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studies on feline haemobartonellosis. ii. the mechanism of anemia produced by infection with haemobartonella felis. 19751237052
studies on feline haemobartonellosis. iii. scanning electron microscopy of haemobartonella felis. 19751237746
haemobartonella felis infection in cats from the glasgow area.a survey of 155 cats for haemobartonella felis infection in the glasgow area revealed a prevalence of 23.2 per cent. the infection occurred in all age groups and there was no significant difference between sex or breed type. infection with h felis was more prevalent among cats with fleas and those with feline leukaemia virus infection than among the other cats in the sample. h felis organisms identified were mainly coccoid with diameters between 0.63 micron and 1.73 micron. rod forms, found in t ...19863787999
unreliable diagnosis of haemobartonella felis. 19863811163
morphologic features of haemobartonella felis. 19674166644
scanning electron microscopic features of haemobartonella felis. 19734703514
ultrastructure of haemobartonella felis from a naturally infected cat. 19725022409
haemobartonella felis. 19675232320
the incidence of eperythrozoon (haemobartonella) felis in victoria. 19695813403
parasite prevalence in free-ranging farm cats, felis silvestris catus.no animals tested were positive for feline leukemia virus antigen and chlamydia psittaci antibodies, but all were positive for antibodies to feline calicivirus (fcv), feline herpesvirus 1 (fhv1) and rotavirus. they had antibodies to feline parvovirus (96%), feline coronavirus (84% and cowpox virus (2%). antibody to feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) was found in 53% of animals, which were less likely to be infected with haemobartonella felis, and had higher fhv antibody titres than cats without ...19968620914
molecular, clinical, and pathologic comparison of two distinct strains of haemobartonella felis in domestic cats.to characterize 2 strains of haemobartonella felis by use of molecular techniques.19989858411
western immunoblot analysis of the antigens of haemobartonella felis with sera from experimentally infected cats.cats were experimentally infected with a florida isolate of haemobartonella felis in order to collect organisms and evaluate the immune response to h. felis. cryopreserved organisms were thawed and injected intravenously into nonsplenectomized and splenectomized cats. splenectomized animals were given 10 mg of methylprednisolone per ml at the time of inoculation. blood films were evaluated daily for 1 week prior to infection and for up to 60 days postinfection (p. i.). blood for h. felis purific ...199910203508
use of a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect and differentiate two strains of haemobartonella felis in naturally infected cats.to develop a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay that detects and differentiates the ohio strain of haemobartonella felis (h. felis-oh) and the california strain of h. felis (h. felis-ca) and to apply the assay to blood samples from cats with and without suspected haemobartonellosis (suspect and control cats, respectively).200111327472
omentalisation of perinephric pseudocysts in a cat.an 11-year-old male domestic shorthaired cat was presented with behavioural disturbances and abdominal distension of two days' duration. haemobartonella felis was found on routine haematology and serum biochemistry showed mild azotaemia. abdominocentesis revealed a transudate. bilateral perinephric fluid accumulations were observed on ultrasonography and chronic nephrosclerosis was diagnosed on needle biopsies of the kidney. a celiotomy with resection of the major portion of both cyst walls was ...200010759380
development and evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction assay using the 16s rrna gene for detection of eperythrozoon suis infection.the 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene of eperythrozoon suis was amplified using gene-specific primers developed from genbank sequence accession u88565. the gene was subsequently cloned and sequenced. based on these sequence data, 3 sets of e. suis-specific primers were designed. these primers selectively amplified 1394, 690, and 839 base-pair (bp) fragments of the 16s rrna gene from dna of e. suis extracted from the blood of an experimentally infected pig during a parasitemic episode. no polymerase ...199910353353
detection of haemobartonella felis in cats with experimentally induced acute and chronic infections, using a polymerase chain reaction assay.to develop a test for detection of haemobartonella felis, using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay.19989781450
development and evaluation of a pcr-based assay for detection of haemobartonella felis in cats and differentiation of h. felis from related bacteria by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.the 16s rrna gene of haemobartonella felis was amplified by using universal eubacterial primers and was subsequently cloned and sequenced. based on this sequence data, we designed a set of h. felis-specific primers. these primers selectively amplified a 1,316-bp dna fragment of the 16s rrna gene of h. felis from each of four experimentally infected cats at peak parasitemia. no pcr product was amplified from purified dna of eperythrozoon suis, mycoplasma genitalium, and bartonella bacilliformis. ...19989466759
treatment for haemobartonella felis in cats. 19979172302
hematologic abnormalities associated with retroviral infections in the cat.feline patients with unexplained peripheral blood cytopenias, circulating immature or neoplastic cells, dysplastic or dysmorphic bone marrow abnormalities, and/or lymphoid tumors are likely suffering from an underlying retroviral infection with feline leukemia virus (felv) and/or feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv). cytopenic hematologic disorders are often caused by the direct or indirect hematosuppressive effects of these retroviruses. alternatively, secondary infections, nutritional deficienc ...19958820596
differentiation of haemobartonella canis and mycoplasma haemofelis on the basis of comparative analysis of gene sequences.to determine whether haemobartonella canis and mycoplasma haemofelis (formerly known as h felis [large form]) can be differentiated by use of comparative analysis of gene sequences.200212371764
detection of haemobartonella felis (candidatus mycoplasma haemofelis) in australia that is similar to the 'ohio' strain. 200212465832
