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[determination of an elisa test on tissues of grapevine affected by yellow disease].we report here results concerning the best part of the grapevine to section, the best sampling period and an important adaptation of the extraction media for the diagnosis of a grapevine yellow disease by elisa. the addition of triton-x100, or better of chaps enabled us to get clear results for the sensitive vitis vinifera scion varieties. until now, results have not been obtained for the symptomless root stock varieties. however, antigen concentration by molecular filtration may be a way to sol ...19921298032
polygalacturonase is a virulence factor in agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 3.agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 3 causes both crown gall and root decay of grapes. all biovar 3 strains, regardless of their tumorigenicity, produce in culture a single polygalacturonase with a pi around 4.5. a. tumefaciens biovar 3 strain cg49 was mutagenized with tn5 by using psup2021 as a suicide vector. a mutant strain, cg50, lacking polygalacturonase activity was isolated. the mutation was due to a single tn5 insertion in an 8.5-kb ecori fragment that also contained the polygalacturonase s ...19911655716
the effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.the effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive fe method. the corrected geometric mean fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, p less than 0.01). ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for t ...19873593665
gonadotropin promotion of adventitious root production on cuttings of begonia semperflorens and vitis vinifera.adventitious rooting of begonia semperflorens cv. indian maid and vitis vinifera cv. semillon stem cuttings was significantly promoted by human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg). basal sections of hcg treated cuttings upon which promoted rooting took place had markedly less endogenous gibberellin (ga) activity than non-treated controls or apical sections of treated ones, while changes in auxin levels were not found. hcg also inhibited ga(3)-induced reducing sugar release from embryoless barley endosp ...19685641189
[anthocyanosides extracted from vitis vinifera, vaccinium myrtillus and pinus maritimus. i. elastase-inhibiting activities in vitro. ii. compared angioprotective activities in vivo]. 19836553084
cloning and molecular analysis of structural genes involved in flavonoid and stilbene biosynthesis in grape (vitis vinifera l.).genes involved in flavonoid and stilbene biosynthesis were isolated from grape (vitis vinifera l.). clones coding for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal), chalcone synthase (chs), chalcone isomerase (chi), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (f3h), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (dfr), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (ldox) and udp glucose:flavonoid 3-o-glucosyl transferase (ufgt), were isolated by screening a cdna library, obtained from mrna from seedlings grown in light for 48 h using snapdragon (antirrhinum ma ...19948193299
the amino-acid sequence similarity of plant glutamate dehydrogenase to the extremophilic archaeal enzyme conforms to its stress-related function.a cdna clone encoding grapevine (vitis vinifera l. cv sultanina) nad(h)-glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) was isolated from a cdna expression library by immunoscreening with a polyclonal antibody raised against grapevine gdh. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (orf) encoding a precursor protein of 411 amino acids (aa) with a calculated molecular mass of 44.517 kda. the deduced aa sequence showed relatively higher homology to gdh from archaebacteria species, than to those fro ...19968626071
procyanidines from vitis vinifera seeds protect rabbit heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury: antioxidant intervention and/or iron and copper sequestering ability.an isolated rabbit heart langendorff preparation paced electrically was used to evaluate the effects of a highly purified, high molecular weight fraction of oligomeric procyanidines isolated from vitis vinifera seeds on myocardial reperfusion injury after 40 minutes of low flow (1 ml/min) ischemia. infusion of the heart with 100 or 200 micrograms/ml procyanidines dose-dependently reduced ventricular contracture during ischemia (lvedp values decreased by 28% and 51%), decreased coronary perfusion ...19969000880
indigenous yeasts associated with two vitis vinifera grape varieties cultured in southern spain.the yeast microbiota present on the surface of grapes of two vitis vinifera varieties, pedro ximénez and tempranillo de rioja, grown in the montilla-moriles region of southern spain was identified. the changes between veraison and the physiological ripeness time during 3 years were monitored. overall, the yeast microbiota isolated was of oxidative metabolism. sporobolomyces roseus and cryptococcus albidus species occurred at all physiological stages, in the two vitis vinifera varieties, and the ...199910582378
enhancement of in vitro growth and resistance to gray mould of vitis vinifera co-cultured with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.the potential of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, pseudomonas sp. (strain psjn), to stimulate the growth and enhancement of the resistance of grapevine (vitis vinifera l.) transplants to gray mould caused by botrytis cinerea has been investigated. in vitro inoculation of grapevine plantlets induced a significant plant growth promotion which made them more hardy and vigorous when compared to non-inoculated plantlets. this ability increased upon transplanting. when grown together with b. c ...200010779718
the generation of active oxygen species differs in tobacco and grapevine mesophyll protoplasts.our previous results have shown that oxidative stress may reduce the regeneration potential of protoplasts, but only protoplasts that are able to supply extracellularly h(2)o(2) can actually divide (c.i. siminis, a.k. kanellis, k.a. roubelakis-angelakis [1993] physiol plant 87: 263-270; c.i. siminis, a.k. kanellis, k.a. roubelakis-angelakis [1994] plant physiol 1105: 1375-1383; a. de marco, k.a. roubelakis-angelakis [1996a] plant physiol 110: 137-145; a. de marco, k.a. roubelakis-angelakis [1996 ...199910482675
isolation of isolectins from vitis vinifera l. cv. chardonnay grape berries.a lectin fraction from chardonnay grape juice has been isolated by affinity chromatography on a column of p-aminophenyl beta-d-glucoside-derivatized agarose. the lectin fractions agglutinate rabbit and human erythrocytes without serological specificity. none of the usual monosaccharides, glycosides, or glycoproteins inhibit the hemagglutinating activity. erythroagglutination is only inhibited by nitrophenyl glycosides, p-nitrophenyl beta-d-glucoside being the strongest inhibitor. in sds-page in ...199910794608
stilbene compounds: from the grapevine to wine.stilbenes are natural compounds occurring in a number of plant families, including vitaceae and (within this family) vitis vinifera l., which is the most important species grown worldwide for grape and wine production. stilbenes (resveratrol and viniferins) are present in grapevine as constitutive compounds of the woody organs (roots, canes, stems) and as induced substances (in leaves and fruit) acting as phytoalexins in the mechanisms of grape resistance against certain pathogens. resveratrol ( ...199910370866
