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viruses isolated from captive and free-ranging wild ruminants in alberta.nasal secretions, leukocytes and preputial or vaginal swabs from a group of 15 captive wild ruminants, comprising six pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), seven fallow deer (dama dama) and two mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), and from 50 free-ranging pronghorns in southern alberta, were examined for viral agents. captive animals were given injections of dexamethasone daily for 6 days in attempts to reactivate latent infections. specimens were collected at 2-3 day intervals from days 0 to ...1977190422
an investigation of the homology of guanylate kinase isozymes in mammals and further evidence for multiple guk gene loci.guanylate kinase in the red cells of 63 different mammalian species was studied by electrophoresis and multiple molecular forms of the enzyme were found in all species. two species were investigated in more detail. using molecular weight estimates as a criterion of homology, the fallow deer and the chinese hamster were found to have isozymes that corresponded to isozyme e, f, and g of man. variation in the guanylate kinase isozymes was detected in a small population of orangutans. results sugges ...1977201245
antigenic comparisons between herpesviruses isolated from fallow deer in alberta and the viruses of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, equine rhinopneumonitis and dn-599, a non-ibr bovine herpesvirus.antigenic comparison studies of three herpesviruses isolated from fallow deer (dama dama) in alberta and herpesviruses from some domestic species were carried out by the alpha serum-virus neutralization test. complete cross neutralization was demonstrated among the deer herpesviruses and equine herpesvirus type 1.1979225575
[sarcosporidia of the cloven-hoofed game. iii. sarcosporidia in red deer and fallow deer].the incidence of sarcosporidia among red-deer and fallow-deer was investigated. the fallow-deer is less discussed because the low number of investigations. the red-deer shows with 15% the lowest incidence among the red-deer, fallow-deer and wild-boar investigated. the sarcosporidia of the red-deer are smaller than those of the roe, therefore the identification in the trichinoscopic picture is more difficult. with regard to this it is recommended to name the sarcosporidia of the red-deer sarcocys ...1977413459
characterization of branched-chain fatty acids from fallow deer perinephric triacylglycerols by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.branched-chain fatty acids of perinephric triacylglycerols of semi-feral fallow deer (dama dama dama) were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. of the total fatty acids, 15.50% were branched-chain components including 8.96% iso acids, mostly 14-methylpentacanoic acid, 2.85% anteiso acids and 1.73% of other monomethyl-substituted acids; dimethyl-branched acids with an iso structure (1.05%) and with an anteiso structure (0.18%) were also present. whereas the predominan ...1979440025
four cases of chondrodystrophy in fallow deer.the gross and microscopic pathology in four cases of chondrodystrophy in a herd of captive fallow deer is described. the gross pathology was similar in all cases with shortening of all the bones, especially of the limbs, but at the microscopic level two distinct types of abnormality were present in the epiphyseal plates. in one type there was failure of proliferation of chondrocytes and in the other proliferation and vascularisation were irregular.1979473557
a serological survey of australian wildlife for antibodies to leptospires of the hebdomadis serogroup.a serological survey for antibodies to leptospira interrograns serovar hardjo was conducted on 574 serum samples from 10 native and 4 introduced wildlife species in south-eastern australia. the microscopic agglutination (ma) test was used, and titres to hardjo antigen were detected in 33.5% of 352 brushtailed possums (trichosurus vulpecula) sampled in several areas of victoria. prevalence of reactors ranged from 14 to 66% in 4 populations examined intensively. serovar balcanica was isolated from ...1979485984
paratuberculosis in cattle and free-living exotic deer.paratuberculosis was studied among dairy cows and exotic deer that shared grazing areas at point reyes national seashore, california. of the 10 dairy herds tested, 5 (50%) were infected with mycobacterium paratuberculosis (based on results of fecal culture). mycobacterium paratuberculosis was cultured from 9 (8.7%) of the 103 bovine fecal samples and from 4 (3.9%) of the 103 bovine rectal mucosa scapings tested. of 89 fecal samples from 52 axis deer (axis axis) and 37 fallow deer (dama dama), 5 ...1979500426
serologic profile of exotic deer at point reyes national seashore.serotests were conducted on axis (axis axis) and fallow (dama dama) deer at point reyes national seashore to determine their status with respect to nine diseases enzootic to the native black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) or to resident dairy cattle. in the exotic deer, the proportion of animals that were seropositive included: anaplasmosis, 35%; bluetongue, 48%; brucellosis, 0%; bovine viral diarrhea, 2%; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, 3%; leptospirosis, 7%; parainfluenza-3, ...1979521370
observations on diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis in a deer herd.paratuberculosis was diagnosed in a herd of 62 fallow deer (dama dama) and 38 sika deer (cervus nipon) maintained in an animal park in ohio. a comparison was made of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, results of in vitro lymphocyte immunostimulation tests, and isolation of mycobacterium paratuberculosis on fecal culture in 19 deer.1979521371
yersiniosis in a free-living fallow deer.a case of yersiniosis in a free-living fallow deer is described. pathological examination revealed an emaciated carcase with numerous abscesses of various sizes throughout the abdominal and thoracic cavities. staining of material from the abscesses showed a small gram-negative coccobacillus which was identified as yersinia pseudotuberculosis type 1a.1979532074