effects of incidental infections and immune activation on disease progression in experimentally feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats.specific pathogen-free cats were experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and subsequently exposed to common infectious pathogens and immune stimuli over a 3-year period. cats with preexisting fiv infection showed signs of disease after exposure to haemobartonella felis, toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, and feline calicivirus similar to signs in non-fiv-infected cats, although they were more severe. no adverse effects of immunization with inactivated rabies virus ...19947916048
use of a pcr assay to assess the prevalence and risk factors for mycoplasma haemofelis and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' in cats in the united kingdom.blood samples from 426 healthy and sick cats in the uk were tested in a pcr assay for 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' and mycoplasma haemofelis (basonym haemobartonella felis). seventy-two of the cats (16.9 per cent) were positive for 'candidatus m. haemominutum' alone, six (1.4 per cent) were positive for m. haemofelis alone and one (0.2 per cent) was positive for both. logistic regression analysis indicated that older male cats were significantly more likely to be infected with 'candidatu ...200312620033
erythrocytic rickettsia and protozoa of the dog and cat.this article summarizes the biologic and clinical features of the rickettsia and protozoa of canine and feline erythrocytes that are significant in north america: haemobartonella canis, haemobartonella felis, cytauxzoon felis, babesia canis, and babesia gibsoni.19873328397
feline haemobartonellosis: clinical, haematological and pathological studies in natural infections and the relationship to infection with feline leukaemia virus.haemobartonella felis infection was demonstrated in 38 cats which could be divided into four groups as follows: group a, feline leukaemia virus (felv) free cats with h felis infection alone; group b, felv free cats with h felis infection and other clinical conditions; group c, felv positive cats with h felis infection but no clinical manifestation of felv related or any other intercurrent disease; and group d, felv positive cats with h felis infection and clinical manifestations of felv related ...19882834861
identification of haemobartonella felis (mycoplasma haemofelis) in captive nondomestic cats.this study was undertaken to determine whether haemobartonella felis (mycoplasma haemofelis), the causative bacterial agent of feline infectious anemia, infects nondomestic cats. routine complete blood count and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were performed to detect the gene for 16s ribosomal rna for the organism. sixty-four blood samples were collected from 54 nondomestic cats, including tigers (panthera tigris), cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus), lions (p. leo), mountain lions (felis concolor), sn ...200312885130
a comparative study of the efficiency of acridine orange and some romanowsky staining procedures in the demonstration of haemobartonella felis in feline blood.a comparison of the relative efficiency of acridine orange with some romanowsky staining procedures indicated that acridine orange is superior in demonstrating the presence of haemobartonella felis in feline blood. of the romanowsky staining procedures, that of may-grunwald-giemsa was at least one and a half and about twice as efficient as the giemsa and leishman methods, respectively.19872449760
risk factors for haemobartonella felis infection in cats.a seroepidemiologic survey for haemobartonella felis infection in cats of wake county, nc was undertaken. to help assess risk factors, cat owners completed a 10-item questionnaire. additionally, blood samples were obtained for determination of h felis presence, felv infection, and anemia. prevalence rates for h felis presence were as follows: all cats, 4.9% (6/123); healthy cats, 3.6% (3/83); and ill cats, 7.5% (3/40). the estimated relative risk for haemobartonellosis was also increased in cats ...19902295559
recombinant dna probe detecting eperythrozoon suis in swine blood.a genomic library to eperythrozoon suis dna was constructed in lambda gt11, and from this library, e suis clone ksu-2 was identified as a potential diagnostic probe. in hybridization experiments that used 100-microliters samples of blood collected in chaotropic salt solutions, the ksu-2 probe hybridized strongly with purified e suis organisms and blood samples from splenectomized swine that were parasitized with e suis. however, the probe under stringent conditions did not give radiographic indi ...19902240802
cold agglutinins in cats with haemobartonellosis.coombs-positive anemia developed in cats inoculated with haemobartonella felis. cold agglutinins were detected in serum during the acute stage of the disease when anemia was present. the cold agglutinating activity was associated with igm, was demonstrated at 4 c, and was abolished by treatment of sera with 2-mercaptoethanol. at 4 c, the sera from infected cats agglutinated or lysed parasitized autologous erythrocytes or normal erythrocytes pretreated with neuraminidase. these data indicate that ...19902138144
[feline haemobartonellosis (feline infectious anemia): current knowledge].fifty years after it was first reported in south africa (1) and thirty-five years after haemobartonella felis was detected in the usa (2), we still do not know enough about certain aspects of feline haemobartonellosis (feline infectious anaemia). this overview covers these and known aspects, with the aim of bringing these aspects to the attention of people working in the field of feline medicine.19921641834
studies on feline haemobartonellosis. iv. lifespan of erythrocytes of cats infected with haemobartonella felis. 19751238864
ultrastructural observation on the removal of haemobartonella felis from erythrocytes in the spleen of a cat. 1978671926
studies on feline haemobartonellosis. v. role of the spleen in cats infected with haemobartonella felis. 1978671921
