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recurring hemolytic anemia, babesiasis, and influenza a viruses in a yak at low altitude in nepal.episodes of hemolysis and leukocytosis which were associated with babesia bigemina followed each of 3 challenge exposures to influenza a viruses. it is possible that viral infection altered the immunologic host-parasite equilibrium. acute thrombocytopenia and rouleaux formation were also observed. death, attributed to liver flukes, occurred 168 days after the yak was transferred from high to low altitude. a 2nd yak died of foot-and-mouth disease, thus supporting the nepali belief that yaks will ...1975125056
isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus from yak. 1978207010
[types of hemoglobin and amylase and their role in the ecologo-genetic differentiation of yak and cattle populations]. 1978684819
[isolation of bhanja arbovirus from boophilus decoloratus ticks in cameroon].a strain of virus designated yak-10 was isolated from boophilus decoloratus ticks (10 specimens) collected in march 1971 from cattle pastured in savanna near garoy (united cameroun republic) by the intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice at the pasteur institute in cameroun. the results of investigations of the biological properties of the strain showed it to be pathogenic for 1-3-day-old suckling mice by the intracerebral and intraperitoneal routes, for 3-week-old mice by the intracerebral r ...19751121855
salivary gland amylase polymorphism in pigs and cattle detected by affinity electrophoresis.new allelic variants of salivary gland alpha-amylase in pigs (amy-1c, amy-1d) have been detected using affinity electrophoresis. in yak, zebu and in hybrids (yak x cattle, zebu x cattle) a new amy-1 allelic variant (amy-1d) has been found using the same method.19902268074
multivariate craniometrics of yak in nepal. 19892607725
[mycoplasma infections in sheep, goats and yaks].mycoplasmas were isolated from yak calves in mongolia, the 1st experience worldwide with this species. they were also isolated from pathologically affected sheep and goat lambs. the disease was experimentally reproduced in yak calves as well as in sheep and goat lambs. clinical manifestations were identical with those recordable from animals with spontaneous outbreak of the disease. this had been for the 1 time ever that a therapy was tested on animals with mycoplasmosis, using water with additi ...19892619474
craniometrical estimation of the native japanese mishima cattle, using multivariate analysis.the present study on measurement of the skull of mishima cattle, which has been postulated as the only pure representative breed of native japanese cattle, was performed using craniometrical multivariate analysis. the data of the skull of mishima cattle was compared with 17 breeds of cattle, i.e. korean cattle (hamhung, pyongyang, chinju suwon, and kwangju), mongolian cattle, hainan tao cattle, northeastern chinese cattle (shuangliao, shenyang, tongliao, lüta, and chilin), astatic water buffalo, ...19892764276
pulmonary endocrine cells in various species in the himalaya.the numbers, morphology and distribution of pulmonary endocrine cells in goats, sheep and the yak and its interbreeds with cattle, dzos and stols, were studied after their demonstration by means of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique with a polyclonal antiserum raised in the rabbit to human neuron-specific enolase, a marker for neuroendocrine cells. the numbers, morphology and distribution were related to species and not to residence at high altitude. pulmonary endocrine cells were common an ...19883062054
isolation and characterization of high-molecular mass dna from hair shafts.experiments to identify species by dna analysis of their hair failed so far because no dna could be isolated from hair shafts. in this work the preparation of dna from human--as well as from animal hair shafts (alpaca, angora-rabbit, cashmere, cashgora, mohair, merino and yak) is described for the first time. in general the isolated dna shows a length of more than 20 kbp. the species of the hair shaft samples could be exactly identified by dna hybridization experiments. the isolated dna from hai ...19883166747
functional characterization of fetal and adult yak hemoglobins: an oxygen binding cascade and its molecular basis.in contrast to most other mammals, the yak, which is native to high altitudes, has two major fetal and two or four major adult hemoglobin (hb) components. we report the oxygen affinities and sensitivities to ph and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate of the two fetal and two adult hbs commonly found in calves, compared to those of adult cow hb a, and relate these findings to their primary structures and to placental maternal-fetal oxygen transfer at altitude. arranged in order of decreasing oxygen affinity t ...19883369864
[biological properties of variants of the rabies street virus].experiments in dogs inoculated intracerebrally with biological variants of paralytic (prv) and convulsive (crv) rabies virus isolated from the yak strain population of street rabies virus demonstrated distinct differences in the biological properties of the variants prv induced in dogs paralytic rabies with a short incubation period (average 6.4 days) and crv induced an atypical convulsive form characterized by attacks of tonic convulsions of the body, legs, and head twitching, and a longer incu ...19883414067
pulmonary haemodynamics of the yak, cattle, and cross breeds at high altitude.the pulmonary arterial pressure of ladakhi yaks, at an altitude of about 4500m, was not significantly different from that found in yaks bred at low altitude. the pulmonary arterial resistance, however, was slightly but significantly increased in the high altitude group. it is concluded that the yak has adapted genetically to high altitude by largely eliminating the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor response. the pulmonary arterial pressure and resistance were significantly higher in indigenous h ...19863787555
susceptibility of a yak to influenza a viruses and presence of h3n2 antibodies in animals in nepal and india.naturally acquired antibody to h3n2 human influenza antigens was found in a yak-zebu crossbred in nepal. serial inoculation of a yak, negative for antibody, produced a response to a/hong kong/1/68 (h3n2), a/england/42/72 (h3n2), and a/prague/1/56 (heq1 neq1) influenzavirus strains. single radial diffusion tests showed that cattle and goats in west bengal, india, and water buffaloes and cattle in kathmandu, nepal, also had antibodies against the h3n2 antigens. haemagglutination-inhibition antibod ...19744549482
[case report on laryngeal surgery in cattle. (surgical treatment of laryngeal hemiplegia in a yak cow)]. 19705463186
[studies on claw capsules of domestic cattle breed with reference to the number of lamellas, wall strength and angular wall position and their comparison with the claw capsules of a yakbull (bos grunniens l.)]. 19666012595