[the supply of wild ruminants with major and trace elements. 1. the cadmium content of winter grazing and the cadmium status of red deer, fallow deer, roes and moulons].the cd-determination of 10 different winter grazings for wild ruminants in seven different biotopes showed significant differences of the habitats resulting from the previous cd-emission of metallurgy smelting non-ferrous metals. the winter grazing of the tharandt forest and the harz mountains contained significantly more cd than that of the lower flaming hills, the western erzgebirge and the northern agrarian areas. the bark and the tips of conifer twigs, twigs of oak and mountain ash, bilberry ...1979547984
[the supply of wild ruminants with major and trace elements. 2. the manganese content of winter grazing and the manganese status of red deer, fallow deer, roes and mouflons].the winter grazing of wild ruminants on mantles of slate waste in the harz mountains and in gera county were richest in mn whereas those on mantles of granite waste in the erzgebirge were poorest. the flora of the shell-limestone, keuper and loess areas contains much less mn than that of those acid habitats. the mn-requirement of the wild ruminants grazing in the forests is met however, since bilberry plants (2,080 mg/kg), spruce twigs (984 mg/kg), spruce bark (827 mg/kg), oak twigs (791 mg/kg) ...1979547985
branched-chain fatty acids of fallow deer perinephric triacylglycerols [proceedings]. 1978733775
malignant hyperthermia induced by etorphine and xylazine in a fallow deer. 1978738958
a case of bovine tuberculosis in fallow deer. 1976769300
[clinical examination of the blood of roe deer (capreolus capreolus l.) and fallow deer (dama dama l.) naturally invaded by parasites].roe-deer (capreolus capreolus l. -- five animals) and fallow deer (dama dama l. -- eleven animals) of both sexes and at different age were subject to blood examination. the deer were killed in several preserves in bohemia during autumn and winter shootings in two years. the following blood values were determined: erythrocyte count, leucocyte count, hemoglobin content, hematocrit values, mcv, mch, mchc, white blood picture, total protein, its fractions (albumin, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-globulin) ...1975809892
[sarcosporidiosis of the myocardium in hoofed game].in a histological examination of the hearts of 290 head of hoofed game sarcosporidiosis was found in 34 p. c. of the investigated cases. in the european deer it was found in 11.1 p. c., in the sika deer in 3.9 p. c., in the virginia deer in 12.5 p. c. (eight investigated animals, of which one was positive), in fallow deer in 10.8 p. c., in roe-deer in 78.7 p. c., in moufflon in 28.2 p. c. and in chamois in 75 p. c. (four animals, three of which were positive). pathological changes of the myocard ...1976820041
naturally occurring neurologic disease in a fallow deer infected with meningeal worms.neurologic disease resulting from infection with parelaphostrongylus tenuis was diagnosed in a fallow deer (dama dama) from georgia, with clinical signs and histopathologic lesions similar to those reported for other accidental hosts of p. tenuis. early fifth stage parasites were found in the spinal meninges and immature parasites were found in the neural parenchyma, but none were recovered from the brain and cranial meninges.1977839624
the presence of erythritol in the fetal fluids of fallow deer (dama dama).gas liquid chromatography has been used to compare the levels of erythritol in fetal fluids from fallow deer with those in fetal fluids from cows and small laboratory animals. the relationship between the relatively high levels of erythritol found in allantoic and amniotic fluid from fallow deer and the possible susceptibility of this species to brucellosis is discussed. an interesting accessory finding was the high concentration of calcium phosphate in the allantoic fluid from these deer.1976935659
transfer of bovicola tibialis (piaget) mallophaga: trichodectidae) from the introduced fallow deer to the columbian black-tailed deer in california. 1976978690
[occurrence of warble flies in fallow-deer]. 19751121872
management of deer for experimental studies with foor-and-mouth disease virus.red, sika, fallow, roe and muntjac deer adapted to captivity in experimental units designed for working with foot-and-mouth disease. the red, sika and fallow deer readily accepted rolled oats and hay as their staple diet. this diet was replaced for the roe and muntjac deer with flaked maize, calf starter pellets and green browse. etorphine/acepromazine ans xylazine were found to be suitable sedatives for detailed examination of the tongue and oral cavity of the various species of deer and gav ...19751136125
the amino acid sequences of reindeer, moose and fallow deer pancreatic ribonucleases. 19751157925
a comparative study of the intestinal anatomy of deer.the intestinal anatomy of fallow deer (dama dama), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), reindeer (rangifer tarandus), and elk (alces alces) was studied. special attention was given to the spiral loop of the ascending colon and the proportional length of the small and large intestines. the spiral loop of the ascending colon is wound 3-3 1/2 turns in the fallow deer, 2-3 turns in the white-tailed deer, 5 1/2-7 turns in the reindeer and 3-4 turns in the elk. the distal half of the last centr ...19751163814
serum biochemical and electrophoretic values from four deer species and from pronghorn antelope.serums from 4 species of deer and 1 species of antelope were analyzed for various components in order to define an animal disease model for sickle cell disease in people. animal species included black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), sika deer (cervus nippon nippon), fallow deer (dama dama), and pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana). the mean serum values for total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and electrolytes w ...19751190586
sedation and restraint of fallow deer with diazepam. 19751192164
[investigations on the filariidae of the cervidae in southern germany. 3. the filariidae of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (dama dama) (author's transl)].roe deer in southern germany are frequently infected with w. rugosicauda. the adult worms are found subcutaneously in the connective tissues of the back of the host. the microfilariae concentrate in a considerable distance near the nose, in smaller numbers also in the ears and in the skin of the legs. the vector is probably ixodes ricinus. in fallow deer c. wenki are found intradermally and subcutaneously. the microfilariae remain in the skin near the site of the adult worms. skin inhabiting mic ...19751216336
