clinical significance of aero-allergen identification in the western cape.positive identification and documentation of the seasonal variation of aero-allergens and the immune responses to them has important implications for the timing of allergen avoidance measures and the selection of patients suitable for immunotherapy. the relative abundance of aero-allergens in the cape peninsula during 1984-1987 was measured by continuous volumetric air sampling, using a burkard spore trap. mould spore counts of greater than 3,000 spores/m3 were found throughout the year and were ...19911989093
ige antibodies to recombinant pollen allergens (phl p 1, phl p 2, phl p 5, and bet v 2) account for a high percentage of grass pollen-specific ige.pollen from different grass species are some of the most potent elicitors of type i allergy worldwide. the characterization of antigenic structures and ige epitopes common to different grass species is relevant to define reagents for diagnosis and specific therapy of grass pollen allergy.19989500760
uptake, effects, and metabolism of cyanobacterial toxins in the emergent reed plant phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud.the commonly occurring cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-lr (mc-lr) was rapidly taken up by the emergent reed plant phragmites australis with clear distribution in the different cormus parts of the plant. highest uptake was detected in the stem, followed by the rhizome. enzyme extracts of the rhizome system, the stem, and the leaf revealed the presence of soluble glutathione s-transferases (sgst) measured with the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. a significant elevation of sgst activi ...200111345462
comparison of metabolisable energy values of different foodstuffs determined in ostriches and poultry.apparent (amen) and true (tmen) metabolisable energy values, corrected for nitrogen retention, of wheat bran, saltbush (atriplex nummularia), common reed (phragmites australis), lupins, soyabean oil cake meal (sbocm), sunflower oil cake meal (sfocm) and fishmeal were compared in 7 successive trials using 12 mature south african black ostriches and 10 adult australorp cockerels per ingredient. tmen values of 11.91, 7.09, 8.67, 14.61, 13.44, 10.79 and 15.13 mj/kg for wheat bran, saltbush, common r ...199910579407
decomposition dynamic of higher plant pigments by hplc analysis.the fate of the litter of dominant vegetation(willows and reeds) is one of the aspects studied in the frame of the project "onderzoek milieu effecten sigmaplan". one of the questions to be considered is how long the litter stays within the estuary. in this paper, the time the leaf litter (salix triandra and phragmites australis) stayed in the schelde estuary was studied by using plant pigment as biomarkers with hplc application. after analyzing the original data from the incubation experiment de ...200415559826
metal dynamics of plant litter of spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis in metal-contaminated salt marshes. part 1: patterns of decomposition and metal investigate the decay rate and metal uptake in litter from two species of wetland plants, leaves and stems of senescent spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis (p) were obtained from the hackensack meadowlands (nj, usa) in october 1998, and their initial metal contents were determined. two types of s. alterniflora were obtained, one set from a natural site (ns) and one from a restored site (rs). leaves and stems were placed in separate litterbags, and samples of each type were reciproc ...200415376538
[niche characteristics of plants on four environmental gradients in middle reaches of tarim river].tarim river is the longest continental river in china. along its either bank, the natural vegetation belts are composed of arbors, shrubs and grasses. in this paper, the niche breadths and overlaps of nineteen species on four environmental gradients in the middle reaches of tarim river were calculated and analyzed. the results showed that the nineteen species could be divided into three groups, based on their average niche breadths. group one included populus euphratica, tamarix ramosissima, t. ...200415334943
heavy metal contents in reed plants (phragmites australis) along the river scheldt. 200115954281
trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material.we studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (mus musculus), common reed (phragmites australis) and ladybugs (coccinella septempunctata at five disposal facilities for dredged material. the sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. they were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, wherea ...199015092276
metal uptake, transport and release by wetland plants: implications for phytoremediation and restoration.marshes have been proposed as sites for phytoremediation of metals. the fate of metals within plant tissues is a critical issue for effectiveness of this process. in this paper we review studies that investigate the effects of plants on metals in wetlands. while most of these marsh plant species are similar in metal uptake patterns and in concentrating metals primarily in roots, some species retain more of their metal burden in below ground structures than other species, which redistribute a gre ...200415051245
[responses of interspecific relationships among main herbaceous plants to flooding disturbance in songnen plain, northeastern china].to investigate the effects of flooding disturbance on the interspecific relationships among grassland plant species, a comparatively thorough study was conducted on sanjiadian national rangeland in the territory of da'an city, jilin province, which was partly flooded in 1998. the study site was located in the south of songnen plain, northeastern china, dominated by leymus chinensis grassland. along the flooding gradients (from un-flooded to heavily flooded) formed on an extensive mild slope take ...200312973991
[vegetation state and soil enzyme activities of copper tailing yard on tongguan mountain].from the open investigation and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the vegetation state and soil enzyme activities of copper tailing yard of tongguan mountain. the results showed that there were 34 species of natural colonized plants on copper tailing yard, subordinated to 16 families and 33 genera, and regard herbs as principle, and many for 1-2 years old. the main families were compositae (10 species), gramineae (9 species) and legumineceae (2 species). hippochaete ramosissimum, which bel ...200312924135
is the invasion of the common reed, phragmites australis, into tidal marshes of the eastern us an ecological disaster?studies of effects of the invasive brackish marsh plant phragmites australis (common reed) on estuarine biota are reviewed. with few exceptions, most field studies indicate that these p. australis-dominated marshes have diverse and abundant benthic biota, and are utilized by nekton, comparable to spartina alterniflora marshes. however, larval mummichogs, fundulus heteroclitus, appear to be reduced in p. australis marshes compared with s. alterniflora marshes. small epifauna living on plant stems ...200312837299
12co2 emission from different metabolic pathways measured in illuminated and darkened c3 and c4 leaves at low, atmospheric and elevated co2 concentration.the detection of 12co2 emission from leaves in air containing 13co2 allows simple and fast determination of the co2 emitted by different sources, which are separated on the basis of their labelling velocity. this technique was exploited to investigate the controversial effect of co2 concentration on mitochondrial respiration. the 12co2 emission was measured in illuminated and darkened leaves of one c4 plant and three c3 plants maintained at low (30-50 ppm), atmospheric (350-400 ppm) and elevated ...200312773522