skeletal muscle myosins from the yak (bos grunniens), cattle (bos taurus) and their hybrids.the skeletal muscle myosins of the yak (bos grunniens), of cattle (bos taurus) and of their first and second filial generation hybrids have been studied by atpase measurements, fluorescence spectroscopy, near-ultraviolet circular dichroism and peptide mapping on polyacrylamide gels. the atpase activities, the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence enhancement upon addition of atp and the circular dichroism spectra of the four myosins were closely comparable. peptide maps of the myosin heavy chains in ...19836227446
amino-acid sequence of gayal hemoglobin (bos gaurus frontalis, bovidae).the amino-acid sequences of the alpha- and beta-chains of gayal hemoglobin have been determined and compared with those of bovine and yak hemoglobins. the gayal alpha-chain differs from the alpha-chains of bovine by 3 amino-acid residues and from yak i alpha- and ii alpha-hemoglobins by 4 and 2 residues, respectively. the gayal beta-chain differs from bovine beta a- and beta b-chains by 3 and 4 residues, respectively and from yak beta-chains by 2 residues.19846479895
lysis of fresh natural killer-resistant tumor cells by lectin-activated syngeneic and allogeneic murine splenocytes.this paper demonstrates that lectin-activated lymphocytes of selected mouse strains can lyse fresh autologous or allogeneic tumor cells but not the fresh normal cells tested in short-term 51cr release assays. murine splenocytes, incubated with concanavalin a for 3 days, lysed tumor cells from fresh syngeneic p815 mastocytoma, 102 methylcholanthrene sarcoma, and fbl3 lymphoma; fresh allogeneic 3ll lung carcinoma and metha sarcoma; and tissue-cultured yak cells in 18-hr51cr release assays. natural ...19836640524
normal and clinical haematology in the yak (bos grunniens).haematological examinations have been carried out on 21 clinically normal male and female adult yaks (bos grunniens). animals sedated with xylazine had significantly lower red cell counts, haemoglobin levels and packed cell volumes, fewer lymphocytes and higher monocyte counts than those bled while manually restrained. there were few significant sex differences. several animals had eosinophilia associated with asymptomatic intestinal nematode infection. haematological reference values were calcu ...19836836178
[biological variants of a population of strains of the rabies street virus].experiments in mice weighing 6-7 g showed that a population of wild street rabies virus strains could contain from 1 to 3 biologic variants determining the clinical characteristics, duration of the incubation period and of the disease, and virus titres in the brain. fox strains l-1 and l-2 produced only paralytic rabies, the be strain isolated from a badger induced paralytic and chronic disease, and the population of the yak strain isolated from a boy bitten by a fox and timely given a complete ...19827157781
[immune response during the course of chronic experimental rabies].the immune response was studied in the time course in comparison with virus titers in the brain in chronic course of the disease in random-bred and balb/c mice infected intracerebrally with street rabies virus, the yak strain. the virus-neutralizing antibodies were first found in the blood by the end of the incubation period and in the brain tissue at 7-8 days of the disease. then their titers increased as the disease progressed reaching maximum (in the blood 1:97,313, in the brain 1:63,090) by ...19817336685
parasitic infections of indian yak bos (poephagus) grunniens--an overview.for centuries, the yak and its hybrids with domestic cows (dzomo/dzo) have been contributing to the socio-economic status of their owners in desolate regions of the greater himalayas. studies on the prevalence of parasitic diseases in these animals were undertaken in ladakh (jammu and kashmir), sikkim and villages near the indo-nepal border of uttar pradesh. visceral organs of necropsied animals were observed for the presence of adult metazoan parasites, fresh or preserved faecal samples were ex ...19948091621
reproductive patterns of the yak. i. reproductive phenomena of the female yak.the reproductive phenomena of 62 multiparous yaks from two grassland areas were investigated. the lengths of oestrus and the oestrus cycle were 12-36 h and 19-21 days respectively. ovulation occurred 12-36 h after the end of oestrus. the oestrus and conception rates were 85.5% and 94.3%. the duration of pregnancy ranged from 248 to 258 days. the signs of oestrus, pregnancy and parturition, and the changes of the uterus and ovaries during oestrus and pregnancy are described.19938111618
reproductive patterns of the yak. ii. progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta levels in plasma and milk just before the breeding season; also during normal and short oestrous cycles.concentrations of oestradiol-17 beta and progesterone in plasma and milk of the yak before the first oestrus at the beginning of the breeding season and during normal and short oestrus cycles were measured by radioimmunoassay (ria). both oestradiol-17 beta and progesterone were maintained at stable, low levels before the first oestrus. however, oestradiol-17 beta showed a peak, similar to that on the day of oestrus (p > 0.05), about 6 days before the first oestrus and a small progesterone peak w ...19938111619
reproductive patterns of the yak. iii. levels of progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta during pregnancy and the periparturient period.changes in plasma progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta in yaks during pregnancy and the periparturient period of yaks and in milk during the first month of pregnancy were analysed. the profiles of progesterone were similar for pregnant and non-pregnant yaks within 14 days following oestrus (p > 0.05), but the concentration was significantly higher on day 19 (p < 0.05) and in pregnant yaks tended to increase gradually thereafter. the plasma progesterone decreased rapidly on day 120 (p < 0.05), the ...19938111620
pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of yaks: identification of the plants involved.a search was undertaken in the most eastern part of the himalayan kingdom of bhutan for the plants which are causing severe losses of yaks due to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning. two senecio and three ligularia species were found on yak pastures at altitudes between 3000 and 4000 m, including one so far underscribed ligularia species. none was previously known to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids. another senecio species was found between 2500 and 3000 m, an altitude too low for yaks to be kept b ...19948171783
application of a competitive elisa for the detection of bluetongue virus antibodies in llamas and wild ruminants.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa), using a group-specific monoclonal antibody against bluetongue virus (btv), was applied to detect anti-btv antibodies in serum samples from two llamas (llama glama) experimentally infected with btv serotype 10. antibodies were detected in both llamas by 1 wk or 2 wk post-infection. antibodies to btv increased exponentially during the first 4 wk in both llamas and stabilized at an elevated level during the remaining 5-wk-period of the expe ...19958592352
