbfvs) on both human and animal health, predicting their dynamics and understanding their transmission cycle is of the utmost importance. usually, predictions about the distribution of priority pathogens, such as dengue, yellow fever, west nile virus and st. louis encephalitis, relate abiotic elements to simple biotic components, such as a single causal agent. furthermore, focusing on single pathogens neglects the possibility of intera ...202133946977
defaunation affects astrocaryum gratum (arecales: arecaceae) seed survivorship in a sub-montane tropical forest.animal-plant interactions in neotropical forests are complex processes. within these processes, mid- to large-sized mammals consume fruits and seeds from several species; however, because of their size these mammals are overhunted, resulting in defaunated forests. our objective was to evaluate and compare seed removal and survivorship in a forest with no hunting, a forest with moderate or reduced hunting, and a forest with higher hunting pressure. we examined the interaction between astrocaryum ...201526299115
records of neomorphus squamiger todd, 1925 (cuculiforme: cuculidae) and interaction between n. squamiger and a flock of tayassu pecari link, 1795 (artiodactyla: tayassuidae). 201526691091
the role of grunt calls in the social dominance hierarchy of the white-lipped peccary (mammalia, tayassuidae).grunt-like calls are present in the vocal repertoire of many group-living mammals and seem to facilitate social interactions between lower and higher-ranking members. the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari) lives in stable hierarchical mixed-sex groups and like non-human primates, usually emits grunt-like calls following aggressive interactions, mainly during feeding contexts. we investigated the possible functions of peccaries' grunt-like calls and their relationship to the individuals' socia ...201627409797
effectiveness of panama as an intercontinental land bridge for large mammals.habitat fragmentation is a primary driver of wildlife loss, and establishment of biological corridors is a common strategy to mitigate this problem. a flagship example is the mesoamerican biological corridor (mbc), which aims to connect protected forest areas between mexico and panama to allow dispersal and gene flow of forest organisms. because forests across central america have continued to degrade, the functioning of the mbc has been questioned, but reliable estimates of species occurrence w ...202031385631
chemical restraint of peccaries with tiletamine/zolazepam and xylazine or tiletamine/zolazepam and butorphanol.to evaluate the use of a combination of tiletamine/zolazepam and xylazine (tzx) in collared and white-lipped peccaries and to compare its efficacy as an anesthetic technique with that of tiletamine/zolazepam and butorphanol (tzb).200314498914
the natural place to begin: the ethnoprimatology of the waorani.ethnoprimatology is an important and growing discipline, studying the diverse relationships between humans and primates. however there is a danger that too great a focus on primates as important to humans may obscure the importance of other animal groups to local people. the waorani of amazonian ecuador were described by sponsel [sponsel (1997) new world primates: ecology, evolution and behavior. new york: aldine de gruyter. p 143-165] as the "natural place" for ethnoprimatology, because of thei ...201323818096
new altitudinal record for white-lipped peccary tayassu pecari (link, 1795) in ecuador, with notes about activity patterns and herd size.white-lipped peccaries (tayassu pecari) represent a key element of trophic networks in tropical rainforest ecosystems by playing the dual role of consumer and prey. despite their importance, pressures on their populations have increased during the last few decades due to hunting and deforestation across its distributional range. these pressures may have led the remaining populations to move into new territories and to change their migratory and gregarious behaviour. in this study, we used photog ...201931065233
chromosomal evolution and phylogenetic analyses in tayassu pecari and pecari tajacu (tayassuidae): tales from constitutive heterochromatin.the mammalian family tayassuidae (peccaries) is confined to the new world and comprises three recognized extant species, white-lipped (tayassu pecari), collared (pecari tajacu) and chacoan (catagonus wagneri) peccaries, which exhibit distinct morphological and chromosomal features. the phylogenetic relationships among the tayassuids are unclear and have instigated debate over the palaeontological, cytogenetic and molecular aspects. constitutive heterochromatin analysis can be used in understandi ...200717656845