plant growth-promoting bacteria facilitate the growth of the common reed phragmites australisin the presence of copper or polycyclic aromatic test whether plant growth-promoting bacteria might be useful in facilitating the growth of phragmites australis, the common reed, in the presence of metals and organic compounds, p. australis seeds were treated with plant growth-promoting bacteria. the bacterium pseudomonas asplenii ac was genetically transformed to express a bacterial gene encoding the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and both the native and transformed bacteria were tested in conjunction with p. australis ...200516328627
spatial analysis of plant detritus processing in a mediterranean river type: the case of the river tirso basin, sardinia, italy.the river continuum concept represents the most general framework addressing the spatial variation of both structure and function in river ecosystems. in the mediterranean ecoregion, summer drought events and dams constitute the main sources of local disturbance to the structure and functioning of river ecosystems occurring in the river basin. in this study, we analysed patterns of spatial variation of detritus processing in a 7th order river of the mediterranean ecoregion (river tirso, sardinia ...200312765266
isolation and characterization of polymeric galloyl-ester-degrading bacteria from a tannery discharge place.the culturable bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of plants growing in the area of discharge of a tannery effluent were characterized. relative proportions of aerobic, denitrifying, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were determined in the rhizosphere of typha latifolia, canna indica, and phragmites australis. aerobic bacteria were observed to be the most abundant group in the rhizosphere, and plant type did not seem to influence the abundance of the bacterial types analyzed. to isolate bacteria abl ...200516341641
phytoremediation of selenium by two helophyte species in subsurface flow constructed wetland.the phytoremediation of selenium by two different wetland species was investigated. selenium (20.4 microg/l) was supplied continuously to subsurface flow constructed wetlands, one vegetated with typha latifolia l. and the other with phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud. the beds of both species had same hydraulic loading rate (0.079 m(3)/m(2)/d) and water retention time (24 h). however, the mass loading rate was 1.27 mg se/m(2)/d for phragmites and 1.35 mg se/m(2)/d for typha. in the typha ...200312531701
accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steudel and bolboschoenus maritimus (l.) palla in a constructed wetland of the venice lagoon watershed.a recently constructed wetland, located in the venice lagoon watershed, was monitored to investigate growth dynamics, nutrient and heavy metal shoot accumulation of the two dominating macrophytes: phragmites australis and bolboschoenus maritimus. investigations were conducted over a vegetative season at three locations with different distance to the inlet point to assess effects on vegetation. the distance from the inlet did not affect either shoot biomass or nutrients (n, p, k and na) and heavy ...200616574288
influences of wetland plants on weathered acidic mine tailings.establishment of carex rostrata, eriophorum angustifolium and phragmites australis on weathered, acidic mine tailings (ph approximately 3) and their effect on ph in tailings were investigated in a field experiment. the amendments, sewage sludge and an ashes-sewage sludge mixture, were used as plant nutrition and their influence on the metal and as concentrations of plant shoots was analysed. an additional experiment was performed in greenhouse with e. angustifolium and sewage sludge as amendment ...200616584823
leaf litter ecological fate in the schelde estuary in belgium.two dominant species of willow(salix triandra) and reed (phragmites australis) along the schelde estuary(in belgium) were selected in this research. the pigments of higher plant was used as biomarkers, the decomposition process of the two species were studied after they fall into the schelde estuary. after statistical analysis (spearman rank order correlation, p < 0.05), the results has shown the decomposition dynamics pattern of the pigments, and the willow showed different pattern in comparing ...200212491734
release into the environment of metals by two vascular salt marsh plants.metals in contaminated salt marshes are mainly locked in the anaerobic layer of sediments, where they are tightly bound as sulfides and organic complexes. vascular plants survive in saturated soils in part by pumping o2 into their root zones, changing their microenvironment to an oxic one. this, along with chelating exudates, mobilizes metals, allowing uptake by the roots. we compared the common reed phragmites australis and cordgrass spartina alterniflora in lab and field studies for ways in wh ...200212408582
use of blast furnace granulated slag as a substrate in vertical flow reed beds: field application.research was conducted at middle east technical university (metu), ankara, turkey in 2000 to determine whether a reed bed filled with an economical turkish fill media that has high phosphorus (p) sorption capacity, could be implemented and operated successfully under field conditions. in batch-scale p-sorption experiments, the p-sorption capacity of the blast furnace granulated slag (bfgs) of kardemir iron and steel ltd., co., turkey, was found to be higher compared to other candidate filter mat ...200717070037
effects of macrophytes and external carbon sources on nitrate removal from groundwater in constructed wetlands.several microcosm wetlands unplanted and planted with five macrophytes (phragmites australis, commelina communis, penniserum purpureum, ipomoea aquatica, and pistia stratiotes) were employed to remove nitrate from groundwater at a concentration of 21-47 mg no3-n/l. in the absence of external carbon, nitrate removal rates ranged from 0.63 to 1.26 g no3-n/m2/day for planted wetlands. planted wetlands exhibited significantly greater nitrate removal than unplanted wetlands (p<0.01), indicating that ...200212166674
microcosm wetlands for wastewater treatment with different hydraulic loading rates and macrophytes.constructed wetlands (cw) usually require large land areas for treating wastewater. this study evaluated the feasibility of applying cw with less land requirement by operating a group of microcosm wetlands at a hydraulic retention time (hrt) of less than 4 d in southern taiwan. an artificial wastewater, simulating municipal wastewater containing 200 mg l(-1) of chemical oxygen demand (cod), 20 mg l(-1) of nh4+-n (an), and 20 mg l(-1) of po4(3-)-p (op), was the inflow source. three emergent plant ...200211931463
anthropogenic modification of new england salt marsh landscapes.salt marshes play a critical role in the ecology and geology of wave-protected shorelines in the western atlantic, but as many as 80% of the marshes that once occurred in new england have already been lost to human development. here we present data that suggest that the remaining salt marshes in southern new england are being rapidly degraded by shoreline development and eutrophication. on the seaward border of these marshes, nitrogen eutrophication stimulated by local shoreline development is s ...200211818525
