attachment of bacteria to exfoliated cells from the urogenital establish urogenital infections, organisms must adhere to the mucosal lining. a differential adherence capacity among various bacterial species was observed when exfoliated urethral and urothelial cells were tested in an in vitro system. no difference in the adherence capacity of a particular species was observed when tested with exfoliated cells obtained from voided urine from different healthy individuals of the same sex. escherichia coli harvested directly from urine specimens of patients ...197934577
staphylococcus saprophyticus infections. 197772221
relatedness among coagulase-negative staphylococci: deoxyribonucleic acid reassociation and comparative immunological studies.dna-dna-homology values were determined under restrictive to relaxed reassociation conditions with type strains and some additional strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci belonging to ten different species. the immunological relationship of the catalases present in the type strains of these species was also determined by applying double immunodiffusion and microcomplement fixation. the results of these studies support the previous proposal to subdivide the coagulase-negative staphylococci i ...197992972
haemagglutination by staphylococcus saprophyticus and other staphylococcal species.staphylococcus saprophyticus was found to differ from staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus aureus by its ability to agglutinate sheep erythrocytes. on testing 30 strains of each species, 28 strains of s. saprophyticus and one strain each of the other two species, caused agglutination. twenty-eight of 30 strains of staphylococcus cohnii and staphylococcus xylosis failed to cause haemagglutination. the haemagglutinating activity of s. saprophyticus, when using a 10 per cent bacterial susp ...1979107721
staphylococcus saprophyticus in the aetiology of nongonococcal urethritis.the occurrence of staphylococcus saprophyticus, chlamydia trachomatis, and neisseria gonorrhoeae in urethral specimens of 252 men attending a venereal disease clinic was studied. when using a selective broth medium containing novobiocin and nalidixic acid, staph. saprophyticus was isolated from 20.8% of 178 men with symptoms of urethritis and from 14.9% of 74 men without such symptoms. staph. saprophyticus was found significantly less often in controls (7.1% of 56) than in the men with symptoms ...1979116708
on the diagnosis of coagulase-negative staphylococci with emphasis on staphylococcus saprophyticus.this study concerns the diagnosis of coagulase-negative staphylococci, with special emphasis on novobiocin-resistant species, vis s. saprophyticus, s. cohnii and s. xylosus. disc diffusion tests for novobiocin were found useful in the differential diagnosis of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from urine specimens, but not from pus and blood cultures. we report on the resistance of s. saprophyticus to nalidixic acid and the use of this characteristic in the diagnosis of coagulase-negativ ...1977343493
surface properties of staphylococcus saprophyticus and staphylococcus epidermidis as studied by adherence tests and two-polymer, aqueous phase systems.s. saprophyticus is an established pathogen in man, devoided of characteristics associated with pathogenicity in staphylococcus aureus. the ability of this species to attach to cells from regions, viz. the urinary tract, where it acts as an invador and to cells from areas where it is known as a commensal, was compared to its behaviour in this respect with another staphylococcal species, viz. s. epidermidis. s. saprophyticus showed a preferenital adherence to human exfoliated urogenital cells, wh ...1979395823
a laboratory model for the investigation of contact transfer of micro-organisms.the model was based on grasping a fabric-covered bottle contaminated with a strain of staphylococcus saprophyticus, then grasping a sterile fabric-covered bottle and counting the organisms transferred. when the donor fabric was moist 10% of the available cells passed onto the hands, but this fell to 0.05% when the inoculum dried. transfer from wet hands to the fabric amounted to 85%, but in the complete model only 0.06% of the available cells were transferred. the model was used to assess simple ...1979429788
[urinary tract infections. staphylococcus saprophyticus--clinical aspects and diagnosis]. 1979449475
urinary tract infections caused by staphylococcus saprophyticus: recurrences and complications. 1979501819
[action of egg lysozyme on representatives of the family micrococcaceae. the action on staphylococci].the results of the study on the effect of various concentrations of lysozyme on staphylococci of three species, i.e. staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus saprophyticus are presented. the study was performed with the use of the turbidimetric method. it was found that all the staphylococci had a common tendency for changing the optic density (od) of the suspensions under the effect of lysozyme which was different from that in micrococcus luteus. however, the dynamic ...1979572654
urinary tract infection in young women, with special reference to staphylococcus saprophyticus.acute urinary tract infections in young women attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were caused by the same bacteria, in the same proportions, as those that caused infections in women students. staphylococcus saprophyticus biotype 3 (formerly called micrococcus subgroup 3) was the commonest organism after coliform bacilli and caused about 30% of the infections. it was uncommon in women over 25 years of age and rarely caused asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. most infections, i ...1978580432
interactions of bacillus licheniformis atcc 10716 and normal flora of human determine whether antibiotic production might be ecologically advantageous in the survival of bacillus species on human skin, we applied spores of a bacitracin-producing strain of bacillus licheniformis (atcc 10716) to the forearms of 11 volunteers. three additional strains of b. licheniformis which did not synthesize antibiotics, including a mutant of atcc 10716, were used in subsequent control trials. samples of flora were taken from inoculated and control (opposite forearm) sites during th ...1978677879
