aspergillosis in a red-crowned crane. 19836417091
[feeding habitat of red-crowned crane and white-napped crane during their courtship period in zhalong wetland].by the methods of fixed-spot observation, gps positioning, plot sampling measurement and factor analysis, a comparative study was made on the feeding habitat of red-crowned and white-napped crane during their courtship period (from march to april) in zhalong nature reserve in 2003 and 2004. the results showed that red-crowned crane preferred unique habitat for feed, mostly focused on water field (e. g., reed marsh). during its selection of microhabitat, food factor played a crucial role, followe ...200616724740
[multilocus sequence typing of animal source campylobacter jejuni in east china].to characterize the genes of campylobacter jejuni isolates and to genotype the strains from chicken, cow, duck, pig and red-crowned crane during 2006 to 2008 by multilocus sequence typing (mlst).201020499632
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium spp., giardia duodenalis, and enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive wildlife at zhengzhou zoo, china.cryptosporidium spp., giardia duodenalis, and enterocytozoon bieneusi are common gastrointestinal protists in humans and animals. two hundred and three fecal specimens from 80 wildlife species were collected in zhengzhou zoo and their genomic dna extracted. three intestinal pathogens were characterized with a dna sequence analysis of different loci. cryptosporidium felis, c. baileyi, and avian genotype iii were identified in three specimens (1.5%), the manul, red-crowned crane, and cockatiel, re ...201526384582
characterization of the optimized c2 domain of protein g: finding its additional chicken igy-binding ability.the c2 domain of streptococcal protein g is a small (55 residue) peptide with immunoglobulin-binding activity. following codon optimization, the gene was divided into four oligonucleotide fragments and amplified by overlap pcr. the recombinant plasmid pet30a-c2 was transformed into escherichia coli rosetta (de3) plyss for expression. after purification by ni-nta, the fusion protein was identified by western-blotting, dot-elisa and elisa. his-tagged c2 bound to human, rabbit, cattle, pig, goat, m ...201323690033
survey of coccidial oocysts and parasite eggs in feces of free-ranging grus japonensis.fecal survey of eimeria oocysts and parasite eggs was conducted for 219 fecal samples of free-ranging grus japonensis in kushiro district in hokkaido in april 2003. positive rate and mean oocysts (or eggs) per gram in positive samples were 26% (57/219) and 8.8 (0.2-136) in oocysts of eimeria reichenowi, 18.3% (40/219) and 320 (100-1,000) in trematode eggs, 0.1% (2/219) and 0.2 (0.2-0.3) in eggs of nematoda a, and 4.1% (9/219) and 0.8 (0.2-3.6) in eggs of nematoda b, respectively.200616953091
genetical identification of coccidia in red-crowned crane, grus japonensis.we genetically analyzed eimerian oocysts isolated from the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) in hokkaido, a northern island of japan. two types of oocysts of which shapes were similar to eimeria gruis and e. reichenowi were found. nearly the total length of the 18s ribosomal rna gene (about 1.7 kbp in length) was amplified from single oocyst of each type and was sequenced. the respective sequences showed high similarity to those of published partial sequences (349 bp) of e. gruis type oocyst a ...200717102986
accurate analysis of prevalence of coccidiosis in individually identified wild cranes in inhabiting and migrating populations in japan.eimeria gruis and e. reichenowi cause coccidiosis, a major parasitic disease of cranes. by non-invasive molecular approaches, we investigated the prevalence and genetic characterization of pathogens in two japanese crane habitats; one is hokkaido inhabited by the endangered red-crowned crane, and the other is izumi in kyushu where populations that consist mainly of vulnerable hooded and white-naped cranes migrate in winter. the non-invasively collected faecal samples from each wintering populati ...201121895916
characteristics and driving factors of marsh changes in zhalong wetland of china.zhalong national nature reserve in the northeast of china is a large wetland and a habitat of hundreds species of fauna and flora. the rare red-crowned crane is one kind of endangered birds in it. recently, zhalong wetland is shrinking and it encounters many problems including occasional fires, bad water quality, human activities, etc. in order to find out a proper way to protect and restore the wetland, this study, using a geographic information system, the global positioning system and remote ...200717058002
pb and cd bioaccumulations in the habitat and preys of red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in zhalong wetland, northeastern china.pb and cd concentrations in the habitat and preys of the red-crowned crane (i.e., reed rhizomes and three typical aquatic animal families (perccottus glehni dybowski, carassius auratus linnaeus, and viviparidae)) were analyzed to examine the impact of these hazards on red-crowned cranes in northeastern china. results indicated that pb and cd concentrations in the preys of the red-crowned cranes were elevated via food chain. most of the detected pb and cd contents in the sediments were above the ...201324132464
mycobacteriosis associated with mycobacterium peregrinum infection in red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in china.we describe mycobacteriosis caused by mycobacterium peregrinum in red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in china. isolates were identified by bacteriology, molecular identification methods, and phylogenetic analysis. this study shows that m. peregrinum is an important pathogen for mycobacteriosis and could represent a threat to conservation efforts of endangered species.201424807357
