[preliminary note on the circulation of some human respiratory viruses by wild birds].with a view to detecting infections and carriage of human respiratory viruses in wild birds, 349 serum samples collected from 21 bird species -- sedentary ones and birds with large or limited migration areas -- were investigated. the following antigens were used: influenza virus a/hong kong 1/68 (h3n2)), a2 england 42/73 (h3n2), a2 victoria 3/75 (h3n2), a/new jersey 8/76 (hswn1), b/hong kong 5/72; parainfluenza virus type i sendai and type ii, coronavirus oc/43. an elevated incidence of antibodi ...1978228619
prevalence of thermophilic campylobacters in crows (corvus levaillantii, corvus corone) and serogroups of the isolates.a total of 500 fecal droppings of crows collected from a seashore of an ocean bay and from a cemetery on a hill surrounded by a forest were examined for thermophilic campylobacters, and the skirrow's biovars and penner's serogroups of the isolates were determined. the organisms were isolated from 169 (62.6%) of 270 seashore crow samples and 106 (46.1%) of 230 cemetery crow samples. during the investigation period from may 1986 to april 1987, the monthly isolation rate of thermophilic campylobact ...19902287130
use of recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein virus for oral vaccination of wildlife against rabies: innocuity to several non-target bait consuming species.the pathogenicity of a vaccinia recombinant virus expressing the rabies glycoprotein (vvtggrab) was tested in several wild animal species which could compete with the natural rabies host, the red fox (vulpes vulpes) in consuming vaccine baits in europe. the following species were included in this study: wild boar (sus scrofa), eurasian badger (meles meles), wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis), bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), common vole (microtus arv ...19892681844
occurrence of campylobacter jejuni in free-living wild birds from japan.campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 44 of 313 free-living birds from japan. the highest isolation rate was found in 30 of 87 (34%) crows (corvus levaillanti and corvus corone), followed by 2 of 10 (20%) blue magpies (cyanopica cyanus), 5 of 35 (14%) gray starlings (sturnus cineraceus), 2 of 16 (13%) domestic pigeons (columbia livia domestica), 4 of 36 (11%) bulbuls (hypsipetes amaurotis), and 1 of 62 (2%) eastern turtledoves (streptopelia orientalis). one-fourth of the contents of the crop an ...19883411703
occurrence of yersinia enterocolitica in wild-living birds and japanese serows.yersinia spp. were isolated from 34 of 500 birds representing nine species. the highest isolation rate, 5 of 21 (23.8%), was found in blue magpies (cyanopia cyanus), followed by pheasants (phasianus colchicus tohkaidi), 5 of 33 (15.2%); gray starlings (sturnus cineraceus), 6 of 57 (10.5%); tree sparrows (passer montanus), 1 of 14 (7.1%); bulbuls (hypsipetes amaurotis), 4 of 57 (7.0%); crows (corvus levailantii or corvus corone), 7 of 117 (6.0%); eastern turtledoves (streptopelia orientalis), 4 o ...19853977310
studies on vibrionic infection of sheep and carrion crows. 19676069228
avian wildlife reservoir of campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, yersinia spp., and salmonella spp. in norway.cloacal swabs from 540 wild-living birds were cultured for campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, yersinia spp., and salmonella spp. the carrier rates detected were as follows: c. fetus subsp. jejuni, 28.4%; yersinia spp., 1.2%; and salmonella spp., 0.8%. all birds were apparently healthy when captured. c. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from 11 of the 40 bird species examined. among birds inhabiting the city of oslo, the highest isolation rate was found in crows (corvus corone cornix) (89.8%), fol ...19836338824
genetic properties of conjugative r plasmids in escherichia coli and salmonella isolated from feral and domestic pigeons, crows and kites.a total of 62 conjugative r plasmids detected in 48 escherichia coli and 19 conjugative r plasmids in 16 salmonella strains from domestic (carrier and emerald) and feral pigeons, crows (japanese jungle crows and carrion crows) and black kite, were examined for genetic properties. out of the 62 e. coli r plasmids examined for fertility inhibition (fi), 29 (46.8%) were fi+, and the remainder were fi-. among the 62 r plasmids, 16 (25.8%) were classified into incompatibility (inc) group fii, 15 (24. ...19836359777
isolation and primary structure of a novel avian pancreatic polypeptide from five species of eurasian crow.chicken pancreatic polypeptide is the prototype of the neuropeptide y (npy)/pp superfamily of regulatory peptides. this polypeptide was appended the descriptive term avian, despite the presence of some 8600 extant species of bird. additional primary structures from other avian species, including turkey, goose and ostrich, would suggest that the primary structure of this polypeptide has been highly-conserved during avian evolution. avian pancreatic polypeptides structurally-characterised to date ...19938234905
capacity of birds for transitive inference: the solution of the gillan test by corvids and pigeons.a system of four to five differentiations forming a series, in which the magnitude of the reinforcement (r) of each succeeding color stimulus was greater than the preceding by one unit, was formed in pigeons (columba livia l.) and crows (corvus corone cornix l.). the number of units of the r that was associated with each of the stimuli increased successively from stimulus pair to stimulus pair from one up to four to five (1st series) and from five to ten (2nd series). after the development of th ...19969000218
safety study of the sag2 rabies virus mutant in several non-target species with a view to its future use for the immunization of foxes in europe.the safety of the sag2 virus, a low virulence mutant of the sad strain, was investigated in ten species of mammals and seven species of birds liable to consume vaccine baits. these species are the western hedgehog (erinaceus europaeus), the meadow vole (microtus arvalis), the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), the water vole (arvicola terrestris), the field mouse (apodemus flavicollis or a. sylvaticus), the norway rat (rattus norvegicus), the european badger (meles meles), the domestic ferret ...19969014291
coxiellosis in domestic and wild birds from japan.serological evidence of infection with coxiella burnetii was found in 41 (2%) of 1,951 domestic birds and in 167 (19%) of 863 wild birds from 17 and 5 prefectures in japan, respectively, by microagglutination (ma) test. the bacteriological evidence of the infection was found in 17 (41%) of 41 domestic birds and 37 (22%) of 167 wild birds by the nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr). in addition, c. burnetii was isolated from five each of serum, spleen and fecal specimens from five jungle crows ...19989577778
[the characteristics of the morphological structure of the endbrain in the hooded crow (corvus corone cornix l.) and in the rock dove (columba livia) in relation to their development of elementary reasoning activities].the number of neurons in the endbrain [correction of forebrain] of two avian species--carrion crows and rock pigeons--was assessed. it was shown that the higher development of reasoning activity of crows is associated with greater number of cells in evolutionary new fields of hyperstriatum and greater number of cell complexes than in pigeons.199910512030
