aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane. 19836417091
[multilocus sequence typing of animal source campylobacter jejuni in east china].to characterize the genes of campylobacter jejuni isolates and to genotype the strains from chicken, cow, duck, pig and red-crowned crane during 2006 to 2008 by multilocus sequence typing (mlst).201020499632
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp., giardia duodenalis, and enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive wildlife at zhengzhou zoo, china.cryptosporidium spp., giardia duodenalis, and enterocytozoon bieneusi are common gastrointestinal protists in humans and animals. two hundred and three fecal specimens from 80 wildlife species were collected in zhengzhou zoo and their genomic dna extracted. three intestinal pathogens were characterized with a dna sequence analysis of different loci. cryptosporidium felis, c. baileyi, and avian genotype iii were identified in three specimens (1.5%), the manul, red-crowned crane, and cockatiel, re ...201526384582
dietary exposure of the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) to total and methyl mercury in zhalong wetland, northeastern determine the dietary exposure of the migratory red-crowned crane to mercury (hg), this study analyzed the concentrations of total mercury (t-hg) and methyl mercury (mehg) in its prey, i.e., reeds and three aquatic animal families (perccottus glenni dybowski, cybister japonicus sharp, and viviparidae) in northeastern china. results indicated that the hg concentration in zhalong wetland was elevated through the food chain, and the prey of the red-crowned crane contained measurable levels of t- ...201424793423
natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the yellow river delta natural reserve, 1992-2008.this study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the yellow river nature reserve, east china using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. in this study, a principal component analysis (pca) with seven variables (channel flow, ...201424526617
characterization of heavy metal contamination in the habitat of red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) in zhalong wetland, northeastern china.heavy metal enrichment in the prey of red-crowned cranes in zhalong wetland, northeastern china was researched. lead and cd were the most abundant elements in the sediments; their concentrations ranged from 9.85 to 127 ppm and from 1.23 to 10.6 ppm, respectively. six aquatic animal taxa contained detectable levels of heavy metals, in the decreasing order of cyprinidae > cobitidae > dytiscidae > odontobutidae > viviparidae > aeshnidae. metal concentrations in these taxa followed the order: zn > c ...201425015187
a multi-scale approach to investigating the red-crowned crane-habitat relationship in the yellow river delta nature reserve, china: implications for conservation.the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis (statius müller, 1776)) is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. in this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane-habitat relationship at multiple scales in the yellow river delta nature reserve (yrdnr). in addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes' habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the yrdnr. the variance partitioning results showed that hab ...201526065417
origin of three red-crowned cranes grus japonensis found in northeast honshu and west hokkaido, japan, from 2008 to 2012.the red-crowned crane grus japonensis is an endangered species that has two separate breeding populations, one in the amur river basin and the other in north and east hokkaido, japan. so far, only two (gj1 and gj2) and seven (gj3-gj9) haplotypes in d-loop of mtdna were identified in japan and in the continent, respectively. we obtained feathers from three cranes found in northeast honshu. the crane in akita in 2008, which also arrived at west hokkaido, had a novel haplotype (gj10). another crane ...201323628973
accumulation properties of inorganic mercury and organic mercury in the red-crowned crane grus japonensis in east hokkaido, japan.the red-crowned (japanese) crane grus japonensis is native to east hokkaido, japan, in contrast to the east asia mainland. previously, we reported that red-crowned cranes in hokkaido were highly contaminated with mercury in the 1990s and that the contamination rapidly decreased to a moderate level in the 2000s. in the present study, we determined levels of organic mercury (o-hg) in the liver and kidney of cranes in east hokkaido in comparison with levels of total mercury (t-hg). t-hg levels in t ...201526432029
identification and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the red-crowned crane.we isolated and characterized microsatellite loci for the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) from a microsatellite-enriched database, which was obtained using high-throughput sequencing technology. we designed primer sets for 445 microsatellite loci and after initial screening, 34 loci were genotyped in 31 red-crowned cranes. the number of observed alleles ranged from 3 to 10. observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.197 to 0.935 and 0.453 to 0.887, respectively; the mean polymorphi ...201526634480