an experimental constructed wetland system for the treatment of highway runoff in the uk.this paper compares the performance of an experimental highway runoff treatment system, incorporating a subsurface flow constructed wetland, with that of a vegetated balancing pond. both systems are located on the same major road in the uk which opened in november 1998. copper, chromium and nickel total aqueous metal concentrations, although low, have been consistently removed (maximum efficiencies of 67.3, 69.8 and 87.0% respectively in the constructed wetland), particularly in the summer. zinc ...200111804152
reed bed dewatering of agricultural sludges and trials at rugeley, uk, reed beds were used for dewatering agricultural sludges and slurries. three beds, each of 3.5 m2, were employed, two planted with phragmites australis, the third left unplanted as control. the sludge contained partly oxidised solids from a biological aerated filter (baf) treating weak pig slurry. it was supplemented with untreated settled pig slurry. following reed establishment planted bed a was fed at a constant similar rate to the unplanted control bed c. the second ...200111804149
a constructed surface flow wetland for treating agricultural waste waters.a study was conducted between december 1997 and december 1998 in ne italy on a 3,200 m2 surface flow vegetated wetland receiving agricultural drainage water from a cultivated field of about 6 ha and occasional applications of organic wastes. the study aimed at evaluating: 1) biomass and seasonal nitrogen dynamics in above- and below-ground biomass of phragmites australis cav. (trin.) and typha latifolia (l.) grown in separate zones; 2) the effectiveness of the wetland in removing nutrients and s ...200111804144
a gac biofilm reactor for the continuous degradation of 4-chlorophenol: treatment efficiency and microbial analysis.using a continuous enrichment technique, a bacterial consortium capable of degrading 4-chlorophenol (4-cp) was obtained from the rhizosphere of phragmites australis. a granular activated carbon (gac) biofilm reactor was established using this consortium, and the degradation of 4-cp was investigated under continuous flow operation using a feed of 20-50 mg l(-1) with a hydraulic residence time of 17 min over a 6-month period. chloride liberation occurred throughout the operation, and the reactor h ...200111759696
lead uptake, distribution, and effects in two dominant salt marsh macrophytes, spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and phragmites australis (common reed).we examined biomass accumulation, tissue concentrations of lead (pb), and net uptake of pb in phragmites australis (common reed) and spartina alterniflora (salt cord grass) grown under greenhouse conditions in sediment of different pb concentrations. sediment and newly emerged ramets of each plant species were collected in april 1999 from tuckerton, nj, a relatively clean salt marsh. one-gallon pots were filled with either control sediment (29 microg g(-1) pb) or pb-added sediment (68 microg g(- ...200111693635
toxicity evaluation of natural and synthetic phenanthrenes in aquatic natural 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes were isolated from the common reed juncus effusus by means of chromatographic processes and identified by spectroscopic means. furthermore, mimics of natural isolated compounds were synthesized to try to evaluate the influence of functional groups on the dihydrophenanthrene skeleton. syntheses of compounds were based on the cross-coupling of 1-(2-iodo-5-methoxy)phenyl-ethanol with variously substituted iodobenzenes by zerovalent nickel. all the chemicals w ...200111491568
controlled drainage and wetlands to reduce agricultural pollution: a lysimetric study.controlled drainage and wetlands could be very effective practices to control nitrogen pollution in the low-lying agricultural plains of northeast italy, but they are not as popular as in other countries. an experiment on lysimeters was therefore carried out in 1996-1998, with the double aim of obtaining local information to encourage the implementation of these practices and to gain more knowledge on the effects involved. controlled drainage + subirrigation and wetlands were all considered as n ...200111476512
screening the wetland plant species alisma plantago-aquatica, carex rostrata and phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with eriophorum angustifolium and festuca rubra merlin.several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. in previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants typha latifolia, phragmites australis, glyceria fluitans and eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. this study screened three other species of wetland plants: alisma plantago-aquatica, carex rostrata and phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. the degree of tolerance ...200515589661
nutrient removal through autumn harvest of phragmites australis and thypha latifolia shoots in relation to nutrient loading in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant effluent.the efficacy and feasibility of annual harvesting of phragmites australis and typha latifolia shoots in autumn for nutrient removal was evaluated in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant (stp) effluent. aboveground biomass and nutrient dynamics nutrient removal through harvest were studied in parallel ditches with stands of phragmites or typha that were mown in october during two successive years. the inflow rate of stp effluent to the ditches was experimentally varied, resu ...200515921271
degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by selected helophytes.four emergent plants (helophytes, synonyms emersion macrophytes, marsh plants, etc.) phragmites australis, juncus glaucus, carex gracillis and typha latifolia were successfully used for degradation of tnt (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) under in vitro conditions. the plants took up and transformed more than 90% of tnt from the medium within ten days of cultivation. the most efficient species was ph. australis which took up 98% of tnt within ten days. the first stable degradation products 4-amino-2,6-din ...200516054915
metabolic activity and phylogenetic diversity of reed (phragmites australis) periphyton bacterial communities in a hungarian shallow soda the present study, the species composition and potential metabolic activities of bacterial communities of reed phragmites australis (cav.) (trin. ex steudel) periphyton from lake velencei were studied by cultivation-based and metabolic fingerprinting methods. serially diluted spring biofilm samples were used to test the community-level physiological profiling (clpp) using biolog microplates, and for plating onto different media. on the basis of their morphological, biochemical, and physiologi ...200717406774
stimulation of pyrene mineralization in freshwater sediments by bacterial and plant a means to study the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) in freshwater sediments, pyrene mineralization was examined in microcosms spiked with [14c]pyrene. some microcosms were planted with reeds (phragmites australis) and/or inoculated with a pyrene-degrading strain, mycobacterium sp. 6py1. mineralization rates recorded over a 61 d period showed that reeds promoted a significant enhancement of pyrene degradation, which possibly resulted from a root-mediated increase of oxygen dif ...200516124309
