esterification of 4- 14 c-cholesterol by phytophthora cactorum. 19725061183
[effect of pentachloronitrobenzene (pcnb) on the ultrastructure of mucor mucedo and phytophthora cactorum].the effect of pcnb in various concentrations on the ultrastructure of mucor mucedo and phytophthora cactorum was analyzed after an incubation period of 2 hours. the most striking effect in both fungi was a diffuse lysis of the internal structure of the mitochondria which differs markedly from the lysis induced by etridiazol (terrazol). moreover an enlargement of the perinuclear space and an increased formation of vacuoles was observed. in mucor mucedo, but not in phytophthora cactorum a patholog ...19827123992
endophytic bacterial communities of field-grown potato plants and their plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic study the effect of plant growth on potato-associated bacteria, the composition and properties of bacteria colonizing the endosphere of field-grown potato were analyzed by a multiphasic approach. the occurrence and diversity of potato-associated bacteria were monitored by a cultivation-independent approach, using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16s rdna. the patterns obtained revealed a high heterogeneity of community composition and suggested the existence of pl ...200415213748
main compounds responsible for off-odour of strawberries infected by phytophthora cactorum.volatile compounds present in strawberries infected with phytophthora cactorum, especially those responsible for the characteristic off-odour of such fruits were the subject of this study.200515752214
[screening strains for trichoderma spp. for strong antagonism against ginseng root pathogens and study on their biological characters].to screen the trichodenna spp. for strong antagonist against ginseng root pathogens.200617225530
biocontrol of phytophthora cactorum the causal agent of root and crown rot on apple (malus domestica) by formulated pseudomonas this study 284 isolates were isolated of apple trees' rhizosphere from iran and 128 isolates were obtained from the collection of research department of biological control of university of tehran. four strains (p60, p61, p96, and p97) of pseudomonas fluorescens were selected for greenhouse trials. the results of greenhouse trials showed dipping the crown and root of apple seedlings (mm106) combined with soil drench was more effective than dipping the crown and root on reducing the disease. af ...200718396826
antidoting toxin of phytophthora cactorum as a means of plant disease control. 194117729946
efficacy of fungicides against phytophthora cactorum on viola.phytophthora cactorum caused significant losses to pansies during the heat wave at the end of the summer of 2006. infected plants showed foliage that appeared stunted and chlorotic, with wilting occurring even when soil moisture was adequate. when uprooted, symptomatic plants typically possess a surprisingly healthy looking and well-developed root system, but stem and root tissue at the soil interface is discoloured (purple to dark brown) and soft. older leaves turn yellow and when the stem base ...200920222560
substrate specificity of streptomyces transglutaminases.transglutaminase (tgase) is a multifunctional enzyme vital for many physiologic processes, such as cell differentiation, tissue regeneration, and plant pathogenicity. the acyl transfer function of the enzyme can activate primary amines and, consequently, attach them onto a peptidyl glutamine, a reaction important for various in vivo and in vitro protein crosslinking and modification processes. to understand better the structure-function relationship of the enzyme and to develop it further as an ...200717625235
effect of steric and nuclear changes in steroids and triterpenoids on sexual reproduction in phytophthora cactorum.the comparative biological activity of 21 naturally occurring or synthetically derived steroids, 7 tetracyclic and pentacylic triterpenoids, and antheridiol incubated with cultures of phytophthora cactorum has been examined. there was greater dependence on precise steric features of the sterol side chain than on the extent of nuclear unsaturation in inducing oospore formation. there was no significant effect on oospore formation by changing nuclear unsaturation in ring b from delta(5) to delta(7 ...198016661523
evidence for metabolic and functional discrimination of sterols by phytophthora cactorum.when fed 10 ppm of one of the following sterols: cholesterol (cholest-5-en-3beta-ol), wingsterol (21-isopentylcholesterol), desmosterol [cholesta-5,24(25)-dien-3beta-ol], 24-methylenecholesterol [ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol], or fucosterol [stigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol], the pathogenic fungus phytophthora cactorum, which is naturally unable to epoxidize squalene, accumulated each of the test compounds to similar levels. fucosterol, the only sterol metabolized, was reduced to yield 24-ethy ...198316593322