novobiocin resistance and virulence of strains of staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from urine and skin.a method was developed to study virulence of coagulase-negative staphylococci. our results showed that coagulase-negative staphylococci injected into adult mice by the intracerebral route did not give rise to lethal infections, whereas mice aged 2 days were much more susceptible. novobiocin-resistant strains of staphylococcus saprophyticus were more virulent than strains of staphylococcus epidermidis. strains of s. saprophyticus biotype 3 of baird-parker's classification varied in virulence acco ...1978682175
staphylococcus saprophyticus: a frequent cause of acute urinary tract infection among female outpatients.the frequency of staphylococcus saprophyticus, formerly micrococcus subgroup 3, as the cause of bacteriuria is reported. of 787 consecutive female outpatients with signs of bacteriuria, 173 (22.0%) yielded s. saprophyticus, predominantly in pure culture and in high counts. in the age group 16--25 years, this organism was demonstrated in no less than 42.3%. in hospitalized women and in men with signs of bacteriuria, on the other hand, s. saprophyticus was a rare finding (0.9% and 0.5%, respective ...1978739158
the relevance of growth rates in urine to the pathogenesis of urinary-tract infections due to micrococcus subgroup 3 (staphylococcus saprophyticus biotype 3).a novobiocin-resistant "biotype" of micrococcus subgroup 3 (staphylococcus saprophyticus) is known to be a primary pathogen of the female urinary tract and to cause infections as severe as those produced by escherichia coli. the growth characteristics of this virulent biotype were compared in vitro with those of other micrococcaceae and of e. coli to determine whether rapid growth explains the virulence of the biotype. nutrient broth was shown to have growth-supporting qualities that differed fr ...1976785003
significance of urinary isolates of coagulase-negative micrococcaceae.of 16,347 urine cultures submitted to the hospital laboratory, 68 (0.4%) specimens from 50 patients yielded greater than 10(4) coagulase-negative staphylococci/ml in pure culture. a total of 62 of 63 organisms available for study were staphylococci: 45 staphylococcus epidermidis (predominantly subgroup 1), 15 staphylococcus saprophyticus (subgroup 3), and 2 staphylococcus aureus. twenty-one patients had "probable" urine infections. eight patients had two or more positive urine cultures, and all ...1976950376
effect of microorganisms isolated from the upper gut of malnourished children on intestinal sugar absorption in vivo.the effect of microorganisms isolated from the upper gastrointestinal tract of malnourished children on intestinal sugar absorption was studied in rats in vivo. pure cultures of organisms were grown overnight in a nutrient broth and the resultant supernatant fluid which contained microorganisms in similar numbers to those found in the patients was used as the basic solution for jejunal perfusions which were done in anesthetized adult wistar rats. the substrate used was arbutin (p-hydroxphenyl-be ...19751096588
ureolytic bacteria in sheep rumen.estimates were made of the numbers of viable bacteria in the rumens of sheep receiving different rations. representative colonies were isolated and tested for urease production. some urease-positive isolates were characterized and identified. the ureolytic activities of the urease-producing isolates were determined and compared with the activity of rumen fluid. the rations fed to the sheep did not exert a significant influence on the relative numbers of the urease-producting organisms in the rum ...19751239488
lomefloxacin versus norfloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections: three-day versus seven-day treatment. the south swedish lolex study group.this randomised, double-blind, multicenter study compared the safety and efficacy of lomefloxacin and norfloxacin in adult female outpatients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections. patients were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups: 400 mg lomefloxacin once daily for 3 days (l3), 400 mg lomefloxacin once daily for 7 days (l7), or 400 mg norfloxacin twice daily for 7 days (n7). a total of 703 patients (age 17-75 years) were enrolled at 21 investigative sites in southern sweden. cl ...19921337623
[differences in the adhesive properties of staphylococcus saprophyticus to hep-2 cells and erythrocytes].s. saprophyticus has been frequently isolated from urinary tract infections in young women. in contrast with s. aureus, no defined virulence factors have been recognized for the coagulase negative staphylococcus species. the objective this study was to analyze the adherence of s. saprophyticus to hep-2 cells and sheep erythrocytes. the sample were isolated from urine of patients with urinary infection. hemagglutination, adherence to hep-2 cells tests and inhibition by specific carbohydrates of t ...19921342088
rapid identification of fibronectin, vitronectin, laminin, and collagen cell surface binding proteins on coagulase-negative staphylococci by particle agglutination assays.seventeen strains of ten different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were shown to interact with collagen, laminin, fibronectin, and vitronectin immobilized on latex beads. different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci have different capacities to agglutinate proteins. cells of 18 strains of staphylococcus haemolyticus reacted more strongly than did cells of 18 staphylococcus epidermidis strains with proteincoated latex beads, although no significant difference in cell surface ...19921380008
staphylococcus saprophyticus hemagglutinin is a 160-kilodalton surface polypeptide.many strains of staphylococcus saprophyticus cause direct hemagglutination of sheep erythrocytes. for a high proportion of clinical isolates, a surface protein (ssp) that is apparently not involved in this property has been described. in this study, s. saprophyticus ccm883, a hemagglutinating but ssp-negative strain, was used for the identification, purification, and characterization of a 160-kda surface polypeptide that appears to be the major component of the hemagglutinin. expression of the p ...19921398924