sanitary conditions of a colony of urban feral cats (felis catus linnaeus, 1758) in a zoological garden of rio de janeiro, brazil.the colony of urban stray cats living in the rio de janeiro zoological garden was studied in order to develop a population and health control program. as many cats as possible were captured during two months (47 animals) and were classified according to gender, age, weight and coat markings. they were submitted to a general health evaluation, examined for the presence of ectoparasites and sent to a surgical neutering program. all animals had a blood sample drawn for cbc, platelet count, heartwor ...200415517031
sequestration and phagocytosis of haemobartonella felis in the spleen.spleens of two cats infected with haemobartonella felis were examined by electron microscopy to determine the means by which the organism was sequestered in this organ. the principal means of sequestration occurred when h felis, located on the erythrocytes was removed by phagocytosis by a cordal macrophage, apparently preceded by the adhesion of extended processes of the macrophage to h felis. the second and least frequent means of removal of h felis was by pitting, a process that did not cause ...1979475112
ultrastructure of erythrocytes parasitized by haemobartonella felis.experimental haemobartonella felis infections were studied in 3 mature, intact cats by examining peripheral blood, lung, and spleen by electron microscopy. coccoid, rod, or ring forms of the organism were found on or close to the erythrocytic membrane, and adjacent parasitized erythrocytes often were attached. intracytoplasmic crystalloid inclusions occupying most of erythrocytic cytoplasm were seen in the 3 infected cats. the cat with the highest parasitemia had inclusions in about 10% of the e ...1978207847
haemobartonella felis: recent developments in diagnosis and treatment.haemobartonella felis is a pleomorphic uncultivated wall-less haemotrophic bacterial parasite. phylogenetic analysis of 16s rrna gene sequences from a number of isolates of h felis has demonstrated that these bacteria are most closely related to species in the genus mycoplasma, and haemobartonella and related organisms are currently being reclassified as mollicutes. diagnosis by cytological examination of blood smears has been problematic, but recent molecular studies have led to the development ...200211869051
evaluation of experimental transmission of candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum and mycoplasma haemofelis by ctenocephalides felis to cats.to determine whether ctenocephalides felis can transmit mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf) and candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum (mhm) through hematophagous activity between cats.200516008224
feline babesiosis: signalment, clinical pathology and concurrent infections.fifty-six cats with naturally occurring babesia felis infection were studied. no breed or sex predilection could be identified, but there was an apparent predilection for young adult cats less than 3 years of age. macrocytic, hypochromic, regenerative anaemia was present in 57% of the cats and in-saline agglutination tests were positive in 16%. no characteristic changes were observed in total or differential leukocyte counts. thrombocyte counts were variable and thrombocytopaenia was an inconsis ...200111563718
use of a polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of haemobartonella canis in a dog.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) originally developed for detection of haemobartonella felis in cats was successfully used for detection of h canis in an 8-year-old spayed great dane. the dog had been splenectomized and was undergoing immunosuppressive chemotherapy at the time of diagnosis. sequence analysis of the 16s ribosomal rna gene revealed that the haemobartonella spp infecting this dog was 97% homologous to the sequence previously reported for the ohio strain of h felis. clinical and he ...200111417738
attempted transmission of candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum and mycoplasma haemofelis by feeding cats infected ctenocephalides felis.to determine whether mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf) and candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum (mhm) can be transmitted by ingestion of mycoplasma-infected ctenocephalides felis and by-products (feces, larvae, and eggs).200616506915
proposal to transfer some members of the genera haemobartonella and eperythrozoon to the genus mycoplasma with descriptions of 'candidatus mycoplasma haemofelis', 'candidatus mycoplasma haemomuris', 'candidatus mycoplasma haemosuis' and 'candidatus mycoplasma wenyonii'.cell-wall-less uncultivated parasitic bacteria that attach to the surface of host erythrocytes currently are classified in the order rickettsiales, family anaplasmataceae, in the genera haemobartonella and eperythrozoon. recently 16s rrna gene sequences have been determined for four of these species: haemobartonella felis and haemobartonella muris and eperythrozoon suis and eperythrozoon wenyonii. phylogenetic analysis of these sequence data shows that these haemotrophic bacteria are closely rel ...200111411711
16s rdna comparison demonstrates near identity between an united kingdom haemobartonella felis strain and the american california strain.a handful of north american (usa) strains of the uncultured erythrocytotrophic pathogen of cats, haemobartonella felis, have been differentiated by comparison of the 16s rrna gene sequences. using this approach, an uk strain was characterised, providing an identity for a non-usa h. felis for the first time. this strain shared close phylogenetic homology with the usa californian strain.200111356320
revision of haemotrophic mycoplasma species names.the recently proposed transfer of four rickettsias from the genera haemobartonella and eperythrozoon to the genus mycoplasma with the candidatus status is herein revised. this is because the candidatus designation is for new, incompletely described taxa, in order to give them a provisional status. thus, 'candidatus mycoplasma haemofelis' is revised to mycoplasma haemofelis comb. nov., nom. nov., 'candidatus mycoplasma haemomuris' is revised to mycoplasma haemomuris comb. nov., nom. nov., 'candid ...200211931184
specific in situ hybridization of haemobartonella felis with a dna probe and tyramide signal amplification.haemobartonella felis is an epierythrocytic bacterium suspected to be the causative agent of feline infectious anemia. previous studies with a polymerase chain reaction assay have identified a mycoplasmal 16s rrna gene sequence that coincides with clinical disease and the presence of organisms in the blood. tissues from a cat experimentally infected with h. felis were used for in situ hybridization studies to physically link this 16s rrna gene to the organisms on the red cells. a biotin-labeled ...200010643980