[on the phylogenetic relationship of corvinae birds (aves, corvidae) from data of partial sequencing of cytochrome b gene mitochondrial dna].to establish phylogenetic relationships within the corvine birds at the interspecific and intergeneric levels, the sequence of the mitochondrial dna cytochrome b gene was analyzed. the nj, upgma, and mp trees showed similar clustering. relationships between the jungle crow, on the one hand, and the rook and australian raven, on the other hand, were closer than between the jungle crow and the hooded and carrion crows. mitochondrial genome of australian raven displayed the closest similarity to th ...200011042813
a large outdoor radial maze for comparative studies in birds and mammals.for a comparative neurobiological analysis of spatial learning and memory, a large outdoor eight-arm radial maze was constructed which permits behavioral assessment of many avian and mammalian species both from the laboratory or the wild, using the same metric space and session schedules. it consists of a central part of 250cm diameter, and has arms of 650cm length, 170cm height and 80cm width. in order to determine appropriate training schedules for comparison of different species, we tested fo ...200111166080
phylogenetic relationships of three species of crows (corvidae, aves) based on the restriction site variation of nuclear ribosomal rna gene.southern blot analysis of nuclear ribosomal dna (rdna) was carried out to examine phylogenetic relationships between three species of crows: corvus cornix, c. corone and c. macrorhynchos. in this purpose dna samples of birds were digested by 12 restriction enzymes (ecori, hindiii, psti, bamhi, drai, pvuii, kpni, xbai, bglii, bcli, saci and aati) and hybridized with the clones of mouse rdna probes (18s, 28s and int). based on the data obtained and gallus gallus restriction map as a standard the r ...200111589045
prevalence of blood parasites in japanese wild birds.the prevalence of blood parasites was investigated in 701 japanese wild birds for 13 years from january, 1988 to march, 2001. most of the injured or sick birds were caught in the suburbs of kobe city, hyogo prefecture and brought to the zoo for clinical care. among all the birds examined, 10.6% were infected with hematozoa belonging to three genera as plasmodium (1.7% of the samples), haemoproteus (5.1% of the samples) and leucocytozoon (4.6% of the samples), and two birds (0.29% of the samples) ...200212399602
salmonellae in avian wildlife in norway from 1969 to 2000.postmortem records of wild-living birds in norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. the salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gulls, 5 waterfowl, 4 birds of prey, 3 doves, and 2 crows. the bullfinch (pyrrhula pyrrhula) was by far the most frequently recorded species (54% of the cases). salmonella enterica serover typhimurium was re ...200212406754
[isolation of the west nile fever virus from the great cormorant phalacrocorax carbo, the crow corvus corone, and hyalomma marginatum ticks associated with them in natural and synanthroic biocenosis in the volga delta (astrakhan region, 2001)].four strains identified as west nile fever virus by inhibited hemagglutination and neutralization tests, enzyme immunoassay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were isolated during a virological examination of birds and their collected ticks in the natural and synanthropic biocenoses of the volga delta. the strains were isolated from the great cormorant (phalacrocorax carbo), the crow (corvus corone) and its collected hyalomma marginatum nymphs. the types of interpopulational re ...200212522961
comodulation detection differences in the hooded crow (corvus corone cornix), with direct comparison to human subjects.envelope modulations have been shown important in determining the effectiveness of masking noises. for example, the threshold for detecting a signal flanked by maskers is lower if the maskers and the signal are modulated with different envelopes, rather than the same envelope (comodulation). this threshold change is called the comodulation detection difference (cdd). cdds were studied in two wild-caught hooded crows, using a 1.5 khz signal and two maskers at 0.9 and 2.1 khz, presented at an over ...200717407915
serologic survey of potential vertebrate hosts for west nile virus in poland.a survey for antibodies to west nile virus (wnv; genus ,flavivirus) was carried out by plaque-re-duction neutralization microtesting in 78 horses, 20 domestic chickens, and 97 wild birds belonging to 10 species from different areas in poland. specific antibodies were detected in five juvenile (hatching-year) birds collected in 2006: three white storks (ciconia ciconia) in a wildlife rehabilitation center (5.4% of all examined storks; the antibody titers in each bird were 1:320, 1:160, and 1:20), ...200818433332
intestinal spirochetes isolated from wild-living jackdaws, hooded crows and rooks (genus corvus): provisionally designated "brachyspira corvi" sp. nov.intestinal spirochetes of genus brachyspira are commonly isolated from mammalian and avian hosts, and several species have been reported to cause enteric disease in pigs and birds. except for a previous publication on three isolates from corvid birds (order passeriformes, family corvidae, genus corvus), of which two are further studied in this paper, no other reports exist on brachyspira spp. of passerine birds. in this study, cloacal and intestinal swabs of small and large intestines were colle ...200818952187
[animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].the main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of encephalitozoon intestinalis, e. hellem, e. cuniculi, and enterocytozoon bieneusi in poland in animal faecal using the fish (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and multiplex fish techniques. additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite i ...200919579789
west nile virus transmission in 2008 in north-eastern italy.after 10 years, west nile virus (wnv) re-emerged in italy in august 2008. as on 31 december 2008, the infection affected eight provinces in three regions (emilia romagna, veneto, lombardy), where a total of 794 cases of wnv infection in 251 equine stables were detected on the basis of the clinical signs and as a result of a serological screening in horses living in the area. only 4.0% (32/794) of the serologically positive animals showed clinical signs, and the 32 clinical cases were reported in ...201020042066
nucleotide divergence vs. gene expression differentiation: comparative transcriptome sequencing in natural isolates from the carrion crow and its hybrid zone with the hooded crow.recent advances in sequencing technology promise to provide new strategies for studying population differentiation and speciation phenomena in their earliest phases. we focus here on the black carrion crow (corvus [corone] corone), which forms a zone of hybridization and overlap with the grey coated hooded crow (corvus [corone] cornix). however, although these semispecies are taxonomically distinct, previous analyses based on several types of genetic markers did not reveal significant molecular ...201020331778