[arbovirus antibodies in wild game caught in moravia].the hit method was used to examine blood serums of the game in moravia (roebuck, red deer, fallow deer, mouflon, wild boar, brown hare) for the presence of antibodies to arboviruses of these groups: alphavirus (sindbis-sin), flavivirus (west nile-wn), tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) and bunyamwera (tahyna-tah, calovo-cvo). antibodies to all viruses were detected, and namely in these frequencies: sin 0.9%, wn 16.9%, tah 41.5%, cvo 23.1% and tbe 8.5%.19921292172
[the effect of culture media on bacteriocin production in various strains of bacteria].some staphylococcus and enterococcus strains were used to investigate the effect of culture medium on bacteriocin production. staphylococcus cohnii sc7, staphylococcus sp. ztj 151, s. saprophyticus ss 877, enterococcus faecium ef1 and e. faecalis efg2 were isolated from the rumen wall and contents of lambs, calves and fallow deer, enterococcus gallinarum eg10 and e. avium ea12 were isolated from the caecum of japanese quail. the tested bacteria belong to producers with a wide antimicrobial effec ...19921297243
[the characteristics and regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase in strains of bacteroides ruminicola ssp. ruminicola isolated from the rumen of fallow deer].very little information about nh4+ assimilation paths in rumen anaerobic bacteria is available, and the information about wild animals is completely missing. glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) isolated from the rumen strain b. ruminicola in fallow deer was purified and its properties were specified after crystalline ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration on sephadex g-200. the properties of partly purified gdh were specified. one of the first specifications concerning gdh from various sou ...19921413388
a scanning electron microscopic study on the distribution of peritubular dentine in cheek teeth of cervidae and suidae (mammalia, artiodactyla).distribution of peritubular dentine was studied in cheek teeth of fallow deer (dama dama), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and wild boar (sus scrofa). in the two cervid species, especially intense peritubular dentine formation was found in the outer regions of mid and cuspal coronal dentine. in these areas a marked asymmetry occurred, peritubular dentine being predominantly secreted onto the side of the dentinal tubule walls nearest to the dentinoenamel junction. intensity and asymmetry of peritu ...19921416081
sarcocystis jorrini sp. nov. from the fallow deer cervus dama.sarcocystis jorrini sp. nov. isolated from the muscle of naturally infected fallow deer (cervus dama) from the doñana national park (spain) is described by light and electron microscopy. sarcocysts were macroscopic (2.7 x 1.4 mm) and were found in all striated muscle, including that of the esophagus and the heart. as visualized by light microscopy, the cyst walls were formed by mammilated protrusions surrounded by a coating of connective tissue measuring 10-35 mm in thickness. electron microscop ...19921438146
perennial ryegrass staggers in fallow deer (dama dama). 19921445073
silver staining of synaptonemal complexes in surface-spread spermatocytes of fallow deer (dama dama l.).surface-spread spermatocytes of the fallow deer were examined by light microscopy after silver staining. the development and behaviour of synaptonemal complexes and the partial synapsis of the x and y chromosomes were investigated during leptotene to diplotene chromosome pairing.19921451531
the mechanism of antler casting in the fallow deer.the process by which antlers are detached from their pedicles was examined histologically in fallow deer castrated in the autumn to induce precocious casting. osteoclastic erosion across an abscission line between the dead bone of the antler and the living bone of the pedicle was found to be responsible for the separation of the 2. as early as 3 days after castration, osteoclasts and associated lacunae were present on the sides of the pedicle bone. these were then found in progressively deeper l ...19921460440
studies on the ecology of lyme disease in a deer forest in county galway, ireland.the abundance of the tick ixodes ricinus (l.) and the infection rate of ticks with borrelia burgdorferi (johnson et al.) were compared on either side of a deer fence in a forest park in county galway, ireland, in an attempt to elucidate the role of fallow deer, dama dama, and woodmice, apodemus sylvaticus, in determining the population density of i. ricinus and the transmission of b. burgdorferi. the results showed that tick numbers were much higher on the deer side of the fence, although the de ...19921460628
studies on the blood of fallow deer (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus): haematology, red cell enzymes, metabolic intermediates and glycolytic rates.1. blood samples were obtained from fallow deer (dama dama) and red deer (cervus elaphus). basic haematology, red cell enzymes, and metabolic intermediates and the glycolytic rate of the red cells incubated with different substrates were measured. 2. the major findings were (i) the activity of glucose phosphate isomerase was notably high in the red blood cells of the red deer; (ii) red deer cells also utilized adenosine more efficiently than those of fallow deer and (iii) red cells of both speci ...19921478069
a case of fallow deer allergy. cross-reactivity between fallow deer and horse allergy.we report the case of a 25-year-old housewife, a native of mexico city, with rhinitis and asthma induced by exposure to fallow deer in an animal park close to her home. in the literature, we could find only one previous case. the patient presented a polyvalent ige sensitization in prick skin tests and rast to several animals' dander and epithelia, but rast inhibition experiments showed a cross-reactivity only between fallow deer and horse allergen extracts.19921485664
