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transcriptional and translational regulation of the expression of the major outer surface proteins in lyme disease borrelia strains.the major outer surface proteins of lyme disease spirochaetes are differentially expressed in different isolates. borrelia afzelii strain f1 expresses none, or very low amounts, of the ospa and ospb proteins. to elucidate the mechanisms that control the expression of these abundant surface proteins the ospab operon of b. afzelii f1 was cloned, sequenced and compared to the previously sequenced ospab operon of b. afzelii acai and borrelia burgdorferi b31. the two b. afzelii strains showed almost ...19957545508
identification of spirochetes isolated from wild rodents in japan as borrelia japonica.spirochetes isolated from three species of wild mice, apodemus speciosus, apodemus argenteus, and eothenomys smithi, which were caught on honshu, japan, were characterized on the bases of protein profiles, reactivities with monoclonal antibodies (mabs), and dna homology values. all the isolates reacted with mab o1441b, which is specific for borrelia japonica, but not with mab p62, which is specific for borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia garinii, and borrelia afzelii. the dna relatednes ...19957615765
assignment of borrelia burgdorferi strains g25 and vs461 to the borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii genospecies, respectively: a comparison of ospa protein sequences.the nucleotide sequence encoding the outer surface protein a (ospa) from two borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates, g25 and vs461, has been determined. on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis, strains g25 and vs461 were respectively assigned to the b. garinii and b. afzelii genospecies. comparative analysis of ospa proteins from 26 different b. burgdorferi sensu lato strains involved in lyme disease indicated a higher heterogeneity in the b. garinii genospecies than in the two other genospeci ...19957626787
linear chromosomes of lyme disease agent spirochetes: genetic diversity and conservation of gene order.we have constructed physical and genetic maps of the chromosomes of 21 lyme disease agent spirochetes from geographically diverse locations. all have linear chromosomes whose lengths range from 935 to 955 kbp, and all contain multiple linear plasmids in the 16- to 175-kbp size range. the locations of 11 gene clusters on the chromosomes of these different isolates are indistinguishable at the resolution achieved in this study, indicating that the members of this related group of species have high ...19957751287
clinical and serologic features of lyme borreliosis in russia.to describe clinical and serologic features of lyme borreliosis, particularly the joint abnormalities, in russian patients.19957791165
conservation of gene arrangement and an unusual organization of rrna genes in the linear chromosomes of the lyme disease spirochaetes borrelia burgdorferi, b. garinii and b. afzelii.physical maps of the chromosomes of the lyme disease spirochaetes borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii have been elucidated for the enzymes cspi, sgrai, i-ceui, smai, eagi, bsshii, mlui and apai by two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques. the maps contain 42 sites for b. garinii and 32 for b. afzelii. the mapping studies showed that the two chromosomes are linear dna molecules of 953 and 948 kbp, respectively. a comparison of the physical maps of b. garinii and b. afzelii an ...19947812434
[first isolation of borrelia afzelii in france (marne) from ixodes ricinus].a strain of borrelia has been isolated from ixodes ricinus in france (marne). the dna analysis by pcr showed that it is identical to b. afzelii.19947866039
lyme disease spirochetes in a wild fox (vulpes vulpes schrencki) and in ticks.lyme disease spirochetes were demonstrated in a wild female fox (vulpes vulpes schrencki) and in ixodes persulcatus ticks collected from the fox on sapporo, hokkaido, japan. spirochetes were detected in i. persulcatus, as well as skin lesions, brain, heart, kidney, and liver of the fox. five of seven isolates reacted with a monoclonal antibody against borrelia afzelii specific osp b. deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) relatedness of a brain isolate was 89% to b. afzelii, and ranged from 50 to 67% to th ...19947933292
monoclonal antibodies for identification of borrelia afzelii sp. nov. associated with late cutaneous manifestations of lyme borreliosis.borrelia isolates associated with lyme borreliosis were previously divided into 3 genospecies, b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, b. garinii and group vs461, on the basis of dna homology. b. burgdorferi sensu stricto and b. garinii were identified by monoclonal antibodies (mabs), h3ts and d6 respectively, but no mabs were available to identify group vs461. two mabs were produced, i 17.3 and j 8.3 which reacted with ospb and ospa proteins, respectively, of strains belonging to group vs461, which shoul ...19938248743
establishment of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using purified recombinant 83-kilodalton antigen of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and borrelia afzelii for serodiagnosis of lyme disease.the 83-kda antigen of borrelia burgdorferi was expressed as a recombinant protein in escherichia coli and purified for use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (p83-elisa). antibodies to the 83-kda antigen of both the immunoglobulin g (igg) and igm isotypes could be detected in all stages of lyme disease. sensitivity varied, depending on the clinical stage of illness. in early stages, as defined for 118 patients with erythema migrans, it was found to be 20% (24 of 118 patients: 7 with igm, 16 ...19958567889
analysis and comparison of plasmid profiles of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains.the relationship between plasmid profiles and genospecies of the lyme disease borreliae was investigated by using 40 strains from diverse biological and geographical sources. the genospecies of the strains were determined by examination of rrna gene restriction patterns with cdna probes complementary to the 16s and 23s rrnas of escherichia coli. plasmid profiles were obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. the number of plasmids per strain and the size of these plasmids ranged from 4 to 10 ...19958567905
analysis of the genetic polymorphism of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.in recent years, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato has been subdivided into three species, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia garinii, and borrelia afzelii, and a new species restricted to japan, borrelia japonica, has been isolated from ixodes ovatus. in addition, members of several new genomic groups have been found in america and in europe, suggesting that there are additional genospecies. in order to study the diversity of b. burgdorferi sensu lato, we analyzed 54 isolates, cultured ...19968573491
persistence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in resolved erythema migrans lesions.erythema migrans skin lesions resulting from a tick bite and infection with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato eventually resolve, even without antibiotic therapy. the aim of the present study was to gauge the frequency of persistence of b. burgdorferi sensu lato in such lesions. thus, the site of a previous lesion was biopsied and cultured in 48 patients: 39 with systemic or localized symptoms/signs and nine with no symptoms. b. burgdorferi sensu lato was isolated from biopsied skin from three sym ...19958562748