signum, a new fungicide with interesting properties in resistance management of fungal diseases in strawberries.signum, a new fungicide developed by basf, was applied during 6 successive years against fungal diseases in strawberries. the product is formulated as a water dispersible granule, containing 6.7 % pyraclostrobin and 26.7 % boscalid. pyraclostrobin is similar in chemistry to other strobilurin fungicides like kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin, registered for fruit disease control. boscalid belongs to the class of carboxyanilides. both components in the premix formulation combine two different bi ...200415756865
genetic variation between phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry.analysis of 44 isolates of phytophthora cactorum, isolated from strawberry and other hosts, by aflp showed that the crown rot pathotype is different from leather rot isolates and from p. cactorum isolated from other hosts. 16 of 23 crown rot isolates, including isolates from europe, japan, australia, and new zealand, were identical in an analysis based on 96 polymorphic bands from seven primer combinations. leather rot isolates of strawberry could not be distinguished from isolates from other ho ...200415185982
single-strand-conformation polymorphism of ribosomal dna for rapid species differentiation in genus phytophthora.single-strand-conformation polymorphism (sscp) of ribosomal dna of 29 species (282 isolates) of phytophthora was characterized in this study. phytophthora boehmeriae, phytophthora botryosa, phytophthora cactorum, phytophthora cambivora, phytophthora capsici, phytophthora cinnamomi, phytophthora colocasiae, phytophthora fragariae, phytophthora heveae, phytophthora hibernalis, phytophthora ilicis, phytophthora infestans, phytophthora katsurae, phytophthora lateralis, phytophthora meadii, phytophth ...200312892637
amino acid sequence of the alpha-elicitin secreted by phytophthora cactorum.elicitins are toxic, signalling proteins secreted by phytophthora spp. responsible for the incompatible reaction and systemic leaf necroses. we have sequenced the least toxic known elicitin, which is secreted by phytophthora cactorum and belongs to the alpha-elicitin class. this 98 residue sequence was compared to eight other known elicitins. in addition to the point mutation already observed to correlate with the differences in necrotic activities, we confirmed the existence of amino acid chang ...19937764283
dolichols, ubiquinones, geranylgeraniol and farnesol as the major metabolites of mevalonate in phytophthora cactorum.farnesol, geranylgeraniol, dolichols and ubiquinones were the main radioactive components of the unsaponifiable lipid recovered from phytophthora cactorum grown in aerated cultures containing [2-(14)c]mevalonate. the (14)c recovered in each of these components was in the approximate proportion 2:4:3:5. when the culture was not aerated no radioactive ubiquinone was recovered. most of the (14)c recovered in the dolichols was found in dolichol-15 (37%), with decreasing amounts in dolichol-14 (30%) ...19724643705
streptomycin resistance and morphological variation in phytophthora cactorum. 19685653232
competition and synergism between cholesterol and cholestanol in oospore formation in phytophthora cactorum. 19685653225
the sterol requirement of phytophthora cactorum. 19665915375
the influence of sterols on meiosis in phytophthora cactorum. 1977319196
antifungal activity from polar and non-polar extracts of some chenopodiaceae wild species growing in tunisia.nine plants belonging to chenopodiaceae family were collected around salt marshes near monastir, located in the east mediterranean coast of tunisia. they were tested for their antifungal activities against six plant pathogenic fungi: botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, f. solani f. sp. cucurbitae, phytophthora cactorum, rhizoctonia solani and nattrassia mangiferae. data of this study showed that the highest inhibition of botrytis cinerea growth was observed with the petroleum eth ...200919452345
rolc strawberry plant adaptability, productivity, and tolerance to soil-borne disease and mycorrhizal interactions.the potential to improve strawberry cultivation was assessed regarding the use the rolc genes from agrobacterium rhizogenes that can confer higher levels of free cytokinins. strawberry (cv. calypso) rolc lines were produced by genetic transformation of agrobacterium tumefaciens. yield and fruit quality of the control and transgenic lines were measured under open-field conditions. the effects of the transgenic rolc lines depended on gene copy number: rolc lines with one (line a) or two gene (line ...200919466576
solution structure of the phytotoxic protein pcf: the first characterized member of the phytophthora pcf toxin family.the pcf protein from phytophthora cactorum is the first member of the "pcf toxin family" from the plant pathogens phytophthora spp. it is able to induce withering in tomato and strawberry leaves. the lack of sequence similarity with other proteins hampers the identification of the molecular mechanisms responsible for its toxicity. here, we show that the six cysteines form a disulphide pattern that is exclusive for pcf and essential for the protein withering activity. the nmr solution structure i ...200919554629