studies on the parietal region of the cervid skull. ii. the parietooccipital region in the skull of the fallow deer (dama dama l.).in contrast to the situation in roe deer (kierdorf and kierdorf, in press) and other cervid species, an os interparietale was missing in the fallow deer cranium. absence of this skull element in dama dama is regarded as an apomorphic character state. the area covered by the interparietals in capreolus was occupied by the parietals in dama. this condition (loss of interparietals, enlargement of parietals) is in accord with a trend seen in vertebrate evolution, that is, progressive reduction in th ...19921489111
parasites and condition of coexisting populations of white-tailed and exotic deer in south-central texas.we examined the parasites and physical condition of coexisting white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), axis deer (axis axis), fallow deer (dama dama), and sika deer (cervus nippon) on the yo ranch (kerr county, texas, usa) during december 1982 to january 1984. white-tailed deer harbored 12 species of parasites. exotic deer were infected with nine species of parasites. all parasites recovered from exotic deer and white-tailed deer have been reported from white-tailed deer. exotic deer had hig ...19921512889
causes of perinatal mortality in farmed fallow deer (dama dama).the causes of perinatal mortality in farmed fallow deer in the camden region of new south wales were determined between 1982 and 1987. the results of 144 necropsies on fawns showed that ante-parturient and parturient deaths occurred in 33 (22.9%) of cases, with post-parturient deaths accounting for 99 (69.8%), and undiagnosed causes the remaining 12 (8.3%). the most common cause of post-parturient death (43.1%) was exposure/starvation of fawns that had birthweights lower than the average for sur ...19921530555
[antibodies against hantaviruses in game and domestic oxen in the czech republic].using the test of indirect immunofluorescence, the authors examined sera of animals for antibodies against the strain cg 18-20 of hantavirus (identical with strain puumala) and against the hantaan strain. as a control and supplement of the examination the authors used cells containing the tbe virus, strain hypr. in a group of 260 hares (lepus europaeus) in 3.5% antibodies were present against hantavirus cg 18-20. of 41 deer (capreolus capreolus) they were present in 14.1%. of 11 fallow-deers non ...19921534516
mortality of fallow deer (dama dama) experimentally-infected with meningeal worm, parelaphostrongylus tenuis.six fallow deer (dama dama) fawns died after receiving 25 to 150 infective larvae of parelaphostrongylus tenuis. fawns given higher doses usually died sooner (6 to 23 days) than those given lower doses (54 to 67 days). early deaths were associated with severe acute peritonitis resulting from perforation of the intestinal wall; later deaths were associated with paralysis and inability to rise. numerous adult p. tenuis were found within neural tissues of the brain and spinal cord in the three fawn ...19921548808
[suspected iron poisoning in fallow deer]. 19921549836
effect of progesterone and oestradiol benzoate on oestrous behaviour and secretion of luteinizing hormone in ovariectomized fallow deer (dama dama).eighteen ovariectomized fallow deer does and two adult bucks were used to investigate the effect of exogenous progesterone and oestradiol benzoate on oestrous behaviour and secretion of luteinizing hormone (lh). in expts 1 and 2, conducted during the breeding season (april-september), does were treated with intravaginal controlled internal drug release (cidr) devices (0.3 g progesterone per device) for 12 days and differing doses of oestradiol benzoate administered 24 h after removal of the cidr ...19921593538
age and sex-independent comparisons of morphological measurements.a method is proposed for the comparison of morphological parameters that compensates for sex and age effects. an index is calculated for individual animals, from which percentage differences in size that are independent of age-sex classes can be postulated for specific environmental effects. the method is appropriate for any data set that has a sufficiently broad age range to enable an accurate fitting of a growth curve, and thus overcomes the problem of using only fully mature animals for envir ...19921601576
[a suspected iron poisoning in fallow deer]. 19921604456
secondary sex characteristics and related physiological values in male fallow deer (dama dama l.) and their relationships to changes in the annual cycle of daylengths: frequency alterations to 4- and 3-month photoperiodic cycles, and subsequent re-synchronisation under natural conditions.five adult male fallow deer were maintained in a barn with artificial light control. in a previous experiment, three 6-month photoperiodic cycles entrained morphogenetic and associated physiological values that revealed typical relationships to the antler cycle. presented here, the light cycle was accelerated to three 4- and one 3-month photoperiods in the same group. each artificial photoperiod generally resulted not only in an almost complete antler cycle but also in an entire cycle of seasona ...19921629664
identification of a seasonal elevation in daytime melatonin levels associated with the rut in fallow bucks (dama dama): the effect of day length and exogenous melatonin.the timing of the seasonal reduction in voluntary food intake and hormonal changes associated with the rut were investigated in mature fallow bucks subjected to artificial long-day exposure with and without superimposed melatonin-releasing implants. circulating testosterone profiles and the period of inappetence, signalling the onset of the period of reproductive activity in untreated bucks under natural photoperiod, were phase-advanced in both treatment groups. in the long-day treated group, th ...19911795219
[the lymph nodes of the fallow deer (dama dama l., 1758)].in the present study the topographic anatomy of the lymph nodes of fallow deer is described in detail. the nl. axillaris proprius is absent. this, however, is the only apparent difference when comparing fallow deer with cattle, sheep, goat and roe deer (capreolus capreolus l. 1758) in respect to the existence of the lymph nodes. minor topographic deviations are of little importance for locating the lymph nodes.19911833174
fallow deer immobilisation with fentanyl and a neuroleptic. 1977878235