diversity of alkaliphilic and alkalitolerant bacteria cultivated from decomposing reed rhizomes in a hungarian soda lake.bacterial communities associated with decomposing rhizomes of phragmites australis were investigated in lake ferto (neusiedlersee, hungary). alkaliphilic and alkalitolerant strains were isolated on cellulose-containing alkaline medium spread with dilutions of scrapings taken from the surface of the decaying plant material. fifty-one strains were grouped by numerical analysis based on physiological tests and biolog sole carbon source utilization data. the strains identified by 16s rdna sequence c ...200516132425
o-acetylserine (thiol) lyase activity in phragmites and typha plants under cadmium and nacl stress conditions and the involvement of aba in the stress response.the roles of o-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (oastl, ec and abscisic (aba) acid in stress responses to nacl and cadmium treatments were investigated in typha latifolia l. and phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steudel plants. oastl activity increased under stress (25-300 microm cd, 100mm nacl, 1 microm aba) in both typha and phragmites mainly in roots, contributing substantially to satisfy the higher demand of cysteine for adaptation and protection. the earliest significant responses in ...200516146312
reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds. effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-c genotoxicity assay, dr-calux assay and on early life stage development in zebrafish (danio rerio).sweden has prohibited the deposition of organic waste since january, 2005. since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a larger degree. one common method in the usa and parts of europe is the use of wetlands to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. the capacity of reed beds to affect the toxicity of a complex mixture of nitroaromatics in sludge, however, is n ...200717561780
seasonal changes of metal accumulation and distribution in common club rush (schoenoplectus lacustris) and common reed (phragmites australis).in this study, two aquatic macrophytes phragmites australis and schoenoplectus lacustris and corresponding sediment samples were collected every three months from lake sapanca (turkey) and analysed for their heavy-metal contents (pb, cr, cu, mn, ni, zn and cd). accumulation factor ratios of plant parts were calculated for all metals, and the two species were compared in terms of accumulation properties. the highest concentrations were measured in the root systems while relatively low concentrati ...200717577664
lead and zinc accumulation and tolerance in populations of six wetland plants.wetland plants such as typha latifolia and phragmites australis have been indicated to show a lack of evolution of metal tolerance in metal-contaminated populations. the aim of the present study is to verify whether other common wetland plants such as alternanthera philoxeroides and beckmannia syzigachne, also possess the same characteristics. lead and zinc tolerances in populations of six species collected from contaminated and clean sites were examined by hydroponics. in general, the contamina ...200616214279
[methane emission from aquatic vegetation zones of wuliangsu lake, inner mongolia].to quantify the variations of methane fluxes from different aquatic vegetation zones, two-year measurements were measured at different aquatic vegetation zones and water depths using static chamber technique during two growing season from april to october in 2003 and 2004. results showed that the average emission flux of ch4 from potamogeton pectinatus (submerged macrophyte) growing zones was (3.44 +/- 1.60) mg x (m2 x h)(-1), 78.06% lower than that from phragmites australis (emergent macrophyte ...200717633615
use of microbial community to evaluate performance of a wetland system in treating pb/zn mine drainage.the performance of a wetland system in treating lead (pb)/zinc (zn) mine drainage was evaluated by using the polyurethane foam unit (pfu) microbial community (method), which has been adopted by china as a standardized procedure for monitoring water quality. the wetland system consisted of four cells with three dominant plants: typha latifolia, phragmites australis and paspalum distichum. physicochemical characteristics [ph, ec, content of total suspended solid (tss) and metals (pb, zn, cd, and c ...200516215655
nitrous oxide emission from polyculture constructed wetlands: effect of plant species.loss of nitrogen from the soil-plant system has raised environmental concern. this study assessed the fluxes of nitrous oxide (n2o) in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands (cws). to better understand the mechanism of n2o emission, spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (aob) in four kinds of wetlands soil were compared. n2o emission data showed large temporal and spatial variation ranging from -5.5 to 32.7 mg n2o m(-2) d(-1). the highest n2o emission occurred in the cell planted ...200817655987
low persistence of bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis spores in four mosquito biotopes of a salt marsh in southern france.we studied the persistence of bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (bti) in a typical breeding site of the mosquito ochlerotatus caspius in a particularly sensitive salt marsh ecosystem following two bti-based larvicidal applications (vectobac 12as, 1.95 l/ha). the treated area was composed of four larval biotopes that differed in terms of the most representative plant species (sarcocornia fruticosa, bolboschoenus maritimus, phragmites australis, and juncus maritimus) and the physical and ...200516328650
effects of substratum on the diversity and stability of ammonia-oxidizing communities in a constructed wetland used for wastewater study the relationship between the nature of the substratum and the diversity and stability of the ammonia-oxidizing microbial community in a constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewaters.200717953555
influence of vegetation and substrate on the removal and transformation of dissolved organic matter in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.the fate of dissolved organic matter (dom) during horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (hssf cws) was examined. in several studies it had been demonstrated that factors such as vegetation and substrates type affected the treatment efficiency of dom, while very few studies discerned their influence on the transformations of dom. thus three pilot-scale hssf cws, i.e. reed (phragmites australis)/gravel bed (w1), hybrid vegetation{cattail (typha latifolia), bulrush (scirpus validus), reed ...200817964141
effects of plants on the removal of hexavalent chromium in wetland sediments.the effect of two wetland plants, typha latifolia l. (cattail) and phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud (common reed), on the fate of cr(vi) in wetland sediments was investigated using greenhouse bench-scale microcosm experiments. the removal of cr(vi) was monitored based on the vertical profiles of aqueous cr(vi) in the sediments. the cr(vi) removal rates were estimated taking into account plant transpiration, which was found to significantly concentrate dissolved species in the sediments ...200616397109
arthropod food web restoration following removal of an invasive wetland plant.restoration of habitats impacted by invasive plants is becoming an increasingly important tool in the management of native biodiversity, though most studies do not go beyond monitoring the abundance of particular taxonomic groups, such as the return of native vegetation. yet, the reestablishment of trophic interactions among organisms in restored habitats is equally important if we are to monitor and understand how ecosystems recover. this study examined whether food web interactions among arthr ...200616711049