vertebral formula in red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) and hooded crane (grus monacha).red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) are distributed separately in the east eurasian continent (continental population) and in hokkaido, japan (island population). the island population is sedentary in eastern hokkaido and has increased from a very small number of cranes to over 1,300, thus giving rise to the problem of poor genetic diversity. while, hooded cranes (grus monacha), which migrate from the east eurasian continent and winter mainly in izumi, kagoshima prefecture, japan, are about eig ...201424334828
[breeding habitat characteristics of red-crowned crane at zhalong of northeast china: a multi-scale approach based on tm and asar image data].based on the landsat tm and envisat asar hh/hv imagery data and by using the gps data of red-crowned crane nesting sites (n = 28) at zhalong national nature reserve of northeast china, the models of the breeding habitat selection of red-crowned crane at the reserve were established by binary logistic regression to identify the key variables for the habitat selection at eight spatial scales (30-240 m). the relative performance of the two models based on the landsat tm and envisat asar hh/hv datab ...201222586977
natural and anthropogenic influences on a red-crowned crane habitat in the yellow river delta natural reserve, 1992-2008.this study aims to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic variables on the change of the red-crowned crane habitat in the yellow river nature reserve, east china using multitempopral remote sensing and geographic information system. satellite images were used to detect the change in potential crane habitat, from which suitable crane habitat was determined by excluding fragmented habitat. in this study, a principal component analysis (pca) with seven variables (channel flow, ...201424526617
coordination and synchronisation of anti-predation vigilance in two crane species.much of the previous research on anti-predation vigilance in groups has assumed independent scanning for threats among group members. alternative patterns that are based on monitoring the vigilance levels of companions can also be adaptive. coordination of vigilance, in which foragers avoid scanning at the same time as others, should decrease the odds that no group member is alert. synchronisation of vigilance implies that individuals are more likely to be vigilant when companions are already vi ...201122028880
dietary exposure of the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) to total and methyl mercury in zhalong wetland, northeastern determine the dietary exposure of the migratory red-crowned crane to mercury (hg), this study analyzed the concentrations of total mercury (t-hg) and methyl mercury (mehg) in its prey, i.e., reeds and three aquatic animal families (perccottus glenni dybowski, cybister japonicus sharp, and viviparidae) in northeastern china. results indicated that the hg concentration in zhalong wetland was elevated through the food chain, and the prey of the red-crowned crane contained measurable levels of t- ...201424793423
an alternate and reversible method for flight restraint of cranes.flight restraint is important for zoos, safaris, and breeding centers for large birds. currently used techniques for flight restraint include both surgical and non-surgical approaches. surgical approaches usually cause permanent change to or removal of tendon, patagial membrane, or wing bones, and can cause pain and inflammation. non-surgical approaches such as clipping or trimming feathers often alter the bird's appearance, and can damage growing blood feathers in fledglings or cause joint stif ...201121538502
characterization of heavy metal contamination in the habitat of red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) in zhalong wetland, northeastern china.heavy metal enrichment in the prey of red-crowned cranes in zhalong wetland, northeastern china was researched. lead and cd were the most abundant elements in the sediments; their concentrations ranged from 9.85 to 127 ppm and from 1.23 to 10.6 ppm, respectively. six aquatic animal taxa contained detectable levels of heavy metals, in the decreasing order of cyprinidae > cobitidae > dytiscidae > odontobutidae > viviparidae > aeshnidae. metal concentrations in these taxa followed the order: zn > c ...201425015187
a multi-scale approach to investigating the red-crowned crane-habitat relationship in the yellow river delta nature reserve, china: implications for conservation.the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis (statius müller, 1776)) is a rare and endangered species that lives in wetlands. in this study, we used variance partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods to explore the red-crowned crane-habitat relationship at multiple scales in the yellow river delta nature reserve (yrdnr). in addition, we used habitat modeling to identify the cranes' habitat distribution pattern and protection gaps in the yrdnr. the variance partitioning results showed that hab ...201526065417
[blood biochemical indices of female red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) in zhalong nature reserve of heilongjiang province, northeast china].from november 2004 to october 2005, twenty blood biochemical indices, i. e., total protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, blood glucose, serum urea nitrogen, serum creatine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatine kinase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, serum calcium ion, inorganic phosphate, and magnesium ion, of 10 female grus japone ...200920077721