oesophageal stricture in a cat due to oral administration of tetracyclines.a three-year-old, male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented with dysphagia and regurgitation following treatment with oral doxycycline and oxytetracycline for haemobartonella felis infection. fluoroscopy confirmed the presence of multiple strictures along the entire length of the oesophagus. balloon dilatation was performed successfully on two occasions and the symptoms resolved. to the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oesophageal strictures associated with oral administr ...200212038856
use of enrofloxacin for treatment of large-form haemobartonella felis in experimentally infected cats.to compare treatment with enrofloxacin and doxycycline with no treatment in cats experimentally infected with haemobartonella felis.200212118588
phylogenetic analysis of "candidatus mycoplasma turicensis" isolates from pet cats in the united kingdom, australia, and south africa, with analysis of risk factors for infection.two hemotropic mycoplasmas have been recognized in cats, mycoplasma haemofelis and "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum." we recently described a third feline hemoplasma species, designated "candidatus mycoplasma turicensis," in a swiss cat with hemolytic anemia. this isolate induced anemia after experimental transmission to two specific-pathogen-free cats and analysis of the 16s rrna gene revealed its close relationship to rodent hemotropic mycoplasmas. the agent was recently shown to be prevale ...200617035497
immune-mediated erythroid and megakaryocytic aplasia in a cat.a 6-month-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of acute lethargy.200717397342
retrospective study of 46 cases of feline haemobartonellosis in israel and their relationships with felv and fiv infections.forty-six cats with clinical haemobartonellosis were studied; 75 per cent of the cats of known age were two-and-a-half years old or younger, 50 per cent were intact males and 19.5 per cent were castrated males. the predominant signs of the disease were tachypnoea, lethargy, depression, anorexia, infestation with fleas, pale mucous membranes, icterus, emaciation, dehydration, splenomegaly, anaemia, leucocytosis, increased activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and ...200212164225
effect of preexisting felv infection or felv and feline immunodeficiency virus coinfection on pathogenicity of the small variant of haemobartonella felis in cats.to investigate the effects of preexisting felv infection or felv and feline immunodeficiency (fiv) coinfection on the pathogenicity of the small variant of haemobartonella felis (hfsm, california variant) in cats.200212171173
use of real-time pcr to detect and quantify mycoplasma haemofelis and "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum" dna.a real-time pcr assay using taqman probes was developed to detect and quantify mycoplasma haemofelis and "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum" in feline blood samples. the assay was rapid and sensitive and was successfully used to monitor the in vivo kinetics of cats experimentally infected with each species.200312517888
presence of mycoplasma haemofelis, mycoplasma haemominutum and piroplasmids in cats from southern europe: a molecular study.clinical symptoms produced by mycoplasma spp. and piroplasmids in cats are sometimes similar. diagnosis of these pathogens is difficult by microscopic procedures and molecular methods have been used as an alternative. we present in this work, the development of new molecular procedures for diagnosis of the aforementioned organisms, together with a molecular characterization of isolates found in southern european cats.a single pcr-rflp procedure was designed for diagnosis of mycoplasma spp. and a ...200312713893
physical map and genome sequencing survey of mycoplasma haemofelis (haemobartonella felis).mycoplasma haemofelis is an uncultivable red-cell pathogen of cats. isolated m. haemofelis dna was used to create a bacterial artificial chromosome library and physical map. random sequencing of this material revealed 75 genes that had not been previously reported for m. haemofelis or any other hemotrophic mycoplasma.200312761157
molecular detection and characterization of haemobartonella felis in domestic cats in japan employing sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction (ss-pcr).a novel pcr assay was developed in order to examine the prevalence of haemobartonella felis (h. felis) in japanese domestic cats and which was able to differentiate of the ohio strain and the california strain of h. felis. blood samples from a total of 21 cats suspected of having haemobartonellosis were examined employing a novel pcr assay and demonstrated positive results in 18 cats which was confirmed by cytological examination of blood smears. four out of 18 positive cats (22%) were infected ...200314600350
use of a taqman pcr to determine the response of mycoplasma haemofelis infection to antibiotic treatment.a quantitative taqman polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was used to evaluate the response of mycoplasma haemofelis experimentally infected cats to three antibiotic treatment regimes. sixteen cats were intravenously inoculated with m. haemofelis from a chronically infected donor. the cats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups each containing four cats: oral doxycycline at 10 mg/kg/day for 14 days, oral enrofloxacin at 5 mg/kg/day for 14 days, oral enrofloxacin at 10 mg/kg/day ...200414706751
the use of real-time pcr in the diagnosis and monitoring of mycoplasma haemofelis copy number in a naturally infected cat.a 5-year-old male neutered cat was diagnosed with severe anaemia due to acute mycoplasma haemofelis infection. inflammatory respiratory disease was present concurrently. the cat was treated successfully using a fresh transfusion of whole blood and a 6 week course of doxycycline. the patient made a rapid recovery although the allergic airway disease subsequently required specific therapy consisting of inhaled fluticasone and salbutamol. real-time quantitative pcr assays confirmed the presence of ...200415135353