[mammals of zoque forest, mexico: richness, use and conservation].zoque forest is one of the richest and threatened regions in southeastern mexico, and for which few studies on mammal biology and use are available. here we analyzed the conservation status of mammalian species according to mexican and international laws, with an updated checklist of mammals in this forest, and some information on their use by some rural communities. basic information was obtained from national and international collections and publications. a total of 42 fieldtrips, that follow ...201223894946
neospora caninum-specific antibodies in free-ranging white-lipped peccaries ( tayassu pecari) from the peruvian amazon: detection of antibodies in serum and evaluation of indirect fluorescent antibody test with heterologous secondary antibody.neospora caninum is a coccidian parasite originally reported in dogs and widely prevalent in numerous species of wild and domestic animals and has as definitive hosts some species of canids. the white-lipped peccary (wlp) ( tayassu pecari) is a tayassuidae mammal, found from mexico to south of brazil and north of argentina. it is a game species with great economic importance in the peruvian amazon. blood samples from 101 wlps were collected from near or within three different conservation reserv ...201830212339
the sustainability of subsistence hunting by matsigenka native communities in manu national park, peru.the presence of indigenous people in tropical parks has fueled a debate over whether people in parks are conservation allies or direct threats to biodiversity. a well-known example is the matsigenka (or machiguenga) population residing in manu national park in peruvian amazonia. because the exploitation of wild meat (or bushmeat), especially large vertebrates, represents the most significant internal threat to biodiversity in manu, we analyzed 1 year of participatory monitoring of game offtake i ...200717883483
spermatogenesis in white-lipped peccaries (tayassu pecari).we describe here morphological and functional analyses of the spermatogenic process in sexually mature white-lipped peccaries. ten sexually mature male animals, weighing approximately 39 kg were studied. characteristics investigated included the gonadosomatic index (gsi), relative frequency of stages of the cycle of seminiferous epithelium (cse), cell populations present in the seminiferous epithelium in stage 1 of cse, intrinsic rate of spermatogenesis, sertoli cell index, height of seminiferou ...200716647229
embryonic and fetal development of the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari).the white-lipped peccary (tayassu pecari) is an endangered large-sized neotropical ungulate that is one of the most hunted mammals in the amazon. here, we used two embryos and 102 white-lipped peccary fetuses originated from animals hunted for subsistence in the peruvian and brazilian amazon to describe the intrauterine development of external and internal morphology of this neotropical ungulate. logistic regressions were used to estimate the probability of occurrence of main external characteri ...201830015145
trypanosoma amblyommi sp. nov. (protozoa: kinetoplastida) isolated from amblyomma brasiliense (acari: ixodidae) ticks in rio de janeiro, brazil.parasites of the genus trypanosoma are microorganisms that display wide morphological, biological and genetic variability. here we present the first description of an isolate of the genus trypanosoma naturally infecting the tick amblyomma brasiliense. the ticks were collected from a specimen of tayassu pecari (queixada, white-lipped peccary) from the itatiaia national park, itatiaia, rio de janeiro, brazil. the isolate was characterised by molecular, morphometric and biological analyses. a trypa ...201829515911
using indigenous knowledge to link hyper-temporal land cover mapping with land use in the venezuelan amazon: "the forest pulse".remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge (tek) can be combined to advance conservation of remote tropical regions, e.g. amazonia, where intensive in situ surveys are often not possible. integrating tek into monitoring and management of these areas allows for community participation, as well as for offering novel insights into sustainable resource use. in this study, we developed a 250 m resolution land-cover map of the western guyana shield (venezuela) based on remote sensing, and use ...201629465944
volatile components in dorsal gland secretions of the white-lipped peccary, tayassu pecari, from bolivia.secretions from the dorsal gland of male and female free-ranging adult white-lipped peccaries (tayassu pecari) from bolivia were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. fifty compounds were identified, some provisionally. secretions of both sexes contain saturated and unsaturated c5-c18 carboxylic acids as well as isomers of the diterpene springene. the females' secretions uniquely possess farnesyl esters of c8 and c10 carboxylic acids, whereas the males' secretions uniquely showed two ...200111789952