[a preliminary report on the phytophthora root rot of panax ginseng c.a. meyer].it has been found that phytophthora cactorum mainly infects ginseng roots and causes phytophthora roots rot without symptoms on the leaves. the results of fungistatic test indicate that mycelial growth of the pathogen can be inhibited completely by mancozeb and metalaxyl at 100 ppm in vitro.19902350420
one unique steroidal sapogenin obtained through the microbial transformation of ruscogenin by phytophthora cactorum atcc 32134 and its potential inhibitory effect on tissue factor (tf) procoagulant activity.with the aim to obtain more effective tissue factor (tf) inhibitors, the microbial transformation of three steroidal sapogenins, ruscogenin (1), diosgenin (2) and sarsasapogenin (3), was carried out and only ruscogenin was selectivity converted to 1-hydroxy-spirost-4-en-3-one (4) by phytophthora cactorum atcc 32134. the in vitro anti-tf procoagulant activity of this metabolite was enhanced almost 10 times to an ic(50) value of 0.29 microm. the chemical assignments of compound 4 were made unambig ...201020561785
identification and analysis of phytophthora cactorum genes up-regulated during cyst germination and strawberry infection.the oomycete phytophthora cactorum can cause economically important diseases on numerous host plants worldwide, such as crown rot on strawberry. to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of p. cactorum on strawberry, transcriptional analysis of p. cactorum during strawberry infection and cyst germination was performed by applying suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) and effector-specific differential display (esdd) techniques. two ssh cdna libraries were generated, ...201121698431
pseudomonas fluorescens f113 mutant with enhanced competitive colonization ability and improved biocontrol activity against fungal root pathogens.motility is one of the most important traits for efficient rhizosphere colonization by pseudomonas fluorescens f113rif (f113). in this bacterium, motility is a polygenic trait that is repressed by at least three independent pathways, including the gac posttranscriptional system, the wsp chemotaxis-like pathway, and the sadb pathway. here we show that the kinb gene, which encodes a signal transduction protein that together with algb has been implicated in alginate production, participates in swim ...201121685161
comparative structural and functional characterization of putative protein effectors belonging to the pcf toxin family from phytophthora spp.the pcf toxin family (pfam 09461) includes the characterized phytotoxic protein pcf from phytophthora cactorum, as well as several predicted protein effectors from other phytophthora species recently identified by comparative genomics. here we provide first evidence that such 'putatives', recombinantly expressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity, similarly to pcf, can trigger defense-related responses on tomato, that is leaf withering and phenylalanine ammonia lyase induction, although wit ...201121936011
two widely accessible media for growth and reproduction of phytophthora and pythium species.tomato agar and soybean agar were found to be comparable to or in some cases better than the popular v8 vegetable juice agar in supporting linear growth of phytophthora cactorum, phytophthora capsici, phytophthora parasitica, pythium aphanidermatum, and pythium splendens; sporangium production of p. capsici, p. palmivora, and pythium splendens; and oospore formation of p. cactorum, p. parasitica, pythium aphanidermatum and pythium splendens. these two media with readily accessible ingredients ca ...199316349002
patterns of diversifying selection in the phytotoxin-like scr74 gene family of phytophthora infestans.phytophthora infestans, the organism responsible for the irish famine, causes late blight, a re-emerging disease of potato and tomato. little is known about the molecular evolution of p. infestans genes. to identify candidate effector genes (virulence or avirulence genes) that may have co-evolved with the host, we mined expressed sequence tag (est) data from infection stages of p. infestans for secreted and potentially polymorphic genes. this led to the identification of scr74, a gene that encod ...200515548752
[effect of organic amendments on soil fungi community and continuous cropping panax quinquefolium].to study the effect of different organic amendments treated replant soil and to find the relations between the soil fungi community and the growth of panax quinquefolium l. seedling.200818973004