diet enriched with procyanidins enhances antioxidant activity and reduces myocardial post-ischaemic damage in rats.aim of this work was to study the efficacy of procyanidins from vitis vinifera seeds, a standardized mixture of polyphenol antioxidants, on cardiac mechanics following ischemia/reperfusion stunning in the rat, after 3 weeks supplementation. young and aged male rats were fed a diet enriched with procyanidins complexed (1:3 w/w) with soybean lecithin (2.4%); control animals (ctr-young and ctr-aged) received an equal amount of lecithin and 2 additional groups of animals the standard diet. at the en ...199910069526
purification and characterization of a nadph-dependent aldehyde reductase from mung bean that detoxifies eutypine, a toxin from eutypa lata1eutypine (4-hydroxy-3-[3-methyl-3-butene-1-ynyl] benzaldehyde) is a toxin produced by eutypa lata, the causal agent of eutypa dieback in the grapevine (vitis vinifera). eutypine is enzymatically converted by numerous plant tissues into eutypinol (4-hydroxy-3-[3-methyl-3-butene-1-ynyl] benzyl alcohol), a metabolite that is nontoxic to grapevine. we report a four-step procedure for the purification to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity of a eutypine-reducing enzyme (ere) from etiolated mung bean ...19999952458
a novel nadph-dependent aldehyde reductase gene from vigna radiata confers resistance to the grapevine fungal toxin eutypine.eutypine, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-3-butene-1-ynyl) benzyl aldehyde, is a toxin produced by eutypa lata, the causal agent of eutypa dieback of grapevines. it has previously been demonstrated that tolerance of some cultivars to this disease was correlated with their capacity to convert eutypine to the corresponding alcohol, eutypinol, which lacks phytotoxicity. we have thus purified to homogeneity a protein from vigna radiata that exhibited eutypine-reducing activity and have isolated the correspond ...19989881154
antidotal effect of grape juice (vitis vinifera) on ochratoxin a caused hepatorenal carcinogenesis in mice (mus musculus).oral administration of ochratoxin a to young weanling mice (mus musculus) caused several haematological changes and induced hepatoma and renal carcinoma. concurrent administration of berry and leaf juice of the common grape (vitis vinifera) to mice together with ochratoxin a significantly reduced the hepatic and renal damage caused by ingestion of this mycotoxin. none of the animals receiving berry/leaf juice of v. vinifera showed the formation of hepatorenal carcinoma whereas 25% of animals rec ...19989734345
population diversity in grapevine yellow speckle viroid-1 and the relationship to disease expression.vitis vinifera cultivars zinfandel-1a and mission were found to harbor different grapevine yellow speckle viroid-1 (gysvd-1) variants and characterized to define the relationship to yellow speckle (ys) and vein-banding (vb) diseases. products from the left terminal (t1), pathogenic (p), and a portion of the central (c) domains of zinfandel-1a and mission displayed distinct single-stranded conformation polymorphism (sscp) patterns, presumably reflecting nucleotide changes in the p domain. the two ...19989721250
establishment of an agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for grape (vitis vinifera l.): the role of antioxidants during grape-agrobacterium interactions.very short exposures of embryogenic calli of vitis vinifera cv. superior seedless grape plants to diluted cultures of agrobacterium resulted in plant tissue necrosis and subsequent cell death. antibiotics used for agrobacterium elimination or as plant selectable markers were not responsible for this necrotic response. rather, cell death seemed to be oxygen-dependent and correlated with elevated levels of peroxides. therefore, we studied the effects on necrosis of various combinations of antioxid ...19969630955
sparing effect of procyanidins from vitis vinifera on vitamin e: in vitro studies.the sparing/recycling effect of a highly purified, high molecular weight fraction of catechin oligomers (procyanidins) from vitis vinifera seeds on alpha-tocopherol was studied in both homogeneous solution and in heterogeneous phase (phosphatidylcholine liposomes and red blood cells). by hplc and electron spin resonance (esr) spectroscopy we evidenced that tocopheroxyl radical, induced by reaction of alpha-tocopherol with the stable radical dpph (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) is recycled by pro ...19989619118
isolation, identification, and antioxidant activity of three stilbene glucosides newly extracted from vitis vinifera cell culturessuspension cultures of vitis vinifera l. (vitaceae) produce many hydroxylated stilbene glucosides found in red wine. from these cells, we isolated and characterized glycosylated stilbenes, (z)-piceatannol (3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxystilbene) -3-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (6) and (e)- and (z)-resveratrol (3,5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene)-4'-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2 and 7, respectively), which have not previously reported to be constituents of vitis vinifera or wine. the ability of these compounds to act ...19989599270
effects of leucocyanidines on activities of metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant enzymes.procyanidolic oligomers (leucocyanidines, lcs) extracted from grape seeds (vitis vinifera) are known to have antioxidant and antimutagenic activities, and a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. in the present study we examined the influence of lcs on the activities of phase 1 enzymes and conjugation enzymes and on antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. administration of lcs (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg. p.o. for 7 d) markedly decreased the ...200111379789
quasispecies nature of the genome of grapevine fanleaf virus.genetic diversity was characterized in 14 isolates of grapevine fanleaf virus (gflv) recovered from grapevine (vitis vinifera). virions were collected by immunocapture, and a 1557 bp fragment containing part of the viral coat protein gene and part of the untranslated region to its 3' side was amplified by rt-pcr. sequence variation among isolates was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis and by sequencing. the avaii-generated rflp patterns from the various iso ...200111413392
comparative study of radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from vitis vinifera cell cultures using in vitro tests.vitis vinifera cell suspensions were used to isolate and characterize the flavonoids (anthocyanins, catechins) and non-flavonoids (stilbenes) found in red wine. furthermore, we showed that astringin is produced although this stilbene has not previously been reported to be a constituent of v. vinifera or wine. the ability of these compounds to act as radical scavengers was investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (dpph), a stable free radical. antioxidant activities were assessed by thei ...19979395251
indications for post-translational regulation of vitis vinifera l. arginine decarboxylase.in order to study arginine decarboxylase regulation, we produced an antiserum against a hybrid of a 615 amino acid residue fragment of grapevine arginine decarboxylase cdna with maltose-binding protein. the antiserum generated recognized mainly a protein band of ca. 80 kda in extracts from grapevine tissues. extracts from leaves and internodes in different developmental stages showed differences in the quantity of the 80 kda band recognized by the antiserum. however, these differences did not co ...200111430429