pasteurella multocida septicaemia in fallow deer (dama dama).thirteen of 100 fallow deer, aged between 6 months and 10 years, died over a 5 week period. the deaths occurred in 2 outbreaks 3 weeks apart. both outbreaks were preceded by at least 3 days of cold wet and windy weather, and were associated with water-logged pastures. affected animals were usually found dead, with a frothy blood-stained nasal discharge. in the 8 deer necropsied, gross lesions included widespread subserosal petechial haemorrhages, severe pulmonary congestion and oedema with froth ...19911888312
evolution of the cytochrome b gene of mammals.with the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and versatile primers that amplify the whole cytochrome b gene (approximately 1140 bp), we obtained 17 complete gene sequences representing three orders of hoofed mammals (ungulates) and dolphins (cetaceans). the fossil record of some ungulate lineages allowed estimation of the evolutionary rates for various components of the cytochrome b dna and amino acid sequences. the relative rates of substitution at first, second, and third positions within codons a ...19911901092
conception rates in european fallow does (dama dama dama) following intrauterine insemination with frozen-thawed semen from mesopotamian fallow (dama dama mesopotamica) and crossbred (dama dama dama x dama dama mesopotamica) bucks.ninety eight parous fallow does received laparoscopic intrauterine insemination of frozen-thawed semen at one of 2 fixed intervals following oestrus synchronisation treatment. semen was collected from a mesopotamian (dama dama mesopotamica) and a crossbred (f1) (dama dama dama x dama dama mesopotamica) fallow buck. does were inseminated at either 56 or 66 hours after the removal of an intravaginal controlled internal drug releasing device. eighty eight does received a single straw of frozen-thaw ...19911953562
velvet antler harvesting from fallow deer dama dama. 19911953570
pestivirus infections in ruminants other than cattle.pestiviruses infect a wide range of domestic, captive and free-living ruminants. among domestic livestock, border disease virus is a well recognised cause of an important congenital disease of sheep in virtually all sheep-rearing countries of the world. the clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology and control of this disease are described in detail. one natural outbreak of border disease in domestic goats has been described and there is serological and virological evidence that pest ...19901966719
serum testosterone (t) and 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (dht) in male fallow deer (dama dama l.): seasonality and age dependence.1. seasonal levels of testosterone (t) and 5-alpha-dht (dht) were determined by ria in serum of seven adult male fallow deer living under outdoor conditions (göttingen, frg; 51.32 degrees nl). 2. the study, spread over six consecutive years, reveals the following seasonal t changes: minimum concentrations in november or december, around antler casting and at early antler growing phase; increasing levels in the course of late antler development (mineralization) with relatively high values around ...19901970532
a dna sequence that is present in both sexes of artiodactyla is repeated on the y chromosome of cattle, sheep, and goats.we have cloned a 307-bp sau3ai fragment of dna from the bovine male genome by deletion enrichment. although a single-copy homolog is present in the female cattle genome, the sequence (bry.1) is repeated at a moderate and variable frequency only in males. this pattern occurs too in sheep and goats, but bry.1 is found in equal amounts in both sexes of fallow deer and pigs, approximating single copy. the conservation of a homologous sequence over millions of years and its repetition exclusively on ...19912004555
pattern of lh and testosterone secretion of adult male fallow deer (dama dama) during the transition into the breeding season.pituitary secretion of lh and testicular secretion of testosterone were investigated during the transitional period from the non-breeding to breeding season of mature male fallow deer exhibiting either normal transitional patterns or shortened transitional patterns in response to summer melatonin treatment. melatonin implants were administered to 4 bucks for a 150-day period starting 130 days after the winter solstice. four contemporary bucks served as controls. melatonin treatment advanced rutt ...19912013884
gastrointestinal helminthosis in fallow deer (dama dama) and their response to treatment with anthelmintics. 19912025209
use of peroxidase-labelled antigen for the detection of antibodies to borrelia burgdorferi in human and animal sera.we have developed a modified elisa for the detection of anti-borrelia burgdorferi (bb) antibodies based on a peroxidase enzyme labelled antigen (elat). microtiter plates were coated with antigen of bb. the immunoglobulins of the serum samples were bound to the antigen and specific antibodies were detected by an enzyme labelled antigen. the test principle facilitates the recognition of specific antibodies in different collectives of human and animal sera. we performed epidemiological studies with ...19912028231
rearing performance of farmed fallow deer (dama dama).the ability of fallow does to rear fawns to weaning age was examined in a group of 243 adult does of known age (group 1) and 509 adult does of unknown age (group 2). all does had between 1 and 8 opportunities to rear fawns. there was an increasing proportion of does that failed to rear a fawn to weaning age as the number of rearing opportunities increased, although most does (93.6%) only failed on one occasion. a small percentage of does in groups 1 and 2 failed repeatedly to rear fawns to weani ...19902076070
[seroepidemiologic studies of the distribution of respiratory syncytial virus in wild ruminants].sera from wild ruminants (302 roe, 39 red deer, 17 fallow deer, 1 mouflon) were tested for antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). 22 sera (6.1%) were positive: 20 roe, 1 red deer, 1 mouflon. the findings are discussed from the epizootiological point of view.19902078187