diversity of reed (phragmites australis) stem biofilm bacterial communities in two hungarian soda lakes.from reed biofilm samples of kelemen-szék (kiskunság national park, knp) and nagy-vadas (hortobágy national park, hnp) altogether 260 bacterial isolates were gained after serial dilutions and plating onto different media. following a primary selection 164 strains were investigated by "traditional" phenotypic tests and clustered by numerical analysis. fifty-six representative strains were selected to ardra and 16s rdna sequence analysis for identification. strains were identified as members of ge ...200718088008
chemical and biological assessment of an urban, estuarine marsh in northeastern new jersey usa.oritani marsh in the hackensack meadowlands of urbanized northeastern new jersey usa was assessed in 2000 for vegetation, soil/sediment chemistry, abundance/diversity of benthic invertebrates, and bird and mammal usage. vegetatively, both marsh and uplands are dominated by tall, dense phragmites australis. small patches (less than 2 hectares total) dominated by spartina spp. were found at the lowest elevations. soil/sediment cores were sliced into 5 intervals and analyzed for metals, pesticides ...200717058019
removal of bacteria by filtration in planted and non-planted sand order to diminish hygienic hazards from pathogens, the elimination of pathogenic bacteria in a pre-treatment step is important for the use of domestic wastewater for irrigation purposes. therefore, we analysed the removal of bacteria in laboratory-scale model sand filters simulating vertical flow systems of constructed wetlands (cw). sand-filled glass columns were planted with juncus effusus or phragmites australis and non-planted columns were used as controls. processes of bacteria removal s ...200717084880
rhizome phyllosphere oxygenation in phragmites and other species in relation to redox potential, convective gas flow, submergence and aeration pathways.underground rhizomes of emergent aquatic macrophytes are important for perennation, vegetative spread, competition and anchorage. in four species we examined the potential for the development of oxidized phyllospheres around rhizome apical buds, similar to the protective oxygenated rhizospheres around roots. redox potentials and polarographic measurements of radial oxygen loss were recorded using platinum cathodes around the apical buds. the aeration pathway from atmosphere to phyllosphere was i ...200617096797
reed (phragmites australis) decline in a brackish wetland in italy.a comparative field study was carried out at two sites (a healthy site and a declining site) in a brackish wetland in northern italy, with the objective to investigate the symptoms and the possible causes leading to reed (phragmites australis) decline in this area. the declining reed plants presented many of the symptoms (clumping habit, smaller size, weaker culms, abnormal rhizome and root anatomy, low starch levels in rhizomes) comprised within the so-called reed die-back syndrome, frequently ...200212054106
phytoremediation of selenium using subsurface-flow constructed wetland.the potential of two plant species, phragmites australis (common reed) and typha latifolia (cattail), in the phytoremediation process of selenium (se) was studied in subsurface-flow constructed wetland (ssf). se was supplemented continuously at a concentration of 100 microg se l(-1) in the inlet of the cultivation beds of the ssf. water samples collected from the outlet of the phragmites bed after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 wk of treatments showed that se content was under detectable limits. water sampl ...200617120524
[population expansion of spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis at jiuduansha, shanghai based on cellular automata model].based on the field survey and the interpretation and analysis of satellite images about the population expansion patterns of spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis at jiuduansha shoals in 1997-2004, and combined with 3s techniques, a cellular automata (ca) model was built to simulate the population dynamics of plants adaptable to salt marsh. the results showed that the model could well simulate the population expansion pattern and trend of s. alterniflora and p. australis at jiuduansha, ...200718333459
varying stable nitrogen isotope ratios of different coastal marsh plants and their relationships with wastewater nitrogen and land use in new england, usa.the stable nitrogen isotope ratios of some biota have been used as indicators of sources of anthropogenic nitrogen. in this study the relationships of the stable nitrogen isotope ratios of marsh plants, iva frutescens (l.), phragmites australis (cav.) trin ex steud, spartina patens (ait.) muhl, spartina alterniflora loisel, ulva lactuca (l.), and enteromorpha intestinalis (l.) with wastewater nitrogen and land development in new england are described. five of the six plant species (all but u. la ...200717171277
accumulation of metals in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater in flanders, belgium.this study assessed the accumulation of metals in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater of 350 pe after three years of operation. metal concentrations in the influent wastewater, effluent, sediment, leaves, stems, and belowground biomass of phragmites australis were analysed. spatial variations were assessed by sampling at increasing distance from the inlet and at different positions across the width of the reed bed. all metals except fe and mn were effici ...200717240426
urea transformation of wetland microbial communities.transformation of urea to ammonium is an important link in the nitrogen cycle in soil and water. although microbial nitrogen transformations, such as nitrification and denitrification, are well studied in freshwater sediment and epiphytic biofilm in shallow waters, information about urea transformation in these environments is scarce. in this study, urea transformation of sedimentary, planktonic, and epiphytic microbial communities was quantified and urea transformation of epiphytic biofilms ass ...200717268879
phytophthora gallica sp. nov., a new species from rhizosphere soil of declining oak and reed stands in france and germany.a non-papillate, slow-growing phytophthora species, which could not be assigned to any existing taxon, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of a declining oak in northeast france, and from the rhizosphere of phragmites australis at lake constance in south-west germany in 1998 and 2004, respectively. we describe this species, previously informally designated phytophthora taxon 'g', as phytophthora gallica sp. nov. morphology, growth rates, and pathogenicity against cuttings of riparian tree species ...200818693002
five year water and nitrogen balance for a constructed surface flow wetland treating agricultural drainage waters.the performance of a constructed surface flow wetland in reducing diffuse n pollution coming from croplands is being investigated in an ongoing experiment, begun in 1998 in ne italy. the 0.32 ha wetland is vegetated with phragmites australis (cav.) trin. and typha latifolia (l.). it receives drainage water from 6 ha of land managed for an experiment on drainage systems, where maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and soybean are cultivated. during the period 1998-2002, the wetland received from 4698 to ...200717270250
artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.artificial wetlands (aw) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an ...200818957747
biodegradation of carbendazim by epiphytic and neustonic bacteria of eutrophic chełmzyńskie lake.the paper presents a study on biodegradation of carbendazim (1 mg/l) by homogeneous cultures of epiphytic (n = 25) and neustonic (n = 25) bacteria and heterogeneous (n = 1) cultures containing a mixture of 25 bacterial strains isolated from epidermis of the common reed (phragmites australis, (cav.) trin. ex steud.) and surface microlayer (sm approximately 250 microm) of eutrophic lake chełmzyńskie. results indicate that epiphytic bacteria are characterized by higher average capacity to decompose ...200819004243
cloning and functional analysis of the k+ transporter, phahak2, from salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant reed plants.we isolated phahak2 cdnas from salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive reed plants. phahak2 belongs to group ii by phylogenetic analysis, and was predicted to be a high-affinity plasma membrane k(+) transporter. yeast transformed with the phahak2-u from salt-sensitive reed plants (phragmites australis) had a decreased ability to take up k(+) in the presence of nacl and showed a higher na(+) permeability than yeast transformed with phahak2-n or phahak2-e from two salt-tolerant reed plants. these results ...200717279448
structure and function of denitrifying and nitrifying bacterial communities in relation to the plant species in a constructed wetland.the community structure and potential activities of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria were studied in the rhizosphere of typha latifolia and phragmites australis present in a free water system constructed wetland (cw). potential nitrate reduction and nitrification activities were shown to be significantly higher in the rhizosphere when compared with the nonvegetated sediment. higher rates were generally obtained for p. australis. the community structure of denitrifying bacteria in the rhizosp ...200919049502
uptake and distribution of n, p and heavy metals in three dominant salt marsh macrophytes from yangtze river estuary, china.we examined the variation in aboveground biomass accumulation and tissue concentrations of nitrogen (n), phosphorus (p), copper (cu), zinc (zn) and lead (pb) in phragmites australis (common reed), spartina alterniflora (salt cordgrass), and scirpus mariqueter throughout the growing season (april-october 2005), in order to determine the differences in net element accumulation and distribution between the three salt marsh macrophytes in the yangtze river estuary, china. the aboveground biomass was ...200717306362
ch4 and n2o emissions from spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis in experimental mesocosms.spartina alterniflora, a perennial grass with c(4)-photosynthesis, shows great invading potential in the coastal ecosystems in the east of china. we compared trace gas emissions from s. alterniflora with those from a native c(3) plant, phragmites australis, by establishing brackish marsh mesocosms to experimentally assess the effects of plant species (s. alterniflora vs. p. australis), flooding status (submerged vs. non-submerged), and clipping (plants clipped or not) on trace gas emissions. the ...200717316757
uptake of bromide by two wetland plants (typha latifolia l. and phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud).the successful use of bromide (br-) as a conservative tracer for hydrological tests in wetland systems requires minimal br- loss due to plant uptake. the uptake of br- by two wetland plants, cattail (typha latifolia l.) and reed grass (phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex steud), was investigated in greenhouse flow-through microcosms. concentrations of br- and other pertinent constituents in sediment pore water were measured at 2 cm depth increments in the sediment column. the vertical br- conce ...200415575283
are phragmites australis enzymes involved in the degradation of the textile azo dye acid orange 7?the role of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes of phragmites australis, in the degradation of an azo dye, acid orange 7 (ao7), was studied. activities of several enzymes involved in plant protection against stress were assayed through the activity characterization of superoxide dismutase (sod), peroxidases (pod), catalase (cat), ascorbate peroxidase (apox), dehydroascorbate reductase (dhar) and glutathione s-transferase (gst), obtained from p. australis crude extracts of leaves, stems and ro ...200817336060
nitrate removal and denitrification affected by soil characteristics in nitrate treatment wetlands.several small-scale surface flow constructed wetlands unplanted and planted (monoculture) with various macrophytes (phragmites australis, typha orientalis, pennisetum purpureum, ipomoea aquatica, and pistia stratiotes) were established to continuously receive nitrate-contaminated groundwater. soil characteristics and their effects on nitrate removal and soil denitrification were investigated. the results showed that planted wetland cells exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) nitrate removal ...200717365317
investigations of the host range of the corn cyst nematode, heterodera zeae, from maryland.the host range of the corn cyst nematode, heterodera zeae, recently detected in maryland, was investigated. a total of 269 plant entries, representing 68 families, 172 genera, and 204 species, was inoculated with cysts or a mixture of eggs and second-stage juveniles of h. zeae. the host range of the maryland population of h. zeae was limited to plants of the gramineae and included 11 tribes, 33 genera, 42 species, and 77 entries. all 22 corn (zea mays) cultivars tested were hosts. other economic ...198719290286
susceptibility of native and non-native common reed to the non-native mealy plum aphid (homoptera: aphididae) in north aggressive, non-native haplotype (distinct genetic lineage within a species) of phragmites australis is invading brackish and freshwater systems in the eastern united states, potentially displacing native haplotypes. we studied the differential susceptibility of native and non-native populations collected from sites throughout north america to the non-native aphid, hyalopterus pruni. in a greenhouse study, we found significantly higher aphid populations on native haplotypes than on the non-na ...200717445381
factors affecting metal concentrations in the upper sediment layer of intertidal reedbeds along the river scheldt.factors that play a role in determining metal accumulation in sediments of 26 intertidal marshes which are mainly vegetated by reed plants (phragmites australis) were assessed along the scheldt estuary (belgium and the netherlands). in the upper 20 cm sediment layer, several physico-chemical properties (clay, silt and sand content, organic matter, carbonate and chloride content, ph and conductivity) and aqua regia extractable metals (cd, cr, cu, ni, pb, zn) were determined. the sediments were si ...200717492090
performance of vegetated and non-vegetated vertical flow reed beds in the treatment of diluted leachate.this study was undertaken to investigate the behaviour of a vertical flow reed bed system with 3 kind of wastewaters (w1, w2 and w3) and for two hydraulic retention times (3 and 7 days) as well as to assess the role of phragmites australis in constructed wetland treatment processes. the adopted batch experimental system consisted of six vertical flow filters, filled with granular media and planted with reeds. for each vegetated reactor there was a correspondent blank in order to make a compariso ...200717558782