large-scale survey of mitochondrial d-loop of the red-crowned crane grus japonensis in hokkaido, japan by convenient genotyping method.the red-crowned crane, grus japonensis, is an endangered species of crane that has two separate breeding populations, one in the amur river basin (continental population) and the other in eastern or northern hokkaido, japan (island population). so far, only two haplotypes (gj1 and gj2) have been identified in the mitochondrial d-loop in island population, whereas seven haplotypes have been found in continental population (gj3-gj9). we developed a rapid and inexpensive method of extensive genotyp ...201322972466
potential natural exposure of endangered red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) to mycotoxins aflatoxin b1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, t-2 toxin, and ochratoxin a.a survey was conducted to determine whether mycotoxins were present in the foods consumed by red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in the yancheng biosphere reserve, china. collected in the reserve's core, buffer, and experimental zones during overwintering periods of 2013 to 2015, a total of 113 food samples were analyzed for aflatoxin b1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, t-2 toxin, and ochratoxin a using high performance liquid chromatography (hplc). the contamination incidences vary among differen ...201626834016
lead in the red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in zhalong wetland, northeastern china: a report.the dietary uptake of cd and pb may contribute to the decline of migratory red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) on the asian mainland. to uncover the relevance of this hypothesis, we determined the concentrations of pb and cd as well as further macro and trace elements (ca, mg, cu, zn, hg and as) in the gastric contents, gastric wall, intestinal wall, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of two individuals found dead in zhalong wetland in northeastern china. indeed, the pb concentrations in the l ...201627300521
effects of captivity and artificial breeding on microbiota in feces of the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis).reintroduction of the threatened red-crowned crane has been unsuccessful. although gut microbiota correlates with host health, there is little information on gut microbiota of cranes under different conservation strategies. the study examined effects of captivity, artificial breeding and life stage on gut microbiota of red-crown cranes. the gut microbiotas of wild, captive adolescent, captive adult, artificially bred adolescent and artificially bred adult cranes were characterized by next-genera ...201627628212
genetic variation of major histocompatibility complex genes in the endangered red-crowned crane.populations that have drastically decreased in the past often have low genetic variation, which may increase the risk of extinction. the genes of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) play an important role in the adaptive immune response of jawed vertebrates. maintenance of adaptive genetic diversity such as that of mhc genes is important for wildlife conservation. here, we determined genotypes of exon 3 of mhc class ia genes (mhcia) and exon 2 of mhc class iib genes (mhciib) to evaluate genet ...201728501972
the excessive enrichment of trace elements in migratory and breeding red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in china.the excessive enrichment of trace elements, such as pb and cd, from food may contribute to the decline of migratory red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in china. to test this prediction, we determined the concentrations of pb and cd, as well as further macro and trace elements (ca, mg, cu, zn) in the target species and their prey (sediment, reed root, mollusk, arthropods, and common fish species) in both the wintering (yancheng wetland) and breeding sites (zhalong wetland) of cranes in china. t ...201728547377
low genetic variation of red-crowned cranes on hokkaido island, japan, over the hundred years.the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) is recognized internationally as an endangered species. migratory populations breed in eastern russia and northeastern china, whereas the resident population inhabits the island of hokkaido, japan. although the population inhabiting hokkaido had experienced a severe bottleneck by the end of the 19th century, the population size has recovered to about 1500 and continues to increase now thanks to conservation efforts. a previous study reported that no marked ...201728589846
persistent organic pollutants in red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) from hokkaido, japan.the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) from eastern hokkaido is classified as a special natural monument in japan. in this study, we determined the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (pops) in red-crowned crane muscle tissues (n = 47). polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) had the highest median concentration (240ng/g lipid weight), followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ddts) (150ng/g lipid weight), chlordane-related compounds (chls) (36ng/g lipid weight), hex ...201728869886