the high affinity melationin binding site probed with conformationally restricted ligand--i. pharmacophore and minireceptor models.the affinities of enantiomers of conformationally restricted melatonin analogues for the ml-1 and ml-2 putative melatonin receptor subtypes are reported. most ligands exhibited reversed stereoselectivity when competing with 125i 2-iodomelatonin binding to chicken retinal (ml-1) and hamster brain (ml-2) membranes, further supporting the biochemical and pharmacological differences reported for these two sites. based on the data for the ml-1 site and thorough conformational analyses of several liga ...19968879554
[the yak--the asiatic mountain cattle in science and practice].a total of 15 million yak is indigenous to central asia (china, mongolia, nepal, india and bhutan) on an area of 220 m hectares. the animal is a six purpose cattle, including milk production, meat production, wool production, leather production, capacity for work as draught, riding and transport animals and energy production via dried manure. moreover, anatomical and physiological peculiarities of this high mountain cattle are presented which can tolerate cold temperatures of -50 degrees c. fina ...19969011505
[variability of satellite dna ii and iv in cattle, various representatives of the subfamily bovinae and their hybrids].polymorphism of satellite dna ii and iv was studied in bos taurus by means of southern blotting and dot hybridization. of primary interest is the absence of restriction fragment length polymorphism at the individual and interbreed levels. differences in the content of satellite ii in the genome are demonstrated for animals of the kholmogorskaya and yakutian breeds. the specific features of satellite iv organization in the bison, banteng and yak are revealed, allowing the use of the satellite as ...19969026464
fertility investigations in the f1 hybrid and backcross progeny of cattle (bos taurus) and yak (b. grunniens) in mongolia.investigations conducted in mongolia into the sterility of the male khainag, an f1 hybrid animal resulting from crossing cattle (bos taurus, 2n = 60) with yaks (b. grunniens, 2n = 60), are reported. reduced numbers of spermatogonia appear to characterise the testicular tubules of the khainag, and despite the identical cytological appearance of the two parental karyotypes, synaptic anomalies are seen at meiotic prophase in primary spermatocytes. the female khainag is fertile and can be backcrosse ...19979345913
endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species.high amounts of endogenous nitric oxide (no) have been demonstrated in the human upper airway, but the role of nasal no is still unclear. the present study aims to describe nasal no excretion in different animal species with special living conditions or anatomy.19979366933
digital cloning: identification of human cdnas homologous to novel kinases through expressed sequence tag database searching.identification of novel kinases based on their sequence conservation within kinase catalytic domain has relied so far on two major approaches, low-stringency hybridization of cdna libraries, and pcr method using degenerate primers. both of these approaches at times are technically difficult and time-consuming. we have developed a procedure that can significantly reduce the time and effort involved in searching for novel kinases and increase the sensitivity of the analysis. this procedure exploit ...19989662067
the effect of anti-coagulants on the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in the yak (poephagus grunniens). 199910030134
an anatomical study of the internal genital organs of the yak at different ages.forty-five female yaks of different ages with known reproductive histories were used to determine the anatomical characteristics of their internal genital organs. the results showed that there were several follicles of different sizes present on the surface of each examined ovary, up to a maximum of 13. in each age group, a greater number of follicles < 5 mm was observed in the right than in the left ovary (p < 0.05), while the number of follicles > 5 mm in the right ovary was almost the same as ...199910204417
mitochondrial dna variation in cattle of south china: origin and introgression.ten restriction endonucleases were used to investigate the mitochondrial dna restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtdna rflp) of 11 native cattle breeds and one cultivated cattle breed in south china. twenty-three restriction morphs were detected, which can be sorted into five haplotypes. a phylogenetic tree of the haplotypes was constructed by using the 'upgma' method. our study showed that haplotype i and ii are identical to the zebu (bos indicus) and taurine (bos taurus) haplotypes, resp ...199910467698
rumen ciliated protozoan fauna of the yak (bos grunniens) in china with the description of entodinium monuo n. sp.rumen ciliate species composition was surveyed in domestic yaks kept in tibet, sichuan, and inner mongolia, china. twelve genera including 36 species with 18 formae were identified. the species compositions were slightly different among the three areas: yaks in tibet had the simplest fauna, in contrast, the fauna of yaks in inner mongolia were the most abundant and similar to those found in the cattle kept in the same area. this suggests that the rumen ciliate composition of yaks is affected by ...200010750847
susceptibility of yak (bos grunniens) to copper deficiency. 199910755592
effect of strategic feed supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in yak cows.a total of 2230 yak cows (5-13 years of age) in two populations with different milking systems were investigated. one population had a system of milking once a day (mod), and the other population twice a day (mtd). the average milk yield of mod cows was 0.7 +/- 0.2 kg/day within a milking period of 109 +/- 9 days. this compared with an average of 1.24 +/- 0.3 kg/day in 127 +/- 6 days in mtd yaks (p < 0.01). the cows showed a calving rate of 71% under the mod system and 51.4% under the mtd system ...199910081799
genetic diversity and divergence in chinese yak (bos grunniens) populations inferred from blood protein electrophoresis.in 6 chinese yak (bos. grunniens) populations including 177 yaks, 34 blood protein loci were studied by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis, four of these loci (akp, alb, ldh-1, tf) were found to be polymorphic. the percentage of polymorphic loci(p) is 0.118, the mean individual heterozygosity(h) is 0.015, which means a low level of genetic diversity in the whole chinese yak population. the coefficient of gene differentiation (gst) is 0.0625, which indicated an almost-indistinguishable diverge ...19979238515