in-vitro activity of streptogramin rp 59500 against staphylococci, including bactericidal kinetic studies.the in-vitro activity of rp 59500 and comparative agents was determined against 270 clinical isolates of the genus staphylococcus. mics were performed by micro-dilution dilution. mic90 and mbc90 (mg/l) of rp 59500 were as follows: oxacillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (0.5/0.5), oxacillin-resistant s. aureus (0.5/0.5), oxacillin-sensitive staphylococcus epidermidis (0.5/0.5), oxacillin-resistant s. epidermidis (0.25/0.25), oxacillin-resistant staphylococcus hominis (1.0/1.0), oxacillin-resis ...19921399952
bactericidal activities of rat defensins and synthetic rabbit defensins on staphylococci, klebsiella pneumoniae (chedid, 277, and 8n3), pseudomonas aeruginosa (mucoid and nonmucoid strains), salmonella typhimurium (ra, rc, rd, and re of lps mutants) and escherichia coli.rat defensins were purified and tested for in vitro bactericidal assay against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. staphylococcus aureus (209p, cowan i, smith diffuse and smith compact) were resistant to defensins, whereas staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus saprophyticus, micrococcus lysodeikticus and bacillus subtilis were less sensitive. gram-negative bacteria, such as pseudomonas aeruginosa (mucoid and k) and klebsiella pneumoniae (chedid, 277, and 8n3 which were heavily capsula ...19921406365
acute urinary tract infection in women. what kind of antibiotic therapy is optimal?urinary tract infections continue to be a major health problem for women. understanding of the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections has improved; staphylococcus saprophyticus has been recognized as a common causative agent, and low-colony-count infections are misdiagnosed less often. traditional therapy with 10 days of amoxicillin (amoxil, wymox) or ampicillin (omnipen, totacillin) is no longer considered optimal. for women who fulfill certain clinical criteria, short-course therapy is recom ...19921437902
physiological and biochemical characteristics of staphylococci isolated from the rumen of young calves and lambs.six strains of rumen ureolytic staphylococci were isolated from young calves and lambs. three isolates were allotted to the species staphylococcus xylosus. staphylococcus saprophyticus and staphylococcus gallinarum. the taxonomy of remaining three isolates was uncertain. total numbers of staphylococci varied between 10(4) and 10(6) per 1 ml of the rumen fluid. rumen staphylococci utilized a wide range of substrates and produced a bacteriocin-like substance. no strain hydrolysed gelatin. all stra ...19921441774
colonization of the female genital tract with staphylococcus saprophyticus.the prevalence of colonization by staphylococcus saprophyticus of the urogenital tracts of 276 women from an outpatient gynecology practice was determined by using selective and enrichment culture techniques. nineteen subjects (6.9%) were found to be colonized by s. saprophyticus. the rectum was the most frequent site of colonization and was responsible for 40% of the isolates; this was followed in decreasing order by the urethra, urine, and cervix. women colonized by s. saprophyticus were more ...19921452668
in vitro adherence of staphylococcus saprophyticus, staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus haemolyticus, and staphylococcus aureus to human ureter.staphylococcus saprophyticus adhered to human ureteral epithelium in vitro. the levels of adherence, which were determined quantitatively with the scanning electron microscope, correlated well with bacterial hemagglutinating activities with sheep erythrocytes (r = 0.9459, p < 0.01). transmission electron microscopy revealed that the adhering bacteria and the hemagglutinating bacteria possessed similar pili-like structures on their cell surfaces. staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus haemoly ...19921462477
thymocyte proliferation and maturation in response to staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid.lipoteichoic acid (lta) from staphylococcus saprophyticus strain s1 could be shown to induce thymocyte proliferation and maturation in balb/c-mice after systemic administration. the increase in thymocyte numbers per mg organ weight was statistically significant. determination of thymic lymphatic subsets revealed a considerable up-regulation of mature cells expressing helper/inducer (l3t4) or cytotoxic/suppressor (lyt-2) phenotypes. thus administration of staphylococcal lta obviously accelerated ...19921486235
in vitro activity of ru 29246, the active compound of the cephalosporin prodrug ester hr 916.the in vitro activity of ru 29246 was compared with those of other agents against 536 recent clinical isolates. the mics of ru 29246 for 90% of members of the family enterobacteriaceae tested (mic90s) were less than 2 micrograms/ml except those for morganella spp. (16 micrograms/ml) and proteus spp. (8 micrograms/ml). ru 29246 was active against staphylococcus aureus (mic90, < or = 8 micrograms/ml) and against staphylococcus saprophyticus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (mic90s, < or = 2 mi ...19921489178
intracellular localization of staphylococcus aureus within primary cultured mouse kidney cells.staphylococcus aureus cowan i was incubated with monolayers of cells derived from several portions of mouse kidney, and found to be ingested by all types of the renal cells. intracellular localization of s. aureus was determined by resistance of intracellular cocci against lysostaphin digestion and confirmed by electron microscopy. from renal medulla, three morphological variants of the hyperosmolarity-tolerant (hot) cells were obtained. the rate of cocci-ingesting cells varied from 16.9% to 93. ...19921513260
identification and characterization of a surface-associated protein (ssp) of staphylococcus saprophyticus.a 95-kda protein was isolated from staphylococcus saprophyticus 7108 grown on dialysis membranes placed on the surface of brain heart infusion agar. strain ccm883 did not produce this protein. ultrathin sections revealed the presence of very thin, tuftlike, 50- to 75-nm-long structures on the surface of strain 7108, whereas strain ccm883 was comparably smooth. the surface material could be removed by digestion with proteinase k, suggesting that the surface structures contain protein. high-resolu ...19921541520