allozyme evidence for crane systematics and polymorphisms within populations of sandhill, sarus, siberian, and whooping cranes.electrophoretic analysis of proteins yielded evidence on the relationships of species of cranes and on genetic diversity within populations of some species. diversity within the greater sandhill crane and a florida population of the florida sandhill crane was similar to that of most other vertebrates, but diversity was low in the mississippi sandhill crane, in the okefenokee population of the florida sandhill crane, and within the siberian and sarus cranes. diversity was surprisingly high among ...19921342943
[blood biochemical indices of female red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) in zhalong nature reserve of heilongjiang province, northeast china].from november 2004 to october 2005, twenty blood biochemical indices, i. e., total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, blood glucose, serum urea nitrogen, serum creatine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatine kinase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, serum calcium ion, inorganic phosphate, and magnesium ion, of 10 female grus japone ...200920077721
pb and cd bioaccumulations in the habitat and preys of red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in zhalong wetland, northeastern china.pb and cd concentrations in the habitat and preys of the red-crowned crane (i.e., reed rhizomes and three typical aquatic animal families (perccottus glehni dybowski, carassius auratus linnaeus, and viviparidae)) were analyzed to examine the impact of these hazards on red-crowned cranes in northeastern china. results indicated that pb and cd concentrations in the preys of the red-crowned cranes were elevated via food chain. most of the detected pb and cd contents in the sediments were above the ...201324132464
respiratory responses to acute heat stress in cranes (gruidae): the effects of tracheal coiling.some species of cranes have extensive coiling of their trachea that substantially increases their anatomical dead space. we subjected individuals of four species of cranes (anthropoides virgo, balearica regulorum, grus grus and grus japonensis) to acute heat stress to investigate the effectiveness of this trait as a thermoregulatory adaptation. we measured cloacal temperature, respiratory flow and frequency and arterial ph during normothermic breathing and thermal panting. extra tracheal length ...19854070839
characterization of the optimized c2 domain of protein g: finding its additional chicken igy-binding ability.the c2 domain of streptococcal protein g is a small (55 residue) peptide with immunoglobulin-binding activity. following codon optimization, the gene was divided into four oligonucleotide fragments and amplified by overlap pcr. the recombinant plasmid pet30a-c2 was transformed into escherichia coli rosetta (de3) plyss for expression. after purification by ni-nta, the fusion protein was identified by western-blotting, dot-elisa and elisa. his-tagged c2 bound to human, rabbit, cattle, pig, goat, m ...201323690033
generation and characterization of polyclonal antibody against part of immunoglobulin constant heavy υ chain of goose.immunoglobulin y (abbreviated as igy) is a type of immunoglobulin that is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish blood. igy consists of two light (λ) and two heavy (υ) chains. in the present study, polyclonal antibody against igyfc was generated and evaluated. rigycυ3/cυ4 was expressed in escherichia coli, purified and utilized to raise polyclonal antibody in rabbit. high affinity antisera were obtained, which successfully detected the antigen at a dilution of 1:204,800 for elisa assa ...201425171010
survey of coccidial oocysts and parasite eggs in feces of free-ranging grus japonensis.fecal survey of eimeria oocysts and parasite eggs was conducted for 219 fecal samples of free-ranging grus japonensis in kushiro district in hokkaido in april 2003. positive rate and mean oocysts (or eggs) per gram in positive samples were 26% (57/219) and 8.8 (0.2-136) in oocysts of eimeria reichenowi, 18.3% (40/219) and 320 (100-1,000) in trematode eggs, 0.1% (2/219) and 0.2 (0.2-0.3) in eggs of nematoda a, and 4.1% (9/219) and 0.8 (0.2-3.6) in eggs of nematoda b, respectively.200616953091
genetical identification of coccidia in red-crowned crane, grus japonensis.we genetically analyzed eimerian oocysts isolated from the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) in hokkaido, a northern island of japan. two types of oocysts of which shapes were similar to eimeria gruis and e. reichenowi were found. nearly the total length of the 18s ribosomal rna gene (about 1.7 kbp in length) was amplified from single oocyst of each type and was sequenced. the respective sequences showed high similarity to those of published partial sequences (349 bp) of e. gruis type oocyst a ...200717102986