anemia associated with 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' in a feline leukemia virus-negative cat with lymphoma.'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum,' previously known as the small form of haemobartonella felis (california species), is a hemotrophic parasite found on erythrocytes of infected cats. although fleas are potential vectors, confirmatory studies are lacking. healthy cats infected with 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' generally do not have clinically significant anemia, but concurrent disease or immune suppression may predispose a cat to develop a life-threatening anemia, such as in the case r ...200415347624
molecular survey of mycoplasma haemofelis and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' infection in cats in yamaguchi and surrounding areas.a molecular survey of hemoplasma (mycoplasma haemofelis and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum') in yamaguchi prefecture and surrounding areas was performed by using molecular methods. pcr-rflp with hindiii revealed that 2 cats were infected with m. haemofelis, and 16 with 'c. mycoplasma haemominutum' among 102 randomly selected cats. partial 16s rrna gene sequences of m. haemofelis and 'c. mycoplasma haemominutum' determined in this study showed percent similarities of 98.3-99.8% and 96.4-100% ...200415353861
prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in northern florida.objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in northern florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or pcr assays. male cats were at higher risk for fiv, mycoplasma haemofelis, and m. haemominutum. infection with either felv or fiv was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, m. haemofelis, or ...200415363760
diagnosis of feline haemoplasma infection using a real-time pcr assay.haemobartonella felis has been reclassified within the genus mycoplasma as mycoplasma haemofelis and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum', collectively referred to as the feline haemoplasmas. a total of 78 cats from the johannesburg area that had blood samples submitted to a private veterinary laboratory were tested using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay able to detect and distinguish the two feline haemoplasma (basonym haemobartonella) species. all samples had been diagnosed wi ...200415456166
feline babesiosis in south africa: a review.babesia felis, originally identified in wild cats in the sudan, was subsequently found to cause clinical disease in domestic cats. although babesiosis in domestic cats has been reported sporadically from various countries, as a significant disease it appears to be a distinctly south african phenomenon. apart from an inland focus, feline babesiosis is reported regularly only from coastal regions. the infection is assumed to be tick-borne, but the vector has not been identified. feline babesiosis ...200415604490
prevalence of bartonella species, haemoplasma species, ehrlichia species, anaplasma phagocytophilum, and neorickettsia risticii dna in the blood of cats and their fleas in the united states.ctenocephalides felis were killed and collected from 92 cats in alabama, maryland, and texas. the fleas and blood from the corresponding cat were digested and assessed in polymerase chain reaction assays that amplify dna of ehrlichia species, anaplasma phagocytophilum, neorickettsia risticii, mycoplasma haemofelis, 'candidatus m haemominutum' and bartonella species. dna consistent with b henselae, b clarridgeiae, m haemofelis, or 'candidatus m haemominutum' was commonly amplified from cats (60.9 ...200616290092
prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in cats from arizona.the objective of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays to determine the prevalence of ehrlichia species, anaplasma phagocytophilum, mycoplasma haemofelis, 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' and bartonella species from feral and relinquished cats in phoenix and nogales, arizona. dna from one or more of the organisms was amplified from 31 of 112 blood samples (27.7%). dna consistent with bartonella clarridgeiae 15 (13.4%), bartonella henselae 14 (12.5%), 'candidatus m haem ...200616443383
prevalence, risk factor analysis, and follow-up of infections caused by three feline hemoplasma species in cats in switzerland.recently, a third novel feline hemotropic mycoplasma sp. (aka hemoplasma), "candidatus mycoplasma turicensis," in a cat with hemolytic anemia has been described. this is the first study to investigate the prevalence, clinical manifestations, and risk factors for all three feline hemoplasma infections in a sample of 713 healthy and ill swiss cats using newly designed quantitative real-time pcr assays. "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum" infection was detected in 7.0% and 8.7% and mycoplasma haem ...200616517884
[feline hemoplasmas in switzerland: identification of a novel species, diagnosis, prevalence, and clinical importance].two feline hemotropic mycoplasma spp. (aka hemoplasma) have previously been recognized. we recently discovered a third novel species in a cat with hemolytic anemia, designated 'candidatus mycoplasma turicensis', which is closely related to rodent haemoplasmas. this novel species induced anemia after experimental transmission to two spf cats. three quantitative real-time pcr assays were newly designed and applied to an epidemiological study surveying the swiss pet cat population. blood samples fr ...200616562725
survival of mycoplasma haemofelis and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' in blood of cats used for transfusions.blood transfusions are commonly administered to cats; associated risks include the transmission of various infectious diseases including mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf) and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' (mhm). blood transfusions in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (cpda-1) solution are commonly administered immediately or stored for up to 1 month prior to administration. it is unknown whether mhf or mhm survive in this solution or temperature. the purpose of this study was to determine if m ...200616777455
hemoplasma infection in hiv-positive patient, brazil.hemotrophic mycoplasmas infect a variety of mammals. although infection in humans is rarely reported, an association with an immunocompromised state has been suggested. we report a case of a mycoplasma haemofelis-like infection in an hiv-positive patient co-infected with bartonella henselae.200819046522