epidemiology of west nile in europe and in the mediterranean the last 30 years several cases of west nile (wn) virus infection were reported in horses and humans in europe and in the mediterranean basin. most of them were determined by strains of the lineage 1 included in the european mediterranean/kenyan cluster. strains of this cluster are characterised by a moderate pathogenicity for horses and humans and limited or no pathogenicity for birds. in recent years, however, wn cases determined by strains grouped in the israeli/american cluster of lineage ...201020517490
redescription of sphaerirostris picae (acanthocephala: centrorhynchidae) from magpie, pica pica, in northern iran, with special reference to unusual receptacle structures and notes on histopathology.adults of sphaerirostris picae (rudolphi, 1819) golvan, 1956 are described from european magpie, pica pica linnaeus (corvidae), collected in 2008 from wooded areas near the northern iranian town of tonekabon by the southern shores of the caspian sea. other specimens also were collected from corvus cornix linnaeus, corvus corone linnaeus, and corvus frugilegus linnaeus (corvidae) in the same location, as well as from some of these hosts in other locations. our specimens had 31-38 proboscis hook r ...201020557203
general lack of global dosage compensation in zz/zw systems? broadening the perspective with rna-seq.species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes face the challenge of large-scale imbalance in gene dose. microarray-based studies in several independent male heterogametic xx/xy systems suggest that dosage compensation mechanisms are in place to mitigate the detrimental effects of gene dose differences. however, recent genomic research on female heterogametic zz/zw systems has generated surprising results. in two bird species and one lepidopteran no evidence for a global dosage compensating mechanis ...201121284834
investigations into an outbreak of corvid respiratory disease associated with pasteurella multocida.the possible cause of disease and mortality in corvids on an outdoor pig unit in the north of england between august 2007 and march 2008 was investigated. nine carrion crows (corvus corone corone) and nine rooks (corvus frugilegus), comprising five live-caught birds with clinical signs of respiratory disease, one live-caught bird without respiratory disease, and 12 birds submitted dead were examined. clinical signs, gross and histopathological examination, microbiology and toxicology indicated t ...201121711193
corvids can decide if a future exchange is worth waiting for.evidence for time-dependent calculations about future rewards is scarce in non-human animals. in non-human primates, only great apes are comparable with humans. still, some species wait for several minutes to obtain a better reward in delayed exchange tasks. corvids have been shown to match with non-human primates in some time-related tasks. here, we investigate a delay of gratification in two corvid species, the carrion crow (corvus corone) and the common raven (corvus corax), in an exchange ta ...201121920957
susceptibility of carrion crows to experimental infection with lineage 1 and 2 west nile viruses.west nile virus (wnv) outbreaks in north america have been characterized by substantial die-offs of american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos). in contrast, a low incidence of bird deaths has been observed during wnv epidemic activity in europe. to examine the susceptibility of the western european counterpart of american crows, we inoculated carrion crows (corvus corone) with wnv strains isolated in greece (gr-10), italy (fin and ita09), and hungary (578/10) and with the highly virulent north ameri ...026197093
is caching the key to exclusion in corvids? the case of carrion crows (corvus corone corone).recently, two corvid species, food-caching ravens and non-caching jackdaws, have been tested in an exclusion performance (ep) task. while the ravens chose by exclusion, the jackdaws did not. thus, foraging behaviour may affect ep abilities. to investigate this possibility, another food-caching corvid species, the carrion crow (corvus corone corone), was tested in the same exclusion task. we hid food under one of two cups and subsequently lifted either both cups, or the baited or the un-baited cu ...201121751005
synanthropic birds and parasites.this paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the campania region of southern italy. birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (columba livia), 15 common kestrels (falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (corvus corone). each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. in particular, chewing lice we ...201324597118
outbreak of type c botulism in birds and mammals in the emilia romagna region, northern italy.over a 7-day period beginning 8 august 2011, a large number of wild birds of several species were found dead or with neurologic clinical signs along the shore of crostolo stream, in the emilia romagna region, italy. twenty-eight mallards (anas platyrhynchos), two hooded crows (corvus corone cornix), and three coypus (myocastor coypus) were found moribund on the crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale della lombardia e dell'emilia romagna, reggio emilia ...201324502738
next-generation sequencing shows west nile virus quasispecies diversification after a single passage in a carrion crow (corvus corone) in vivo infection model.west nile virus (wnv) occurs as a population of genetic variants (quasispecies) infecting a single animal. previous low-resolution viral genetic diversity estimates in sampled wild birds and mosquitoes, and in multiple-passage adaptation studies in vivo or in cell culture, suggest that wnv genetic diversification is mostly limited to the mosquito vector. this study investigated genetic diversification of wnv in avian hosts during a single passage using next-generation sequencing. wild-captured c ...201526297666
experimental infection of carrion crows (corvus corone) with two european west nile virus (wnv) strains.west nile virus (wnv) has become a wide-spread arbovirus in europe and the mediterranean basin countries. this emerging zoonotic disease disseminated 13 years ago in north america where its impact on animal and public health has been considerable. although american corvids have been the most reliable avian sentinels for wn surveillance in the united states, there is so far no data available about the susceptibility of their western european counterparts to wnv. clinical follow-up and serum, oral ...201323434187
west nile virus lineage 2 in sardinian wild birds in 2012: a further threat to public health.west nile virus (wnv) strains belonging to lineage 2 were detected and isolated from the tissues of a goshawk and two carrion crows in sardinia in august 2012. according to ns3 sequence analysis, the sardinian isolates shared a high level of similarity with those of italian lineage 2 strains which circulated in 2011 and with the homologous sequence of the 2004 hungarian isolate. following the human fatality reported in 2011 in olbia, this study is the first to report the spread and enzootic circ ...201323343580
[morphological studies in different avian species on artefacts induced by euthanasia with t 61 " or pentobarbital (narcoren)].in mammals (e. g. macaques, dogs, cats, rats, sheep) as well as in men (suicides) euthanasia performed by intravenous injection of t 61 leads to serious lesions in lung, kidney or/and liver (endothelial damage, hyperemia, oedema, necrosis). this is caused by the solvent dimethylformamide (dmf). in this study, in contrast, in different species of birds (e. g. blackbird, carrion crow, kestrel, common buzzard, homer pigeon, common wood pigeon, mallard duck) and various modes of applications and dos ...201322372321