accumulation properties of inorganic mercury and organic mercury in the red-crowned crane grus japonensis in east hokkaido, japan.the red-crowned (japanese) crane grus japonensis is native to east hokkaido, japan, in contrast to the east asia mainland. previously, we reported that red-crowned cranes in hokkaido were highly contaminated with mercury in the 1990s and that the contamination rapidly decreased to a moderate level in the 2000s. in the present study, we determined levels of organic mercury (o-hg) in the liver and kidney of cranes in east hokkaido in comparison with levels of total mercury (t-hg). t-hg levels in t ...201526432029
[effects of habitat fragmentation on nesting site selection of red-crowned crane].during april and may of 1985, 1995 and 1998, red-crowned crane's nesting and variation of breeding population quantities in shuangtaihekou national natural reserve in liaoning, and also the habitat fragmentation there were investigated. associated with previous data of the reserve, red-crowned crane's nesting habitat had been seriously fragmentated into 91 patches from one integrated reed wetland. the area of the smallest patch was 0.37 km2, and the minimum distance of two nests was 304 m. compa ...200212181901
isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the red-crowned crane grus japonensis. 200011050571
identification and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the red-crowned crane.we isolated and characterized microsatellite loci for the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) from a microsatellite-enriched database, which was obtained using high-throughput sequencing technology. we designed primer sets for 445 microsatellite loci and after initial screening, 34 loci were genotyped in 31 red-crowned cranes. the number of observed alleles ranged from 3 to 10. observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.197 to 0.935 and 0.453 to 0.887, respectively; the mean polymorphi ...201526634480
potential natural exposure of endangered red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) to mycotoxins aflatoxin b1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, t-2 toxin, and ochratoxin a.a survey was conducted to determine whether mycotoxins were present in the foods consumed by red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in the yancheng biosphere reserve, china. collected in the reserve's core, buffer, and experimental zones during overwintering periods of 2013 to 2015, a total of 113 food samples were analyzed for aflatoxin b1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, t-2 toxin, and ochratoxin a using high performance liquid chromatography (hplc). the contamination incidences vary among differen ...201626834016
lead in the red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in zhalong wetland, northeastern china: a report.the dietary uptake of cd and pb may contribute to the decline of migratory red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) on the asian mainland. to uncover the relevance of this hypothesis, we determined the concentrations of pb and cd as well as further macro and trace elements (ca, mg, cu, zn, hg and as) in the gastric contents, gastric wall, intestinal wall, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of two individuals found dead in zhalong wetland in northeastern china. indeed, the pb concentrations in the l ...201627300521
effects of captivity and artificial breeding on microbiota in feces of the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis).reintroduction of the threatened red-crowned crane has been unsuccessful. although gut microbiota correlates with host health, there is little information on gut microbiota of cranes under different conservation strategies. the study examined effects of captivity, artificial breeding and life stage on gut microbiota of red-crown cranes. the gut microbiotas of wild, captive adolescent, captive adult, artificially bred adolescent and artificially bred adult cranes were characterized by next-genera ...201627628212
genetic variation of major histocompatibility complex genes in the endangered red-crowned crane.populations that have drastically decreased in the past often have low genetic variation, which may increase the risk of extinction. the genes of major histocompatibility complex (mhc) play an important role in the adaptive immune response of jawed vertebrates. maintenance of adaptive genetic diversity such as that of mhc genes is important for wildlife conservation. here, we determined genotypes of exon 3 of mhc class ia genes (mhcia) and exon 2 of mhc class iib genes (mhciib) to evaluate genet ...201728501972
the excessive enrichment of trace elements in migratory and breeding red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in china.the excessive enrichment of trace elements, such as pb and cd, from food may contribute to the decline of migratory red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) in china. to test this prediction, we determined the concentrations of pb and cd, as well as further macro and trace elements (ca, mg, cu, zn) in the target species and their prey (sediment, reed root, mollusk, arthropods, and common fish species) in both the wintering (yancheng wetland) and breeding sites (zhalong wetland) of cranes in china. t ...201728547377