infrequency of slime production by urinary isolates of staphylococcus saprophyticus.the production of slime by 130 urinary isolates of staphylococcus saprophyticus, cultured from symptomatic females in the general community, was tested by growing them on congo red agar. fourteen of 130 strains (11%) were found to produce slime, 112 strains (86%) did not produce any detectable slime, while four strains (3%) gave an indeterminate result. slime production does not appear to be an important virulence factor of s. saprophyticus causing urinary tract infection in females of child-bea ...19921548419
quantitative separation of bacteria in saline solution using lanthanide er(iii) and a magnetic field.a trivalent lanthanide ion, erbium (er3+), has been used in combination with a magnetic separation technique to isolate seven bacterial species from suspensions in 0.9% saline. erbium has an exceptionally high atomic magnetic moment of 9.3 bohr magnetons, and following addition as ercl3 (final concentration 5 mm) to bacterial suspensions, it imparts the magnetic moment to the bacterial cells by ionic binding to the cell surface. strains of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabil ...19921556557
ventriculoatrial shunt infection caused by staphylococcus warneri: case report and review.staphylococcus warneri, a coagulase-negative species, is a rare cause of infection of cerebrospinal fluid (csf) shunts. in one recently studied case of ventriculoatrial shunt infection, the repeated isolation of s. warneri (i.e., from all of six blood cultures and from a csf sample obtained directly from the valve of the shunt) suggested that this organism can be clinically significant. review of the literature clearly indicates that s. warneri is a rare but potentially dangerous pathogen in bot ...19921571462
[urinary tract infections caused by staphylococcus saprophyticus. increased incidence depending on the blood group].between 1. 1. 1988 and 31. 12. 1990, greater than or equal to 10 colony-forming units of staph. saprophyticus were isolated from 55 of a total of 20,000 urine samples went in. the isolates from these 55 patients (52 women, 3 men; mean age 29 [17-58] years) were tested for specific adhesion molecules (lectins) to discover their relationship to blood-group characteristic carbohydrates. 52 of the 55 patients (94.5%) were blood-group a or ab (average for middle-europeans: 48.2%). haemagglutination a ...19921572257
single-dose compared with 3-day norfloxacin treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. canadian infectious diseases society clinical trials study group.background--this study was undertaken to determine whether therapy for acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women with single-dose therapy with norfloxacin was superior to 3 days of norfloxacin therapy in efficacy or adverse effects. methods--the study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. women with acute, uncomplicated urinary tract infection were randomized to receive norfloxacin, 800 mg as a single dose or 400 mg twice daily for 3 days. clinical and labora ...19921599352
cloning and expression of staphylococcus epidermidis urease gene sequences in staphylococcus carnosus.the urease gene sequences of staphylococcus epidermidis cns23 were cloned and expressed in staphylococcus carnosus tm300. in vitro translation of the cloned sequences revealed four polypeptides (60, 17, 11 and 7.5 kda) that were associated with enzyme activity. southern hybridisation experiments showed high homologies with the urease genes of staphylococcus saprophyticus.19921612415
[study of the virulence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in experimental infections].the pathogenicity and virulence of 3 strains of staphylococcus epidermidis, staphylococcus haemolyticus and staphylococcus saprophyticus, respectively were studied in balb/c mice by intraperitoneal (ip) challenge using 4 bacterial suspensions of different colony forming units (cfu) of each strain. strains were isolated from wound, blood, and urine of inpatients. on the base of the lethality rates, s. saprophyticus proved to be the most virulent (ld50 = 2.7-2.9 x 10(7) cfu/g body wt), while the s ...19921625850
[a staphylococcus haemolyticus study in urinary infections. an analysis of 8 cases].urinary infections caused by staphylococcus are attributed usually to staphylococcus epidermidis or staphylococcus saprophyticus. 8 cases of urinary infection due to s. haemolyticus are discussed: 5 adults all of them over 66 years, diagnosed respectively of diabetes, cancer and stroke. three children diagnosed of febrile syndrome, encephalopathy and enterocolitis associated with urinary infection. s. haemolyticus was identified through the determination of 19 biochemical parameters. the antibio ...19921626088
[role of staphylococcus saprophyticus in urinary infections].a proportion of s. saprophyticus in other coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates from the urine of patients with urinary infections and healthy individuals has been investigated. certain diagnostic aspect of the urinary infections with s. saprophyticus have also been considered. hundred four coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains isolated from patients in słupsk and gdańsk area and 72 strains of the coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from the urine of healthy women have been divide ...19911669150
anti-staphylococcal serine proteinase and other serum factors in phagocytosis.the interactions between polymorphonuclear cells (pmn), staphylococcus saprophyticus cells and rabbit antibodies against staphylococcus aureus v8 serine proteinase or normal rabbit serum proteins were investigated. the effect of opsonization on phagocytosis due to human peripheral polymorphonuclear cells was measured. the results were as follows: phagocytosis index values were relatively increased after the incubation of pmn cells with anti-serine proteinase gamma-globulin serum fraction, anti-s ...19901698965
role of staphylococcus saprophyticus in human infection.biological properties of staphylococcus saprophyticus strains isolated from urinary tract infection and respiratory tract secretions were investigated. the majority of s. saprophyticus strains exhibit moderate surface hydrophobic properties, as measured by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. there was no significant difference between two groups of isolates in respect to electrostatic charge. it was found that the ability to form a diffuse type of growth is characteristic for most of s. sapr ...19901715647