uptake and killing of lyme disease and relapsing fever borreliae in the perfused rat liver and by isolated kupffer cells.in situ-perfused rat livers were infused with a single dose of 1.5 x 10(7) radiolabeled borreliae. significant (p < 0.00005) differences in the liver uptake of the agents of lyme borreliosis, borrelia burgdorferi irs, borrelia afzelii vs461, and borrelia garinii pbi, and that of the agents of relapsing fever, borrelia hermsii, borrelia parkeri, and borrelia turicatae, were observed. the liver uptakes ranged between 65.9% for b. burgdorferi irs and 40.5% for b. turicatae. neither relapsing fever ...19968613404
circular and linear plasmids of lyme disease spirochetes have extensive homology: characterization of a repeated dna element.we have cloned three copies of a repeated dna segment from borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain b31, present on both circular and linear plasmids of this and other b. burgdorferi sensu lato strains. the dna sequences are characterized by a highly homologous segment containing two open reading frames (orfs), orf-a and orf-b. five additional orfs can be found on the slightly less homologous flanking sequences: orf-g on the opposite strand upstream of orf-a, and orf-c, orf-d, orf-e, and orf-f ...19968636030
[the frequency of generalized infection in adult fasting ticks of the genus ixodes in foci of borreliosis in russia and the usa].a total of 740 adult ixodes persulcatus ticks were collected from the vegetation by flagging in russian foci where borrelia afzelii and b. garinii circulate, and 156 i. dammini ticks were collected in northwestern usa regions in foci with b. burgdorferi s.str. circulation. smears prepared from the internal organs of ticks were stained according to romanovsky-giemsa and analyzed under a microscope at a x 1125 magnification. all borreliae in 250 microscopic fields were counted, and concentration o ...19958524615
genomic fingerprinting of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.a total of 46 borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates that were isolated from patients with lyme borreliosis and infected animals or were extracted from ticks of the genus ixodes were analyzed. large restriction fragment patterns obtained after cleavage of genomic dnas with mlui were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). to eliminate the contribution of plasmid dna, only fragments greater than 70 kb were used for the analysis. the results indicated that each of the 14 b. burgdorf ...19938263170
characterization of two genes, p11 and p5, on the borrelia burgdorferi 49-kilo base linear plasmid.a putative operon encoding two borrelia burgdorferi n40 genes, p11 and p5 was cloned and localized to the 49 kilobase linear plasmid. p11 encodes an 11 kda protein and p5 encodes a 5 kda protein. the first 88 nucleotides of p11 have 81% identity with orf5 on a circular plasmid from borrelia afzelii strain ip21, suggesting that homologues of these genes may be present in different regions of the b. burgdorferi genome.19968688460
antibody responses to the three genomic groups of borrelia burgdorferi in european lyme borreliosis.the antibody responses to the three genomic groups of borrelia burgdorferi (b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia garinii, and borrelia afzelii) were determined in 97 german patients with various manifestations of lyme borreliosis. the geometric mean antibody titers in each patient group, determined by elisa, were similar with each antigen preparation. by western blotting, however, patients with meningopolyneuritis tended to respond to more spirochetal polypeptides of b. garinii, the group 2 st ...19948106763
seroprotective groups of lyme borreliosis spirochetes from north america and europe.five distinct seroprotective groups among north american and european isolates of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia garinii, and borrelia afzelii have been identified using the in vitro borreliacidal assay. the predominant north american seroprotective group comprised isolate 297 and b. burgdorferi isolates from california, illinois, wisconsin, new york, and texas. a second group was represented by isolate c-1-11. the majority of european isolates belonged to a seroprotective group co ...19948014485
diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato evidenced by restriction fragment length polymorphism of rrf (5s)-rrl (23s) intergenic spacer amplicons.the organization of the ribosomal genes is unique in borrelia burgdorferi in that the rrl (23s) and rrf (5s) genes are tandemly duplicated. we took advantage of this uniqueness to assess the restriction polymorphism of pcr products obtained with primers at the 3' end of the first rrf gene and at the 5' end of the second rrl gene. an amplicon that was 226 to 266 bp long was generated from 99 to 100 b. burgdorferi sensu lato strains. the nuclease msei restriction polymorphism of the amplicons prov ...19947981102
comparative studies on borrelia afzelii isolated from a patient of lyme disease, ixodes persulcatus ticks, and apodemus speciosus rodents in japan.the genospecies borrelia afzelii was isolated from a patient of lyme disease in hokkaido, japan, for the first time, by culturing the minced erythema lesion in bsk ii medium. two analytical methods, rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using the specific primer set to amplify the 16s rrna gene, revealed that this clinical isolate belongs to the group of b. afzelii. in our culture collection of spirochetes, part of the isolates from ixodes ...19947968670
lyme disease spirochetes in japan: enzootic transmission cycles in birds, rodents, and ixodes persulcatus ticks.the ixodid tick, ixodes persulcatus, serves as a vector of borrelia species associated with lyme disease in hokkaido, japan. the migratory birds of genera emberiza and turdus and the woodland rodents of genera apodemus and clethrionomys are the wildlife reservoirs. to systemize the enzootic transmission cycles, borreliae isolates were classified by ribosomal rna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis. most (> 60%) isolates from the bird-feeding i. persulcatus larvae belong ...19947930730
evolution of the borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein ospc.the genes coding for outer surface protein ospc from 22 borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients with lyme borreliosis were cloned and sequenced. for reference purposes, the 16s rrna genes from 17 of these strains were sequenced after being cloned. the deduced ospc amino acid sequences were aligned with 12 published ospc sequences and revealed the presence of 48 conserved amino acids. on the basis of the alignment, ospc could be divided into an amino-terminal relatively conserved regi ...19957768799
abilities of ospa proteins from different seroprotective groups of borrelia burgdorferi to protect hamsters from infection.the ability of vaccination with recombinant ospa from six seroprotective groups of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato to induce protection against infection with homologous and other lyme spirochetes was examined in hamsters. antisera generated against the ospa proteins of b. burgdorferi sensu stricto s-1-10 and c-1-11 (seroprotective groups 1 and 2, respectively), borrelia afzelii bv1 (seroprotective group 4), and borrelia garinii lv4 (seroprotective group 5) were able to kill the homologous spiro ...19957768589
phenotypic analysis of outer surface protein c (ospc) of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by monoclonal antibodies: relationship to genospecies and ospa serotype.molecular analyses of the genes encoding ospc, a major immunodominant protein of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, revealed a considerable degree of heterogeneity. in the present study, we investigated whether a similar heterogeneity of the ospc phenotype can be shown by analysis with monoclonal antibodies (mabs). thirteen ospc-specific mabs (l22 mabs) were produced by immunizing mice with either different combinations of whole-cell antigens or recombinantly expressed ospcs cloned from strains be ...19957699024