game depletion hypothesis of amazonian adaptation: data from a native community.the low population densities and impermanent settlements of amazonian indians are often interpreted as adaptations to a fauna that offers limited protein resources and is rapidly depleted by hunting. data spanning the 10-year life cycle of one northwestern amazonian settlement show that variations in hunt yields result from temporal variations in peccary (tayassu pecari and t. tajacu) kills that appear extrinsic to native population size. after 10 years, hunting success remained high and the kil ...19883353699
suiformes orthologous satellite dnas as a hallmark of pecari tajacu and tayassu pecari (tayassuidae) evolutionary rearrangements.in a broad general way, eukaryotic satellite dna sequences are characterized by a highly dynamic molecular behavior due to concerted evolution that leads to rapid change between repeat sequences of different species, achieved by amplification of new variants during speciation or by gradual sequence evolution due to the accumulation of nucleotide substitutions. there are, although exceptions for this almost universal rule. we isolated variants from both the mc1 and ac2 pig (sus scrofa, suidae) sa ...200818440236
nuclear and mitochondrial evolutionary analyses of collared, white-lipped, and chacoan peccaries (tayassuidae).the three extant peccary species, the chacoan (catagonus wagneri), the white-lipped (tayassu pecari) and the collared (pecari tajacu), are morphologically and chromosomally distinct and confined to the new world. there is ongoing paleontological, cytogenetic, and molecular debate about phylogenetic relationships among them. to contribute to the understanding of tayassuidae phylogeny, three mitochondrial (control region, cytochrome b, and 12s rrna) and five nuclear (k-casein, thyrotropin, tyrosin ...200515579391
unraveling the nomenclatural puzzle of the collared and white-lipped peccaries (mammalia, cetartiodactyla, tayassuidae).the nomenclatural history of the collared and white-lipped peccaries, two well-recognized taxonomic entities, has been confusing. from the 18th century to the beginning of the 20th century, several genera were created, most of them without an explicit designation of type species. due to differing opinions as to whether the two species should be included in a single genus or, if separate genera were recognized, which generic name should be applied to each of the two taxa, the validity of generic ...202033056737
towards the restoration of the mesoamerican biological corridor for large mammals in panama: comparing multi-species occupancy to movement models.habitat fragmentation is a primary driver of wildlife loss, and the establishment of biological corridors is a conservation strategy to mitigate this problem. identifying areas with high potential functional connectivity typically relies on the assessment of landscape resistance to movement. many modeling approaches exist to estimate resistance surfaces but to date only a handful of studies compared the outputs resulting from different methods. moreover, as many species are threatened by fragmen ...202031938545
novel piroplasmid and hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the brazilian amazon.during 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the amazon biome of brazil, in the states of mato grosso and pará. animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of piroplasmida (genera babesia, theileria, cytauxzoon) or hepatozoon dna. overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. the following piroplasmida agents were detected: cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (leopardus pardalis), theileria cervi ...201728603688
identification of mycobacterium species and rhodococcus equi in peccary lymph nodes.mycobacterium species and the virulence-associated proteins (vapa, vapb, and vapn genes) of rhodococcus equi isolated from 330 lymph nodes of collared peccaries (tayassu tajacu) and white-lipped peccaries (tayassu pecari) intended for human consumption were investigated. thirty-six (10.9%) r. equi strains were isolated; 3.3% (n = 11/330) were from white-lipped peccary lymph nodes, and 7.6% (25/330) were from collared peccary lymph nodes. among the 11 isolates of r. equi from the white-lipped pec ...201829546549
molecular detection of mycoplasma suis in captive white-lipped peccaries (tayassu pecari) and wild boars (sus scrofa) in brazil.mycoplasma suis, the etiological agent of swine hemoplasmosis, is an epicellular bacterium that adheres to the surface of pig erythrocytes leading to deformations of the target cells. little is known about the occurrence of m. suis in wild swine populations around the world, its economic impact on swine herds, and the risk of human infection. the aim of this study was to investigate, by quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) based on the 16s rrna gene, the occurrence of m. suis in a captive populatio ...201930961824
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