review of clinical experience in the united states with cefpodoxime proxetil in adults with uncomplicated urinary tract infections.two controlled united states trials compared the safety and efficacy of cefpodoxime proxetil (100mg twice daily) with either cefaclor (250mg 3 times daily) or amoxicillin (250mg 3 times daily) in patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections. treatment duration was 7 days. 307 of 762 patients treated with cefpodoxime proxetil, 99 of 190 treated with cefaclor, and 57 of 185 treated with amoxicillin were evaluable for efficacy. 311, 99 and 59 pathogens were isolated from cefpodoxime proxeti ...19911726207
adhesion of staphylococcus saprophyticus to renal tubular epithelial cells is mediated by an n-acetyl-galactosamine-specific structure.s. saprophyticus ccm883 and 9325 were found to adhere to the tubular cell line llc-pk1. an elisa technique was used to determine adherence of bacteria and inhibition of adherence by various carbohydrates. only n-acetyl-galactosamine was found to significantly inhibit adhesion (p less than 0.001), which suggests that the surface component mediating adhesion recognizes structures on the target cell that contain this carbohydrate.19911741917
activation of mononuclear immune cells in response to staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid.the goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (lta) on the activation of mononuclear immune cells. a murine tumor necrosis-like factor (tnf-like) was induced in the sera of cd-1 mice which had been primed with heat/formalin-inactivated propionibacterium avidum kp-40 and subsequently exposed to lta extracted from staphylococcus saprophyticus strain s 1. monoclonal antibody against murine tnf (anti-tnf) significantly inhibited the cytostatic activi ...19911741920
susceptibility of urine isolates of staphylococcus saprophyticus to antimicrobial agents.the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of 10 antimicrobial agents for 96 urinary isolates of staphylococcus saprophyticus cultured from symptomatic females in the western australian general community are reported. all antimicrobial agents tested showed good activity, with the exceptions of norfloxacin (mic90 8 mg/l) and ampicillin (mic90 0.5 mg/l). eighty-three of 96 isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. one isolate was resistant to both tetracycline and trimethopri ...19911745563
phage typing of staphylococcus saprophyticus.this study included 502 staphylococcus strains; staphylococcus saprophyticus (297 strains) s. cohnii (47), s. xylosus (10), s. epidermidis (67) and s. aureus (81). mitomycin c induction was performed on 100 isolates of s. saprophyticus and all induced strains were reacted with each other. twenty-six strains proved to be lysogenic. phages were propagated and titrated. with 12 of the phages there were three frequent associations, named lytic groups a, b and c, which included 75% of all typable str ...19911752305
urinary tract infections caused by staphylococcus saprophyticus. a matched case control study.epidemiological and clinical aspects of 270 episodes of urinary tract infection caused by staphylococcus saprophyticus were studied. the cases were randomly selected and matched consecutively with 276 others of urinary tract infection according to sex, age and temporal occurrence. such infections were found typically among young women in the outpatient health service. they were common among professionals handling meat products and were especially associated with prior outdoor swimming. common sy ...19911753113
staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary-tract infection in male children.staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary-tract infection has been reported to occur in sexually active young females and in geriatric patients with obstructive uropathy. we are discussing two young male children with s. saprophyticus urinary-tract infection. we draw attention to this bacterium which is emerging as an important pathogen in children with urinary-tract infections.19911756518
susceptibility of staphylococcus species and subspecies to fleroxacin.twenty-four staphylococcus species or subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolone fleroxacin (ro 23-6240) by disk diffusion (5-micrograms disk) and by agar dilution for the determination of mics. resistant strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. reference strains of the novobiocin-resistant species (staphylococcus saprophyticus, staphylococcus cohnii, staphylococcus xylosus, staphylococcus arlettae, ...19911759838
plasmid-identified staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from the rectum of patients with urinary tract infections.among 15 strains of staphylococcus saprophyticus of various origin, 13 presented different plasmid patterns, making plasmid identification a useful epidemiological marker. in a consecutive study of 14 young female patients with urinary tract infection caused by s. saprophyticus, 6 patients were simultaneously positive for the same bacterium in the stools. three paired samples contained the identical plasmid-identified clone of s. saprophyticus indicating that the rectum may be a reservoir of thi ...19911767252
[comparison of rapid latex and conventional methods for the identification of staphylococcus aureus].rapid latex agglutination assay, staphaurex (wellcome diagnostics) was compared with the tube coagulase, thermo-stable nuclease, deoxyribonuclease and mannitol fermentation test for the identification of staphylococcus aureus. a total of 277 clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus, 201 staphylococcus epidermidis, and 25 staphylococcus saprophyticus were tested. the results showed that sensitivities were: staphaurex, 99.6%; rabbit plasma, 99.6%; human plasma, 99.2%; thermostable nuclease, 100% ...19911776459
staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid exerts growth factor-like activity towards human and murine cells.lipoteichoic acid (lta) was extracted from staphylococcus saprophyticus strain s1 and tested for the capacity to induce hematopoietic and lymphatic cell proliferation. as compared to nontreated cells, the number of human bone marrow cells significantly increased in the presence of low lta concentrations. optimal growth was observed on the fifth day of in vitro incubation. after exposure to lta, the lymphocyte proliferation rate also increased in a dose and time dependent manner. on the other han ...19911789903