molecular analysis of genes encoding outer surface protein c (ospc) of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: relationship to ospa genotype and evidence of lateral gene exchange of ospc.it has been shown by analysis with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that outer surface protein c (ospc) of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is highly heterogeneous. to determine if the heterogeneity has a genetic basis, the genes of 18 different b. burgdorferi sensu lato strains have been amplified by pcr, cloned, and sequenced. the ospc genes could be amplified from all strains tested, even from two strains which did not express ospc in detectable amounts. among the 18 strains, 16 significan ...19957665660
the outer surface proteins of lyme disease borrelia spirochetes stimulate t cells to secrete interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma): diagnostic and pathogenic implications.late stages of borrelia lyme disease infections may be difficult to diagnose because of unspecific symptoms and unreliable laboratory tests, being too unspecific or insensitive. the t cell immune response was thus evaluated in these patients by using a sensitive elispot t cell assay that detects the secretion of ifn-gamma, i.e. a t helper 1 (th1) response on the single-cell level. three subcellular fractions of the lyme borreliosis strain borrelia afzelii were used for antigenic stimulation. the ...19957664493
amino acid sequence heterogeneity of the chromosomal encoded borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato major antigen p100.the entire nucleotide sequence of the chromosomal encoded major antigen p100 of the european borrelia garinii isolate b29 was determined and the deduced amino acid sequence was compared to the homologous antigen p83 of the north american borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain b31 and the p100 of the european borrelia afzelii (group vs461) strain pko. p100 of strain b29 shows 87% amino acid sequence identity to strain b31 and 79.2% to strain pko, p100 of strain b31 and pko shows 62.5% identity ...19957603343
characterization of finnish borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and with monoclonal antibodies.thirty-seven borrelia burgdorferi strains, isolated in 1992 from ixodes ricinus in finland, were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay (ifa) with five to nine monoclonal antibodies (mabs). by sds-page results and reactivities to mabs h3ts, j 8.3, i 17.3, and d6, the 37 isolates were assigned to the species b. burgdorferi sensu stricto (n = 7), borrelia afzelii (n = 17), or borrelia garinii ...19957559935
mixed infection of different borrelia species among apodemus speciosus mice in hokkaido, japan.the wood mouse (apodemus speciosus) serves as a wildlife reservoir for lyme disease spirochetes in hokkaido, japan. to isolate borrelia species, we captured 34 wood mice in an area where borrelia species are endemic during october 1993. the earlobes (right and left), heart, spleen, and urinary bladder from each mouse were used as culture sources. as a result of culture 73 isolates from 21 mice were classified by rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. ribotype groups iii (bo ...19957536218
reservoir competence of the vole, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, for borrelia garinii or borrelia afzelii.in autumn of 1994 and spring of 1995, we examined borrelia infection among microtinae voles, clethrionomys rufocanus bedfordiae, in hokkaido, japan. in bsk culturing of the earlobe tissues of 45 c. rufocanus bedfordiae captured, twelve rodents were positive for borrelia. eight isolates were used for the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and the restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis. according to the results, these isolates were classified into b. garinii or b. afzelii. it is con ...19968871531
molecular cloning and characterization of nlph, encoding a novel, surface-exposed, polymorphic, plasmid-encoded 33-kilodalton lipoprotein of borrelia afzelii.borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato organisms, comprising b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia afzelii, and borrelia garinii, are tick-borne pathogens causing lyme borreliosis in humans. to identify putative virulence determinants, a b. afzelii dna library was screened for congo red dye binding, a property associated with virulence in pathogenic bacteria. one clone was found to carry a 663-nucleotide-long open reading frame encoding a congo red dye-binding protein with a calculated molecular mass ...19968932298
identification of borrelia afzelii in a juxta-articular fibroid nodule from a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. 19957503587
sequence analysis of ospa genes shows homogeneity within borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and borrelia afzelii strains but reveals major subgroups within the borrelia garinii species.the genes coding for the outer surface protein a (ospa) of 19 different borrelia burgdorferi strains belonging to the seven ospa-serotypes 1-7, previously described [wilske et al. (1993) j clin microbiol, 31: 340-350], have been investigated. b. burgdorferi sensu lato strains were chosen from various biological sources (ticks, human skin and cerebrospinal fluid) as well as different geographical origins (germany, slovenia, austria, united states). the open reading frames of all ospa genes consis ...19957500914
infection rate of ixodes ricinus ticks with borrelia afzelii, borrelia garinii, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in slovenia.in spring 1993, ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from six regions of slovenia to determine their overall rate of infection with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and to assess the frequency of individual species in these tick populations. ticks were dissected and midgut tissue inoculated into modified barbour-stoenner-kelly (bsk ii) medium. borrelia isolates were differentiated into separate species using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) primers and by large restriction fragment ...19958654451
development of destructive arthritis in vaccinated hamsters challenged with borrelia burgdorferi.we present the first direct evidence that adverse effects, particularly severe destructive arthritis, can develop in vaccinated hamsters after challenge with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. hamsters were vaccinated with a whole-cell preparation of formalin-inactivated b. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolate c-1-11 in adjuvant. a severe destructive arthritis was readily evoked in vaccinated hamsters challenged with the homologous b. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolate c-1-11 before high leve ...19948005672
comparison of antibody titers against borrelial strains isolated in japan by the microcapsule agglutination test for serological studies of early lyme disease.results of a passive microcapsule agglutination test using 2 japanese strains, borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii, were comparable to that of the passive microcapsule agglutination test using a swiss strain borrelia burgdorferi irs in detecting antibodies of an early stage of lyme disease patients in japan. mcat with microcapsule sensitized strain irs seems likely to become one of the important tools for the early diagnosis of lyme disease in the world. the highest titer of mcat was detected ...19947935044
molecular typing of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.the etiologic agent of lyme borreliosis, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, has been isolated from many biologic sources in north america and eurasia, and isolates have been divided into three distinct genospecies (b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia garinii, and borrelia afzelii). in order to explore the possible association of genospecies with disease manifestation, 60 isolates of b. burgdorferi sensu lato were subjected to 5s rdna-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analys ...19957751362