low genetic variation of red-crowned cranes on hokkaido island, japan, over the hundred years.the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) is recognized internationally as an endangered species. migratory populations breed in eastern russia and northeastern china, whereas the resident population inhabits the island of hokkaido, japan. although the population inhabiting hokkaido had experienced a severe bottleneck by the end of the 19th century, the population size has recovered to about 1500 and continues to increase now thanks to conservation efforts. a previous study reported that no marked ...201728589846
prevalence and subtypes of blastocystis sp. infection in zoo animals in three cities in china.blastocystis is a highly prevalent eukaryotic parasite of many animals and humans worldwide. it can compromise the gastrointestinal tract and cause gastrointestinal symptoms, constituting a serious threat to human health and animal growth. many animals are potential sources of blastocystis infection in humans. however, limited data are available regarding the prevalence and subtype distribution of blastocystis infection among zoo animals in china. therefore, the present study examined the preval ...202031845021
persistent organic pollutants in red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) from hokkaido, japan.the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) from eastern hokkaido is classified as a special natural monument in japan. in this study, we determined the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (pops) in red-crowned crane muscle tissues (n = 47). polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) had the highest median concentration (240ng/g lipid weight), followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ddts) (150ng/g lipid weight), chlordane-related compounds (chls) (36ng/g lipid weight), hex ...201728869886
distribution and genetic diversity of blastocystis subtypes in various mammal and bird species in northeastern china.blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal parasites in humans and animals worldwide. at least 17 subtypes have been identified in mammals and birds. in china, although some studies have reported the occurrence of blastocystis in humans and animals, our understanding of the role of animals in the transmission of human blastocystosis is only superficial due to a paucity of available molecular data. the aim of the present study was to understand infection rates of blastocystis and the distr ...201830236147
a novel picornavirus in feces of a rainbow lorikeet (trichoglossus moluccanus) shows a close relationship to members of the genus avihepatovirus.a novel picornavirus, named "lorikeet picornavirus 1" (lopv-1), was detected in a fecal sample from rainbow lorikeets using viral metagenomic analysis, and its complete genome sequence was determined and analyzed. the genome of lopv-1 is 7862 nt long, including a 617-nt 5' utr, a type iv ires 5'utr with an '8-like' motif, a 7032-nt polyprotein orf, and a 213-nt 3' utr. phylogenetic analysis and pairwise asequence comparisons based on the amino acid sequences of p1, p2, and p3 indicated that lopv ...201930982088
allozyme evidence for crane systematics and polymorphisms within populations of sandhill, sarus, siberian, and whooping cranes.electrophoretic analysis of proteins yielded evidence on the relationships of species of cranes and on genetic diversity within populations of some species. diversity within the greater sandhill crane and a florida population of the florida sandhill crane was similar to that of most other vertebrates, but diversity was low in the mississippi sandhill crane, in the okefenokee population of the florida sandhill crane, and within the siberian and sarus cranes. diversity was surprisingly high among ...19921342943
cloning, expression and antiviral bioactivity of red-crowned crane interferon-α.interferon-α (ifn-α) genes have been cloned from a variety of animals, but information regarding crane ifn-α has not been reported to date. in this study, we cloned a full-length red-crowned crane interferon-α (crifn-α) gene sequence consisting of a 486bp partial 5' utr, 741bp complete orf and 559bp partial 3' utr. this gene encodes a protein of 246 amino acids and shares 60 to 80% identity with avian ifn-α and less than 45% identity with mammalian ifn-α. the expression of crifn-α with an n-term ...201424768181
disappearing lakes in semiarid northern china: drivers and environmental impact.the widely distributed 241 lakes in the semiarid region of china bordering the asian gobi desert provide an irreplaceable environment for the region's human inhabitants, livestock, and wildlife. using satellite imagery, we tracked the changing areas of lake water and freshwater/salty marshes during the last four decades and correlated observed changes with concurrent temperature and precipitation. on average, most of the lake size groups across different subregions showed a reduction in area fro ...201324083521
origin of three red-crowned cranes grus japonensis found in northeast honshu and west hokkaido, japan, from 2008 to 2012.the red-crowned crane grus japonensis is an endangered species that has two separate breeding populations, one in the amur river basin and the other in north and east hokkaido, japan. so far, only two (gj1 and gj2) and seven (gj3-gj9) haplotypes in d-loop of mtdna were identified in japan and in the continent, respectively. we obtained feathers from three cranes found in northeast honshu. the crane in akita in 2008, which also arrived at west hokkaido, had a novel haplotype (gj10). another crane ...201323628973