an experimental study of vertebrate scavenging behavior in a northwest european woodland context.vertebrate scavengers can modify surface deposited human remains which can hinder forensic investigations. the effects of such scavenging vary between species and regions. published research into the effects of the scavenging of human remains is dominated by work from north america with few studies covering northwestern europe. forensic scientists, investigators, and police search officers in northwestern europe are often left questioning on a basic level as to which scavengers are active and ho ...201424611615
woodpigeons nesting in association with hobby falcons: advantages and choice rules.many bird species nest in close association with other bolder and more aggressive birds which provide protection against nest predators. the woodpigeons, columba palumbus, that nest in poplar plantations in northern italy are found almost exclusively clumped around hobby, falco subbuteo, nests. woodpigeons settle in the area and build their nests after the hobby has started nesting. we carried out experiments with dummy nests and observations on woodpigeon nests. dummy woodpigeon nests placed ne ...199910053079
apes (gorilla gorilla, pan paniscus, p. troglodytes, pongo abelii) versus corvids (corvus corax, c. corone) in a support task: the effect of pattern and functionality.apes (gorilla gorilla, pan paniscus, p. troglodytes, pong abelii) and corvids (corvus corax, c. corone) are among the most proficient and flexible tool users in the animal kingdom. although it has been proposed that this is the result of convergent evolution, little is known about whether this is limited to behavior or also includes the underlying cognitive mechanisms. we compared several species of apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) and corvids (carrion crows and common raven ...201222545765
phylogeographic patterns in widespread corvid birds.intraspecific genetic diversity and phylogeography of corvus corone was investigated using the mitochondrial (mt) control region as a molecular marker. a split into two distinct mt lineages was observed. one represents individuals from a wide geographic range spanning from england to the russian far east (kamchatka), while the other one was found in the primorye and khabarovsk regions (southern parts of russian far east) as well as japan. for comparison, we investigated several widespread palear ...200717920300
identification of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci in european crow (corvus corone) from existing passerine loci.the european crow (corvus corone) occurs in two subspecies (or species) with distinct plumage coloration: the black carrion crow (c. c. corone) and the grey and black hooded crow (c. c. cornix). we tested 42 passerine microsatellite loci for amplification in the european crow and identified 20 loci that were both polymorphic and easy to score. in 50 individuals sampled in the danish part of the species' pan-european hybrid zone, the number of alleles ranged between two and 21. one locus deviated ...200821585909
preference of birds for zinc phosphide bait formulations.zinc phosphide baits are used for controlling pest rodents but are also highly toxic to other vertebrates. the base for rodent baits containing zinc phosphide is usually wheat kernels which are highly attractive to birds. in this study, wheat-based pellets of different shapes and colours without zinc phosphide were tested for their attractiveness for pigeons (columba livia gmelin) and japanese quails (coturnix japonica temm. & schleg.) in aviaries and for pigeons and corvids (corvus monedula l., ...200818189327
measurements and predictions of hooded crow (corvus corone cornix) call propagation over open field a study of hooded crow communication over open fields an excellent correspondence is found between the attenuation spectra predicted by a "turbulence-modified ground effect plus atmospheric absorption" model, and crow call attenuation data. sound propagation predictions and background noise measurements are used to predict an optimal frequency range for communication ("sound communication window") from an average of crow call spectra predicted for every possible combination of the sender/rece ...200818177178
phylogenetic comparison of leucocytozoon spp. from wild birds of japan.eight species of japanese birds were found to be infected with leucocytozoon species using microscopic analysis. we used pcr and sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) to compare the genetic background among these detected protozoa species. in 20 individuals of 22 samples, a single amplified band was detected from 6 of 8 bird species; 9 japanese rock ptarmigans (lagopus mutus japonicus), 4 large-billed crows (corvus macrorhynchos), 2 carrion crows (c. corone), 2 scops o ...200717283401
hearing sensitivity and critical ratios of hooded crows (corvus corone cornix).the hearing threshold and critical ratios were estimated psycho-acoustically for captive wild-caught hooded crows by a yes/no procedure and the method of constant stimuli. human subjects were tested in the same setup for direct comparison and to check for experimental artifacts. the hooded crows were found to have excellent low-frequency hearing capabilities compared to other passerine birds. their hearing sensitivity is very close to that of humans at and below 5.6 khz. the distribution of the ...200616521788
thermal emissivity of avian eggshells.the hypothesis has been tested that evolution has resulted in lower thermal emissivity of eggs of birds breeding openly in cold climates than of eggs of birds that nest under protective covering or in warmer climates. directional thermal emissivity has been estimated from directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra. due to several methodological difficulties the absolute emissivity is not accurately determined, but differences between species are obvious. most notably, small waders of the genu ...201627033033
blood parasites in hooded crows (corvus corone cornix) in northwest italy.haemoparasites and their effects on hooded crows (corvus corone cornix) are poorly studied. the aims are to evaluate the prevalence of haemoproteus spp./plasmodium spp. or leucocytozoon spp., to correlate this with gross and histopathological findings, and to investigate the association among infection and geographical origin, age, gender, parasite distribution and prevalence among organs. hooded crows (n = 47) were collected within a regional culling programme from 3 districts in the province o ...201627188825
encoding of global visual motion in the nidopallium caudolaterale of behaving crows.songbirds possess acute vision. how higher brain centres represent basic and parameterised visual stimuli to process sensory signals according to their behavioural importance has not been studied in a systematic way. we therefore examined how carrion crows (corvus corone) and their nidopallial visual neurons process global visual motion information in dynamic random-dot displays during a delayed match-to-sample (dms) task. the behavioural data show that moderately fast motion speeds (16° of visu ...201727718536