characterization and expression of caffeoyl-coenzyme a 3-o-methyltransferase proposed for the induced resistance response of vitis vinifera l.cell-suspension cultures of vitis vinifera l. cv pinot noir accumulated resveratrol upon fungal elicitation, and the activity of s-adenosyl-l-methionine:trans-caffeoyl-coenzyme a 3-o-methyl-transferase (ccoaomt), yielding feruloyl-coa, increased to a transient maximum at 12 to 15 h. ccoaomt cdna was cloned from the elicited cells and was shown to encode a polypeptide highly homologous to ccoaomts from cells of petroselinum species or zinnia species. the expression of the cdna in escherichia coli ...19979390437
differential expression of chitinases in vitis vinifera l. responding to systemic acquired resistance activators or fungal challenge.the concept of systemic acquired resistance (sar) enables a novel approach to crop protection, and particular pathogenesis-related proteins, i.e. an acidic chitinase, have been classified as markers of the sar response. basic class i (vchit1b) and a class iii (vch3) chitinase cdnas were cloned from cultured vitis vinifera l. cv pinot noir cells and used to probe the induction response of grapevine cells to salicylic acid or yeast elicitor. furthermore, the cells were treated with the commercial ...19979390436
polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.over the past few years, it has been accepted that a moderate red wine consumption is a factor beneficial to human health. indeed, people of france and italy, the two major wine-producing european countries, eat a lot of fatty foods but suffer less from fatal heart strokes than people in north-america or in the northern regions of europe, where wine is not consumed on a regular basis. for a time, ethanol was thought to be the "good" chemical species hiding behind what is known as the "french par ...19979388306
a hemicellulose b fraction from grape skin (vitis vinifera, palomino variety).the structure of a hemicellulose b fraction (b-1) isolated from grape skins (vitis vinifera) of the palomino variety has been studied by methylation analysis, (1)h nmr and (13)c nmr spectroscopy, and partial acid hydrolysis. hemicellulose b-1 appeared to be homogeneous by gel filtration with a weight-average molecular weight of 22 600. this polysaccharide is a linear xyloglucan chain composed of xylopyranosyl and glucopyranosyl residues linked by beta-(1-->4) glycosidic bonds. attached to this b ...200111575951
pesticide applications of copper on perennial crops in california, 1993 to 1998.inorganic copper is used as a broad-spectrum fungicide and bacteriocide on a variety of agricultural crops. after application, the copper residue typically accumulates in the upper 15 cm of soil. data from the california pesticide use reports were used to estimate the augmentation of copper in the soil that resulted from pesticide applications for the six years from 1993 to 1998 on 12 crops that are grown without rotation. the estimated mean mg cu kg(-1) soil added to the upper 15 cm during the ...200111577894
a comparison of the hydroxyl radical scavenging properties of the shark bile steroid 5 beta-scymnol and plant pycnogenols.the hydroxyl radical (oh.) quenching abilities of the following compounds were compared in the deoxyribose degradation system (initiated by the ferrous-ascorbate fenton reaction): (a) 5 beta-scymnol, the hepatoprotective shark bile sterol, and its mono- and di-sulfate esters; (b) three marketed pycnogenol preparations (syn: proanthocyanidin--natural plant-derived polyphenolic bioflavonoids) extracted from pine tree (pinus maritima) bark and grape (vitis vinifera) seeds; and (c) two known hydroxy ...19979305543
identification and characterization of a fruit-specific, thaumatin-like protein that accumulates at very high levels in conjunction with the onset of sugar accumulation and berry softening in grapes.the protein composition of the grape (vitis vinifera cv muscat of alexandria) berry was examined from flowering to ripeness by gel electrophoresis. a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 24 kd, which was one of the most abundant proteins in extracts of mature berries, was purified and identified by amino acid sequence to be a thaumatin-like protein. combined cdna sequence analysis and electrospray mass spectrometry revealed that this protein, vvtl1 (for v. vinifera thaumatin-like protein 1 ...19979232867
the parentage of a classic wine grape, cabernet sauvignon.the world's great wines are produced from a relatively small number of classic european cultivars of vitis vinifera l most are thought to be centuries old and their origins have long been the subject of speculation. among the most prominent of these cultivars is cabernet sauvignon, described as "the world's most renowned grape variety for the production of fine red wine". although now grown in many countries, cabernet sauvignon derives its fame from its long association with the bordeaux region ...19979140400
variation of viroid profiles in individual grapevine plants: novel grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 mutants show alterations of hairpin i.this is the first report which gives a general survey about viroid variant composition in a vineyard and within single plants. a german vineyard with 20-year-old grapevines (vitis vinifera) of the cultivars 'bacchus' and 'kerner' was analysed for viroid infections. only grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (gysvd1) and the grapevine isolate of hop stunt viroid (hsvdg) were detected. both viroids occur in several sequence variations. eighteen novel gysvd1 variants and two previously published hsvdg ...19968558124
disease resistance results from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant.although phytoalexins have long been inferred to be important in the defence of plants against fungal infection, there are few reports showing that they provide resistance to infection. several plants, including grapevine, synthesize the stilbene-type phytoalexin resveratrol when attacked by pathogens. stilbenes with fungicidal potential are formed in several unrelated plant species, such as peanut (arachis hypogaea), grapevine (vitis vinifera) and pine (pinus sylvestris). stilbene biosynthesis ...19938421520
coat protein gene sequence of an austrian isolate of grapevine fanleaf virus.the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein cistron of an austrian isolate of grapevine fanleaf virus (gflv-fc) from vitis vinifera cv. french colombard was determined. it shows small differences at the rna level as well as at the protein level compared to the sequences of already published grapevine fanleaf virus strains. the differences may be a result of the natural variation among virus populations or a consequence of selection in a special host plant. as the virus rna sequence reported here ...19957646340
mutagen content of table wines made from various grape species and hybrid cultivars.the mutagen content of wines produced from the european vitis vinifera grapes was compared with that of wines produced from hybrids of v. vinifera and species indigenous to north america. mutagens were extracted on an xad-2 amberlite resin column and activated with s-9 and/or faecalase in the salmonella/microsomal mutagen assay. all white wines had insignificant mutagen levels. the only red wine to produce statistically significant reversion frequencies was that made from the concord grape. the ...19846373529