[polymorphism of the kappa-casein gene in populations of the subfamily bovinae].polymorphism of the 5'-untranslated region and exon 4 of kappa-casein (kappa-casein) gene was studied in yakutian and black pied cattle, yak, european bison, and buffalo by means of a polymerase chain reaction and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (pcr-rflp). in the species studied, restriction polymorphism by the endonucleases alui and bg/ii in the 5'-untranslated region of the gene is absent. four restriction endonucleases testing nucleotide substitutions in 136 codo ...19969119217
a pseudoreceptor modelling study of the varicella-zoster virus and human thymidine kinase binding sites.a representative range of pyrimidine nucleoside analogues that are known to inhibit herpes simplex virus (hsv) replication have been used to construct receptor binding site models for the varicella-zoster virus (vzv) thymidine kinase (tk) and human tk1. given a set of interacting ligands, superimposed in such a manner as to define a pharmacophore, the pseudoreceptor modelling technique yak provides a means of building binding site models of macromolecules for which no three-dimensional experimen ...19958789189
an x-y paint set and sperm fish protocol that can be used for validation of cattle sperm separation procedures.x and y chromosome paints were developed from sorted yak chromosomes for sexing cattle spermatozoa. clear hybridization signals were obtained for every spermatozoon using a modified sperm decondensation protocol and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish). the procedure was evaluated using the established beltsville sperm sexing technology, which separates spermatozoa by flow cytometry into x- and y-bearing fractions. close agreement was found between the assessment of sperm separation by flow ...200111277872
pseudo-receptor modeling: a new concept for the three-dimensional construction of receptor binding sites.molecular design of small molecules intended to target a macromolecule generally utilizes one of two computational approaches: "receptor fitting" or "receptor mapping". a comprehensive strategy for the design of potent, selective and novel ligands for cell-bound receptors combines the two by means of "pseudoreceptor modeling". definition of a refined pharmacophore model is the first step. a subsequent step involves the construction of a pseudoreceptor--an explicit molecular binding pocket--for t ...19938383750
functional and structural adaptation of the yak pulmonary circulation to residence at high altitude.the high-altitude (ha) native yak (bos grunniens) has successfully adapted to chronic hypoxia (ch) despite being in the same genus as domestic cows, which are known for their great hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor responses (hpvrs), muscular pulmonary arteries, and development of severe pulmonary hypertension on exposure to ch. to determine possible mechanisms by which the pulmonary circulation may adapt to ch, yak pulmonary vascular reactivity to both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator stimuli an ...19938335557
reproduction in the yak. 19938111611
[rflp analysis of dna from echinococcus granulosus collected from four provinces/autonomous region in china].a fragment of the ribosomal rna gene of schistosoma mansoni psm889 and two dna fragments specific to echinococcus granulosus phd5 and peg18 have been used as dna probes to assess the extent of genetic variability within e. granulosus. the dna analysis, including restriction endonuclease digestion and southern blot hybridization with the probes, did not demonstrate any genetic variation among e. granulosus collected from sheep in xinjiang, qinghai, gansu and ninxia. similarly, there was no geneti ...19937909504
polymorphism in mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of yak (bos grunniens).mitochondrial dnas (mtdna) from 21 yaks (bos grunniens) were assayed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms by using 20 restriction endonucleases, six of which (avai, avaii, bgiii, ecori, hindiii, and hpai) detected polymorphism. four different mtdna haplotypes were identified. combining this with previous reports about the mtdna rflps of b. indicus and b. taurus, there are obvious differences in mtdna polymorphism between the yak and other bos species. we estimated that the divergence ti ...200212137333
crosslinkage of collagen by polyglycidyl ethers.calcification is the principal cause of failure of glutaraldehyde treated bioprosthetic heart valves. this article reports the crosslinkage of several polyglycidyl ethers. calcification of yak pericardium with polyglycidyl ethers was significantly decreased compared with that crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. the process of calcification of crosslinked yak pericardium was studied using 21 day subdermal implants in rats. the uptake of calcium with ethane diglycidyl ether was reduced (0.57 +/- 0.19 ...19957727825
gamma herpesvirus carrier status of captive artiodactyls.between 1998 and 2000, 103 individuals of 19 species of the order artiodactyla at whipsnade wild animal park were tested for evidence of infection with gamma herpesviruses in order to distinguish between species which are susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (mcf), caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (alhv-1) of wildebeest (connochaetes sp.) or ovine herpesvirus-2 (ovhv-2) of domestic sheep, and species which carry related viruses sub-clinically. gamma herpesvirus dna was detected in the kno ...200212208112
the primary structure of the beta i- and beta ii-chains of yak hemoglobins (bovidae).the amino acid sequences of the beta i- and beta ii-chains of yak hemoglobins have been determined. the two chains differ by four amino acid residues. the sequences are compared with the two beta-chains of bovine hemoglobins. the oxygen affinity of yak hemoglobin vis-a-vis the primary structure of the beta-chains is discussed.19817309003
bovine alpha-lactalbumin c and alpha s1-, beta- and kappa-caseins of bali (banteng) cattle, bos (bibos) javanicus.an electrophoretic examination is made of mild samples taken from eight bali (banteng) cattle, bos (bibos) javanicus, at beatrice hills, northern territory, australia. starch-gel electrophoresis at ph 9.5 (naoh-h3bo3 buffer) and filter-paper electrophoresis at ph 8.6 (diethylbarbiturate buffer) indicate that all samples contain a new alpha-lactalbumin variant, designated alpha-lactalbumin c. the order of mobility for bovine variants is / greater than b greater than c. the c variant differs from ...19817283875
serological differentiation of brucella-vaccinated and -infected domesticated animals by the agar gel immunodiffusion test using brucella polysaccharide in mongolia.to investigate brucella infection in cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer and yak in mongolia, serological reactions of brucella-infected and -vaccinated domestic animals were compared by the agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test with a polysaccharide (poly-b) of the b. abortus strain s-19. the sensitivity and specificity were compared with conventional serological tests that are commonly used in mongolia, such as the rose bengal test, the tube agglutination test and the compliment fixation test. a tota ...200212399611