a multiscale approach to identifying spatiotemporal pattern of habitat selection for red-crowned cranes.effective conservation measures largely depend on knowledge of habitat selection of target species. little is known about the scale characteristics and temporal rhythm of habitat selection of the endangered red-crowned crane, limiting the habitat conservation. here, two red-crowned cranes were tracked with global position system (gps) for two years in yancheng national nature reserve (ynnr). a multiscale approach was developed to identify the spatiotemporal pattern of habitat selection of red-cr ...202032544690
identification and genome characterization of a novel picornavirus from ducks in china.a novel picornavirus, referred to as duck/fc22/china/2017, was isolated from breeding ducks in china and genetically characterized by conducting metagenomics studies. the complete genome consists of a single-stranded, positive-sense rna made up of 7448 nucleotides (nt) and follows the common picornavirus genome layout: 5' utr-vp0-vp3-vp1-2a-2b-2c-3a-3b-3c-3d-3' utr. a typical type-iv internal ribosomal entry site and a conserved 'barbell-like' structure were identified in the 5' utr and 3' utr, ...202032524264
changes of mercury contamination in red-crowned cranes, grus japonensis, in east hokkaido, cranes (grus japonensis) are native to eastern hokkaido (island population), in contrast to the mainland, which migrates between the amur river basin and eastern china-korea peninsula. during the 1990s we found that red-crowned cranes in hokkaido were highly contaminated with mercury: however, the source was unknown. we investigated the time trend of mercury contamination in red-crowned cranes. total mercury levels in the livers and kidneys from cranes dead in the 2000s were lower th ...201222193864
detection of parasitizing coccidia and determination of host crane species, sex and genotype by faecal dna japan, the three main crane species are the endangered red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) inhabiting hokkaido, the northernmost island of japan; the vulnerable hooded crane (grus monacha); and the vulnerable white-naped crane (grus vipio). both the hooded and white-naped cranes migrate in winter to izumi in kyushu, the southern island of japan. in this study, we investigated the cranes and their coccidian parasites, through a targeted molecular approach using faecal dna to develop a noninvas ...201121791031
[changes of reproduction habitat quality of red-crowned crane in zhalong wetlands].based on the maps of habitat factors in zhalong wetlands in 1996 and 2004, two models called habitat suitability index model and nearest neighbor analysis model were established to quantitatively analyze the changes of reproduction habitat quality of red-crowned crane in zhalong wetlands. the results showed that in 1996-2004, the suitable reproduction habitats of red-crowned crane in the wetlands experienced both area loss and functional loss. by the end of 2004, the suitable habitats in the stu ...201021361012
characterization of 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis), an endangered cranes (grus japonensis) were classified as an endangered species by the international union for conservation of nature, but recently, their population has decreased dramatically. for the purpose of conserving this endangered species, 18 microsatellite markers were developed, including 12 newly isolated ones from a genomic library and 6 modified from another crane species. the markers were characterized in 26 red-crowned cranes. as a result, these markers displayed 3-13 alleles, and ...201020662824
oldest playable musical instruments found at jiahu early neolithic site in china.excavations at the early neolithic site of jiahu in henan province, china have produced what may be the earliest complete, playable, tightly-dated multinote musical instruments. jiahu was occupied from 7000 bc to 5700 bc, considerably antedating the well known peiligang culture. here we describe six exquisitely made complete flutes which were found in radiocarbon-dated excavation layers, along with fragments of perhaps 30 more. the flutes are made from the ulnae of the red-crowned crane (grus ja ...199916862110
large-scale survey of mitochondrial d-loop of the red-crowned crane grus japonensis in hokkaido, japan by convenient genotyping method.the red-crowned crane, grus japonensis, is an endangered species of crane that has two separate breeding populations, one in the amur river basin (continental population) and the other in eastern or northern hokkaido, japan (island population). so far, only two haplotypes (gj1 and gj2) have been identified in the mitochondrial d-loop in island population, whereas seven haplotypes have been found in continental population (gj3-gj9). we developed a rapid and inexpensive method of extensive genotyp ...201322972466
testing the utility of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 sequences for phylogenetic estimates of relationships between crane (grus) species.morphology and biogeography are widely used in animal taxonomy. recent study has suggested that a dna-based identification system, using a 648-bp portion of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (co1), also known as the barcoding gene, can aid in the resolution of inferences concerning phylogenetic relationships and for identification of species. however, the effectiveness of dna barcoding for identifying crane species is unknown. we amplified and sequenced 894-bp dna fragments of ...201122194213
respiratory responses to acute heat stress in cranes (gruidae): the effects of tracheal coiling.some species of cranes have extensive coiling of their trachea that substantially increases their anatomical dead space. we subjected individuals of four species of cranes (anthropoides virgo, balearica regulorum, grus grus and grus japonensis) to acute heat stress to investigate the effectiveness of this trait as a thermoregulatory adaptation. we measured cloacal temperature, respiratory flow and frequency and arterial ph during normothermic breathing and thermal panting. extra tracheal length ...19854070839
distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and biota from the zha long wetland, this paper, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) were measured in biota (reed, grass, mussel, fish, and red-crowned crane) and sediments collected from seven locations in the zha long wetland. pahs were recovered from the sediments and biota by ultrasonic extraction and then analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the total pah concentrations were 244-713 ng/g dw in sediments, 82.8-415 ng/g dw in plants and 207-4,780 ng/g dw in animals. the total se ...201322821325
generation and characterization of polyclonal antibody against part of immunoglobulin constant heavy υ chain of goose.immunoglobulin y (abbreviated as igy) is a type of immunoglobulin that is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish blood. igy consists of two light (λ) and two heavy (υ) chains. in the present study, polyclonal antibody against igyfc was generated and evaluated. rigycυ3/cυ4 was expressed in escherichia coli, purified and utilized to raise polyclonal antibody in rabbit. high affinity antisera were obtained, which successfully detected the antigen at a dilution of 1:204,800 for elisa assa ...201425171010
physical body parameters of red-crowned cranes grus japonensis by sex and life stage in eastern hokkaido, (or japanese) cranes grus japonensis are native to eastern hokkaido, japan--the island population, and mainland asia--the continental population that migrates from breeding grounds along the amur river basin to winter in east china and the korean peninsula. the island population was reduced to about 50-60 birds in early part of the 20th century. since 1950s, the population has increased to more than 1,300 as a consequence of human-provided food in winter, resulted in change of their ...201323585489
intestinal undifferentiated carcinoma in a red-crowned crane (grus japonensis).a 33-year-old red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) had a diffuse intestinal thickening from the duodenum to colon. microscopically, neoplastic cells were arranged in sheets and occasionally nests or cords without gland or squamous differentiation. metastatic tumor cells were found in the lungs, heart, kidneys and adrenal glands. immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for pan-cytokeratin and cytokeratin 8 and 18 and only partly positive for e-cadherin antibodies. immuno ...201323391509
monitoring of non-destructive sampling strategies to assess the exposure of avian species in jiangsu province, china to heavy assess the exposure of avian species in jiangsu province, china to eight heavy metals (as, cd, cr, cu, hg, ni, pb and zn), the flight feathers, eggshells and feces of total ten avian species (including four herons, four cranes, one stork and one gull) were collected during march to may in 2012. the total concentrations of as, cd and hg were measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometer; cr, cu, ni, pb and zn were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. the determi ...201424154854
heavy metal contamination status of japanese cranes (grus japonensis) in east hokkaido, japan--extensive mercury pollution.japanese cranes (grus japonensis) of eastern hokkaido, japan, and migrants between the amur river basin and the eastern china-korea peninsula, live around fresh and brackish wetlands. only a few thousand cranes are confirmed to exist in the world, so they are under threat of extinction. to understand the adverse effects of metal accumulation, we measured concentrations of three heavy metals in the liver, kidney, and muscle of 93 japanese cranes from hokkaido. the cranes were classified into six ...200717713219
discovery of fenthion poisoning in two japanese cranes (grus japonensis) found dead in hokkaido, japan. 200415674706
[migration dynamics of grus japonensis in recent years spring and conservation of its habitat in xianghai nature reserve].a survey on the migratory grus japonensis in xianghai wetland was conducted in spring of 1997-2003, and the relationship between migratory dynamics of grus japonensis and changes of wetland eco-environment was analyzed. the population of grus japonensis in xianghai was 32, 25, 64, 92, 72,59 and 14, respectively in the spring of 1997-2003. the smallest number was found in 2003, only 1 breeding pair, and the largest number was found in 2002, including 16 breeding pairs. the earliest year for grus ...200415669477
anatomy of the middle ear of the japanese crane grus japonensis (gruidae: aves).comparative anatomical studies of the avian middle ear provide structural data from which functional models can be derived. subsequent phylogenetic analyses may reveal the phylogenetic history of taxon and the evolution of the functional model of the middle ear. we studied serial sections of a nestling of grus japonensis. the microscopic anatomy of the middle ear (including skeletal parts, nerves, blood vessels, tendons, and tympanic recesses) was described with the help of a polystyrene plate r ...200312833369
[a wintering habitat model for red crown crane].a mathematical model was established based on gis and rs to simulate and predict the habitat distribution of red crown crane(grus japonensis) in yancheng biosphere reserve, jiangsu province, china. the model was tested through calculating the match coefficience of observed and predicted presence/absence data, which was 72.63%, showing that the model could be used to reflect the habitat distribution of red crown crane.200011767554