prevalence of mycoplasma haemofelis, 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum', bartonella species, ehrlichia species, and anaplasma phagocytophilum dna in the blood of cats with anemia.hemoplasmas are known causes of anemia in some cats and some bartonella species have been associated with anemia in people and in dogs. in this retrospective study, we used polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays to determine the prevalence rates of mycoplasma haemofelis, 'candidatus m haemominutum', a phagocytophilum, ehrlichia species, and bartonella species dna in the blood of cats with anemia and a control group of healthy cats. dna of the organisms was amplified from 22 of 89 cats with anemi ...200716846745
effect of chronic fiv infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on mycoplasma haemofelis infection.the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on mycoplasma haemofelis infection. six cats chronically infected with fiv-glasgow8 (group x) and six fiv-free cats (group y) were infected with m. haemofelis on day 0 by intravenous blood inoculation. from day 0 until day 86 post-infection (pi), blood samples were collected for m. haemofelis and fiv provirus quantitative real-time pcr and hae ...200616876338
prevalence of dna of mycoplasma haemofelis, 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum,' anaplasma phagocytophilum, and species of bartonella, neorickettsia, and ehrlichia in cats used as blood donors in the united states.to identify the prevalence of dna of mycoplasma haemofelis; 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum'; anaplasma phagocytophilum; and species of bartonella, neorickettsia, and ehrlichia in blood of cats used as blood donors in the united states.200616948578
detection of mixed infections with "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum" and mycoplasma haemofelis using real-time taqman polymerase chain reaction.the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of real-time taqman pcr assays for detection of coinfections with "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum" (mhm), and mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf), in vitro and over time in experimentally infected cats. first, the ability of each real-time pcr assay to detect and quantify mixed infections was determined in vitro by testing mixtures of plasmids containing mhm and mhf 16s rdna with each assay. subsequently, 4 specific pathogen-free (spf) cats, 2 of w ...200717459853
real-time pcr investigation of potential vectors, reservoirs, and shedding patterns of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas.three hemotropic mycoplasmas have been identified in pet cats: mycoplasma haemofelis, "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum," and "candidatus mycoplasma turicensis." the way in which these agents are transmitted is largely unknown. thus, this study aimed to investigate fleas, ticks, and rodents as well as saliva and feces from infected cats for the presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas, to gain insight into potential transmission routes for these agents. dna was extracted from arthropods and from rod ...200717468284
[detection frequency of haemoplasma infections of the domestic cat in germany].we present epidemiological data on the frequency of infections with haemotrophic mycoplasma spp. (feline haemoplasmas) in domestic cats in germany. from november 2004 to october 2006 135 blood samples of anaemic patients and cats without clinical symptoms were examined with conventional and real-time pcr methods. in 15,6 % of the samples dna of one or more haemoplasma species could be detected. 8,9 % of the samples (12 cats) were infected with "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum, whereas 7,4 % ( ...200717555038
molecular detection of "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum" in a lion (panthera leo) from a brazilian zoological garden.although mycoplasma haemofelis and "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum" infections have been reported in wild cats from united states, their presence among native and captive wild cats in brazil is still unknown. a 12 year old healthy male lion (panthera leo) from the zoological garden of curitiba, brazil was anesthetized for transportation and dental evaluation. a blood sample was obtained for a complete blood cell count (cbc) and pcr analysis. dna was extracted and fragments of mycoplasma haem ...200717625699
a review of the occurrence of hemoplasmas (hemotrophic mycoplasmas) in brazil.recent studies have been conducted in brazil using molecular techniques for the detection of hemotrophic mycoplasmas in several mammals. in domestic cats, mycoplasma haemofelis, "candidatus m. haemominutum", and "candidatus m. turicensis" infections have been identified. these species have also been found in free-ranging and captive neotropical felid species. two canine hemoplasmas, mycoplasma haemocanis and "candidatus mycoplasma haematoparvum", have been identified in dogs. in commercial swine ...200919772768
the prevalence of three species of feline haemoplasmas in samples submitted to a diagnostics service as determined by three novel real-time duplex pcr assays.three distinct species of feline haemoplasmas are recognised: mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf), candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum (cmhm) and candidatus mycoplasma turicensis (cmt). these species differ in pathogenicity as mhf and cmt can be associated with anaemia whereas cmhm usually results in few clinical signs. the purpose of this study was to develop quantitative real-time pcr assays for the detection of all three feline haemoplasma species combined with an endogenous internal control and to de ...200817689890
co-infection with mycoplasma haemofelis and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' in three cats from brazil.the two most common haemotropic mycoplasma of cats, mycoplasma haemofelis and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' have been identified using molecular techniques in all continents, except antarctica. we report the first molecular characterization in south america of a dual infection with m haemofelis and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' in three domestic cats. the 16s ribosomal rna gene was amplified in three anaemic cats in which haemoplasma organisms were seen attached to the erythrocytes ...200717693111