immunocharacterization of vitis vinifera l. ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase, and its spatial and temporal changes during leaf development.the grapevine (vitis vinifera l.) partial fragment of cdna clone pgogat1 [loulakakis and roubelakis-angelakis (1997) physiol plant 101:220-228], encoding the ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (fd-gogat; ec 1.4.7.1), was overexpressed in escherichia coli cells. a hybrid between the fd-gogat fragment and maltose-binding protein was purified and used to raise a polyclonal antibody in a rabbit. the prepared antibody appeared to be specific towards fd-gogat; it recognized a protein band of appr ...200212172846
analysis of the expression of anthocyanin pathway genes in developing vitis vinifera l. cv shiraz grape berries and the implications for pathway regulation.anthocyanin synthesis in vitis vinifera l. cv shiraz grape berries began 10 weeks postflowering and continued throughout berry ripening. expression of seven genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (phenylalanine ammonia lyase [pal], chalcone synthase [chs], chalcone isomerase [chi], flavanone-3-hydroxylase [f3h], dihydroflavonol 4-reductase [dfr], leucoanthocyanidin dioxygen-ase [ldox], and udp glucose-flavonoid 3-o-glucosyl transferase [ufgt]) was determined. in flowers and grape berry sk ...199612226348
new polyphenolic 5'-nucleotidase inhibitors isolated from the wine grape "koshu" and their biological effects.new 5'-nucleotidase inhibitors designated as npf-88bu-ia, npf-88bu-ib, npf-88bu-iia and npf-88bu-iib, respectively, were isolated from the seeds and skin of the wine grape "koshu". they were purified by solvent extraction, dialysis, and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (hplc). their physico-chemical properties revealed these compounds to be polyphenolic substances. the average relative molecular masses of the four were estimated by gel permeation chromatography (gpc) analysi ...19911934168
role of t-region borders in agrobacterium host range.the limited host range ab3 strain of agrobacterium tumefaciens induces tumors by transferring two t-regions, ta and tb. ta is a deleted version of the well-known biotype i octopine tl-region that lacks the iaa and ipt genes, but carries an intact oncogene, gene 6b, and typical left and right border sequences. tb carries two iaa genes that together code for the synthesis of indoleacetic acid. gene 6b and the iaa gene act synergistically when transferred in a coinoculation experiment. the ta-regio ...19911932812
antiexudative and capillaritonic effects of procyanidines isolated from grape seeds (v. vinifera).a purified and enriched fraction, containing procyanidines, was isolated from grape seeds of bulgarian sorts of vitis vinifera. the effects of procyanidines on the local oedema, produced by subplantar injection of carrageenin and dextran in the hind rat paw, were studied. we also tested their effect on the capillary permeability using intravenous injection of evans blue and local irritation by xylene. procyanidines at a dose of 2 mg/kg applied orally three times daily for 6 days inhibited the ca ...19901714228
the vascular expression pattern directed by the eucalyptus gunnii cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase egcad2 promoter is conserved among woody and herbaceous plant species.cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (cad; ec 1.1.1.195) catalyses the last step in the synthesis of the monomeric precursors of lignin. here, we demonstrate that the vascular expression pattern conferred by the eucalyptus gunnii egcad2 promoter in transgenic poplar (populus tremula x populus alba) is conserved in another perennial woody angiosperm of economic interest (vitis vinifera l.), as well as in a model herbaceous plant (nicotiana tabacum l.). furthermore, promoter deletion analysis performed ...200212369625
biotransformation of monoterpene alcohols by saccharomyces cerevisiae, torulaspora delbrueckii and kluyveromyces lactis.monoterpenoids are important flavour compounds produced by many plant species, including grapes (vitis vinifera) and hops (humulus lupulus). biotransformation reactions involving monoterpenoids have been characterized in filamentous fungi, but few examples have been observed in yeasts. as monoterpenoids are in contact with yeasts during beer and wine production, biotransformation reactions may occur during the fermentation of these beverages. this paper describes the biotransformation of monoter ...200010790686
antioxidant activity and radioprotective effects against chromosomal damage induced in vivo by x-rays of flavan-3-ols (procyanidins) from grape seeds (vitis vinifera): comparative study versus other phenolic and organic compounds.the quantitative distribution of several flavan-3-ols was determined using hplc in a grape (vitis vinifera) seed extract (gse) of four cultivars grown in the region of murcia. polymer >/= c(4) units made up the largest group of procyanidins in the gse (90.92%, expressed as hplc % area). the antioxidant activity of gse and other reference compounds was investigated by measuring their ability to scavenge the abts(*)(+) radical cation (teac). the most effective compounds were, in order: gse > rutin ...200010820088
trans-resveratrol and grape disease resistance. a dynamical study by high-resolution laser-based techniques.two modern laser-based techniques were synchronously applied to study the dynamics of the trans-resveratrol activity in botrytis cinerea-infected grapes. direct analysis of trans-resveratrol in both infected and noninfected grapes (vitis vinifera, aledo variety) was performed by using an analytical technique incorporating laser desorption coupled with laser resonant ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. on the other hand, one of the most sensitive on-line methods for trace gas detecti ...200312529521
phenolic and volatile composition of wines made from vitis vinifera cv. muscat lefko grapes from the island of samos.a study of the phenolic and volatile composition of wines produced from the white cultivar muscat lefko from the island of samos was conducted. dry, fortified, naturally sweet wines and mistelles (aged and nonaged) have been studied. the phenolic components (flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonols) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after solid phase extraction (spe). the terpenes (free and glycosidically linked) were determined by the use of gas chromatography-mass s ...200011087487
comparative analyses of the complete genome sequences of pierce's disease and citrus variegated chlorosis strains of xylella fastidiosa.xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-dwelling, insect-transmitted, gamma-proteobacterium that causes diseases in many plants, including grapevine, citrus, periwinkle, almond, oleander, and coffee. x. fastidiosa has an unusually broad host range, has an extensive geographical distribution throughout the american continent, and induces diverse disease phenotypes. previous molecular analyses indicated three distinct groups of x. fastidiosa isolates that were expected to be genetically divergent. here we r ...200312533478
cloning and expression of udp-glucose: flavonoid 7-o-glucosyltransferase from hairy root cultures of scutellaria baicalensis.a cdna encoding udp-glucose: baicalein 7-o-glucosyltransferase (ubgt) was isolated from a cdna library from hairy root cultures of scutellaria baicalensis georgi probed with a partial-length cdna clone of a udp-glucose: flavonoid 3-o-glucosyltransferase (ufgt) from grape (vitis vinifera l.). the heterologous probe contained a glucosyltransferase consensus amino acid sequence which was also present in the scutellaria cdna clones. the complete nucleotide sequence of the 1688-bp cdna insert was det ...200010872235