muscle, reticuloendothelial, and late skin manifestations of lyme disease.in addition to classic organ system involvement, lyme disease may be characterized by myositis, liver and spleen involvement, and atypical cutaneous manifestations. myositis is characteristically localized near an involved joint or localized neuropathy. nuclear imaging with gallium-67 may be useful for detection. myositis responds to treatment with intravenous or oral antibiotics. patients with erythema migrans have been observed to have liver function test abnormalities in the absence of sympto ...19957726194
consensus sequence on the genes encoding the major outer surface proteins (ospa and ospb) of borrelia garinii isolate.japanese lyme borrelias classified as ribotype iv is predominant among isolates derived from clinical specimens, reservoir rodents and ixodes persulcatus ticks, and has been characterized as borrelia garinii. these b. garinii isolates have antigenic and genetic features apparently different from north american, european and other asian isolates, especially in major outer surface proteins a (ospa) and b (ospb). in this study, we cloned and sequenced the genes encoding ospa and ospb from b. garini ...19979087950
simultaneous presence of different borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in biological fluids of lyme disease patients.oligonucleotide primers based on borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato ospa gene sequences have been designed for use in the pcr to type all (sl primers) or each (gi to giii primers) of the b. burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies involved in lyme disease. these genospecies-specific primers were then used in the pcr on 24 biological fluids collected from 18 neuroborreliosis patients. among the samples tested, 20 contained dna from borrelia garinii, 11 contained dna from b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and ...19957538507
apodemus sp. rodents, reservoir hosts for borrelia afzelii in an endemic area in switzerland.borrelia burgdorferi is maintained in nature in transmission cycles alternatively involving ticks and reservoir hosts. small rodents like apodemus mice and clethrionomys voles are the primary reservoir of lyme disease in europe. in this study, we analyzed by sds-page and western blot 20 borrelial isolates from xenodiagnostic ticks fed on four apodemus sp. mice captured in the staatswald forest (switzerland). all isolates but one showed a homogeneous protein pattern expressing an outer surface pr ...19979144917
simultaneous detection and genotyping of three genomic groups of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dutch ixodes ricinus ticks by characterization of the amplified intergenic spacer region between 5s and 23s rrna genes.we developed a rapid and reliable method for the identification borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in ticks. we used the dna sequence polymorphism of the spacer region between 5s and 23s rrna genes, which has been shown to be able to discriminate between eight genomic groups of b. burgdorferi sensu lato (d. postic, m. assous, p. a. d. grimont, and g. baranton, int. j. syst. bacteriol. 44:743-752, 1994). spacer dna was amplified by pcr and was then hybridized to five membrane-bound oligonucl ...19958586679
immunological and molecular variability of ospa and ospc. implications for borrelia vaccine development.borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of lyme borreliosis is considerably heterogeneous in europe. since the outer surface proteins ospa and ospc are the most promising candidates for a borrelia vaccine the immunological heterogeneity of these proteins was investigated. by immunological analysis with monoclonal antibodies and sequence analysis of pcr amplified ospa and ospc at least seven and 16 different types, respectively, were found. whereas skin isolates (n = 68) were quite ...19968740124
detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by pcr in questing ixodes ricinus larvae from the dutch north sea island of ameland.in may 1995, 61 ixodes ricinus larvae were collected from vegetation on the dutch north sea island of ameland. fifty-seven lysates (94%) were analysed for the presence of borrelia dna by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr), which amplified the intergenic spacer region between the 5s and 23s rrna genes. three samples (5%) were positive and hybridization of the pcr product to genomic group-specific probes revealed that two larvae were infected with borrelia afzelii and group vs116, respectively an ...19968771771
genetic and phenotypic analysis of borrelia miyamotoi sp. nov., isolated from the ixodid tick ixodes persulcatus, the vector for lyme disease in japan.the ixodid tick ixodes persulcatus is the most important vector of lyme disease in japan. most spirochete isolates obtained from i. persulcatus ticks have been classified as borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato because of their genetic, biological, and immunological characteristics. however, we found that a small number of isolates obtained from i. persulcatus contained a smaller 38-kda endoflagellar protein and single 23s-5s rrna gene unit. representative isolate ht31t (t = type strain) had the same ...19957547303
[present status of lyme borreliosis and characterization of lyme disease borrelia isolated in japan].lyme disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by infection with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato which is carried by ticks of the ixodes ricinus complex. the agent was discovered in 1982 in north america and the disease is recognized as an emerging infectious diseases in north america and europe. japanese borrelia isolates were characterized by genetic and immunologic analysis. isolates from ixodes ovatus were found to be unique by dna/dna hybridization analysis, restriction fragment length pol ...19979248350
differentiation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated from skin biopsies and tick by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.fifteen isolates of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from skin biopsies (8) and ticks (7) were investigated for species differentiation by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). the skin isolates were further characterized by plasmid profile as well as sds-page and revealed six borrelia afzelii-, one borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto-, and one borrelia garinii species. the tick isolates showed three borrelia afzelii--and four borrelia garinii species. the skin isolates could be further discrim ...19968673805
genetic and phenotypic analysis of borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. (borrelia genomic groups vs116 and m19).to clarify the taxonomic status of two recently described borrelia genomic groups, groups vs116 and m19, three group vs116 strains and eight group m19 strains isolated from ixodes ricinus ticks in switzerland, the netherlands, and the united kingdom were characterized. pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of the 5s-23s intergenic spacer amplicon, rrna gene restriction analysis, 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) fingerprinting, sodi ...19979336888
etiology of the acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans lesion in lyme disease.spirochete diversity in acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans lesions in a closely defined central european site was compared to that in the local vector population, in human erythema migrans lesions, and in cerebrospinal fluid by amplifying and sequencing a segment of the gene of outer surface protein a directly from sampled tissues. borrelia garinii, borrelia afzelii, and borrelia burgdorferi acutely infect human skin and invade internal tissues. only b. afzelii, however, is associated with acro ...19968699080