accurate analysis of prevalence of coccidiosis in individually identified wild cranes in inhabiting and migrating populations in japan.eimeria gruis and e. reichenowi cause coccidiosis, a major parasitic disease of cranes. by non-invasive molecular approaches, we investigated the prevalence and genetic characterization of pathogens in two japanese crane habitats; one is hokkaido inhabited by the endangered red-crowned crane, and the other is izumi in kyushu where populations that consist mainly of vulnerable hooded and white-naped cranes migrate in winter. the non-invasively collected faecal samples from each wintering populati ...201121895916
characteristics and driving factors of marsh changes in zhalong wetland of china.zhalong national nature reserve in the northeast of china is a large wetland and a habitat of hundreds species of fauna and flora. the rare red-crowned crane is one kind of endangered birds in it. recently, zhalong wetland is shrinking and it encounters many problems including occasional fires, bad water quality, human activities, etc. in order to find out a proper way to protect and restore the wetland, this study, using a geographic information system, the global positioning system and remote ...200717058002
[feeding habitat of red-crowned crane and white-napped crane during their courtship period in zhalong wetland].by the methods of fixed-spot observation, gps positioning, plot sampling measurement and factor analysis, a comparative study was made on the feeding habitat of red-crowned and white-napped crane during their courtship period (from march to april) in zhalong nature reserve in 2003 and 2004. the results showed that red-crowned crane preferred unique habitat for feed, mostly focused on water field (e. g., reed marsh). during its selection of microhabitat, food factor played a crucial role, followe ...200616724740
vertebral formula in red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) and hooded crane (grus monacha).red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) are distributed separately in the east eurasian continent (continental population) and in hokkaido, japan (island population). the island population is sedentary in eastern hokkaido and has increased from a very small number of cranes to over 1,300, thus giving rise to the problem of poor genetic diversity. while, hooded cranes (grus monacha), which migrate from the east eurasian continent and winter mainly in izumi, kagoshima prefecture, japan, are about eig ...201424334828
disappearing lakes in semiarid northern china: drivers and environmental impact.the widely distributed 241 lakes in the semiarid region of china bordering the asian gobi desert provide an irreplaceable environment for the region's human inhabitants, livestock, and wildlife. using satellite imagery, we tracked the changing areas of lake water and freshwater/salty marshes during the last four decades and correlated observed changes with concurrent temperature and precipitation. on average, most of the lake size groups across different subregions showed a reduction in area fro ...201324083521
physical body parameters of red-crowned cranes grus japonensis by sex and life stage in eastern hokkaido, (or japanese) cranes grus japonensis are native to eastern hokkaido, japan--the island population, and mainland asia--the continental population that migrates from breeding grounds along the amur river basin to winter in east china and the korean peninsula. the island population was reduced to about 50-60 birds in early part of the 20th century. since 1950s, the population has increased to more than 1,300 as a consequence of human-provided food in winter, resulted in change of their ...201323585489
intestinal undifferentiated carcinoma in a red-crowned crane (grus japonensis).a 33-year-old red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) had a diffuse intestinal thickening from the duodenum to colon. microscopically, neoplastic cells were arranged in sheets and occasionally nests or cords without gland or squamous differentiation. metastatic tumor cells were found in the lungs, heart, kidneys and adrenal glands. immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin and cytokeratin 8 and 18 and only partly positive for e-cadherin antibodies. immuno ...201323391509
distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and biota from the zha long wetland, this paper, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) were measured in biota (reed, grass, mussel, fish, and red-crowned crane) and sediments collected from seven locations in the zha long wetland. pahs were recovered from the sediments and biota by ultrasonic extraction and then analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the total pah concentrations were 244-713 ng/g dw in sediments, 82.8-415 ng/g dw in plants and 207-4,780 ng/g dw in animals. the total se ...201322821325