response of omnivorous leafroller (lepidoptera: tortricidae) and onion thrips (thysanoptera: thripidae) to low-temperature storage.eggs and first-fifth instars of omnivorous leafroller, platynota stultana walshingham, had a mean percentage survival to the adult stage of 60.7-95.2% for nonexposed immatures and 14.5-54.3% for immatures exposed to 1 wk at 0-1 degree c. exposures of 2-5 wk resulted in 0-6.7% survival, and a 6-wk exposure resulted in < 1% survival of all stages tested. a significant reduction in survival of all larval stages occurred between exposures of 0 and 1 wk and between 1 wk and 2-6 wk. survival of eggs a ...200010902368
a grapevine gene encoding a guard cell k(+) channel displays developmental regulation in the grapevine berry.sirk is a k(+) channel identified in grapevine (vitis vinifera), belonging to the so-called shaker family. the highest sequence similarities it shares with the members of this family are found with channels of the kat type, although sirk displays a small ankyrin domain. this atypical feature provides a key to understand the evolution of the plant shaker family. expression in xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that sirk is an inwardly rectifying channel displaying functional properties very similar ...200211842160
valorization of grape (vitis vinifera) byproducts. antioxidant and biological properties of polyphenolic fractions differing in procyanidin composition and flavonol content.many byproducts and wastes generated by agroindustries contain polyphenols with potential application as food antioxidants and preventive agents against skin cancer and other diseases. the performance of polyphenolic fractions from parellada grape (vitis vinifera) pomace as antioxidants in different physicochemical environments was tested. fractions containing oligomers with mean degree of polymerization between 3 and 4 and percentage galloylation ca. 30% were the most potent free radical scaven ...200212475269
sugar-regulated expression of a putative hexose transport gene in grape.different lengths of the promoter of grape (vitis vinifera) vvht1 (hexose transporter 1) gene, which encodes a putative hexose transporter expressed during the ripening of grape, have been transcriptionally fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. in transgenic tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) transformed with these constructs, vvht1 promoters were clearly responsible for the sink organ preferential expression. the potential sugar effectors of vvht1 promoter were studied in tobacco cv bright-ye ...200312529540
expression of a putative grapevine hexose transporter in tobacco alters morphogenesis and assimilate partitioning.tobacco plants were transformed by leaf disc regeneration with the vvht1 (vitis vinifera hexose transporter 1) cdna under the control of the constitutive camv 35s promoter in a sense or antisense orientation. among the 20 sense plants and 10 antisense plants obtained, two sense plants showed a mutant phenotype when grown in vitro, with stunted growth and an increase in the (leaves+stem)/roots dry weight ratio. the rate of [(3)h]-glucose uptake in leaf discs from these plants was decreased to 25% ...200312654870
colonization of vitis vinifera by a green fluorescence protein-labeled, gfp-marked strain of xylophilus ampelinus, the causal agent of bacterial necrosis of grapevine.the dynamics of xylophilus ampelinus were studied in vitis vinifera cv. ugni blanc using gfp-marked bacterial strains to evaluate the relative importance of epiphytic and endophytic phases of plant colonization in disease development. currently, bacterial necrosis of grapevine is of economic importance in vineyards in three regions in france: the cognac, armagnac, and die areas. this disease is responsible for progressive destruction of vine shoots, leading to their death. we constructed gfp-mar ...200312676663
the endopolygalacturonase 1 from botrytis cinerea activates grapevine defense reactions unrelated to its enzymatic activity.a purified glycoprotein from botrytis cinerea (strain t4), identified as endopolygalacturonase 1 (t4bcpg1) by mass spectrometry analysis, has been shown to activate defense reactions in grapevine (vitis vinifera cv. gamay). these reactions include calcium influx, production of active oxygen species, activation of two mitogen-activated protein kinases, defense gene transcript accumulation, and phytoalexin production. most of these defense reactions were also activated in grapevine in response to ...200312795381
mycoflora and ochratoxin-producing strains of aspergillus section nigri in wine grapes in argentina.the aims of this work were to evaluate the mycoflora and to identify the species of aspergillus with the potential to produce ochratoxin a (oa) from different wine grape varieties from mendoza, argentina. likewise, the capacity to produce oa by aspergillus section nigri was studied.200312859664
analysis of grape ests: global gene expression patterns in leaf and berry.analysis of 2479 ests from vitis vinifera berry tissue and 2438 from leaf revealed that 1% of the ests match to known vitis proteins, 72% to plant proteins, 11% to non-plant, and 16% had no match (p[n]>0.5). the levels of redundancy were similar in the leaf and berry libraries. only 12% of the genes matched by the ests were common to both libraries indicating marked differences in the genes expressed in the two tissues. the abundance of transcripts with predicted cellular roles in leaf and berry ...200011011096
manifold anomalies in gene expression in a vineyard isolate of saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed by dna microarray analysis.genome-wide transcriptional profiling has important applications in evolutionary biology for assaying the extent of heterozygosity for alleles showing quantitative variation in gene expression in natural populations. we have used dna microarray analysis to study the global pattern of transcription in a homothallic strain of saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from wine grapes in a tuscan vineyard, along with the diploid progeny obtained after sporulation. the parental strain shows 2:2 segregation ...200011035792
[examination of yeast fungi in wine grapes in bulgaria]. 195713525060
[research on vine rhizosphere (vitis vinifera)]. 196314048728
transformation of apple ( malus domestica borkh.) with the stilbene synthase gene from grapevine ( vitis vinifera l.) and a pgip gene from kiwi ( actinidia deliciosa).the objective of the present research was to introduce genes with antifungal potential into the commercially important apple cvs. elstar and holsteiner cox in order to establish resistance against fungal diseases. the gene encoding the stilbene synthase (vst1) from vitis vinifera l., responsible for the synthesis of the phytoalexin resveratrol in grapevine, and the gene for a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip) from kiwi ( actinidia deliciosa) were transferred into holsteiner cox and els ...200314504909
genetic transformation of major wine grape cultivars of vitis vinifera l.we have developed an agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for a number of important grapevine cultivars used in wine production. transgenic plants were obtained for the seven cultivars: cabernet sauvignon, shiraz, chardonnay, riesling, sauvignon blanc, chenin blanc and muscat gordo blanco. embryogenic callus was initiated from anther filaments and genotypic differences were observed for initiation and subsequent proliferation with chardonnay responding most favourably to culture conditio ...200111305357