tumor-like growth of antlers in castrated fallow deer: an electron microscopic study.male deer regenerate new sets of antlers each year. when fully grown, rising levels of testosterone promote antler ossification, cutting off the blood flow and causing the velvet integument to be shed. after the mating season, the old antlers fall off to be replaced by new ones. when the adult fallow deer is castrated in autumn or winter, its bony antlers are shed and replaced by usually shorter regenerates that remain permanently viable and in velvet. if prevented from winter freezing, these an ...19902080434
contribution to knowledge of the morphogenesis of the nasal apparatus of the fallow deer (dama dama l.).as in the red deer, in the fallow deer embryo we found a number of ancestral structures reminiscent of relationships in other mammals, such as paraseptal cartilages, a septum nasi with trabecular widening, a lamina transversalis ant., a cart. ectochoanalis, a capsule wall with a roof and a lateral wall formed of a clearly distinguishable cart. parietotectalis and cart. paranasalis, an ethmoturbinale i projecting a long way rostrally and additionally, in the fallow deer, cart. paraseptales poster ...19902083886
major lymph nodes of the head of the fallow deer (dama dama) and lymphatic drainage of antlers.heads from 10 fallow deer bucks were examined to provide a description of the major lymph nodes in this region. the distribution and size of these nodes were similar to those of sheep and goats. to determine whether there was drainage of lymph from the skin of antlers, and to follow the route of this drainage, a solution containing evans blue was injected intradermally into the antlers of 2 bucks whilst the animals were anaesthetised. dye appeared in tracheal lymph ducts 14 to 30 min after injec ...19902085295
genetic analysis of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase polymorphism in the genus cervus.a study of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in cervus dama, cervus elaphus, cervus nippon and cervus elaphus x cervus nippon hybrids has revealed a polymorphism of this enzyme system in cervus elaphus as well as in the hybrid population. genetic analysis suggests that this enzyme system is controlled by one gene locus with two codominant alleles. the allele frequencies allow a clear discrimination between the hybrid population and the red deer population, whereas the fallow deer are fixed for th ...19902090010
standard karyotype and chromosomal evolution of the fallow deer (dama dama l.).g-banding, c-banding and silver staining techniques were used to study the chromosomes of the fallow deer dama dama (2n = 68, nf = 70). on the basis of g-banded metaphases a diagrammatic representation of banding patterns at the 350 band level is proposed. c-banding reveals constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all the acrocentric chromosomes. faint c-banding is present in the centromere of the y chromosome, while the single pair of metacentrics are c-band negative. the nucl ...19902090390
[the sertoli cell nucleolus in domestic and wild animals].sertoli cells produce special microenvironment for developing germ cells; therefore it is assumed that they play primary role in the onset and control of spermatogenesis. in this connection we extended our previous study on the ultrastructure of sertoli cells in different domestic and wild animals with special regard to nucleolus. sertoli cells of domestic and wild ruminants possess the typical vesicular nucleolus except for fallow deer, in this species no vesicular nucleolus occurs in sertoli c ...19902102585
the pineal gland of the red deer male. histology and ultrastructure with notes on the fallow deer and mouflon pineals.the most conspicuous morphological feature of the investigated red deer pineal gland was very deep pineal recess, covered with continuous layer of the ependymal cells. its branches (2-3) reached the distal part of the gland. the slight differences in pineal structure of sexually active and sexually inactive red deer were observed. relatively large pineal glands both of mouflon and fallow deer showed many common as well as different structural features.19902136651
yersiniosis in farmed deer.samples from 77 chital (axis axis), 42 fallow (dama dama), 26 red (cervus elaphus), 7 rusa (cervus timorensis) and 1 sambar deer (cervus unicolor) were examined. yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection was diagnosed as the cause of death in 6 (23%) of the red and 23 (30%) of the chital deer. yersiniosis was the most common infectious cause of death diagnosed. affected deer were usually found moribund or dead, often with faecal staining of the perineum. gross pathology in chital included a fibrinou ...19902222364
the reproductive performance of farmed fallow deer (dama dama) in new south wales.observations on the reproductive performance of fallow deer on 47 farms in new south wales were made over 6 consecutive years. the minimum fawning rate for does varied significantly (p less than 0.001) between years, the corresponding fawning percentages varying from 75.0% to 96.4%, with an overall mean of 88.8%. the weaning rate also varied significantly (p less than 0.001) between years, the corresponding percentages varying from 65.0% to 89.1% with a mean over 6 years of 81.4%. weaning rates ...19902222374
the reversal of xylazine/ketamine immobilisation of fallow deer with yohimbine.fallow deer were immobilised using a combination of xylazine and ketamine. adult males (n = 10) and adult females (n = 10) received 4 mg/kg of each drug intramuscularly. juveniles (n = 11) received 2 mg/kg of each drug, intravenously. times to recumbency were as follows: adult males 4.9 +/- 2.9 min, adult females 4.1 +/- 1.9 min, juveniles 2.3 +/- 1.1 min. after 30 min each deer received 0.2 mg/kg of yohimbine, or an equal volume of sterile diluent intravenously. yohimbine substantially reduced ...19902264802
[fibrosarcoma of the zygomatic bone in a fallow deer. illustrated report]. 19902326793
[raising of fallow deer inside fences from the view of ethics and animal welfare].during the last years, keeping of fallow deer for the purpose of meat production has become a branch of industry that requires special attention from the view of ethology and animal protection. in zoological and judicial terms, the deer habituated to paddock keeping still belong to wild animals that are held captive. this paper describes the valid demands of fallow deer to its biotic and abiotic environment and deals in particular with population density, feeding practices, antlers amputation, k ...19902351053