the pulmonary arteries of the yak.a quantitative histological study was carried out on the pulmonary arteries of a female yak (bos grunniens), a member of the genus bos which comprises the various types of cattle. a characteristic feature of cattle is a muscular pulmonary vasculature which responds sensitively to alveolar hypoxia by constriction. the yak studied had thin-walled pulmonary arteries and showed no evidence of right ventricular hypertrophy. it is suggested that this may be a feature of adaptation (as contrasted to ac ...19846705004
[a method of morphological observation on the endothelialization of bioprosthetic heart valve materials in vitro].in order to examine the endothelialization of yak pericardial materials in vitro, we used wright staining and successfully observed the morphology, number and order of endothelial cells seeded on pericardial patches under light microscope. compared with scanning electron microscopy, the method of light microscopy is simple, easy to do and may be carried out at any time. in laboratory, it brings much convenience in morphological observation on the endothelialization of biomaterials and therefore ...199812548902
levels of conservation and variation of heterochromatin and nucleolus organizers in the bovidae.chromomycin a3 banding of the mitotic sets of 10 species of bovidae (cattle, wisent, yak, banteng, gaur, red buffalo, swamp buffalo, sheep, mufflon, and goat) serves to demarcate both centromeric constitutive heterochromatin and r-banding patterns capable of identifying all the chromosomes within a given complement. in all species significant amounts of chromomycin-bright heterochromatin are present at the centromeres of all autosomes, though there was a high degree of intra- and inter-individua ...19854092166
prevalence of sarcocystis infection in meat-producing animals in mongolia.a survey of sarcocystis infection was conducted in mongolia between june 1998 and july 1999. samples of muscle were taken from the diaphragm, heart, tongue, esophagus,and intercostal region of cattle, yak, hainag, sheep, horses, and camels. a muscle compress method was used to determine the prevalence of infection: cattle 90.0% (27/30), yak 93.3% (28/30), hainag 100% (30/30), sheep 96.9% (753/777), horses 75% (3/4) and camels 100% (5/5). of the various muscles, heart was the most commonly infect ...200212693581
detection of water buffalo sex chromosomes in spermatozoa by fluorescence in situ hybridization.in order to identify x- and y-bearing spermatozoa in water buffalo by fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish), some available probes of closely related species were examined. an x- and y-specific probe set, made from flow sorted yak chromosomes, labelled in somatic metaphases of water buffalo the whole x and y, respectively, except their centromere regions. a cattle y-chromosome repeat sequence (bc1.2) showed strong signal on the telomere region of the buffalo y-chromosome, demonstrating the e ...200312950688
studies on yak hemoglobin (bos grunniens, bovidae): structural basis for high intrinsic oxygen affinity?two types of alpha- and two types of beta-chains are found in the hemoglobin of yak population. the complete amino-acid sequences of the four polypeptide chains were determined. the two alpha-chains differ by two and the two beta-chains by three amino-acid substitutions. the substitution of valine at position 135 in the beta ii-chain may be responsible for the high intrinsic oxygen affinity of yak hemoglobin.19854005038
[thrombocyte ultrastructure and function in animals at high altitude].ultrastructural peculiarities of blood plates and state of the thrombocytic line of hemostasis have been studied in yaks (bos grunniens), the tibet subspecies, living in the kirghiz mountains at the altitude more than 3.200 m. as a control 6 cows (bos taurus), constantly living at the altitude of 760 m, have been taken. stereological analysis of the volume of thrombocytic alpha-granules and of the volume of blood plates in the yaks has been performed. ultrastructure of thrombocytes in the yaks p ...19873447550
phylogenetic analysis of theileria species transmitted by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis.the phylogenetic relationships between six isolates of theileria spp. infective to small ruminants, and two isolates of theileria spp. infective to yak, all transmitted by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, together with the theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli group and t. sinensis, were analyzed using the 18s ssrrna gene sequence. the target dna segment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the pcr product was used either for direct sequencing or was ligated to the pcr ii vector for sequ ...200414598167
short report: identification of echinococcus species from a yak in the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china.the species identification of an echinococcal lesion in the liver of a yak in the qinghai-tibet plateau region of china, where both echinococcus granulosus and e. multilocularis are present, was difficult to determine because of the atypical appearance of the lesion. polymerase chain reaction-based mitochondrial genotyping allowed us to discriminate the echinococcus species. nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes amplified from the echinoc ...200314640506
[abortive and recurrent rabies in dogs intracerebrally infected with the rabies street virus].in the experiments on dogs inoculated intracerebrally with the "paralytic rabies" variant of the "yak" strain of street rabies virus we observed spontaneous recovery of 1 out of 5 sick animals. rabies in this dog was verified by three isolations of the virus from the saliva during the disease and by an increase of antibody titres in the time course of to 6776. in another experiment, among 7 dogs developing rabies after intracerebral inoculation with the "convulsive rabies" variant of the virus o ...19892763514
[intraoperative hemodynamics of pyrolytic carbon cambered bileaflet valve replacement in animals].pyrolytic carbon cambered bileaflet valve developed by chengdu university of technology and sciences was evaluated for its hemodynamics. the curved surface of the valve leaflet is cylindrical. under anaesthesia, cardiopulmonary bypass and chemical cardioplegia, a cambered bileaflet valve (i.d. = 16 mm) was replaced at mitral position in each of 12 goats. before valve replacement, mitral flow rate (mfr) was 74.9 +/- 12.3 ml.sec-1, average valvular pressure drop delta p) 0.56 +/- 0.17 kpa (4.2 +/- ...19892591919