pcf protein from phytophthora cactorum and its recombinant homologue elicit phenylalanine ammonia lyase activation in tomato.the phytotoxic protein pcf (phytophthora cactorum-fragaria) is a 5.6-kda cysteine-rich, hydroxyproline-containing protein that is secreted in limited amounts by p. cactorum, an oomycete pathogen of tomato, strawberry and other relevant crop plants. although we have shown that pure pcf triggers plant reactivity, its mechanism of action is not yet understood. here we show that pcf, like other known fungal protein elicitors involved in pathogen-plant interaction, stimulates the activity of the defe ...200312943233
uptake and metabolism of cholesterol and cholesteryl oleate by phytophthora cactorum. 19744855328
metabolism of delta7- and delta5,7-sterols by phytophthora cactorum.delta7- and delta5,7-sterols are converted to the corresponding delta5-sterols by phytophthora cactorum. when delta7-sterols were supplied to the fungus, delta5- and delta7-sterols were recovered in an acetone extract of the mycelium, the proportion of delta5-sterol being higher in the free sterol fraction than in the esters. when delta5,7-sterols were supplied, delta5-sterols were recovered. no delta5,7-sterols were found in the mycelium. the initial rate of uptake of the sterols was in the ord ...1976952995
monacrosporium janus sp. nov., a new nematode-trapping hyphomycete parasitizing sclerotia and hyphae of sclerotinia sclerotiorum.during an investigation of mycoparasitic fungi on sclerotia of sclerotinia sclerotiorum in china, a new fungal species was consistently encountered and isolated from natural soils taken from soybean fields of shandong and jiangsu provinces. the fungus is featured by its sphaeroid conidia with 1-2 transverse septa, but mostly (>65%) with only one septum at the base. it resembles monacrosporium indicum, m. sphaeroides and m. sinense, but can be distinguished from the first two species by lack of b ...200312967217
transcriptional activity of antifungal metabolite-encoding genes phld and hcnbc in pseudomonas spp. using qrt-pcr.production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-dapg) and hydrogen cyanide (hcn) by pseudomonas spp. shows great potential for controlling soilborne plant pathogens. however, little is known about the transcriptional activity of phl and hcn genes encoding 2,4-dapg and hcn, respectively. to progress toward a better understanding of what triggers phl and hcn expression under rhizosphere conditions, novel pcr primers and taqman probes were designed to monitor relative phld and hcnbc expression in qua ...200919573202
ginsenosides stimulate the growth of soilborne pathogens of american ginseng.ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) were isolated from soil associated with the roots of commercially grown american ginseng (panax quinquefolius l.), identified via lc-ms and quantified via analytical hplc. the ginsenosides, including f(11), rb(1), rb(2), rc, rd, re and rg(1), represented between 0.02 and 0.098% (average 0.06%) of the mass of the soil collected from roots annually between 1999 and 2002. the same ginsenosides were also isolated from run-off of undisturbed plants grown in pots in a g ...200312946424
phytotoxic protein pcf, purification, characterization, and cdna sequencing of a novel hydroxyproline-containing factor secreted by the strawberry pathogen phytophthora cactorum.a novel protein factor, named pcf, has been isolated from the culture filtrate of phytophthora cactorum strain p381 using a highly sensitive leaf necrosis bioassay with tomato seedlings. isolated pcf protein alone induced leaf necrosis on its host strawberry plant. the primary structure and cdna sequence of this novel phytotoxic protein was determined, and blast searches of swiss-prot, embl, and genbank(tm)/ebi data banks showed that pcf shared no significant homology with other known sequences. ...200111262411
natural hybrids of phytophthora nicotianae and phytophthora cactorum demonstrated by isozyme analysis and random amplified polymorphic dna.abstract three similar isolates of phytophthora (phytophthora sp-h) were obtained from diseased spathiphyllum and primula plants. cultural characteristics did not fit any known description of phytophthora species. the phytophthora sp-h isolates are papillate, are homothallic, possess 80 to 86% amphigynous antheridia, and have a maximum temperature for growth of 36.5 degrees c. isozyme analysis of the phytophthora sp-h isolates revealed a three-banded pattern with malic enzyme and a three-banded ...199818944870
elucidation of the microbial complex having a causal role in the development of apple replant disease in washington.abstract systematic studies were conducted to elucidate the role of different soil microbial groups in the development of apple replant disease. populations of targeted microorganisms were reduced by the application of semiselective biocides and soil pasteurization. bacteria were not implicated in the disease, because application of the antibiotic chloramphenicol reduced soil populations of bacteria but failed to improve growth of apple transplants, while enhanced growth was achieved at pasteuri ...199818944871
the value of 21 amino acids as nitrogen sources for phytophthora cactorum and p. heveae. 19715131756
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