effect of ochratoxin a-producing aspergilli on stilbenic phytoalexin synthesis in grapes.berries of vitis vinifera l. cv. barbera were infected, at veraison and during ripening, by a conidial suspension of a. japonicus, a. ochraceus, a. fumigatus and two isolates of a. carbonarius to control ochratoxin a production and stilbene induced synthesis. the experimental design provided also for intact and punctured berries and incubation temperature of 25 degrees c and 30 degrees c. all the tested fungi, except a. fumigatus, significantly increased trans-resveratrol synthesis over the cont ...200314518937
stilbene content of mature vitis vinifera berries in response to uv-c elicitation.a method using hplc analysis has been used to compare the level of resveratrol and its derivatives, piceid, pterostilbene and epsilon-viniferin, in grapevine berries of three vitis vinifera varieties. the concentration of these compounds has been evaluated in healthy and botrytis cinerea infected grape clusters, both in natural vineyard conditions and in response to uv elicitation.200011312782
reduced activity of antioxidant machinery is correlated with suppression of totipotency in plant protoplasts.we previously showed that during protoplast isolation, an oxidative burst occurred and the generation of active oxygen species was differentially mediated in tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) and grapevine (vitis vinifera), accompanied by significant quantitative differences (a.k. papadakis, k.a. roubelakis-angelakis [1999] plant physiol 127: 197-205). we have now further tested if the expression of totipotency in protoplasts is related to the activity of cellular antioxidant machinery during protopla ...200111351105
changes in nitrogen compounds in must and wine during fermentation and biological aging by flor yeasts.urea, ammonium, and free amino acid contents were quantified in a must from vitis vinifera cv. pedro ximenez grapes and in fermented wine and after a short aging of this wine by saccharomyces cerevisiae race capensis yeast under variable oxygen availability conditions. the previous compounds were also determined in a wine in which the nitrogen source was depleted by the same race of flor yeast (old wine) and also following the addition of ammonium ion, l-glutamic acid, and l-proline. under speci ...200111453768
effects of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides used against botrytis cinerea, on carbohydrate physiology in vitis vinifera l.in vitis vinifera l, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against botrytis cinerea pers. however, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv chardonnay) and plants grown in vineyards (cvs chardonnay, pinot noir and pinot meunier). in the plantlets grown in vitro, both fungicides decreased gas e ...200314561065
chitosan improves development, and protects vitis vinifera l. against botrytis cinerea.we evaluated the potential of chitosan both to stimulate plant development and to induce protection from botrytis cinerea in vitis vinifera l. plantlets. the presence of 1.75% (v/v) chitogel in the culture medium was the optimal concentration for in vitro grapevine plantlet growth, as determined by measurements on enhancement of root and shoot biomass. photosynthesis and related parameters were also stimulated in chitogel-treated plantlets. chitogel reduced the development of botrytis cinerea an ...200414595516
free radical scavenging activities measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and b16 cell antiproliferative behaviors of seven plants.in an effort to discover new antioxidant natural compounds, seven plants that grow in france (most of them in the limousin countryside) were screened. among these plants, was the extensively studied vitis vinifera as reference. for each plant, sequential percolation was realized with five solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water). free radical scavenging activities were examined in different systems using electron spin resonance (esr) spectroscopy ...200111453770
molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive activities of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals: down-regulation of cox-2 and inos through suppression of nf-kappa b activation.a wide array of phenolic substances, particularly those present in edible and medicinal plants, have been reported to possess substantial anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities. the majority of naturally occurring phenolics retain antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties which appear to contribute to their chemopreventive or chemoprotective activity. cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) inducible and nitric oxide synthase (inos) are important enzymes that mediate inflammatory processes. imprope ...200111506818
pyruvic acid and acetaldehyde production by different strains of saccharomyces cerevisiae: relationship with vitisin a and b formation in red wines.the production of pyruvate and acetaldehyde by 10 strains of saccharomyces cerevisiae was monitored during the fermentation of vitis vinifera l. variety tempranillo grape must to determine how these compounds might influence the formation of the pyroanthocyanins vitisin a and b (malvidin-3-o-glucoside-pyruvate acid and malvidin-3-o-glucoside-4 vinyl, respectively). pyruvate and acetaldehyde production patterns were determined for each strain. pyruvate production reached a maximum on day four of ...200314640591
procyanidins from vitis vinifera seeds inhibit the respiratory burst of activated human neutrophils and lysosomal enzyme release.the inhibitory properties of procyanidins (a standardized oligomeric catechin fraction) from vitis vinifera l. seeds on the respiratory burst and on the release of granule components myeloperoxidase, beta-glucuronidase and elastase were studied in activated human neutrophils. procyanidins strongly inhibit superoxide generation with an ic(50) of 7.2 microm, through a direct scavenging of superoxide and prevent the release from calcium ionophore activated neutrophils of beta-glucuronidase (ic(50) ...200111731911
potential cancer-chemopreventive activities of wine stilbenoids and flavans extracted from grape (vitis vinifera) cell cultures.moderate consumption of wine is associated with a reduced risk of cancer. grape plant cell cultures were used to purify 12 phenols: the stilbenoids trans-astringin, trans-piceid (2), trans-resveratroloside, trans-resveratrol, trans-piceatannol, cis-resveratroloside, cis-piceid, and cis-resveratrol; the flavans (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and epicatechin 3-o-gallate; and the flavan dimer procyanidin b2 3'-o-gallate. these compounds were evaluated for potential to inhibit cyclooxygenases and pr ...200111962253
use of a green fluorescent strain for analysis of xylella fastidiosa colonization of vitis vinifera.xylella fastidiosa causes pierce's disease of grapevine as well as several other major agricultural diseases but is a benign endophyte in most host plants. x. fastidiosa colonizes the xylem vessels of host plants and is transmitted by xylem sap-feeding insect vectors. to understand better the pattern of host colonization and its relationship to disease, we engineered x. fastidiosa to express a green fluorescent protein (gfp) constitutively and performed confocal laser-scanning microscopic analys ...200314660381