scanning electron microscopic study of third-instar warbles in yak in china.scanning electron microscopic observations were performed to compare the structures of third-instar of three species of warbles (hypoderma bovis, h. lineatum and h. sinense) that infest yak in china. the heads of the warbles consisted of mouths and opercular sutures with spinal bands between them. we could not detect any morphological differences in the shape of the warble's heads among these three species. the spiracular plate of h. bovis was strongly concaved and had numerous spines at the spi ...200415110414
milk trait heritability and correlation with heterozygosity in yak.382 yak cows were examined for milk yield, fat, protein and lactose contents. six polymorphic loci, alphas1-cn, kappa-cn, beta-cn, beta-lg, alpha-la and muc-1, were scored by page electrophoresis for each individual. the values of milk yield, fat, protein and lactose content were 247.13 kg, 5.81%, 5.18% and 4.93%, respectively. based on the 6 polymorphism loci, the average heterozygosity of the yak population was 0.1794. calculated by the marker-based method, heritability estimates for milk yiel ...200415131352
migration of warble fly larvae in the yak and optimum timing of ivermectin treatment.sixty yaks were autopsied to determine the migration pattern of warble fly larvae. in august, first instars were observed in the body of yak for the first time. these larvae peaked in number in october. from november to february, second instars were detected and their number peaked in january. third instars appeared in january and peaked in march. forty-five yaks were administered with ivermectin: 15 animals in september, 15 in october and 15 in november. between december and june, the number of ...200415297767
absolute configuration of a hydroxyfuranoid acid from the pelage of the genus bos, 18-(6s,9r,10r)-bovidic acid.pelage extracts of the banteng (bos javanicus), the domestic cattle (b. taurus), the gaur (b. frontalis), and the yak (b. grunniens) were investigated by fabms and nmr. an 18-carbon hydroxyfuranoid acid, 1 (10-hydroxy-6,9-oxidooctadecanoic acid), first reported from the wool of the domestic sheep (ovis aries) was confirmed in b. frontalis; we suspend judgment on the occurrence of this compound in the other species we examined. the stereochemistry of 1, determined by mosher nmr and cd tweezer met ...200415332870
pulmonary endocrine cells and the pulmonary circulation in various species in the himalaya.the numbers, morphology and distribution of pulmonary endocrine cells in goats, sheep, and the yak and its interbreeds were demonstrated by means of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique using a polyclonal antiserum to neuron-specific enolase. the animals came from two different locations and altitudes, srinagar, kashmir at 1250 m and sakti in ladakh, 4500 m. the presence of immuno-reactive cells was demonstrated in all animals but was related to species and not to the altitude of residence.19902150556
molecular phylogeny of the tribe bovini (bovidae, bovinae) and the taxonomic status of the kouprey, bos sauveli urbain 1937.the kouprey is a very rare bovid species of the indochinese peninsula, and no living specimen has been described for a long time, suggesting that it is possibly extinct. its systematic position within the tribe bovini remains confused since the analyses of morphological characters have led to several conflicting hypotheses. some authors have also suggested that it could be a hybrid species produced by the crossing of the banteng with gaur, zebu, or water buffalo. here we performed a molecular ph ...200415522811
a third species of hypoderma (diptera: oestridae) affecting cattle and yaks in china: molecular and morphological evidence.cattle and yak hypodermosis in china is caused by hypoderma bovis and h. lineatum, with a prevalence reaching up to 98-100% of the animals and maximum intensities exceeding 400 warbles for each animal. a third species, h. sinense, is also considered by chinese researchers to affect livestock. the molecular characterization of the most variable region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase i gene and of the ribosomal 28s gene has been performed for the third-stage larvae collected from cattle an ...200415562593
[experimental study of the effect of acetylsalicylic acid on the ultrastructure and function of thrombocytes].data are presented on yak platelet ultrastructure (in comparison with human platelets), and on acetylsalicylic acid influence on the platelet ultrastructure and function. the following species features of this animals are associated with their adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia: organization of alpha-granules, mitochondria, the contractile system (microtubes, f-actin), ovoid form of platelets. acetylsalicylic acid influences the yak platelet plasma membrane inducing fragmentation, which is atte ...19902150385
pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of yaks (bos grunniens) and confirmation by recovery of pyrrolic metabolites from formalin-fixed liver tissue.severe losses of yaks (bos grunniens) were investigated in the most eastern region of bhutan. the most serious disease was a fatal chronic skin disease with emaciation and anaemia. post mortem examinations revealed major lesions in the liver, consisting of hepatic megalocytosis, bile duct proliferation, fibrosis and remodelling of the hepatic structure. there was also renal megalocytosis, ascites and mild to moderate icterus. pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning was diagnosed and confirmed by demons ...19921585077
[the characteristics of chromosomal distribution and of the variability of the multiply repeating dna fraction of the genome in bos taurus l].the uniform distribution of satellite dna ii and iv has been revealed using in situ hybridization and differential staining in centromeric regions of autosomes. the sex chromosomes have not found such nucleotide blocks. there is only minor satellite iv block inside y chromosome short arm. the y chromosome has got some (tg)n enriched blocks distributed also among other parts of genome and one copy of sequences like human zfy gene. the high repetitive fraction of bovine genomic dna have not reveal ...19921292157
short report: inadequacy of yaks as hosts for the sheep dog strain of echinococcus granulosus or for e. multilocularis.hydatid disease (echinococcosis) has a two-host cycle involving the domestic dog and grazing animals. humans are also infected by the dog. both unilocular (echinococcus granulosus in yaks, sheep, and goats) and multilocular (alveolar) (e. multilocularis in hares and rodents) hydatids are common in western sichuan in the people's republic of china. humans and dogs are equally infected with both species. many yaks (bos grunniens) were found with multilocular cysts that visually were deemed to be e ...200515772323
ration digestion and retention times of digesta in domestic cattle (bos taurus), american bison (bison bison), and tibetan yak (bos grunniens). 1978751705