heterogeneity of bmpa (p39) among european isolates of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and influence of interspecies variability on serodiagnosis.the molecular and antigenic variabilities of bmpa (p39) among european isolates of borrelia burgdorferi were analyzed. the bmpa sequences of 12 isolates representing all three species of b. burgdorferi sensu lato pathogenic for humans were amplified by pcr, cloned, and sequenced. the bmpa protein of borrelia garinii is heterogeneous, with an amino acid sequence identity ranging from 91 to 97%, whereas the bmpa proteins of borrelia afzelii and b. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains appear to be hig ...19979350727
distribution of borrelia species associated with lyme disease in the subalpine forests of nagano prefecture, japan.we surveyed the natural distribution of borrelia species associated with lyme disease in the subalpine forests of nagano prefecture, japan, during 1993-94. tick-derived isolates (n = 112) from ixodes persulcatus and rodent-derived isolates (n = 55) from apodemus argenteus, apodemus speciosus, eothenomys andersoni, eothenomys smithii, and microtus montebelli were classified by rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (rflp ribotyping). ribotype group iv (an intraspecific varian ...19968709867
an unusual illegitimate recombination occurs in the linear-plasmid-encoded outer-surface protein a gene of borrelia afzelii.in this study, we describe an unusual illegitimate recombination in the linear-plasmid-encoded outer-surface protein a gene of borrelia afzelii. a 96 bp dna segment was deleted from the ospa structural gene of b. afzelii strain r9. the nature of the rearrangement suggested that it arose by a strand slippage mechanism, which was stimulated by a 18-mer palindromic sequence and 5-mer short direct repeats at both termini of the deleted dna. the deleted sequence could form a complex hairpin structure ...19979421906
prevalence of igg reactivity in lyme borreliosis patients versus borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii in a restricted area of northern italy.this survey evaluates the antibody band patterns of sera taken from clinically defined cases of lyme borreliosis, towards three locally isolated strains of borrelia burgdorferi, belonging to the three species: borrelia sensu stricto, borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii, by means of western blot. the sera were taken from patients resident in a limited area of friuli venezia giulia (fvg) region. the data indicated that, besides a different feature of the band reactivity which correlated to the d ...19958745006
identification of four genomic groups of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodes ricinus ticks collected in a lyme borreliosis endemic region of northern croatia.we investigated the presence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodes ricinus ticks collected in a lyme borreliosis (lb) endemic region of northern croatia. ticks (n = 124) were collected at five locations and analysed by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a dna fragment from the internal transcribed spacer (its2) of i. ricinus was detected in all tick lysates, indicating that pcr inhibitors were not present. borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato dna was detected in 56 out of 124 ticks (45%). fo ...19968746131
genetic diversity of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolated in far eastern russia.one-hundred and fifty-seven borrelia isolated from adult ticks, ixodes persulcatus, and wild rodents, clethrionomys rufocanus and apodemus peninsulae, in the far eastern part of russia were characterized and identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of the 5s-23s rrna intergenic spacer. some isolates showed unique rflp patterns and were determined as borrelia garinii on the basis of a sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer amplicon and reactivity with species-specific mon ...19979310938
molecular characterization of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from slovenia revealing significant differences between tick and human isolates.one hundred twenty-nine slovenian isolates of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato derived from patients (69 strains) or ixodes ricinus ticks (60 strains) were characterized. all of the strains were first- or second-passage isolates obtained in 1992 and 1993 from the same endemic region. the techniques used for the molecular analysis of strains included species-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoretic separation of undigested and mlui-digested genomic dna. ...19968781883
t cell response to borrelia garinii, borrelia afzelii, and borrelia japonica in various congenic mouse strains.the infectivity and t cell response to borrelia garinii sika2, borrelia afzelii bfox, and borrelia japonica 0612, the organisms that cause lyme disease in japan, were examined in various inbred and congenic strains of mice. infectivity differed among the species: b. garinii sika2 and b. afzelii bfox were each able to infect 90% to 100% of c3h/he mice; b. japonica 0612 was able to infect only 20% of c3h/he mice. the pattern of infectivity to various inbred and congenic strains of mice may influen ...19958789051
kill kinetics of borrelia burgdorferi and bacterial findings in relation to the treatment of lyme borreliosis.for a better understanding of the persistence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) after antibiotic therapy the kinetics of killing b. burgdorferi s.l. under amoxicillin, doxycycline, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, azithromycin and penicillin g were determined. the killing effect was investigated in mkp medium and human serum during a 72 h exposure to antibiotics. twenty clinical isolates were used, including ten strains of borrelia afzelii and ten strains of borrelia garinii. the results show th ...19968852456
in vitro susceptibility of thirty borrelia strains from various sources against eight antimicrobial chemotherapeutics.minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (mbc) were evaluated of the antimicrobial chemotherapeutics amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, doxycycline, penicillin g sodium, roxithromycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 30 borrelia strains from various sources (skin, cerebrospinal fluid, ticks). of these strains 29 were lyme disease agents of the species borrelia afzelii (n = 12), borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (n = 4), borrelia gari ...19968852472
phylogenetic analysis of borrelia species based on flagellin gene sequences and its application for molecular typing of lyme disease borreliae.we determined almost complete flagellin gene sequences of various borrelia species and aligned them with previously published sequences. a neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis showed that the genus borrelia was divided into the following three major clusters: new world relapsing fever borreliae (borrelia turicatae, borrelia parkeri, and borrelia hermsii), old world relapsing fever borreliae (borrelia crocidurae, borrelia duttonii, and borrelia hispanica), and lyme disease borreliae (borrelia b ...19968863416
immunization with a polyvalent ospa vaccine protects mice against ixodes ricinus tick bites infected by borrelia burgdorferi ss, borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii.sequence variability of the outer surface protein (osp) a among borrelia burgdorferi sl species suggests that a monovalent ospa vaccine may not protect against the various borrelia present in eurasia. here, we confirmed that a monovalent recombinant ospa (rospa) vaccine does not protect mice against ixodes ricinus mediated infection with b. burgdorferi ss, borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii. however, when mice were vaccinated with a cocktail of various rospa from these three species, they wer ...19979330467