behavioural type affects space use in a wild population of crows (corvus corone).while personality-dependent dispersal is well studied, local space use has received surprisingly little attention in this context, despite the multiple consequences on survival and fitness. regarding the coping style of individuals, recent studies on personality-dependent space use within a habitat indicate that 'proactive' individuals are wider ranging than 'reactive' ones. however, such studies are still scarce and cover limited taxonomic diversity, and thus, more research is needed to explore ...201627840464
growth and sex ratio of nestlings in two species of crows: how important is hatching asynchrony?in experimental studies of avian hatching paterns offspring sex has been neglected. this may be a problem if nestling growth and mortality is sex biased, and if this bias is influenced by hatching spread. in a field study of two crow species, the magpie pica pica and the hooded crow corvus corone cornix, we manipulated hatching spread. both species have asynchronous hatching, and adult males are larger than females by 12-14%. the sex ratios obtained from the different experimental groups on day ...199228312269
[phylogeographic carrion, hooded and jungle crows (aves, corvidae) from data on partial sequencing of the mitochondrial dna cytochrome b gene].distribution of mitochondrial dna cytochrome b gene haplotypes in two crow species was examined by means of sequencing of the 336-bp gene fragment. the topology of the nj and upgma trees showed that the carrion crow range was split into two parts due to the presence of significantly diverged ancestral lineage localized in the southeastern part of the range. the carrion crow populations, inhabiting a territory ranging from france to northern sakhalin, along with interspersed hooded crow populatio ...200011033783
[karyological study of some corvine birds (corvidae, aves)].karyotypes were studied in the hooded and carrion crows, their naturally occurred hybrids, the jungle crow, the azure-winged magpie (2n = 80 in all aforementioned birds), and the magpie (2n = 82). corvine birds of primorskii krai were karyotyped for the first time. in addition to the similarity in the diploid chromosome sets, corvine birds were shown to have a similar structure of karyotype: in all studied birds, 14 macrochromosomes (mchs) classified into three groups according to their size wer ...200111558237
avian hind-limb digit length ratios measured from radiographs are sexually dimorphic.sexual dimorphism in digit length ratios is well established in humans, and has been reported in other vertebrate species as well, including birds. the sign of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios may, however, vary both within and between vertebrate classes. it has been hypothesized that sex differences in digit ratios arise via differential prenatal exposure of the two sexes to steroids, which may affect the expression of the hox genes controlling the osteometric development of digits and appendi ...200818691377
an analysis of population genetic differentiation and genotype-phenotype association across the hybrid zone of carrion and hooded crows using microsatellites and mc1r.the all black carrion crow (corvus corone corone) and the grey and black hooded crow (corvus corone cornix) meet in a narrow hybrid zone across europe. to evaluate the degree of genetic differentiation over the hybrid zone, we genotyped crows from the centre and edges of the zone, and from allopatric populations in northern (scotland-denmark-sweden) and southern europe (western-central northern italy), at 18 microsatellites and at a plumage candidate gene, the mc1r gene. allopatric and edge popu ...200919076276
transcriptomics of colour patterning and coloration shifts in crows.animal coloration is one of the most conspicuous phenotypic traits in natural populations and has important implications for adaptation and speciation. changes in coloration can occur over surprisingly short evolutionary timescales, while recurrence of similar colour patterns across large phylogenetic distances is also common. even though the genetic basis of pigment production is well understood, little is known about the mechanisms regulating colour patterning. in this study, we shed light on ...201526302355
comparative phylogeography of two crow species: jungle crow corvus macrorhynchos and carrion crow corvus corone.the jungle crow corvus macrorhynchos wagler, 1827, and the carrion crow corvus corone l., 1758, are two closely related species with similar ecological requirements that occupy wide distribution ranges in the palearctic. we studied patterns of their genetic variation by using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. corvus macrorhynchos demonstrates a low level of variation and differentiation throughout its range, except for a highly diverged population of cheju island (korea). the hap ...201222873805
gastrointestinal helminths of magpies (pica pica), rooks (corvus frugilegus) and carrion crows (corvus corone) in mazandaran province, north of iran.corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine birds including crows, rooks, magpies, jays, chough, and ravens. these birds are migratory species, especially in the shortage of foods, so they can act like vectors for a wide range of microorganisms. they live generally in temperate climates and in a very close contact with human residential areas as well as poultry farms. there is no available information in the literature concerning the parasitic infections of these three species of corvidae in maz ...201122347286
helpers at the nest compensate for reduced maternal investment in egg size in carrion history theory predicts that mothers should trade off current and future reproductive attempts to maximize lifetime fitness. when breeding conditions are favourable, mothers may either increase investment in the eggs to improve the quality of the offspring or save resources for future reproduction as the good raising environment is likely to compensate for a 'bad start'. in cooperatively breeding birds, the presence of helpers improves breeding conditions so that mothers may vary the number ...201121605220
lazy group members are substitute helpers in carrion many cooperatively breeding societies, helping effort varies greatly among group members, raising the question of why dominant individuals tolerate lazy subordinates. in groups of carrion crows corvus corone corone, helpers at the nest increase breeders' reproductive success, but chick provisioning is unevenly distributed among non-breeders, with a gradient that ranges from individuals that work as much as the breeders to others that completely refrain from visiting the nest. here we show tha ...201020519217
frequent development of inflammatory lesions and lymphoid foci in the kidneys of japanese wild crows (corvus macrorhynchos and corvus corone) as a result of the entry of causal agents via the renal portal blood.although the increase in the number of wild crows is causing social problems in urban areas, crows play an increasingly important role in monitoring serious infectious diseases, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza and west nile fever. to gain a better understanding of normal conditions and common disorders in crows, we conducted a retrospective study of wild crows captured in central japan in the 1990s and examined the necropsy findings from 166 jungle crows (corvus macrorhynchos) and 74 c ...201019996559