susceptibility of staphylococcus species and subspecies to teicoplanin.twenty-four staphylococcus species and their subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to teicoplanin by disk diffusion (30-micrograms disk) and agar dilution for the determination of mics. moderately susceptible and resistant clinical strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and vancomycin. teicoplanin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the various staphylococcus species isolated from healthy volunteers or animals. however, the novobioci ...19911835340
identification of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci by polymerase chain reaction.a simple and reliable method using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was devised to identify methicillin-resistant staphylococci. by using lysates of the strain to be tested as templates and 22-mer oligonucleotides as primers, a 533-bp region of meca, the structural gene of a low-affinity penicillin-binding protein (pbp 2'), was amplified by pcr and detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. results obtained by this method were compared with those obtained by broth microdilution mic determination ...19911939577
the effects of three non-antibiotic, antimicrobial agents on the surface hydrophobicity of certain micro-organisms evaluated by different methods.the effects of three non-antibiotic, antimicrobial agents (taurolidine, chlorhexidine acetate and providone-iodine) on the surface hydrophobicity of the clinical strains escherichia coli, staphylococcus saprophyticus, staphylococcus epidermidis and candida albicans were examined. three recognized techniques for hydrophobicity measurements, bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons (bath), the salt aggregation test (sat) and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (hic) were compared. at concentrations ...19911955416
slime production by staphylococcus saprophyticus.only 9 of 30 staphylococcus saprophyticus strains produced slime in trypticase soy broth, while all did so in urine. it was found that urea was essential for the production of slime. the ph, the iron concentration, or the presence of sex hormones did not affect slime production.19911987058
cell-surface hydrophobicity of staphylococcus saprophyticus.the cell-surface hydrophobicity of 100 urinary isolates of staphylococcus saprophyticus, cultured from symptomatic females in the general population, was assessed using a two-phase aqueous:hydrocarbon system. relatively strong cell-surface hydrophobicity was exhibited by 79 isolates using the criteria employed, while only 2 of the remaining 21 isolates failed to demonstrate any detectable hydrophobicity. cell-surface hydrophobicity may be a virulence factor of s. saprophyticus, important in adhe ...19911993454
[urinary tract infections. views on microbiological diagnosis and resistance determination].urinary tract infection is a common problem affecting every fifth woman during her life. although the clinical diagnosis is easy, and is based mainly on symptoms and microscopy of urine sediment, the microbiological diagnosis is often difficult. escherichia coli is the main etiologic agent, causing urinary tract infection in approximately 80% of the cases. adherent, uropathogenic e coli strains are associated with pyelonephritis and relapse. staphylococcus saprophyticus is a frequent cause of ur ...19911998185
new directions in the diagnosis and therapy of urinary tract infections.urinary tract infections are among the most common bacterial infections. to provide appropriate and cost-effective treatment, physicians need to stratify patients with urinary complaints into uncomplicated or complicated categories. this can be accomplished by the history, presenting symptoms, risk factors, and physical examination. complicated urinary tract infections occur in patients with a history of recurrent infections, signs or symptoms of upper tract disease, or coexisting conditions suc ...19912031519
occurrence of staphylococcus lugdunensis in consecutive clinical cultures and relationship of isolation to infection.consecutive record review over a 63-month period revealed 229 staphylococcus lugdunensis isolates, or 10.1% of the staphylococcal species that were not staphylococcus aureus or staphylococcus epidermidis. a total of 155 s. lugdunensis specimens were isolated from sites over the entire bodies of the 143 patients studied. the most common clinical diagnoses were skin and skin structure infections (55.4%) and blood and vascular catheter infections (17.4%). for 40% of the reviewed specimens, s. lugdu ...19912037657
a convenient method for differentiation of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mammary glands.the utility of trehalose-mannitol broth and arabinose-cellobiose broth for identification of staphylococcus epidermidis and novobiocin-resistant staphylococci was determined using 236 coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mammary glands. none of the 49 s. epidermidis strains was positive in trehalose-mannitol broth; whereas, all strains of staphylococcus hyicus, staphylococcus chromogenes, staphylococcus haemolyticus, staphylococcus hominis, staphylococcus warneri, and staphyloco ...19912045549
bacteria of human physiological microflora liberate immunomodulating peptides.human isolates of propionibacterium acnes and staphylococcus saprophyticus could be shown to liberate low molecular weight peptides (mw less than 6.500 d) with immunomodulating activity. facs analyses of balb/c-mouse lymphoid cells from the thymus and spleen revealed an enhanced percentage of t-helper cells after peptide administration. intestinal microflora decontamination of balb/c-mice considerably reduced immune cell function and lymphatic tissue proliferation. apparently, lack of peptide pr ...19902141788
morphology of staphylococcus saprophyticus bacteriophages.the morphology of 6 bacteriophages isolated from staphylococcus saprophyticus was studied by electron microscopy. phages had isometric heads and non-contractile tails, thus belonging to the siphoviridae family. they were subdivided into two morphological groups based on head diameter and tail length. type i, represented by phages 1154a and 1405, and characterized by an unusually small capsid, may be a new species.19902150893