[carbon storage and carbon fixation during the succession of natural vegetation in wetland ecosystem on east beach of chongming island].vegetation is an important biological factor in the ecological succession of wetland, and the main factor affecting the carbon storage and carbon fixation in wetland ecosystem. by the methods of field survey and lab analysis, this paper studied the carbon storage and carbon fixation during the succession of wetland vegetation on east beach of chongming island, and the results showed that there existed greater differences in the existing carbon storage and its allocation in wetland vegetation at ...200717615896
[succession character of salt marsh vegetations in chongming dongtan wetland].this paper studied the ecological character, importance value, aboveground biomass and its n content of salt marsh vegetations in chongming dongtan wetland in the process of succession. the results indicated that with the increase of altitude, the importance value of scirpus mariqueter, a representative species at early succession stage, decreased gradually, while those of spartina alterniflora and phragmites australis increased. the biodiversity of the vegetations increased with succession. dur ...200717650865
root-secreted allelochemical in the noxious weed phragmites australis deploys a reactive oxygen species response and microtubule assembly disruption to execute rhizotoxicity.phragmites australis is considered the most invasive plant in marsh and wetland communities in the eastern united states. although allelopathy has been considered as a possible displacing mechanism in p. australis, there has been minimal success in characterizing the responsible allelochemical. we tested the occurrence of root-derived allelopathy in the invasiveness of p. australis. to this end, root exudates of two p. australis genotypes, bb (native) and p38 (an exotic) were tested for phytotox ...200717899282
[effects of allelochemical ema from reed on the production and release of cyanotoxins in microcystis aeruginosa].the growth inhibition of ethyl-2-methylacetoacetate (ema) isolated from common reed (phragmites australis trin. or phragmites communis trin.) on the growth of microcystis aeruginosa pcc7806 was investigated and the intracellular and extracellular concentration of cyanotoxin (mc-lr) after treatment of ema were tested. the experimental results indicated that ema has significant inhibitory effect on the growth of m. aeruginosa pcc7806, and the value of ec(50,7d) was 2.0 mg x l(-1). however, the inh ...200717990557
cloning of a high-affinity k+ transporter gene puthkt2;1 from puccinellia tenuiflora and its functional comparison with oshkt2;1 from rice in yeast and arabidopsis.a high-affinity k+ transporter puthkt2;1 cdna was isolated from the salt-tolerant plant puccinellia tenuiflora. expression of puthkt2;1 was induced by both 300 mm nacl and k+-starvation stress in roots, but only slightly regulated by those stresses in shoots. puthkt2;1 transcript levels in 300 mm nacl were doubled by the depletion of potassium. yeast transformed with puthkt2;1, like those transformed with phahkt2;1 from salt-tolerant reed plants (phragmites australis), (i) were able to take up k ...200919528529
diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria inhabiting the rhizosphere of phragmites australis in lake velencei (hungary) revealed by a combined cultivation-based and molecular approach.the community structure of sulfate-reducing bacteria (srb) associated with reed (phragmites australis) rhizosphere in lake velencei (hungary) was investigated by using cultivation-based and molecular methods. the cultivation methods were restricted to recover lactate-utilizing species with the exclusion of desulfobacter and some desulfobacterium species presumably not being dominant members of the examined community. the most-probable-number (mpn) estimations of lactate-utilizing srb showed that ...200818066486
heavy metals in wetland plants and soil of lake taihu, of vertical distribution of soil near water bodies are vary considerably from those of land and may greatly affect the transportation of heavy metals in wetlands. vertical distributions of heavy metals (cr, cd, cu, pb, and zn) in the soil of aquatic-terrestrial ecotone (ate) of lake taihu, china, and in wetland plant tissues were studied. generally, concentrations of heavy metals decreased with increasing depth in the top 40-cm cores and then increased slightly with increasing depth. ...200818092866
influence of tidal regime on the distribution of trace metals in a contaminated tidal freshwater marsh soil colonized with common reed (phragmites australis).a historical input of trace metals into tidal marshes fringing the river scheldt may be a cause for concern. nevertheless, the specific physicochemical form, rather than the total concentration, determines the ecotoxicological risk of metals in the soil. in this study the effect of tidal regime on the distribution of trace metals in different compartments of the soil was investigated. as, cd, cu and zn concentrations in sediment, pore water and in roots were determined along a depth profile. tot ...200818158203
phytotoxicity of oil sands naphthenic acids and dissipation from systems planted with emergent aquatic macrophytes.differences in dissipation and phytotoxicity were measured for two naphthenic acid mixtures in hydroponically grown emergent macrophytes (typha latifolia, phragmites australis, and scirpus acutus). one of the naphthenic acid (na) mixtures was extracted from tailings pond water of an oil sands operation in fort mcmurray, alberta, canada. the other mixture was a commercially available na mixture. while the oil sands na mixture was less phytotoxic to wetland plants compared to the commercially avai ...200818161556
the effects of tannery wastewater on the development of different plant species and chromium accumulation in phragmites australis.toxicity tests were performed to assess the effect of tannery wastewater with different treatment levels on two wetland plants, phragmites australis and typha latifolia, which are frequently used in constructed wetlands (cws) for water treatment, and thus deepen the knowledge on their capacity to withstand the application of industrial wastewater. trifolium pratense, a plant generally used as an indicator in toxicity tests, was included as a control. end points measured were germination percenta ...200818214580
litter pool sizes, decomposition, and nitrogen dynamics in spartina alterniflora-invaded and native coastal marshlands of the yangtze estuary.past studies have focused primarily on the effects of invasive plants on litter decomposition at soil surfaces. in natural ecosystems, however, considerable amounts of litter may be at aerial and belowground positions. this study was designed to examine the effects of spartina alterniflora invasion on the pool sizes and decomposition of aerial, surficial, and belowground litter in coastal marshlands, the yangtze estuary, which were originally occupied by two native species, scirpus mariqueter an ...200818327617
an approach to mosquito control: using the dominant attraction of flowering tamarix jordanis trees against culex this study, we identified blossoms that attract culex pipiens l. s.l. in a mediterranean habitat by using branches of 26 common plant species as baits for traps. the highest catch, 60.5% of the total, by flowers of tamarix jordanis boiss., was approximately 6 times greater than the 10.7% caught by flowering polygonum equisetiforme sm., and 10 times higher than the 6.6% caught by flowers of acacia saligna (lindle) h. l. wendl. the catch elicited by the other plants ranged between 4.0 and 0.1%. ...200818533430