temporal relationship between the onset of oestrus, the preovulatory lh surge and ovulation in farmed fallow deer, dama dama.a study was conducted to determine the timing of ovulation relative to the onset of oestrus and the preovulatory lh surge in fallow deer. mature fallow does were randomly allocated to two treatments (n = 10 per treatment) designed to synchronize oestrus on or about 17 may. does assigned to group 1 (prostaglandin-induced oestrus) each initially received single intravaginal cidr [controlled internal drug release] devices for 13 days followed by an i.m. injection of 750 mg cloprostenol on day 12 (1 ...19902402000
adrenal and ovarian sources of progesterone secretion in young female fallow deer, dama dama.six young female fallow deer, including 3 that were ovariectomized at 9 months of age, were blood sampled at frequent intervals after i.v. injections of (1) acth analogue (tetracosactrin), (2) gnrh analogue (buserelin) and (3) saline solution on separate occasions at 11, 13, 15 and 18 months of age. relative to prechallenge plasma values, acth administration resulted in a 4-10-fold increase in mean plasma progesterone concentrations, but only a 10-45% increase in mean plasma cortisol concentrati ...19892495360
occurrence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the digestive epithelium of fallow deer (dama dama l).intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in the digestive epithelium of fallow deer (dama dama l) suffering from bovine virus diarrhea/mucosal disease. similar inclusion bodies were also found in the ruminal epithelium of fallow deer subjected to overfeeding by supplementary food. inclusion bodies were not found in the upper alimentary mucosa of clinically healthy deer but were frequently found when these tissues were subjected to autolysis. at electron microscopical studies the inclusion ...19892560891
[legal regulations and practical application of studies of slaughtered game animals and their meat].meat regulations also involve game inspection. the previous publications on the one hand dealt with the regulations and their practice concerning game intended for slaughter, especially the control of fences and the gaining of meat. on the other hand regulations concerning game hunted for food (deer: red deer, sika deer, fallow deer, roe deer; horned ungulates: european mouflon, chamois; wild boar; european hare; european rabbit; game such as badger and raccoon) and regulations to be observed by ...19892617520
genetic polymorphism of transferrin in fallow deer, cervus dama l.a study of 15 blood protein systems in fallow deer, cervus dama l., has revealed a transferrin polymorphism in two german populations for the first time in this species. genetic analysis of complete families suggests that the transferrin system is controlled by one gene locus with two codominant alleles. the comparison of the present results with other studies on this species leads to the hypothesis that at least the european mainland fallow deer populations are genetically more differentiated t ...19892619108
light and scanning electron microscopy of fallow deer (dama dama) spermatozoa.no basic differences in size (mean +/- s.d. for at least 300 spermatozoa), shape and ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of fallow deer were detected (1) in comparison to other artiodactyls, (2) between different fallow bucks, and (3) between different months of the fertile season. the total length of the normal spermatozoon was 67.2 +/- 1.2 microns. the flat, paddle-shaped head was 8.2 +/- 0.3 microns long, 4.4 +/- 0.2 microns for the greatest width, 1.9 +/- 0.2 microns for basal width and, appro ...19892621694
an outbreak of mycobacterium bovis infection in fallow deer (dama dama).in an outbreak of mycobacterium bovis infection in fallow deer in south australia, 3 herds related by recent movement of deer were infected. from these 3 infected herds, 47 of 51 animals were tuberculosis at necropsy. a range of lesions was seen most of which differed from classical bovine tuberculosis in that pus was a white liquid, fibrous encapsulation was not marked and calcification was rare. histopathology was of classical tuberculosis. m. bovis was cultured from lesions and m. avium-intra ...19892673180
pulmonary mycosis in farmed deer: allergic zygomycosis and invasive aspergillosis.during 1988, pulmonary mycosis was diagnosed in four of 116 farmed deer examined on suspicion of tuberculosis. the histopathology showed allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis in a red deer (cervus elaphus) and the agent was identified as a zygomycete, probably absidia corymbifera, by immunofluorescence staining. three fallow deer (dama dama) had invasive necrotizing mycotic pneumonia and progressive exudative mycotic alveolitis caused by aspergillus fumigatus. in the red deer, weakness due to paratu ...19892689623
seasonal pattern of lh and testosterone secretion in adult male fallow deer, dama dama.at monthly intervals during the year blood samples were collected every 20 min for 12 h from 4 entire and 2 prepubertally castrated adult fallow deer bucks. in the entire bucks there were seasonal changes in mean concentrations and pulse frequencies of plasma lh. mean concentrations in late summer and autumn were 3-6 times higher than during other seasons. lh pulse frequency was low (0-1 pulses/12 h) during most of the year and increased only during the 2-month period (january and february) that ...19892704002
rhabdomyosarcoma in a fallow deer (dama dama). 19892728302
physiological effects of etorphine, acepromazine and xylazine on the black fallow deer (dama dama).confined and unconfined fallow deer (dama dama) of the black variety kept at whipsnade park were sedated with etorphine in combination with acepromazine, or xylazine or both, with or without atropine. induction, sedation and recovery times were recorded. during the period under sedation, systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, electrocardiographs, body temperature, arterial blood gas pressures and ph, packed cell volume and plasma electrolytes and enzymes were monitored. in both groups, and w ...19892740632