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant ospc and the internal 14-kda flagellin fragment for serodiagnosis of early lyme disease.the outer surface protein c (ospc) and the internal 14-kda flagellin fragment of strain geho of borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto were expressed as recombinant proteins in escherichia coli and were purified for use in an immunoglobulin m (igm) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ospc-14-kda antigen elisa). no hint at disturbing protein-protein interferences, which might influence the availability of immunoreactive epitopes, was found when the recombinant antigens were combined in the elisa. the ...19989542898
interpretation criteria for standardized western blots for three european species of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.western blots (wbs; immunoblots) are a widely used tool for the serodiagnosis of lyme borreliosis, but so far, no defined criteria for performance, analysis, and interpretation have been established in europe. for the current study wbs were produced with strains pka2 (borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto), pko (borrelia afzelii), and pbi (borrelia garinii). to improve resolution we used gels of 17 cm in length. in a first step, 13 immunodominant proteins were identified with monoclonal antibodies. ...19979163458
a phylogenetic analysis of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato based on sequence information from the hbb gene, coding for a histone-like protein.we describe a phylogenetic investigation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of lyme disease, based on a dna sequence analysis of the hbb gene, which encodes protein hbb, a member of the family of histone-like proteins. because of their intimate contact with the dna molecule, these proteins are believed to be fairly conserved through evolution. in this study we proved that the hbb gene is suitable for phylogenetic inference in the genus borrelia. the hbb gene, which is 327 bp ...19978995795
[a case of neuroborreliosis with unilateral radiculoneuropathy and elevated serum antibodies for borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii].a 24-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital because of dysesthesia and weakness of the right leg. six weeks before admission he traveled to southern china. a week later he noticed multiple papules with itching on his right leg that were suspected to be insect bites. four days later numbness of the right leg developed. then he began to limp because of the leg weakness. two weeks before admission severe pain in the right leg developed. on admission neurological examination revealed hyp ...19968997140
detection of borrelia burgdorferi dna (b garinii or b afzelii) in morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus tissues of german and japanese but not of us patients.to elucidate the geographic and genospecific association of borrelia with morphea and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (lsa).19979006371
expression of outer surface proteins a and c of borrelia afzelii in ixodes ricinus ticks and in the skin of mice.several studies have described changes in the expression of proteins, especially of ospa and ospc, of b. burgdorferi sensu stricto during tick feeding. in this study, the expression of ospa and ospc of b. afzelii in unfed and feeding i. ricinus nymphs and in the subsequent adults was followed by means of the immunofluorescence test. spirochaetes expressing ospa and ospc were observed in 70% and 80%, respectively of the unfed nymphs. in feeding and in fully engorged ticks, spirochaetes expressed ...19989638876
lyme disease borrelia species in northeastern china resemble those isolated from far eastern russia and japan.fifty-nine borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato culture isolates collected from northeastern china were characterized by 5s-23s rrna intergenic spacer restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies (mabs). among 59 culture isolates, 30 (50.8%) were borrelia garinii and 17 (28.8%) were borrelia afzelii, 2 were mixtures composed of b. garinii with rflp pattern b and b. garinii with pattern c, and 9 were mixtures composed of b. garinii and b. afzelii. ...19989647853
failure of ixodes ticks to inherit borrelia afzelii infection.to define conditions promoting inherited infection by lyme disease spirochetes in ixodes ticks, we variously infected ticks with borrelia afzelii and examined their progenies by dark-field microscopy, immunofluorescence, pcr, and serial passage. no episode of inherited infection was evident, regardless of instar or gender infected or frequency of exposure. we suggest that these spirochetes rarely, if ever, are inherited by vector ticks.19989687480
vector competence of ixodes scapularis and ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) for three genospecies of borrelia burgdorferi.the vector competence of 2 tick species, ixodes ricinus (l.) and ixodes scapularis say, was determined and compared for 3 genospecies of borrelia burgdorferi. the 3 genospecies of b. burgdorferi used in the following experiments were borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (b-31 and b-31.d1 clone), borrelia afzelii (strain pgau. c3), and borrelia garinii (strain vs286 and vsbp). spirochetes from all 5 strains were inoculated intradermally into outbred mice; larval ticks of both species were subsequen ...19989701928
homogeneity of borrelia japonica and heterogeneity of borrelia afzelii and 'borrelia tanukii' isolated in japan, determined from ospc gene sequences.borrelia afzelii, b. japonica, and 'b. tanukii' isolated from various sources and geographical origins in japan were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis and sequencing analysis of the outer surface protein c (ospc) amplicon. b. afzelii and 'b. tanukii' generated variable rflp patterns and differences in ospc gene sequence were confirmed. in contrast, 26 isolates of b. japonica generated one ospc rflp type, and sequence similarity between b. japonica ranged f ...19979271854
serum antibodies against borrelia afzelii, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and the 41-kilodalton flagellin in patients from a lyme borreliosis endemic area: analysis by eia and immunoblot.to evaluate the possible importance of antigenic heterogeneity in the serological diagnosis of lyme borreliosis a study was performed using antigens from various lyme borrelia strains. serum samples from 102 patients with clinical signs of the infection, all living in an endemic area in southern sweden, were evaluated by four enzyme immuno assays (eia). the sera were initially tested for the immunoglobulin g response to antigens from a local borrelia afzelii strain (aca1). serum samples from hea ...19969048870
characterization of spirochetes isolated from ticks (ixodes tanuki, ixodes turdus, and ixodes columnae) and comparison of the sequences with those of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains.ixodes persulcatus serves as a tick vector for borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii in japan; however, unidentified spirochetes have been isolated from other species of ticks. in this study, 13 isolates from ticks (6 from ixodes tanuki, 6 from ixodes turdus, and 1 from ixodes columnae) and 3 isolates from voles (clethrionomys rufocanus) were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism, partial sequencing of the o ...19968779571