development of interspecies cloned embryos in yak and dog.interspecies nuclear transfer (nt) could be an alternative to replicate animals when supply of recipient oocytes is limited or in vitro embryo production systems are incomplete. in the present study, embryonic development was assessed following interspecies nt of donor cumulus cells derived from yak and dog into the recipient ooplasm of domestic cow. the percentages of fusion and subsequent embryo development to the eight-cell stage of interspecies nt embryos were comparable to those of intraspe ...200515971981
phylogenetic analysis of the tribe bovini using microsatellites.the objective of the present study was to determine if the generally accepted phylogenetic relationships in the tribe bovini correspond to a phylogenetic scheme derived from polymorphisms at 20 bovine microsatellite loci. this study comprises 17 representative populations: eight bos taurus, two bos indicus, one poëphagus, one bibos, one bison, three bubalus and one syncerus. phylogenetic analyses using (delta mu)2 and chord (dc) distances revealed substantial divergence among species. neighbor-j ...200010895308
heterologous fertilization to characterize spermatozoa of the genus bos.advances in assisted reproductive techniques, specifically, development of protocols for production of in vitro matured, fertilized and cultured domestic bovine embryos, offer opportunities to apply these techniques to nondomestic bovidae in species preservation. domestic bovine oocytes were inseminated with nondomestic bovine spermatozoa. effects of heparin concentration, sperm concentration and their interaction on total and normal in vitro fertilization rates and on subsequent embryo developm ...199810734485
ganglioside gt1b in rat brain binds to p58, a brain-specific sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter: expression cloning with a specific monoclonal antibody to ganglioside gt1b-binding protein.to evidence the notion that gangliosides involve neuronal cell interactions in the brain, we surveyed the presence of ganglioside-binding proteins in membrane lysates of adult rat cerebellum. three proteins (p58, p90, and p160) were identified as gt1b-binding proteins by incubation of the blot of the membrane lysate with gt1b micelles. we generated a monoclonal antibody (mab) specific to the polypeptide portion of the gt1b-binding proteins (yak-2). the yak-2 mab specifically reacted with all thr ...200010731661
[research on constructing phylogenetics trees of ruminants basing on the database of milk protein gene sequences].primers designed according to the sequences of four milk protein genes of cow bos taurus (alpha-lactoalbumin, beta-lactoglobin, beta- and kappa-casein) were used to amplify the full length gene of alpha-lactalbumin in yak bos grunniens (2999 bp), water buffalo bubalus arnee bubalis (278 bp), partial sequence of this gene in red deer cervus elaphs xanthopygus (1582 bp), 5' and 3' flanking region of beta-lactoglobin gene (2167 bp and 1096 bp in length respectively), 5'-flanking region and exon vii ...200011057044
profiles of plasma progesterone before and at the onset of puberty in yak heifers.sixty yak heifers were closely observed to determine their ages at sexual maturity and 15 heifers were used to analyze the plasma progesterone by radioimmunoassay before and at the attainment of puberty. yak heifers began cyclic activity at a mean (+/-s.d.) age of 33 +/- 6.7 months, but with wild variation. fifteen heifers used to determine plasma progesterone were divided into three age groups: group i (10-14 months, n = 5), group ii (20-24 months, n = 5) and group iii (30-36 months, n = 5). gr ...200111182509
iminosugar-producing thai medicinal plants.alpha-1-c-hydroxymethylfagomine (7), 3-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-dmdp (12), and 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-d-glucitol (13) were isolated from the thai traditional crude drug "non tai yak" (stemona tuberosa), which also contains a high concentration level of alpha-homonojirimycin (0.1% dry weight). "thopthaep" (connarus ferrugineus) and "cha em thai" (albizia myriophylla) contained 1-deoxymannojirimycin (dmj) (10) at levels of 0.083% (dry weight) and 0.17% (dry weight), respectively. 2-o-alpha-d-galacto ...200516124768
[effects of adhesive proteins on endothelialization of pc crosslinking yak pericardial materials--an experimental study].to investigate the conditions of endothelialization of biomaterials, we examined in vitro the growth properties of endothelial cells on pc treated yak pericardial materials. after rinsed in normal saline (0.9%), the surface of pc crosslinking yak pericardial materials was precoated with three kinds of adhesive proteins--laminin (la), fibronectin(fn) and collagen-i(cl-i). ednothelial cells(ec) from the canine were seeded on the precoated materials, and on the uncoated materials as control. the re ...200011211821
characterization of bovidae sex-determining gene sry.in mammals, testis determination is under the control of the sex-determining gene sry. this y-linked gene encodes a protein with a dna binding domain similar to those found in high-mobility-group proteins. here we report the cloning and sequences of the sry genes of yak and chinese native cattle. our data show that sry genes in bovidae are less divergent, especially in the coding and 3' regions.200111742636
cloned endangered species takin (budorcas taxicolor) by inter-species nuclear transfer and comparison of the blastocyst development with yak (bos grunniens) and bovine.interspecies cloning might be used as an effective method to conserve endangered species and to support the study of nuclear-cytoplasm interaction. in this study, we describe the development of takin-bovine embryos in vitro produced by fusing takin ear fibroblasts with enucleated bovine oocytes and examine the fate of mitochondrial dna in these embryos. we also compare the blastocyst development of takin-bovine embryos with yak-bovine and bovine-bovine embryos and compare the cell numbers of the ...200616220543
the cranial cervical ganglion and its branches in the yak (bos grunniens).the heads and necks of 10 yaks were dissected to study the shape, location, arrangement, and branches of the cranial cervical ganglion. the ganglion was a greyish fusiform structure, mean length 19.72 mm, width 7.65 mm and depth 4.55 mm, located on the rostrolateral surface of the m. longus capitis. approximately 25% of the ganglion was covered by the tympanic bulla, the rest by the m. stylohyoideus. the branches of the cranial cervical ganglion included the internal and external carotid nerves, ...200716246603
phylogeny of bovine species based on aflp fingerprinting.the bovini species comprise both domestic and wild cattle species. published phylogenies of this tribe based on mitochondrial dna contain anomalies, while nuclear sequences show only low variation. we have used amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) fingerprinting in order to detect variation in loci distributed over the nuclear genome. computer-assisted scoring of electrophoretic fingerprinting patterns yielded 361 markers, which provided sufficient redundancy to suppress stochastic effe ...200211813106