carrion crows cannot overcome impulsive choice in a quantitative exchange task.the ability to control an immediate impulse in return for a more desirable - though delayed - outcome has long been thought to be a uniquely human feature. however, studies on non-human primates revealed that some species are capable of enduring delays in order to get food of higher quality or quantity. recently two corvid species, common raven (corvus corax) and carrion crow (corvus corone corone), exchanged food for a higher quality reward though seemed less capable of enduring delays when exc ...201222529833
familiarity with the experimenter influences the performance of common ravens (corvus corax) and carrion crows (corvus corone corone) in cognitive tasks.when humans and animals interact with one another over an extended time span they familiarise and may develop a relationship, which can exert an influence on both partners. for example, the behaviour of an animal in experiments may be affected by its relationship to the human experimenter. however, few studies have systematically examined the impact of human-animal relationships on experimental results. in the present study we investigated if familiarity with a human experimenter influences the ...201424333226
differences in exploration behaviour in common ravens and carrion crows during development and across social context.exploration is particularly important for young animals, as it enables them to learn to exploit their surroundings. it is likely to be affected by species ecology and social context, though there are few comparative, longitudinal studies that control for effects of early experience. here, we investigated group level exploration behaviour in two closely related and identically reared, generalist corvid species: common ravens (corvus corax) and carrion crows (c. corone, c. cornix), during developm ...201726097282
explorative innovators and flexible use of social information in common ravens (corvus corax) and carrion crows (corvus corone).innovation and social information use are influenced by individual characteristics, and are important for the creation and transmission of novel behavioral patterns. here, we investigated which individual factors predict innovation rates and social transmission of information in a comparative study with identically reared common ravens (corvus corax) and carrion crows (corvus corone corone; corvus corone cornix). in the innovation experiment (1), we presented the birds with a novel problem-solvi ...201627359074
from parasitism to mutualism: unexpected interactions between a cuckoo and its host.avian brood parasites lay eggs in the nests of other birds, which raise the unrelated chicks and typically suffer partial or complete loss of their own brood. however, carrion crows corvus corone corone can benefit from parasitism by the great spotted cuckoo clamator glandarius. parasitized nests have lower rates of predation-induced failure due to production of a repellent secretion by cuckoo chicks, but among nests that are successful, those with cuckoo chicks fledge fewer crows. the outcome o ...201424653032
chicks of the great spotted cuckoo may turn brood parasitism into mutualism by producing a foul-smelling secretion that repels predators.the great spotted cuckoo (clamator glandarius) is an important brood parasite of carrion crows (corvus corone corone) in northern spain. we recently found that, unlike what is commonly known for cuckoo-host interactions, the great spotted cuckoo has no negative impact on average crow fitness in this region. the explanation for this surprising effect is a repulsive secretion that the cuckoo chicks produce when they are harassed and that may protect the brood against predation. here, we provide de ...201424760177
waiting for better, not for more: corvids respond to quality in two delay maintenance tasks.self-control, that is, overcoming impulsivity towards immediate gratification in favour of a greater but delayed reward, is seen as a valuable skill when making future-oriented decisions. experimental studies in nonhuman primates revealed that individuals of some species are willing to tolerate delays of up to several minutes in order to gain food of a higher quantity or quality. recently, birds (carrion crows, corvus corone, common ravens, corvus corax, goffin cockatoos, cacatua goffiniana) per ...201425892738
density-dependent regulation of fecundity in syngamus trachea infrapopulations in semi-naturally occurring ring-necked pheasants (phasianus colchicus) and wild carrion crows (corvus corone).previous work has highlighted increased opportunities for the transmission of syngamus trachea within pheasant release pens, due in part to high levels of environmental contamination around communal areas. despite this, the distribution of adult worms within their definitive hosts is not significantly different from predicted distributions under taylor's power law. therefore, density-dependent processes are probably acting to regulate s. trachea population dynamics. patterns of nematode fecundit ...201626932519
prevalence of mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae in commercial poultry, racing pigeons and wild birds in belgium.mycoplasma gallisepticum is the most important pathogenic avian mycoplasma species and causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry. in addition, the prevalence of mycoplasma synoviae is of increasing concern in several eu member states. we investigated the prevalence of m. gallisepticum in commercial poultry (5220 layers, 1224 broilers and 1020 meat turkeys), 56 racing pigeons and 890 wild birds (order anseriformes, galliformes, pelecaniformes, accipitriformes, gruiformes, charadriiformes, col ...201626814376
numerosity representations in crows obey the weber-fechner law.the ability to estimate number is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. based on the relative close phylogenetic relationship (and thus equivalent brain structures), non-verbal numerical representations in human and non-human primates show almost identical behavioural signatures that obey the weber-fechner law. however, whether numerosity discriminations of vertebrates with a very different endbrain organization show the same behavioural signatures remains unknown. therefore, we tested the n ...201627009227
corticosterone levels in host and parasite nestlings: is brood parasitism a hormonal stressor?parasite chicks from non-evictor species usually try to monopolize host parental care, thereby increasing considerably the level of food competition in the nest. here, we propose that brood parasitism is an important stressor for host and parasite nestlings and explore this hypothesis in the non-evictor great spotted cuckoo (clamator glandarius) and its main hosts, the same-sized black-billed magpie (pica pica) and the larger carrion crow (corvus corone). we experimentally created 3-nestling bro ...201222366505
occurrence and relevance of mycoplasma sturni in free-ranging corvids in germany.several mycoplasma spp. are well-known pathogens in poultry. in birds of prey, white storks ( ciconia ciconia ), and some waterfowl (anatidae, pelecanidae) species, mycoplasmas occur commonly and seem to be apathogenic or commensal and most likely belong to the physiologic microbial flora of the respiratory tract. in other bird species, such as common nightingales ( luscinia megarhynchos ) and tits (paridae), mycoplasma spp. are absent in healthy birds. in corvids, the prevalence and role of myc ...201728099075