from haemobartonella to hemoplasma: molecular methods provide new insights.hemotropic mycoplasmas (aka hemoplasmas) are the causative agents of infectious anemia in numerous mammalian species. originally known as haemobartonella and eperythrozoon species, these organisms have been reclassified within the genus mycoplasma. the development of new molecular assays has expanded our knowledge of this heterogeneous group of agents and allowed us to study their epidemiology and pathogenesis. the present review summarizes recently gained insights into feline hemotropic mycopla ...200717706380
prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasmas in healthy and unhealthy cats and dogs in spain.the aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of hemoplasmas in cats and dogs from the barcelona area of spain with the use of species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) assays and to evaluate any associations between hemoplasma infection, clinical presentation, and vector-borne infections. blood samples from cats (191) and dogs (182) were included and were classified as healthy (149) or unhealthy (224). ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid blood samples underwe ...201020224091
use of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the epidemiology of hemoplasma infections in anemic and nonanemic cats.the goals of this study were to develop and apply conventional (c) and real-time taqman polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays for mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf), 'candidatus mycoplasma haematoparvum' (mhp), and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' (mhm) to blood samples of cats to determine the epidemiology of these infections in cats.200717708387
prevalence and risk factors for hemoplasmas in domestic cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus and/or feline leukemia virus in rio de janeiro--brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf) and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' (mhm) infections in domestic cats tested for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline leukemia virus (felv) with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) kit. based on serological testing, cats were grouped as i) fiv-positive (n=25); ii) felv-positive (n=39); iii) fiv/felv-positive (n=8); and iv) fiv/felv-negative (n=77). complete blo ...200817905624
occurrence of 'candidatus mycoplasma turicensis' infection in domestic cats in japan.we have examined the presence of hemoplasmas, hemotropic mycoplasmas, among domestic cats (felis catus) in japan by using a species specific pcr, and found 'candidatus mycoplasma turicensis', a recently recognized hemoplasma species. a total of 60 feline blood samples collected in 2004 and 2005 were subjected to pcr amplification for the detection of mycoplasma haemofelis, 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'candidatus mycoplasma turicensis'. six blood samples collected from domestic cats ...200717984594
haemotropic mycoplasmas of cats and dogs: transmission, diagnosis, prevalence and importance in europe.haemotropic mycoplasmas (or haemoplasmas) are the causative agents of infectious anaemia in many mammalian species. they were previously known as haemobartonella and eperythrozoon species. the development of sensitive, specific pcr assays has expanded our knowledge of these agents and pcr is the method of choice to diagnose and differentiate haemoplasma infections. in felids, mycoplasma haemofelis, 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'candidatus mycoplasma turicensis' have been described. t ...201020464683
molecular detection of feline hemoplasmas in feral cats in korea.the purpose of this study was to determine if mycoplasma haemofelis, 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' exist in korea. three hundreds and thirty one feral cats were evaluated by using pcr assay targeting 16s rrna gene sequence. fourteen cats (4.2%) were positive for m. haemofelis, 34 cats (10.3%) were positive for 'candidatus m. haemominutum' and 18 cats (5.4%) were positive for both species. partial 16s rrna gene sequences were closely (>98%) related to those from other countries. this is th ...200718176030
prevalences of various hemoplasma species among cats in the united states with possible hemoplasmosis.to determine prevalences of various hemoplasma species among cats in the united states with possible hemoplasmosis and identify risk factors for and clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with infection with each species.200818241101
prevalence of feline haemotropic mycoplasmas in convenience samples of cats in germany.the aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of feline haemotropic mycoplasmas in germany, to determine probable risk factors for these infections and to compare the diagnostic value of microscopic examination of blood smears to polymerase chain reaction (pcr). for the prevalence study, convenience samples (ethylene diamine-tetraacetic acid (edta) blood) from 262 (64.5% male and 35.5% female) cats were included. a pcr for the detection of mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf) and 'cand ...200818276180
mycoplasma haemofelis and mycoplasma haemominutum detection by polymerase chain reaction in cats from saskatchewan and alberta.hemobartonellosis is caused by mycoplasma haemofelis, previously known as haemobartonella felis. cats infected with this organism typically develop regenerative anemia. the related species mycoplasma haemominutum may also cause anemia. the purposes of this study were to use polymerase chain reaction technology to determine if both organisms exist in naturally infected cats from saskatchewan and alberta, and to determine if disease manifestation corresponds to mycoplasma species. thirteen of 18 c ...200415510683
oesophageal strictures in cats associated with doxycycline therapy.four cases of oesophageal stricture subsequent to doxycycline administration are reported. all cases were young to middle age (median age 3 years; range 1-7 years), and either domestic shorthair or domestic longhair breed. in all cases the predominant clinical sign was regurgitation, which developed at variable times after doxycycline administration. in all cases the reason for doxycycline use was treatment or prophylaxis of suspected infections (mycoplasma haemofelis, chlamydophila felis or bor ...200515686972