clinical features and serology of 14 dogs affected by granulocytic ehrlichiosis in sweden.the clinical features and the titres to ehrlichia equi, e canis, e risticii, rickettsia rickettsii and borrelia afzelii in 14 swedish dogs, in which ehrlichiosis was diagnosed on the basis of the presence of inclusions in granulocytes, are reported. most of the dogs were moderately ill but made a rapid recovery after treatment with doxycycline. the dogs with inclusions were thrombocytopenic. analysis of the antibody titres indicates that serology to e equi will remain the most appropriate serolo ...19979076917
comparison of culture-confirmed erythema migrans caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in new york state and by borrelia afzelii in slovenia.the clinical manifestations of lyme borreliosis in north america and europe seem to differ, but a systematic comparison has never been done.19999890847
igm and igg significant reactivity to borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii among italian patients affected by lyme arthritis or neuroborreliosis.this survey evaluates the specificity of band patterns in immunoblot of sera taken from clinically defined cases of lyme arthritis and neuroborreliosis, towards three locally isolated strains of borrelia burgdorferi, belonging to the three species: borrelia sensu stricto, borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii. to assess specificity, patient sera were statistically (x2, p < or = 0.05) compared with blood donors sera samples. both igg and igm antibodies were considered. the overall reactivity of t ...19968809552
transmission of borrelia afzelii from apodemus mice and clethrionomys voles to ixodes ricinus ticks: differential transmission pattern and overwintering maintenance.this study deals with the ecology of lyme borreliosis in europe. the relationships between borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes, clethrionomys and apodemus rodent reservoirs and the ixodes ricinus tick vector were investigated during 16 consecutive months in an enzootic area in switzerland. cultivation of ear skin biopsies was used to isolate spirochetes from c. glareolus, a. sylvaticus, a. flavicollis and glis glis. borrelia infection was more frequently observed in clethrionomys than in ...199910070659
detection of four species of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodes ricinus ticks collected from roe deer (capreolus capreolus) in the netherlands.roe deer (capreolus capreolus) were investigated for their value as sentinel animals for lyme borreliosis in the netherlands. serum was obtained from 114 roe deer, and 513 ixodes ricinus, predominantly females (72%), were obtained from 47 animals (41%). the polymerase chain reaction was used to detect dna of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a total of 190 ticks, comprising 106 engorged ticks and 84 non-engorged ticks. borrelia dna was detected in 24 engorged ticks (23%) and 26 non-engorged tic ...19968972683
clinical findings for patients with lyme borreliosis caused by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato with genotypic and phenotypic similarities to strain 25015.in the course of performing culture isolation of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato for the diagnosis of lyme borreliosis in slovenia, we encountered nine patients who were infected with atypical strains. molecular analyses of these strains suggested that they were more closely related to the north american tick isolate, strain 25015 (which belongs to the dn127 genomic group of b. burgdorferi sensu lato), than they were to the three species (b. burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia garinii, and borre ...19979332523
local variations in the distribution and prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genomospecies in ixodes ricinus ticks.unfed nymphal and adult ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from five locations within the 10,000-ha killarney national park, ireland. the distribution and prevalence of the genomospecies of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the ticks were investigated by pcr amplification of the intergenic spacer region between the 5s and 23s rrna genes and by reverse line blotting with genomospecies-specific oligonucleotide probes. the prevalence of ticks infected with b. burgdorferi sensu lato was significan ...19979055424
complement-mediated serum sensitivity among spirochetes that cause lyme disease.borrelia burgdorferi-related isolates were tested for their sensitivity to normal human serum (nhs) and their ability to activate complement. by dark-field microscopy, electron microscopy, and subsurface plating, it was shown that exposure of a borrelia garinii isolate to 10% or more nhs resulted in immobilization, blebbing, and killing of the spirochetes. these effects were mediated by complement, since they were not seen after heat treatment of nhs, in the presence of edta, or in an agammaglob ...19979119456
osp17, a novel immunodominant outer surface protein of borrelia afzelii: recombinant expression in escherichia coli and its use as a diagnostic antigen for serodiagnosis of lyme borreliosis.western blot analyses of the human humoral response of patients with lyme borreliosis have shown that a 17-kda protein is an immunodominant protein in late disease. immune electron microscopy with a monoclonal antibody against this protein revealed that the 17-kda protein is abundantly expressed on the surface of borrelia afzelii strain pko. therefore, the protein has been renamed outer surface protein (osp) 17. recombinant osp 17 of strain pko was expressed in escherichia coli and purified by c ...199910363678
borrelia burgdorferi stimulates the production of interleukin-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from uninfected humans and rhesus monkeys.heat-killed borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes stimulate in vitro production of interleukin-10 (il-10) at both mrna and protein levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) of uninfected rhesus monkeys. a concomitant down-modulation of il-2 gene transcription was observed. neither il-4 nor gamma interferon gene expression was ostensibly affected by b. burgdorferi spirochetes. these phenomena were observed regardless of whether the stimulating spirochetes belonged to the b. burgdorferi sensu ...19989596735
rate of infection of ixodes ricinus ticks with borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia garinii, borrelia afzelii and group vs116 in an endemic focus of lyme disease in italy.a study to evaluate the natural rate of infection of ixodes ricinus with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was carried out in an endemic focus of lyme disease in the trieste area in northern italy. two-hundred and twenty-seven ticks collected in ten different stations were tested individually for the presence of the spirochetes using polymerase chain reaction techniques able to identify both borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and the four genospecies (borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia gari ...19989629972
experimental infection of cattle with several borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains; immunological heterogeneity of strains as revealed in serological tests.twenty-three experimental cattle, mainly calves, were each inoculated 1-3 times with one of ten finnish borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains. all three genospecies were represented. borreliae were administered mainly by both intravenous (about 10(6) to 10(9) spirochaetes) and intradermal (10(4)) routes, and on six occasions subcutaneously (10(3)) only. for infectivity control and comparison purposes mice and rabbits were inoculated simultaneously. immune responses in cattle were monitored bot ...19989595625