an epizootic of emerging novel avian pox in carrion crows (corvus corone) and large-billed crows (corvus macrorhynchos) in 2006-10, an epizootic of emerging avian pox occurred in carrion crows ( corvus corone ) and large-billed crows ( corvus macrorhynchos ), leading to mortality of juvenile crows in hokkaido, the northernmost island of japan. we diagnosed 27 crows with proliferative skin lesions (19 carcasses and eight biopsied cases [one in zoo captivity]) as avian pox clinically, histopathologically by detection of avipoxvirus-specific 4b core protein (p4b) gene, and epidemiologically. the fatal cases demonstr ...201626967129
assessing animal welfare impacts in the management of european rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus), european moles (talpa europaea) and carrion crows (corvus corone).human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. however, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. our objectives were to: 1) establish whe ...201626726808
associative learning rapidly establishes neuronal representations of upcoming behavioral choices in crows.the ability to form associations between behaviorally relevant sensory stimuli is fundamental for goal-directed behaviors. we investigated neuronal activity in the telencephalic area nidopallium caudolaterale (ncl) while two crows (corvus corone) performed a delayed association task. whereas some paired associates were familiar to the crows, novel associations had to be learned and mapped to the same target stimuli within a single session. we found neurons that prospectively encoded the chosen t ...201526598669
cross-modal associative mnemonic signals in crow endbrain neurons.the ability to associate stimuli across time and sensory modalities endows animals and humans with many of the complex, learned behaviors. for successful performance, associations need to be retrieved from long-term memory and maintained active in working memory. we investigated how this is accomplished in the avian brain. we trained carrion crows (corvus corone) to perform a bimodal delayed paired associate task in which the crows had to match auditory stimuli to delayed visual items. single-un ...201526255848
detection of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus from wild animals and ixodidae ticks in the republic of korea.severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (sfts) is caused by sfts virus (sftsv), a novel bunyavirus reported to be endemic to central-northeastern china, southern japan, and the republic of korea (rok). to investigate sftsv infections, we collected serum samples and ticks from wild animals. using serum samples and ticks, sftsv-specific genes were amplified by one-step rt-pcr and nested pcr and sequenced. indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) was performed to analyze virus-specific antibody ...201627043361
crows rival monkeys in cognitive capacity.the present study compares the 'bandwidth of cognition' between crows and primates. working memory is the ability to maintain and manipulate information over short periods of time - a core component of cognition. the capacity of working memory is tightly limited, in humans correlated with individual intelligence and commonly used synonymously with cognitive capacity. crows have remarkable cognitive skills and while birds and mammals share neural principles of working memory, its capacity has not ...201728821812
morphological and molecular genetic characterization of three capillaria spp. (capillaria anatis, capillaria pudendotecta, and capillaria madseni) and baruscapillaria obsignata (nematoda: trichuridae: capillariinae) in avians.morphological and genetic analyses were performed on four avian species of the subfamily capillariinae (nematoda: trichuridae), i.e., capillaria anatis from chickens (gallus gallus domesticus) in japan and the philippines, baruscapillaria obsignata from chickens and captive swans (cygnus olor and cygnus atratus) in japan, capillaria pudendotecta from captive swans in japan, and capillaria madseni from carrion and jungle crows (corvus corone and corvus macrorhynchos) in japan. although morphometr ...201526204803
carrion crows learn to discriminate between calls of reliable and unreliable conspecifics.partner choice on the basis of an individual's reliability is expected to stabilize social interactions. in this experiment, we tested whether carrion crows (corvus corone corone) learn to differentiate between calls of reliable or unreliable individuals. crows were kept in an aviary that comprised four visually but not acoustically isolated compartments, separated by a central room. in an association phase, a dead crow placed in the central compartment was visible only to one of the four crow g ...201526067282
tolerance and social facilitation in the foraging behaviour of free-ranging crows (corvus corone corone; c. c. cornix).social foraging provides animals with opportunities to gain knowledge about available food. studies indicate that animals are influenced by social context during exploration and are able to learn socially. carrion and hooded crows, which are opportunistic generalists with flexible social systems, have so far received little focus in this area. we combined observational and experimental approaches to investigate social interactions during foraging and social influences on crow behaviour within a ...201425937686
behavioural responses to olfactory cues in carrion crows.until recently, the use of olfactory signals in birds has been largely ignored, despite the fact that birds do possess a fully functioning olfactory system and have been shown to use odours in social and foraging tasks, predator detection and orientation. the present study investigates whether carrion crows (corvus corone corone), a bird species living in complex social societies, respond behaviourally to olfactory cues of conspecifics. during our experiment, carrion crows were observed less oft ...201525447513
morphologic and molecular study of hemoparasites in wild corvids and evidence of sequence identity with plasmodium dna detected in captive black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).a morphologic and molecular epidemiologic investigation was conducted on a captive african black-footed penguin (spheniscus demersus) colony with a history of plasmodium infections at la palmyre zoo (france). each penguin received 12.5 mg of pyrimethamine twice a week as a prophylaxis every year from april to november. although plasmodium parasites were not detected in blood smears and tissues collected from the penguins, various blood parasites were recorded in blood smears from wild eurasian m ...201425314825
the long and the short of it: rule-based relative length discrimination in carrion crows, corvus corone.birds and other nonhuman animals can choose the larger of two discrete or continuous quantities. however, whether birds possess the conceptual grasp and cognitive control to flexibly switch between relative more-or-less-than judgments remains elusive. we therefore tested carrion crows in a rule-based line-length discrimination task to flexibly select lines presented on a touchscreen according to their relative length. in the first experiment, the crows needed to discriminate a shorter from a lon ...201425151937