potential ochratoxin a producers from wine grapes in argentina and brazil.the aim was to identify the normal mycoflora in wine grapes from argentina and brazil. we collected 50 grapes samples from malbec and chardonnay varieties in each country during the 1997-98 harvest. yeasts were a major component of the fungal population, and the most frequent genera of filamentous fungi isolated were: aspergillus, penicillium and botrytis. other genera identified (in decreasing order) were: phythophthora, moniliella, alternaria and cladosporium. from grapes, the mean frequency o ...200211962699
effect of antioxidant protection of must on volatile compounds and aroma shelf life of falanghina (vitis vinifera l.) wine.two vinification methods involving different degrees of antioxidant protection of falanghina must during prefermentative steps, and referred as hamp (high antioxidant must protection) and lamp (low antioxidant must protection), were compared in terms of fermentation performances of four different yeast strains, composition of the volatile fraction of wines at the end of alcoholic fermentation, and shelf life of wines during storage. the use of hamp technology resulted in wines with lower volatil ...200414969547
effect of fungicide residues on the aromatic composition of white wine inoculated with three saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.the effects of three fungicide residues (cyprodinil, fludioxonil, and pyrimethanil) on the aromatic composition (acids, alcohols, and esters) of vitis vinifera white wines (var. airén) inoculated with three saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (syn. bayanus, cerevisiae, and syn. uvarum) are studied. the aromatic exponents were extracted and concentrated by adsorption-thermal desorption and were determined by gas chromatography using a mass selective detector. the addition of the three fungicides at ...200414995128
occurrence of pyranoanthocyanins in sparkling wines manufactured with red grape varieties.the anthocyanin pigments in rosé (vitis vinifera cv. garnacha) and blanc de noir (v. vinifera cv. monastrell) base and sparkling wines were studied by lc-dad/esi-ms. anthocyanins of grape origin and pyranoanthocyanins resulting from c-4/c-5 cycloaddition of the former ones with pyruvic acid, acetaldehyde, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylguaiacol, and 4-vinylcatechol were identified in the different wines. rosé wines presented a higher total pigment content than blanc de noir wines. pyranoanthocyanins repr ...200414995137
temporal dynamics of otiorhynchus schlaeflini (coleoptera: curculionidae) adults and damage assessment on two wine grape cultivars.the nocturnal temporal dynamics of adults of otiorhynchus schlaeflini stierlin on wine grape vitis vinifelra l. 'rhoditis' and 'mavroudi' were studied in the western peloponnese during spring 1993 and 1994. the maximum number of adults was recorded approximately 3 h after sunset. emergence began on 13 march 1993 and 19 march 1994; the population peaked on 24 and 16 april in each year, respectively. low numbers of adults were found during daytime observations in may. the length and the number of ...200415002401
influence of saccharomyces cerevisiae strains on fermentation and flavor compounds of white wines made from cv. emir grown in central anatolia, turkey.the effect of inoculation with selected saccharomyces cerevisiae strains was studied on fermentation and flavor compounds of wines made from vitis vinifera l. cv. emir grown in central anatolia, turkey. flavor compounds were analysed and identified by gc-fid and gc-ms, respectively. the total concentrations of flavor compounds did not increase with the addition of indigenous and commercial wine yeasts, but differences were noted in individual volatile compounds. cluster and factor analyses of fl ...200212080424
procyanidins from vitis vinifera seeds display cardioprotection in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion damage.since the early 1970s, increasing evidence has suggested that the consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol is inversely correlated with mortality from myocardial infarction. there is also some evidence that the protective effects of wine might be more pronounced than those of other alcoholic beverages. these observations prompted us to investigate the cardioprotective activity of vitis vinifera seeds in experimental ischemia-reperfusion injury. an isolated rabbit heart preparation paced electr ...200315134376
"untypical aging off-flavor" in wine: synthesis of potential degradation compounds of indole-3-acetic acid and kynurenine and their evaluation as precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone.kynurenine (1) and indole-3-acetic acid (2) are considered as potential precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone (3), which is regarded to be the aroma impact compound causing an "untypical aging off-flavor" (uta) in vitis vinifera wines. the mechanism of the formation of 3 was studied using model fermentation and model sulfuration media spiked with 1 or 2 as potential precursors. possible degradation products such as kynurenamine (4) and kynurenic acid (5), or skatole (6), 2-oxoskatole (7), 2-formamid ...200212105962
catalase is differentially expressed in dividing and nondividing protoplasts.based on our previous results that peroxidase is induced in dividing tobacco protoplasts but it is not expressed in the nondividing grapevine (vitis vinifera l.) protoplasts during culture (c.i. siminis, a.k. kanellis, k.a. roubelakis-angelakis [1993] physiol plant 87: 263-270), we further tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress may be implicated in the recalcitrance of plant protoplasts. the expression of catalase, a major defense enzyme against cell oxidation, was studied during isolation ...199412232292
genetic transformation of vitis vinifera via organogenesis.efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. the current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. however, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered.200212354328
water and temperature relations of growth and ochratoxin a production by aspergillus carbonarius strains from grapes in europe and israel.this study investigated the in vitro effects of water activity (a(w); 0.85-0.987) and temperature (10-40 degrees c) on growth and ochratoxin a (ota) production by two strains of aspergillus carbonarius isolated from wine grapes from three different european countries and israel on a synthetic grape juice medium representative of mid-veraison (total of eight strains).200415239712
occurrence and significance of bacillus thuringiensis on wine grapes.wine grapes harvested at different stages during cultivation from several vineyards in new south wales, australia, harboured bacillus thuringiensis at viable populations of 10(2)-10(6) cfu/g. commercial preparations of b. thuringiensis had been sprayed onto the grapes as a biological insecticide. b. thuringiensis (10(1)-10(3) cfu/ml) was isolated from grape juice and fermenting grape juice in a commercial winery. although b. thuringiensis remained viable when inoculated at 10(3)-10(4) cfu/ml int ...200415246241
antioxidant activities of grape (vitis vinifera) pomace extracts.antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from grape (vitis vinifera) pomace using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. the extracts were screened for their potential as antioxidants in different models. the ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts showed 76, 87.1, and 21.7% antioxidant activities at 100 ppm, respectively, using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl model system. as the methanol extract of grape pomace showed maximum antioxidant activity among all of the extracts, it was selected ...200212358458