efficacy of single-dose versus seven-day trimethoprim treatment of cystitis in women: a randomized double-blind study.single-dose trimethoprim treatment of cystitis was compared with 7-day treatment in a randomized double-blind study in primary health care. consecutive female patients (613) with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection (uti) and positive bacteriuria screening tests were enrolled. in 502 cases uti was confirmed by urine culture. follow-up was performed twice, after 2-3 and 5-6 weeks. short-term efficacy could be evaluated in 425 cases and accumulated efficacy in 344. short-term efficacy was 82% ...19902182732
the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections associated with escherichia coli, staphylococcus saprophyticus and s. epidermidis.a model was developed in mice to study the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections caused by staphylococcus saprophyticus strains lm-1 and lm-2, escherichia coli sp444 and s. epidermidis e001. murine urinary bladders were inoculated with 10(8) bacteria via a temporary urinary catheter and samples of urine and bladder were removed at days 1, 3, 5 and 10 after inoculation. they were examined both bacteriologically and by electronmicroscopy. severe disruption of the urothelium was present immediat ...19902192064
[bacterial flora in the urethra of men with chlamydia trachomatis urethritis before and after treatment with ofloxacin].from urethra of 40 men with ctu, 190 bacterial strains were isolated, 110 before and 80 after treatment with ofx (400 mg daily for 5 days). among the strains coexisting with chlamydia trachomatis, staphylococcus epidermidis (30.9%), micrococcus (13.6%), streptococcus group d (10.9%) and staphylococcus aureus (10.9%) were isolated more frequently than others. the in vitro susceptibility testing showed that, in comparison to erythromycin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline and co-trimoxazole, ofx was th ...19902244013
[urinary tract infections caused by staphylococcus saprophiticus in children].staphylococcus saprophyticus was cultured from the urine of a pyelonephritic newborn as well as a 13 years old boy with symptoms of low urinary tract infection. cefotaxime respectively penicillin treatment resulted cure in both cases. staphylococcus saprophyticus may be an important infective agent in children's urinary infections as well.19902247308
antibody response to staphylococcus saprophyticus in urinary tract infection.the serological response towards staphylococcus saprophyticus in young women with symptomatic urinary tract infection was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and a direct agglutination (da) test. in both assays a marked antibody response was found in 2 of 3 patients with acute pyelonephritis caused by s. saprophyticus. patients with acute cystitis due to s. saprophyticus or escherichia coli showed antibody titers comparable to those of healthy controls.19902259864
characterization of mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococcus saprophyticus.the resistance mechanisms of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococcus saprophyticus were characterized. penicillin-binding protein (pbp) studies demonstrated an inducible pbp identical to pbp 2a in the membranes of these isolates. the amount of beta-lactamase produced was minimal. pbp 2a is responsible for the methicillin resistance observed in these strains of s. saprophyticus.19902285290
chemiluminescence response of human polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytic cells induced by staphylococcus saprophyticus, lectinophagocytosis versus opsonophagocytosis.two strains of staphylococcus saprophyticus with well characterized cell surface structures were studied to determine the contribution of lectinophagocytosis versus opsonophagocytosis exerted by human phagocytic cells from five healthy donors. the luminol specific chemiluminescence assay was used to evaluate the response of phagocytes. human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmnl) were demonstrated to have surface lectin receptors, since the chemiluminescence response towards both s. saprophyticus s ...19902312175
opsonic requirements and surface hydrophobicity of novobiocin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci.the opsonic requirement for phagocytosis and killing and cell-surface hydrophobicity of five strains of staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from clinical sources were studied. phagocytosis and killing of bacteria by human granulocytes were measured in suspension. bacterial aggregating cell-surface hydrophobicity was determined by salt aggregation, and the absorptive hydrophobicity was measured by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. all strains were well opsonised by pooled normal human ser ...19902342083
colonial morphology of staphylococci on memphis agar: phase variation of slime production, resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, and virulence.the growth of staphylococcus epidermidis sensu stricto and staphylococcus saprophyticus on memphis agar yielded up to 6 morphotypes with each strain. with s. epidermidis, one morphotype produced slime (rho) but became non-slime-producing (epsilon) at a high frequency. the slime-producing rho variants were methicillin-resistant and more virulent than methicillin-susceptible epsilon variants in an endocarditis model. with s. saprophyticus, phase variation was of higher frequency. nitrosoguanidine ...19902345296
staphylococcus saprophyticus found to be a common contaminant of food.the mode of transmission of staphylococcus saprophyticus, a urinary tract pathogen, was investigated in three related studies. the presence of this organism was sought, during a period of 1 year, in 1331 specimens of various foods, in 920 beef and pork carcasses and on 107 cultures which had been inoculated directly from abattoir workers' protective gloves. staphylococcus saprophyticus was found to contaminate 16.4% of the various food samples with a high prevalence of 34% in raw beef and pork. ...19902384675
fatal staphylococcus saprophyticus native valve endocarditis in an intravenous drug addict. 19902388008
keratinolytic activity of cutaneous and oral bacteria.a test was developed to measure the keratinolytic activity of cutaneous and oral bacteria. keratin, labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, was used in a phosphate buffer (ph 7.2) with 1 mm dithiothreitol. the degradation of keratin was estimated by measuring the fluorescence of the degradation products in the supernatant of the reaction mixtures in a luminescence spectrometer. several oral and cutaneous bacteria were investigated: bacteroides gingivalis, bacteroides intermedius, treponema dent ...19872434427