[breeding habitat characteristics of red-crowned crane at zhalong of northeast china: a multi-scale approach based on tm and asar image data].based on the landsat tm and envisat asar hh/hv imagery data and by using the gps data of red-crowned crane nesting sites (n = 28) at zhalong national nature reserve of northeast china, the models of the breeding habitat selection of red-crowned crane at the reserve were established by binary logistic regression to identify the key variables for the habitat selection at eight spatial scales (30-240 m). the relative performance of the two models based on the landsat tm and envisat asar hh/hv datab ...201222586977
changes of mercury contamination in red-crowned cranes, grus japonensis, in east hokkaido, cranes (grus japonensis) are native to eastern hokkaido (island population), in contrast to the mainland, which migrates between the amur river basin and eastern china-korea peninsula. during the 1990s we found that red-crowned cranes in hokkaido were highly contaminated with mercury: however, the source was unknown. we investigated the time trend of mercury contamination in red-crowned cranes. total mercury levels in the livers and kidneys from cranes dead in the 2000s were lower th ...201222193864
coordination and synchronisation of anti-predation vigilance in two crane species.much of the previous research on anti-predation vigilance in groups has assumed independent scanning for threats among group members. alternative patterns that are based on monitoring the vigilance levels of companions can also be adaptive. coordination of vigilance, in which foragers avoid scanning at the same time as others, should decrease the odds that no group member is alert. synchronisation of vigilance implies that individuals are more likely to be vigilant when companions are already vi ...201122028880
detection of parasitizing coccidia and determination of host crane species, sex and genotype by faecal dna japan, the three main crane species are the endangered red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) inhabiting hokkaido, the northernmost island of japan; the vulnerable hooded crane (grus monacha); and the vulnerable white-naped crane (grus vipio). both the hooded and white-naped cranes migrate in winter to izumi in kyushu, the southern island of japan. in this study, we investigated the cranes and their coccidian parasites, through a targeted molecular approach using faecal dna to develop a noninvas ...201121791031
an alternate and reversible method for flight restraint of cranes.flight restraint is important for zoos, safaris, and breeding centers for large birds. currently used techniques for flight restraint include both surgical and non-surgical approaches. surgical approaches usually cause permanent change to or removal of tendon, patagial membrane, or wing bones, and can cause pain and inflammation. non-surgical approaches such as clipping or trimming feathers often alter the bird's appearance, and can damage growing blood feathers in fledglings or cause joint stif ...201121538502
[changes of reproduction habitat quality of red-crowned crane in zhalong wetlands].based on the maps of habitat factors in zhalong wetlands in 1996 and 2004, two models called habitat suitability index model and nearest neighbor analysis model were established to quantitatively analyze the changes of reproduction habitat quality of red-crowned crane in zhalong wetlands. the results showed that in 1996-2004, the suitable reproduction habitats of red-crowned crane in the wetlands experienced both area loss and functional loss. by the end of 2004, the suitable habitats in the stu ...201021361012
characterization of 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis), an endangered cranes (grus japonensis) were classified as an endangered species by the international union for conservation of nature, but recently, their population has decreased dramatically. for the purpose of conserving this endangered species, 18 microsatellite markers were developed, including 12 newly isolated ones from a genomic library and 6 modified from another crane species. the markers were characterized in 26 red-crowned cranes. as a result, these markers displayed 3-13 alleles, and ...201020662824
mycobacteriosis associated with mycobacterium peregrinum infection in red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in china.we describe mycobacteriosis caused by mycobacterium peregrinum in red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in china. isolates were identified by bacteriology, molecular identification methods, and phylogenetic analysis. this study shows that m. peregrinum is an important pathogen for mycobacteriosis and could represent a threat to conservation efforts of endangered species.201424807357
testing the utility of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 sequences for phylogenetic estimates of relationships between crane (grus) species.morphology and biogeography are widely used in animal taxonomy. recent study has suggested that a dna-based identification system, using a 648-bp portion of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (co1), also known as the barcoding gene, can aid in the resolution of inferences concerning phylogenetic relationships and for identification of species. however, the effectiveness of dna barcoding for identifying crane species is unknown. we amplified and sequenced 894-bp dna fragments of ...201122194213