first molecular detection and characterization of marek's disease virus in red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis): a case report.marek's disease virus (mdv) resides in the genus mardivirus in the family herpesviridae. mdv is a highly contagious virus that can cause neurological lesions, lymphocytic proliferation, immune suppression, and death in avian species, including galliformes (chickens, quails, partridges, and pheasants), strigiformes (owls), anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans), and falconiformes (kestrels).201829615025
[potential habitat and priority protection area of cranes with climate change in the great xing'an mountains, china].to clarify the impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of six crane species in the great xing'an mountains region, and promote the effective protection of these species, we selected key environmental variables such as climate, topography, and vegetation type based on pearson correlation and jackknife analysis, and modeled the potential distribution of six crane species in the great xing'an mountains using maxent with the current and the future climate change scenarios (rcp4.5 and ...201931418249
vigilance responding to number of conspecifics among mixed groups of cranes in demilitarized zone.numerous studies have addressed antipredatory benefits of mixed-species flocks of foragers, but studies on individual's vigilance as a function of group size are limited. in the cheolwon area of the korean demilitarized zone, vigilance of the subordinate white-naped cranes (grus vipio) in 11 groups composed of conspecifics and the dominant red-crowned cranes (grus japonensis) was examined. vigilance correlated negatively with group size due to negative correlation with the number of conspecifics ...201830460088
breeding range shift of the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) under climate change.the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) is an endangered species listed by international union for conservation of nature (iucn) harris j (2013). the largest population of this species is distributed mainly in china and russia, which is called continental population su l (2012)-curt d (1996). this population is migratory, which migrates from its breeding range located in northeast china and southern russia, to the wintering range in the south of china to spend the winter every year. the breeding ...202032163476
mitochondrial genome sequence of echinostoma revolutum from red-crowned crane (grus japonensis).echinostoma revolutum is a zoonotic food-borne intestinal trematode that can cause intestinal bleeding, enteritis, and diarrhea in human and birds. to identify a suspected e. revolutum trematode from a red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) and to reveal the genetic characteristics of its mitochondrial (mt) genome, the internal transcribed spacer (its) and complete mt genome sequence of this trematode were amplified. the results identified the trematode as e. revolutum. its entire mt genome sequenc ...202032145731
genetic diversity of wild wintering red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) by microsatellite markers and mitochondrial cyt b gene sequence in the yancheng reserve.the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) is one of the most endangered cranes in the world, and its wild population is still declining. to characterize the genetic resources of east asian migratory populations, we studied the genetic variation in wild red-crowned cranes at the yancheng reserve. based on a partial cyt b gene sequence, 32 wild red-crowned crane samples were screened from 100 feathers with unknown sample information. twelve haplotypes were detected using 32 wild red-crowned crane sa ...202032037941
whole genome analysis of the red-crowned crane provides insight into avian longevity.the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) is an endangered, large-bodied crane native to east asia. it is a traditional symbol of longevity and its long lifespan has been confirmed both in captivity and in the wild. lifespan in birds is known to be positively correlated with body size and negatively correlated with metabolic rate, though the genetic mechanisms for the red-crowned crane's long lifespan have not previously been investigated. using whole genome sequencing and comparative evolutionary ...202031940721
hepatic transcriptional profile and tissue distribution of cytochrome p450 1-3 genes in the red-crowned crane grus japonensis.the endangered red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) is a protected species in eastern hokkaido and injured specimens are treated with medication. the present study aimed at understanding the expression profiles of cytochrome p450 (cyp) 1-3 genes in red-crowned crane tissues. we used 14 individuals found dead in the wild in eastern hokkaido or in kushiro city zoo. nine cyp1-3 genes expressed in the liver of the red-crowned crane were identified by high-throughput sequencing, and phylogenetically c ...202031669699
red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) prefers postharvest reed beds during winter period in yancheng national nature reserve.reed beds represent an important habitat for the survival of birds by providing favorable foraging and reproduction conditions. reed management, as a traditional agricultural activity, primarily includes water level control and vegetation removal by cutting. red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) is one of the most endangered cranes, and their population continues to decline due to habitat loss caused by artificial activities. a lack of research relating to how reed management affects crane habitat ...201931565583