[niches of plant species in wetlands of the yellow river delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity].ordination methods were used to arrange in turn the 19 plant species in wetlands of the yellow river delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity, and to classify them into three ecological species groups, i. e. low, medium, and high water table depth/soil salinity ecological species groups. their niche breadths and niche overlaps under the two gradients were also analyzed. the results indicated that for the gradient of water table depth, the species in medium water table depth e ...200818655579
phylogenetic and metabolic bacterial diversity of phragmites australis periphyton communities in two hungarian soda ponds.bacterial diversity of reed (phragmites australis) periphyton communities of kelemen-szék and nagy-vadas (two hungarian soda ponds) was investigated using molecular cloning and cultivation-based techniques. the majority of the 80 kelemen-szék and 72 nagy-vadas bacterial isolates proved to be moderately halophilic and alkaliphilic. a great proportion of the isolates showed phosphatase and urease activity, utilized aesculin, citrate and certain biopolymers (e.g., gelatine and tween 80). partial 16 ...200818679563
characteristics of environmental factors and their effects on ch4 and co2 emissions from a closed landfill: an ecological case study of elucidate the influence of landfill gas (lfg) emission on environmental factors, an ecological investigation that was primarily concerned with the characteristics of vegetation, cover soil, and solid waste in the landfill was carried out. temporal and spatial variations in vegetation diversity and coverage and their effects on reducing the emission of methane in the landfill were investigated. the results showed that both vegetation coverage and diversity increased with elapsed landfill closu ...201019880303
the fate of cyanobacterial blooms in vegetated and unvegetated sediments of a shallow eutrophic lake: a stable isotope tracer experiment using nitrogen stable isotope tracer ((15)n) was conducted to track the fate of nitrogen derived from cyanobacterial blooms and the effectiveness with which the seasonal blooms are retained by vegetated and unvegetated sediment in a large shallow eutrophic lake (lake taihu, china). (15)n enriched microcystis was injected into both unvegetated sediment and sediment occupied by common reed (phragmites australis) in the littoral zone. nutrient retention by the vegetated sediment was g ...201019939431
seasonal effect on n2o formation in nitrification in constructed wetlands.constructed wetlands are considered to be important sources of nitrous oxide (n(2)o). in order to investigate the contribution of nitrification in n(2)o formation, some environmental factors, plant species and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (aob) in active layers have been compared. vegetation cells indicated remarkable effect of seasons and different plant species on n(2)o emission and aob amount. nitrous oxide data showed large temporal and spatial fluctuations ranging 0-52.8 mg n(2)o m(-2)d(-1). ...200818782640
the effect of the heterologous expression of phragmites australis gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase on the cd2+ accumulation of agrostis palustris.heavy metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. to develop a more efficient plant to clean up heavy metal contaminated soils, a gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gcs) cdna, named pagcs, was isolated by pcr from phragmites australis. the pagcs sequence was transformed via agroinfection into the heavy metal intolerant grass agrostis palustris. five confirmed transgenic a. palustris plants expressing pagcs were compared with the wild-type line for growth and ...201020051038
[nitrous oxide fluxes of constructed wetlands to treat sewage wastewater].the nitrous oxide fluxes and ammonia-oxidizing bacterium in two typical constructed wetlands, i.e. subsurface flow (sf) and free water surface (fws) were studied by the method of static chamber-gas chromatography. the results showed that the mean n2o fluxes were 296.5 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) and 28.2 microg x (m2 x h)(-1) respectively, and two typical wetlands were all the sources of atmosphere nitrous oxide as a whole. sf wetland exhibited a higher risk of n2o emissions, and the mean n2o flux in ...200920063721
pcr analysis of the presence and location of mycobacterium avium in a constructed reed bed, with implications for avian tuberculosis control.the potential of reed beds to act as biofilters of pathogenic and environmental mycobacteria was investigated through examination of the fate of mycobacteria in a constructed reed bed filtering effluent from a large captive wildfowl collection. particular emphasis was placed on the presence and location of mycobacterium avium--the causal agent of avian tuberculosis (atb)--in an effort to clarify the potential role of reed beds in the control of this disease. water, sediment, and stems and roots ...200919049499
the roost and roosting behaviour of eurasian marsh harriers circus aeruginosus during autumnal migration in eastern poland.the study deals with characteristics of behaviour, individual roost sites selections used by eurasian marsh harrier (circus aeruginosus) during autumnal migrations on the first known communal roost in poland over the years 2003-2005. eurasian marsh harriers communal roosts contained from 1 to 23 individuals which were spend nights in: reed beds (phragmites australis), purple moor grasses molinia cearulea, small reeds (calamagrostis sp.), sedges (carex sp.) thistles (cirsium sp.). adult birds wer ...200719069855
sorption and photodegradation of chlorpyrifos on riparian and aquatic macrophytes.surface water bodies may become contaminated via spray drift following pesticide application. in this investigation, the photodegradation and sorption of chlorpyrifos was studied in four riparian macrophytes representative of mediterranean flora (phragmites australis, iris pseudacorus, equisetum pratense and typha latifolia). the results of experiments with both the active ingredient and the formulation dursban 48 ec confirm the ability of these species to interact with chemicals such as chlorpy ...200919089709
ecological studies on al-khadoud spring, al-hassa, saudi spring is one of the most important water resources in al-hassa governorate, saudi arabia. however, much of its biotic information is still unknown. this study presented preliminary ecological information of this aquatic body. regarding to macrophytes, a total of eight species were observed along the study sites. these species include two submerged aquatic plants (potamogeton pectinatus l. and ceratophyllum demersum l.). the common distributed species are phragmites australis (cav.) t ...200719090280
constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater.wastewaters from leather processing are very complex and lead to water pollution if discharged untreated, especially due to its high organic loading. in this study the survival of different plant species in subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands receiving tannery wastewater was investigated. five pilot units were vegetated with canna indica, typha latifolia, phragmites australis, stenotaphrum secundatum and iris pseudacorus, and a sixth unit was left as an unvegetated control. the treat ...200717320926
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