phenotypic and genetic characterization of a novel borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate from a patient with lyme borreliosis.borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato a14s was cultured from a skin biopsy specimen of a patient with erythema migrans in the netherlands. this isolate had a unique dna fingerprint pattern compared to 135 other b. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. in this study, the isolate a14s was further characterized by protein analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and reactivity with various monoclonal antibodies. in addition, the 16s rrna, ospa, and ospc genes, as well ...199910449497
persistence of borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii in patients with lyme arthritis.we repeatedly detected dna of borrelia garinii or b. afzelii and borrelia-like structures in the blood, joint fluid or in the synovium of 10 patients with lyme arthritis by means of the polymerase chain reaction and immunoelectron microscopy at 2-4-month intervals in the course of two years. all samples were analyzed using primers which amplified the 16s rrna gene sequence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and nucleotide sequences for the ospa gene. no cross hybridization occurred with dna from ...199910467661
evidence for frequent ospc gene transfer between borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. and other lyme disease spirochetes.molecular polymorphism of the ospc gene has been reported in borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii, the spirochetes causing human lyme borreliosis. to assess the genetic relationship between ospc genes from the recently described borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. and other b. burgdorferi sensu lato species, the ospc genes from eight b. valaisiana isolates were amplified by pcr, cloned and sequenced. the ospc genes of three b. valaisiana isolates were identical, but ...199910474195
incidence of borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii in ixodes ricinus ticks in an urban environment, prague, czech republic, between 1995 and 1998.the presence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and its individual genospecies was determined using a single-step polymerase chain reaction in a total of 779 ixodes ricinus ticks collected from an urban park in prague, czech republic. the incidence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 9.2% in 1995, 3.4% in 1996, 4.5% in 1997 and 2.8% in 1998. the borrelia garinii to borrelia afzelii ratio was 1.4:1 and it did not differ significantly throughout the study period. borrelia burgdorferi sensu stri ...199910482032
molecular typing of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato: taxonomic, epidemiological, and clinical implications.borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the spirochete that causes human lyme borreliosis (lb), is a genetically and phenotypically divergent species. in the past several years, various molecular approaches have been developed and used to determine the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity within the lb-related spirochetes and their potential association with distinct clinical syndromes. these methods include serotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, dna-dna reassociation analysis, rrna gene restri ...199910515907
determination of members of a borrelia afzelii-related group isolated from ixodes nipponensis in korea as borrelia valaisiana.the 16s rrna sequences of the korean borrelia strains 5mt and 9mt, isolated from ixodes nipponensis, showed identities of 99.0-99.1% to that of b. afzelii. the strains were tentatively classified as belonging to the b. afzelii-related group. in this study, korean isolates, including these strains, were characterized further and compared with recently described new species. these strains generated a rflp pattern that has not been found previously in rflp analysis of the 5s-23s rrna intergenic spa ...199910555320
borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a bacterial species "made in the u.s.a."?among the three main species of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato associated with lyme borreliosis, b. burgdorferi sensu stricto (b. burgdorferi) is the sole species present both in north america and in europe, where borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii also occur. the greater genetic diversity together with the greater clinical polymorphism observed in the old world suggests that this is the birthplace of the complex b. burgdorferi sensu lato. however, the genetic proximity of some north america ...19979336916
transcriptional analysis of a superoxide dismutase gene of borrelia burgdorferi.a single superoxide dismutase (sod) gene was identified in borrelia burgdorferi strains, borrelia afzelii ple and borrelia garinii pbi. recombinant enzymatic activity was detected only when sod expression was controlled by the lacz promoter in the cloning vector. northern blot analysis with sod- or seca-specific probes identified a common 3.7-kb transcript. reverse transcriptase-pcr analysis confirmed that seca and sod constitute a single transcriptional unit in b. burgdorferi. a transcriptional ...200010650199
sudeck's atrophy in lyme borreliosis.a patient with disseminated lyme borreliosis is reported. the patient suffered from erythema migrans and radicular pain. serologic tests routinely performed (ift, elisa, western blots with different strains and borrelia-ltt) were negative. however, borrelia burgdorferi (genotype borrelia afzelii) was cultivated from a skin biopsy. western blot with the patient's isolate and sera showed strong reactivity only with the 60 kda protein. in spite of immediate diagnosis and intravenous antibiotic trea ...19979427058
isolation of the spirochaete borrelia afzelii from the mosquito aedes vexans in the czech republic.during the years 1993-1995, a total of 3580 culicine mosquitoes of six species were collected in south moravia, czech republic, and examined by dark-field microscopy for the presence of borreliae. females of aedes cantans, ae. sticticus, ae. vexans, culex pipiens and cx pipiens biotype molestus (but not ae. geniculatus or culiseta annulata) harboured spirochaetes, the frequencies ranging from 0.7% to 7.8%. one isolate (br-53) from ae. vexans was identified as borrelia afzelii genospecies. the po ...19989513946
ixodes ricinus strains in europe.an analysis of cuticular hydrocarbons (ch) of unfed adult ixodes ricinus ticks collected throughout europe showed that there are 10 distinct i. ricinus groups. studies on the seasonal and annual consistency of ch composition and possible effects of host and environmental factors suggested that chs may be used as a genuine genetic marker for i. ricinus. preliminary studies compared the vector competence of ticks from three of the most separated i. ricinus groups and the results suggested that the ...19989580422
augmented intrathecal secretion of interferon-gamma in response to borrelia garinii in neuroborreliosis.the lyme disease agent borrelia garinii has been suggested to be neurotrop, preferentially affecting the nervous system. we compared the secretion of interferon-gamma in response to outer surface proteins from borrelia garinii and borrelia afzelii in 10 patients with neuroborreliosis. in cerebrospinal fluid, stimulation with borrelia garinii revealed higher numbers of interferon-gamma-secreting cells in all patients, whereas in blood, only five displayed higher numbers. this further strengthens ...19989726840
distribution of twelve linear extrachromosomal dnas in natural isolates of lyme disease spirochetes.we have analyzed a panel of independent north american isolates of the lyme disease agent spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto), for the presence of linear plasmids with sequence similarities to the 12 linear plasmids present in the b. burgdorferi type strain, isolate b31. the frequency of similarities to probes from each of the 12 b31 plasmids varied from 13 to 100% in the strain panel examined, and these similarities usually reside on plasmids similar in size to the cognate b31 plas ...200010762248
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