neuronal correlates of visual working memory in the corvid endbrain.the concept of working memory is key to cognitive functioning. working memory encompasses the capacity to retain immediately past information, to process this information, and to use it to guide goal-directed behavior. corvid songbirds are renowned for their high-level cognitive capabilities, but where and how visual information is temporarily retained by neurons in the avian brain in a behaviorally relevant way remains poorly understood. we trained four carrion crows (corvus corone) on versions ...201424899702
ecological role of vertebrate scavengers in urban ecosystems in the uk.recent research has demonstrated how scavenging, the act of consuming dead animals, plays a key role in ecosystem structure, functioning, and stability. a growing number of studies suggest that vertebrate scavengers also provide key ecosystem services, the benefits humans gain from the natural world, particularly in the removal of carcasses from the environment. an increasing proportion of the human population is now residing in cities and towns, many of which, despite being highly altered envir ...201628725378
serologic evidence of west nile virus and usutu virus infections in eurasian coots in the netherlands.west nile virus (wnv) and usutu virus (usuv) are arboviruses that are maintained in enzootic transmission cycles between mosquitoes and birds and are occasionally transmitted to mammals. as arboviruses are currently expanding their geographic range and emerging in often unpredictable locations, surveillance is considered an important element of preparedness. to determine whether sera collected from resident and migratory birds in the netherlands as part of avian influenza surveillance would also ...201728688117
avian blood induced intranuclear translocation of stat3 via the chicken leptin receptor.leptin is a multi-functional adipokine in vertebrates. the leptin gene and protein are found in many vertebrates; however, the existence of leptin in birds remains controversial. here we detected leptin-like activity in avian blood using chicken leptin receptor (chlepr) and green fluorescent protein (gfp)-fused chicken signal transducer and activator of transcription (chstat3) co-expressed in cho-k1 cells (cho-chlepr/stat3). we validated that rat serum specifically induces intranuclear migration ...201424858374
[differences in vocalization and morphology of the syrinx between carrion crows (corvus corone) and jungle crows (c. macrorhynchos)].the vocal characteristics and the morph of the syrinx in carrion crows (corvus corone) and those in jungle crows (c. macrorhynchos) were compared. the vocalizations of both species of crow were recorded into sonograms and analyzed. the appearance and inner configuration of the syrinx were observed using stereoscopic microscope. in addition, the inside diameter of the syrinx, the sizes of the labia and the attached position of the syringeal muscles were measured. the attached figures of syringeal ...200718095479
experimentally increased food resources in the natal territory promote offspring philopatry and helping in cooperatively breeding carrion crows.kin-based societies, where families represent the basic social unit, occur in a relatively small number of vertebrate species. in the majority of avian kin societies, families form when offspring prolong their association with the parents on the natal territory. therefore, the key to understanding the evolution of families in birds is to understand natal philopatry (i.e. the tendency to remain on the natal territory). it has been shown that, within populations, the strength of the association be ...200616777748
wall thickness of gas- and marrow-filled avian long bones: measurements on humeri, femora and tibiotarsi in crows (corvus corone cornix) and magpies (pica pica).we studied how the ratio k of the internal to external diameter of gas- and marrow-filled avian long bones follows the biomechanical optima derived for tubular bones with minimum mass designed to fulfil various mechanical requirements. we evaluated radiographs of numerous humeri, femora and tibiotarsi in corvus corone cornix and pica pica. the k-values of the gas-filled humerus (k=0.78+/-0.03) and the marrow-filled femur (k=0.79+/-0.02) in corvus are practically the same, while k of the marrow-f ...200616084519
[genetic diversity of carrion and jungle crows from rapd-pcr analysis data].rapd-pcr analysis of the genetic diversity of the carrion crow (corvus corone) and jungle crow (c. macrorhynchos) living in the continental parts of their species ranges and on some russian and japanese far eastern islands has been performed. taxon-specific molecular markers have been found for each species. the genetic diversity of the carrion crow is considerably less than that of the jungle crow at the same genetic distance (p95 = 68.2%, dn = 0.27 and p95 = 88.4%, dn = 0.24, respectively). in ...200314714466
tool-making new caledonian crows have large associative brain areas.animals with a high rate of innovative and associative-based behavior usually have large brains. new caledonian (nc) crows stand out due to their tool manufacture, their generalized problem-solving abilities and an extremely high degree of encephalization. it is generally assumed that this increased brain size is due to the ability to process, associate and memorize diverse stimuli, thereby enhancing the propensity to invent new and complex behaviors in adaptive ways. however, this premise lacks ...201020215728
[control of birds in the agricultural area: the rook and carrion crow]. 19863522175
kin selection in cooperative alliances of carrion most cooperative vertebrates, delayed natal dispersal is the mechanism that leads to the formation of kin societies. under this condition, the possibility that kin-based cooperative breeding is an unselected consequence of dispersal patterns can never be ruled out because helpers can only help their relatives. here we show that a population of carrion crows (corvus corone corone) fully fits the central prediction of kin selection theory that cooperative breeding should arise among relatives. ...200312817149
patterns of evolution of mhc class ii genes of crows (corvus) suggest trans-species polymorphism.a distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. there are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (tsp), in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptatio ...201525802816
culicoides species composition and molecular identification of host blood meals at two zoos in the uk.culicoides biting midges are biological vectors of arboviruses including bluetongue virus (btv), schmallenberg virus (sbv) and african horse sickness virus (ahsv). zoos are home to a wide range of 'at risk' exotic and native species of animals. these animals have a high value both in monetary terms, conservation significance and breeding potential. to understand the risk these viruses pose to zoo animals, it is necessary to characterise the culicoides fauna at zoos and determine which potential ...202032178710
history, environment and social behaviour: experimentally induced cooperative breeding in the carrion crow.kin-based cooperative breeding, where grown offspring delay natal dispersal and help their parents to rear new young, has a long history in some avian lineages. family formation and helping behaviour in extant populations may therefore simply represent the retention of ancestral features, tolerated under current conditions, rather than a current adaptive process driven by environmental factors. separating these two possibilities challenges evolutionary biologists because of the tight coupling th ...200212065041
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