identification, molecular characterization, and experimental transmission of a new hemoplasma isolate from a cat with hemolytic anemia in switzerland.recently, there has been a growing interest in hemotropic mycoplasmal species (also known as the hemoplasmas), the causative agents of infectious anemia in several mammalian species. in felids, two different hemoplasma species have been recognized: mycoplasma haemofelis (formerly haemobartonella felis) and "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum." recently developed molecular methods have allowed sensitive and specific identification and quantification of these agents in feline blood samples. in app ...200515956367
use of real-time pcr to detect mycoplasma haemofelis and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' in the saliva and salivary glands of haemoplasma-infected cats.feline haemoplasma infection can cause haemolytic anaemia. the natural method of transmission of haemoplasmas between cats is currently unknown but the nature of some of the risk factors for infection suggests that saliva may act as a mode of transmission. the aim of this study was to determine if mycoplasma haemofelis (mhf) and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' (cmhm) dnas could be amplified from saliva and salivary gland samples collected from haemoplasma-infected cats.200818313962
use of dried blood smears for detection of feline hemoplasmas using real-time polymerase chain reaction.the objective of the current study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time pcr) for feline hemoplasmas when applied to dna extracted from dried whole-blood smears in comparison to that for dna extracted from liquid whole blood. blood samples were collected into ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid tubes from 305 cats with possible or suspected hemoplasmosis, and dried blood smears from each sample were prepared. dna was extracted from blood ...200818776095
use of combined conventional and real-time pcr to determine the epidemiology of feline haemoplasma infections in northern italy.although knowledge of feline haemotropic mycoplasmas (haemoplasmas) has dramatically improved in recent years, some issues still remain to be elucidated. the aim of the current study was to evaluate the prevalence of feline haemoplasma infections in blood samples collected from cats in northern italy. a convenience-sample of 307 cats (40 anaemic; 258 non-anaemic; nine with unknown haematocrit [hct]) was investigated using polymerase chain reaction assays. furthermore, the date of blood collectio ...200918790658
molecular detection of mycoplasma haemofelis and 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' infection in cats by direct pcr using whole blood without dna extraction.detection of hemotropic mycoplasma spp. infection was attempted in cats by pcr using whole blood without dna extraction. a total 46 of 54 (85%) cats with suspected mycoplasma spp. infection showed a positive reaction, corresponding completely with the results of standard pcr testing. the direct pcr assay was sensitive enough to detect more than 0.0061% parasitemia for ;c. m. haemominutum' and 0.0075% parasitemia for m. haemofelis. these data indicate that the direct pcr assay might be sufficient ...200818981667
the prevalence of bartonella, hemoplasma, and rickettsia felis infections in domestic cats and in cat fleas in ontario.the prevalence of persistent bacteremic bartonella spp. and hemoplasma infections was determined in healthy pet cats in ontario. blood samples from healthy cats sent to a diagnostic laboratory for routine health assessment over the course of 1 y were tested for bartonella spp. using both polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and blood culture, and for the presence of hemoplasma by pcr. the overall prevalence of bartonella spp. by pcr and by culture combined was 4.3% (28/646) [3.7% (24/646) bartonella ...200819086373
the application of pcr and reverse line blot hybridization to detect arthropod-borne hemopathogens of dogs and cats in trinidad.arthropod-borne diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality of companion animals in trinidad. as clinical signs are vague, more sensitive methods to diagnose these diseases based on the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) followed by reverse line blot hybridization (rlb) of amplified products are being developed. an rlb of 14 oligonucleotide probes coupled with polymerase chain-amplified regions of 16s rrna or 18s rrna genes of hemoparasites from cats and dogs detected ehrlichia canis, ...200819120209
complete genome sequences of two hemotropic mycoplasmas, mycoplasma haemofelis strain ohio2 and mycoplasma suis strain illinois.we report the complete and fully assembled genomes of mycoplasma haemofelis strain ohio2 and mycoplasma suis strain illinois, which are the first available genomes of these uncultivatable hemoplasma species. the single circular chromosomes of 1,152,484 bp and 742,431 bp for m. haemofelis and m. suis, respectively, are typical of mycoplasma species, having reduced size and low g+c content (38.8% for m. haemofelis and 31.1% for m. suis). their metabolic pathways are reduced, with evidence of adapt ...201121317328
first molecular identification of 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum' from a cat with fatal haemolytic anaemia in hungary.although haemobartonellosis was previously reported in hungary, until now the diagnosis (based on morphological identification in blood smears) has only been suggestive of the occurrence of the large species, recently reclassified as mycoplasma haemofelis. however, in july 2007 a cat was presented at a small animal clinic with severe haemolytic anaemia, icterus and haemoglobinuria. while biochemical parameters were within the reference range, the cat had leukocytosis and rapidly decreasing haema ...200819149099
in vivo transmission studies of 'candidatus mycoplasma turicensis' in the domestic cat.the natural transmission routes of the three feline haemotropic mycoplasmas--mycoplasma haemofelis, 'candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum', and 'candidatus mycoplasma turicensis' (cmt)--are largely unknown. since cmt has been detected in the saliva of infected cats using pcr, we hypothesised that direct transmission via social or aggressive contact may occur. the aim of this study was to evaluate this transmission route. cmt-positive saliva and blood samples were obtained from three prednisolonetr ...200919505421
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