oldest playable musical instruments found at jiahu early neolithic site in china.excavations at the early neolithic site of jiahu in henan province, china have produced what may be the earliest complete, playable, tightly-dated multinote musical instruments. jiahu was occupied from 7000 bc to 5700 bc, considerably antedating the well known peiligang culture. here we describe six exquisitely made complete flutes which were found in radiocarbon-dated excavation layers, along with fragments of perhaps 30 more. the flutes are made from the ulnae of the red-crowned crane (grus ja ...199916862110
[effects of habitat fragmentation on nesting site selection of red-crowned crane].during april and may of 1985, 1995 and 1998, red-crowned crane's nesting and variation of breeding population quantities in shuangtaihekou national natural reserve in liaoning, and also the habitat fragmentation there were investigated. associated with previous data of the reserve, red-crowned crane's nesting habitat had been seriously fragmentated into 91 patches from one integrated reed wetland. the area of the smallest patch was 0.37 km2, and the minimum distance of two nests was 304 m. compa ...200212181901
isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the red-crowned crane grus japonensis. 200011050571
monitoring of non-destructive sampling strategies to assess the exposure of avian species in jiangsu province, china to heavy assess the exposure of avian species in jiangsu province, china to eight heavy metals (as, cd, cr, cu, hg, ni, pb and zn), the flight feathers, eggshells and feces of total ten avian species (including four herons, four cranes, one stork and one gull) were collected during march to may in 2012. the total concentrations of as, cd and hg were measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometer; cr, cu, ni, pb and zn were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. the determi ...201424154854
heavy metal contamination status of japanese cranes (grus japonensis) in east hokkaido, japan--extensive mercury pollution.japanese cranes (grus japonensis) of eastern hokkaido, japan, and migrants between the amur river basin and the eastern china-korea peninsula, live around fresh and brackish wetlands. only a few thousand cranes are confirmed to exist in the world, so they are under threat of extinction. to understand the adverse effects of metal accumulation, we measured concentrations of three heavy metals in the liver, kidney, and muscle of 93 japanese cranes from hokkaido. the cranes were classified into six ...200717713219
discovery of fenthion poisoning in two japanese cranes (grus japonensis) found dead in hokkaido, japan. 200415674706
[migration dynamics of grus japonensis in recent years spring and conservation of its habitat in xianghai nature reserve].a survey on the migratory grus japonensis in xianghai wetland was conducted in spring of 1997-2003, and the relationship between migratory dynamics of grus japonensis and changes of wetland eco-environment was analyzed. the population of grus japonensis in xianghai was 32, 25, 64, 92, 72,59 and 14, respectively in the spring of 1997-2003. the smallest number was found in 2003, only 1 breeding pair, and the largest number was found in 2002, including 16 breeding pairs. the earliest year for grus ...200415669477
anatomy of the middle ear of the japanese crane grus japonensis (gruidae: aves).comparative anatomical studies of the avian middle ear provide structural data from which functional models can be derived. subsequent phylogenetic analyses may reveal the phylogenetic history of taxon and the evolution of the functional model of the middle ear. we studied serial sections of a nestling of grus japonensis. the microscopic anatomy of the middle ear (including skeletal parts, nerves, blood vessels, tendons, and tympanic recesses) was described with the help of a polystyrene plate r ...200312833369
[a wintering habitat model for red crown crane].a mathematical model was established based on gis and rs to simulate and predict the habitat distribution of red crown crane(grus japonensis) in yancheng biosphere reserve, jiangsu province, china. the model was tested through calculating the match coefficience of observed and predicted presence/absence data, which was 72.63%, showing that the model could be used to reflect the habitat distribution of red crown crane.200011767554
cloning, expression and antiviral bioactivity of red-crowned crane interferon-α.interferon-α (ifn-α) genes have been cloned from a variety of animals, but information regarding crane ifn-α has not been reported to date. in this study, we cloned a full-length red-crowned crane interferon-α (crifn-α) gene sequence consisting of a 486bp partial 5' utr, 741bp complete orf and 559bp partial 3' utr. this gene encodes a protein of 246 amino acids and shares 60 to 80% identity with avian ifn-α and less than 45% identity with mammalian ifn-α. the expression of crifn-α with an n-term ...201424768181
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