immunohistochemical identification of amyloid, using an anti-human serum amyloid p component (sap) antibody, is possible in ruminants but not in dogs and cats.amyloidosis represents a heterogenous group of diseases that have in common the deposition of fibrils composed of proteins of beta-pleated sheet structure, a structure which can be specifically identified by histochemistry using the congo red or similar stains. amyloid consists primarily of the amyloid fibrils but also of the amyloid p component (ap). this component, which is identical with the serum counterpart (sap), is found in all types of human amyloid, and immunohistochemical identificatio ...200516268955
peripheral plasma progesterone: a marker for determining cyclicity in yaks (poephagus grunniens l.).an attempt was made to determine cyclicity in yaks using plasma progesterone during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. fifteen non-lactating yaks were used in this experiment. during the breeding season (july to november), blood samples were collected from 8 yaks at least twice weekly until estrus was observed and then at 2 days interval for 30 days. during the non-breeding season (february to march), blood samples were collected from the same number of yaks at 2-day interval for 30 days. pr ...200516286728
dynamin is a minibrain kinase/dual specificity yak1-related kinase 1a substrate.the minibrain kinase (mnbk)/dual specificity yak 1-related kinase 1a (dyrk1a) gene is implicated in the mental retardation associated with down's syndrome. it encodes a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase whose function has yet to be defined. we have used a solid-phase mnbk/dyrk1a kinase assay to aid in the search for the cellular mnbk/dyrk1a substrates. the assay revealed that rat brain contains two cytosolic proteins, one with a molecular mass of 100 kda and one with a molecular mass of 1 ...200211877424
haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks transmit at least two different theileria species: one is infective to yaks, one is infective to sheep.adult haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks from gannan area, where ovine theileriosis is prevalent but bovine theileriosis has not been reported, transmitted theileria parasites to yaks and sheep. blood from the infected yak contained theileria parasites that were infective to yaks, but not sheep. in contrast, blood from the infected sheep did not contain theileria parasites infective to yaks. these results suggested that the ticks from the gannan area were infected with two species of theileria one ...200212072211
effects of high altitude and season on fasting heat production in the yak bos grunniens or poephagus grunniens.thirty growing yaks bos grunniens or poephagus grunniens, 1.0-3.5 years and 50-230 kg, from their native altitudes (3000-4000 m), were used to study the basal metabolism in this species and to evaluate the effects of high altitude and season on the energy metabolism. fasting heat production (fhp) was measured at altitudes of 2260, 3250 and 4270 m on the tibetan plateau in both the summer and the winter, after a 90 d adaptation period at each experimental site. gas exchanges of the whole animals ...200212144722
interferon-alpha genes from bos and bubalus bubalus.interferon-a genes were cloned from six breeds of three species of two genera (three chinese native cattle breeds of yellow cattle, wild yak and huanhu domestic yak, one european breed of holstein cow, and two water buffalo breeds of fuan water buffalo and fuzhong water buffalo) by direct pcr. the pcr products were directly inserted into the expression vector to be sequenced and expressed. sequence analysis showed that ifn-a genes of six clones were composed of 498 nucleotides, encoding a mature ...200616621760
prokaryote diversity in the rumen of yak (bos grunniens) and jinnan cattle (bos taurus) estimated by 16s rdna homology analyses.prokaryote diversity in the rumen of yak (bos grunniens) and jinnan cattle (bos taurus) was estimated by 16s rdna homology analysis. two rumen 16s rdna libraries were constructed. of the 194 clones in the library of yak rumen, the sequences were mainly clustered to two phyla, low g+c gram-positive bacteria (lgcgpb, 54.12% total clones) and bacteroidetes (30.93%), respectively. while in the 197 clone-library of the cattle rumen, the sequences were mainly related to three phyla, bacteroidetes (39. ...200516701570
molecular cloning and expression of yak (bos grunniens) lactoferrin cdna in pichia pastoris.cdna encoding lactoferrin from yak was isolated by rt-pcr and then sequenced. the cloned cdna (2127 bp) encodes a 709 amino acid precursor molecule of yak lactoferrin with a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. the yak lactoferrin cdna was expressed in pichia pastoris. the recombinant protein, purified by ni-nta affinity column, had a molecular weight of 76 kda and reacted with an antibody raised against native bovine lactoferrin. the iron-binding behavior and antimicrobial activity of the purified ...200616810449
hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha cdna cloning and its mrna and protein tissue specific expression in domestic yak (bos grunniens) from qinghai-tibetan plateau.adaptation to hypoxia is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (hif-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor consisting of an oxygen-regulated alpha-subunit and a constitutively expressed beta-subunit. how animals living on qinghai-tibetan plateau adapt to the extreme hypoxia environment is known indistinctly. in this study, the qinghai yak, which has been living at 3000-5000 m altitude for at least two millions of years, was selected as the model of high hypoxia-tolerant adaptation species. t ...200616876112
the byanshi: an ethnographic note on a trading group in far western nepal.the byanshi who live in the district of darchula are among the lesser known trading groups of nepal. the byanshi, close to the borders of nepal, india, and tibet, make their living trading wool, yak tails, salt, grain, and other commodities across the himalayas and over the border into pithoragarh district and even down into the terai. the byanshi live their lives in 2 separate areas. in the summer they live in their traditional homeland in byana panchayat in the northern section of darchula, ...197612311979
calves born from anestrus yaks (poephagus grunniens l.) subjected to ovsynch and superovulation treatment.an attempt was made to induce estrus and ovulation in eight anestrus yaks by use of the ovsynch protocol. six out of eight yaks were successfully induced into estrus, and ovulation occurred in all the responding yaks 1-2 days after the second gnrh administration. out of the six animals that responded to the treatment, two mated naturally with yak bulls, and calves were obtained from them. the other four animals were further administered a superovulatory regimen of folltropin (fsh-p). following f ...200616971791
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