mate choice on fallow deer leks.leks, on which males defend small clustered mating territories, may have evolved because of the unusual opportunities they provide for female choice of mating partners, and several studies of lek-breeding animals have demonstrated correlations between the mating success of males and their phenotype or behaviour. however, these could arise because (1) females select mates on the basis of male phenotypic traits; (2) males interfere with each other's mating attempts; or (3) females show preferences ...19892755506
[legal foundation and practical execution of slaughtering and meat examination of game animals].meat regulations also involve game inspection. on the one hand the previous publications dealt with the regulations and their practice concerning game intended for slaughter, especially the control of fences and the gaining of meat. on the other hand regulations concerning game hunted for food (deer: red deer, sika deer, fallow deer, roe deer; horned ungulates: european mufflon, chamois; wild boar; european hare; european rabbit; game such as badger and raccoon) and regulations to be observed by ...19892763282
pleural mesothelioma in a european spotted fallow deer (cervus dama).an adult, captive european spotted fallow deer (cervus dama) was submitted for necropsy due to sudden death. gross lesions consisted of serosanguinous fluid in the thoracic cavity with multiple, often confluent, nodules covering visceral and parietal pleura. microscopic examination revealed tubular structures lined by cuboidal cells covering a delicate fibrous stroma. gross and microscopic morphology was consistent with a mesothelioma.19892810560
determination of the transfer of cesium and iodine from feed into domestic animals.the transfer of 131i and 137cs, released after the chernobyl accident, into domestic animals was studied experimentally in order to determine transfer coefficients from feed into animal products under realistic conditions. the 137cs transfer coefficients for meat were calculated to be: 0.01 d/kg beef (cow), 0.038 d/kg beef (heifer), 0.038 d/kg beef (bull), 0.35 d/kg veal, 0.4 d/kg pork, 0.33 d/kg sheep, 0.28 d/kg fallow deer and 1.3 d/kg chicken. the transfer coefficients for cow's milk were cal ...19892814462
serological investigations for some bacterial and viral pathogens in fallow deer (cervus dama) and wild boar (sus scrofa) of the san rossore preserve, tuscany, italy.sera of 43 fallow deer (cervus dama) of the san rossore preserve (tuscany, italy) were examined for antibodies against eight pathogens; one proved positive for brucella sp., 21 for listeria monocytogenes, 34 for chlamydia psittaci, three for coxiella burnetii, one for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, 11 for parainfluenza-3 virus, 25 for bovine viral diarrhea virus and six for bovine respiratory syncytial virus. no age and sex difference in the positivity rates and titers was evidenced, w ...19882832622
enterotoxaemia caused by clostridium perfringens type d in farmed fallow deer. 19852866762
seasonal changes of testis volume and sperm quality in adult fallow deer (dama dama) and their relationship to the antler cycle.four adult male fallow deer were investigated for 1-4 consecutive years to study the relationships between annual changes in testis volume, sperm quality and antler status. testicular volume started to increase in july/august, peaked just before the rut, declined until december to 50% of maximum, persisted at this level up to february/march and reached minimal volume after antler casting in late april. there was no apparent age effect on the seasonality of testis size fluctuations. velvet sheddi ...19892915363
characteristics of male fallow deer muscle at a time of sex-related muscle growth.muscle characteristics of male fallow deer undergoing neck muscle enlargement as the mating season (rut) approached were studied. five commercially-raised males were slaughtered prerut and five were slaughtered 11 weeks later, just before the rut began. during this period, increases in individual muscle weight were not the same: two of the three neck muscles studied grew more rapidly than the average, whereas the back and two hind leg muscles grew more slowly. the splenius, the neck muscle that ...19852932375
isolation of a bovine adenovirus from fallow deer (dama dama). 19853012987
evidence of paratuberculosis in ohio's white-tailed deer, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed and used to detect antibodies to mycobacterium paratuberculosis in serum samples obtained in december of 1983 from 954 hunter-killed white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in 13 ohio counties. positive or negative status was determined by calculating a signal-to-noise ratio, a ratio between the optical density of the test serum and negative reference sera; a ratio of greater than or equal to 3.0 was considered positive. twenty-four s ...19863099612
[demonstration of mating behavior in the field in the european fallow deer (dama d. dama)].adult males of a fallow deer population aggregate in a seasonal permanent rutting assembly. according to its spatial and behavioural characteristics, it is concluded that this assembly is a lek.19863099987
prevention of experimental haemorrhagic septicaemia with a live vaccine.pasteurella multocida serotype b:3,4 isolated from a fallow deer in england was used as a vaccine to prevent haemorrhagic septicaemia. the deer strain was less virulent for calves than typical serotype b:2 of haemorrhagic septicaemia strains. it elicited antibodies in cattle that protected mice against serotype b:2 infection. the live deer vaccine containing 2 x 10(7) viable organisms per dose was used to immunise calves. six months after vaccination, five of six calves were protected against se ...19873111071
failure to detect infection in fallow deer (cervus dama) exposed to theileria cervi from white-tailed deer.a frozen stabilate was produced from theileria cervi sporozoites in salivary glands of adult amblyomma americanum. the stabilate was inoculated into three fallow deer (cervus dama) and two white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). following inoculation, the white-tailed deer developed parasitemias as determined by blood smear examination at 11 and 13 days postexposure. repeat examination of blood from the three fallow deer for 30 days postexposure failed to reveal observable piro-plasms. these ...19873119873
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