chemopreventive effect of vitis vinifera extract on 12-o-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol acetate-induced cutaneous oxidative stress and tumor promotion in murine skin.vitis vinifera (grapes) is used as a fruit worldwide and known for its pharmacological properties. the present paper assesses the chemopreventive potential of vitis vinifera against 12-o-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol acetate (tpa)-mediated tumor promotion in 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (dmba) initiated mice skin. skin tumor initiation was achieved by a single topical application of dmba (40 microg/animal/0.20 ml acetone) to mice. two weeks after the initiation, promoting agent, tpa (5.0 microg/an ...200212457631
procyanidins from grape seeds protect against phorbol ester-induced oxidative cellular and genotoxic damage.to evaluate the inhibitory effects of vitis vinifera procyanidins (pas) on carcinogen-induced oxidative stress.200415301744
microsatellite analysis of ancient alpine grape cultivars: pedigree reconstruction of vitis vinifera l. 'cornalin du valais'.ancient and closely related grape cultivars from the alps were analyzed with 50 microsatellite markers: 'cornalin', 'humagne rouge' and 'goron' from valais (switzerland); 'cornalin', 'petit rouge' and 'mayolet' from the aosta valley (italy). our results confirmed previous studies showing that the 'cornalin' cultivars from switzerland and italy are distinct, and that 'humagne rouge' is identical to 'cornalin' from the aosta valley. we propose the nomenclature 'cornalin du valais' and 'cornalin d' ...200312734654
nonspecific lipid-transfer protein genes expression in grape (vitis sp.) cells in response to fungal elicitor treatments.nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsltps) are small, basic cystein-rich proteins believed to be involved in plant defense mechanisms. three cdnas coding nsltps from grape (vitis vinifera sp.) were cloned by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and pcr. the expression of nsltp genes was investigated in 41b-rootstock grape cell suspension, in response to various defense-related signal molecules. ergosterol (a fungi-specific sterol) and a proteinaceous elicitor purified from ...200312744517
evidence for host-associated clones of grape phylloxera daktulosphaira vitifoliae (hemiptera: phylloxeridae) in australia.grape phylloxera, daktulosphaira vitifoliae fitch, is an important pest of grapevines (vitis vinifera l.) (vitaceae). using microsatellite dna markers it was demonstrated strong associations can exist between d. vitifoliae asexual lineages and vine host type within a vineyard. also, in excised root bioassays, d. vitifoliae collected from three regions where different genotypic classes predominated showed host-specific differences in life table parameters of reproductive rate and intrinsic rate o ...200312762861
control of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway gene expression by eutypine, a toxin from eutypa lata, in grape cell tissue cultures.eutypine, 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-3-butene-1-ynyl) benzaldehyde, is a toxin produced by eutypa lata, the causal agent of eutypa dieback in grapevine. the effect of the toxin on anthocyanin synthesis has been investigated in vitis vinifera cv. gamay cell cultures. at concentrations higher than 200 micromol/l, eutypine reduced anthocyanin accumulation in cells. the reduction in anthocyanin accumulation was proportional to the eutypine concentrations and hplc analysis showed that eutypine affected th ...200312964874
procyanidins from grape seeds protect endothelial cells from peroxynitrite damage and enhance endothelium-dependent relaxation in human artery: new evidences for cardio-protection.the peroxynitrite scavenging ability of procyanidins from vitis vinifera l. seeds was studied in homogeneous solution and in human umbilical endothelial cells (ea.hy926 cell line) using 3-morpholinosydnonimine (sin-1) as peroxynitrite generator. in homogeneous phase procyanidins dose-dependently inhibited 2',7'-dichloro-dihydrofluorescein (dcfh) oxidation induced by sin-1 with an ic50 value of 0.28 microm. when endothelial cells (ec) were exposed to 5 mm sin-1, marked morphological alterations i ...200314511773
[cloning of a mads box protein gene (ghmads1) from cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.)].as a kind of transcription factors, mads-box protein plays an important role in various cellular processes, especially in the development of floral organs. based on the contig analysis of the cotton ests, the coding region of a cotton mads-box protein (ghmads1) was obtained by rt-pcr from floral buds of cotton (g. hirsutum). the cloned fragment of 713 bp (ghmads1, genbank accession no. af538965) contains an open reading frame of 711 bp,coding a polypeptide of 236 amino acids. it was demonstrated ...200415552050
ultrastructural analysis of vitis vinifera leaf tissues showing atypical symptoms of plasmopara viticola.in an abandoned farm in tuscany a year by year regression of downy mildew disease on grapevines was observed and a decrease in virulence as well as vigor and fertility of the causal fungus, plasmopara viticola. anomalous spots of the fungus (i.e. atypical coloration of leaves or mosaic) on leaf tissues of a sensitive vitis vinifera grapevine were observed. the anomalous symptoms were often associated with the typical 'oil spots' and were present under environmental conditions favourable for a no ...200515582481
complete sequence of tvv1, a family of ty 1 copia-like retrotransposons of vitis vinifera l., reconstituted by chromosome walking.a chromosome-walking strategy was used to sequence and characterize retrotransposons in the grapevine genome. the reconstitution of a family of retroelements, named tvv1, was achieved by six successive steps. these elements share a single, highly conserved open reading frame 4,153 nucleotides-long, putatively encoding the gag, pro, int, rt and rh proteins. comparison of the tvv1 open reading frame coding potential with those of drosophila copia and tobacco tnt1, revealed that tvv1 is closely rel ...200212582512
vitisin a content in chilean wines from vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon and contribution to the color of aged red wines.vitisin a was prepared from malvidin 3-glucoside and pyruvic acid in model wine medium, isolated by countercurrent chromatography, and purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc). the synthesized compound was used as a reference standard to quantify vitisin a in chilean wines from vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon, including a vertical row of wines from the same vineyard over 16 years. maximum vitisin a content was reached within the first year of storage. important ...200314518953
ochratoxigenic species from spanish wine grapes.the ochratoxigenic mycobiota of grapes belonging to representative wine regions located along the mediterranean coast of spain at different developmental stages was identified. during the development of the berries, the occurrence of aspergillus spp. increased while the percentage of berries contaminated by non-ochratoxin a (ota) producing species such as alternaria spp. and cladosporium spp. decreased. penicillium verrucosum, the only confirmed penicillium spp. that is able to produce ota, was ...200515681040
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