effects of spartina alterniflora invasion on quality of the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) wintering habitat.the core zone of the yancheng national natural reserve (ynnr) in china is the largest wintering habitat of red-crowned cranes (cranes) in the world. however, the invasion of spartina alterniflora (s. alterniflora) not only changed the original landscape structure of the wetlands but also impacted the cranes' habitats in the ynnr. in this paper, field investigation data and landscape pattern indices were used to analyze the effects of the s. alterniflora invasion on the habitat quality of winteri ...201931127519
red-crowned cranes in autumn migratory flight. 201931036622
the fecal virome of red-crowned cranes.the red-crowned crane is one of the rarest crane species, and its population is decreasing due to loss of habitat, poisoning, and infections. using a viral metagenomics approach, we analyzed the virome of feces from wild and captive red-crowned cranes, which were pooled separately. vertebrate viruses belonging to the families picornaviridae, parvoviridae, circoviridae, and caliciviridae were detected. among the members of the family picornaviridae, we found three that appear to represent new gen ...201930225519
burrow ambient temperature influences helice crab activity and availability for migratory red-crowned cranes grus japonensis.for migratory birds that specialize on particular benthic macroinvertebrate species, the timing of migration is critical since prey availability may be temporally limited and a function of local ambient temperature. hence, variation in local ambient temperature can influence the diet composition of migrant birds, and, consequently, they may be constrained by which stopover and wintering sites they are able to utilize during periods of colder temperatures. here, we use fecal analysis, observer-ba ...202033144981
contamination status of seven elements in hooded cranes wintering in south-west kyushu, japan: comparison with red-crowned cranes in hokkaido, japan.the hooded crane is designated as an endangered species. the cranes breed primarily in wetlands in southeast russia and china in summer. most of the hooded crane population winters in the izumi plain in japan. it is difficult to know the contamination status of their habitat because of their vast breeding area. we determined the levels of cd, pb, as, (total) hg, se, zn, and cu in the liver, kidney, and muscle of hooded cranes that were found dead in izumi in the periods 2003-2006 and 2014-2015 c ...201829855680
effects of montmorillonite on growth performance, serum biochemistry and oxidative stress of red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) fed mycotoxin-contaminated feed.the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) is one of the most vulnerable bird species in the world. mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi and considered naturally unavoidable contaminants in animal feed. our recent survey indicated that the mycotoxins had the potential to contaminate red-crowned crane's regular diets in china.202032713330
red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) reproduction was improved by inhibiting mycotoxins with montmorillonite in feed.the red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) is a vulnerable bird species. mycotoxins are toxic substances produced by filamentous fungi and are considered as naturally unavoidable contaminants in animal feed. our recent survey indicated that feeds designed for captive red-crowned cranes were contaminated with mycotoxins. this study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of the mycotoxin binder montmorillonite on the reproductive behavior, sex hormone levels, and egg quality of red-crown ...202032197419
[characterization of trophic position of red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) influenced by the food resource exhausting].the trophic relations of the red-crowned crane species in zhalong wetland, northeastern china may change significantly withrapid decrease of biological resources. in this paper, the influence of food resource exhausting on the trophic levels of this vulnerable species was determined by using stable isotope (δ13c and δ15n) methods. the results indicated that the mass of δ13c and 15n in the red-crowned cranes were in the range of -17.8‰ to -18.5‰ and 6.9‰ to 8.1‰, respectively. the dominant food c ...201729741065
habitat-dependent changes in vigilance behaviour of red-crowned crane influenced by wildlife tourism.the endangered red-crowned crane (grus japonensis) is one of the most culturally iconic and sought-after species by wildlife tourists. here we investigate how the presence of tourists influence the vigilance behaviour of cranes foraging in suaeda salsa salt marshes and s. salsa/phragmites australis mosaic habitat in the yellow river delta, china. we found that both the frequency and duration of crane vigilance significantly increased in the presence of wildlife tourists. increased frequency in c ...201729192203
isolation and characterization of low pathogenic h7n7 avian influenza virus from a red-crowned crane in a zoo in south korea.south korea conducts annual national surveillance programs to detect avian influenza (ai) in domestic poultry, live bird markets, and wild birds. in march 2017, an aiv was isolated from fecal samples in an outdoor aviary flight cage in a zoo in korea.202033167987
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