detection of different fimbriae-like structures on the surface of staphylococcus relation to the ability of adhesiveness to hep-2-cells the sizes of capsules on three strains of staphylococcus saprophyticus were examined using an electron microscopic india ink technique. there was a good correlation between small amounts of capsular material and good adherence to the tissue culture cells. in contrast to this a very large capsule could be demonstrated on a strain which adhered only in a poor manner. some indications of fimbriae-like structures could be confirmed by negativ ...19882455947
on chronic prostatitis with special studies of staphylococcus epidermidis.patients with chronic prostatitis have an increased number of white blood cells in expressed prostatic secretion. two groups can be separated, one is characterized by uropathogenic bacteria in expressed prostatic secretion and recurrent urinary tract infections, chronic bacterial prostatitis. in this group an immune response to the bacteria has been demonstrated. patients belonging to the other group, non-bacterial prostatitis, have similar symptoms. many harbour gram-positive bacteria in a high ...19892483757
[adhesion capacity and surface properties of staphylococcus epidermidis and staphylococcus saprophyticus].we have comparatively studied the adherence of staphylococcus epidermidis and s. saprophyticus to epithelial cells of a continuous cellular line of urinary origin (mdck). the adherence of s. saprophyticus was significantly higher than that of s. epidermidis and this phenomenon was not related to the bacterial surface hydrophobicity or the ability of producing slime in vitro. the pre-incubation of the bacteria with sub-inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin, teicoplanin, amikacin, clindamycin, a ...19892490476
[antibacterial activity of pefloxacin in the urine during the 7 days following a single 800 mg oral dose].antibacterial activity of pefloxacin was studied in the urine after a single 800 mg oral dose in ten healthy female volunteers. urine was collected in 9 periods: 0-6 h, 6-12 h, 12-24 h, 24-28 h, 48-72 h, 72-96 h, 96-120 h, 120-144 h, 144-168 h. pefloxacin concentrations were assayed in all samples by a microbiological method and by hplc. urine antibacterial activity was determined towards five bacterial strains isolated in urine: 2 e. coli strains, one sensitive and the other resistant to nalidi ...19892506514
[antibacterial activity of lomefloxacin in the urine during the 4 days following a single 400 mg oral dose].antibacterial activity of lomefloxacin was studied in the urine after single dose of 400 mg in ten healthy female volunteers. urine was collected in 7 periods: 0-3 h, 3-6 h, 6-12 h, 12-24 h, 24-48 h, 48-72 h, 72-96 h. lomefloxacin concentration were assayed in all samples by microbiological method. urine antibacterial activity was determined towards five strains isolated in urine: 2 e. coli strains one sensitive and the other resistant to nalidixic acid (nal-a), 1 klebsiella pneumoniae resistant ...19892506515
evaluation of four qualitative methods for detection of beta-lactamase production in staphylococcus and micrococcus species.four qualitative methods for the detection of beta-lactamase production in staphylococcus and micrococcus species were evaluated and compared with a quantitative macroiodometric reference method. the disc diffusion test with penicillin g and the cloverleaf method could not separate beta-lactamase-positive from beta-lactamase-negative strains. two applications of the chromogenic cephalosporin test, using uninduced strains and strains grown on blood agar plates, gave a large number of false negati ...19892513196
detection of phosphatase production by staphylococcus species: a new method.the ability of staphylococci to produce phosphatase is an important character in the identification of species in the genus. current methods are slow and difficult to interpret. a test is described which uses p-nitrophenyl phosphate as the substrate. it was evaluated by testing 1035 reference and clinical strains, and also compared with an alternative method. all strains of staphylococcus aureus and 83% of staphylococcus epidermidis were phosphatase positive: all strains of staphylococcus saprop ...19892559282
are ecg welsh cup electrodes effectively cleaned?re-usable welsh electrocardiograph (ecg)-electrodes are potential vehicles for cross infection. this study confirmed that in-use ecg-electrodes are frequently contaminated with organisms such as coagulase-negative staphylococci and gram-negative bacilli. the efficacy of five cleaning procedures was evaluated. immersing the electrodes in water at 60 degrees c for one hour was the most effective method of decontamination tested, following challenge with a standardised suspension of staphylococcus ...19892575631
diagnostic considerations and interpretation of microbiological findings for evaluation of chronic prostatitis.seventy-five patients attending a clinic for chronic prostatitis were evaluated by use of lower urinary tract localization cultures. coagulase-negative staphylococci, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and diphtheroids were the most common isolates, but none of these organisms were pathogens, based on the absence of bacteriuria or evidence of an inflammatory response in prostatic secretions. recognized uropathogens were isolated in 12 (16%) of the 75 cases and included escherichia coli in 6 cases, en ...19892584375
[type ii ssri restriction endonuclease from staphylococcus saprophyticus].the recognition sequence and cleavage site for restriction endonuclease ssri have been determined, the latter being 5'-gtt decreases aac-3'. the enzyme was isolated from staphylococcus saprophyticus strain and may be used in dna investigation instead of its isoshizomer hpai.19892628752
tissue penetration and clinical efficacy of enoxacin in urinary tract infections.the fluoroquinolones in general, and particularly enoxacin, show great promise in the treatment of urinary tract infection. orally administered enoxacin achieves high concentrations in the serum and urine as well as in prostate tissue, kidney and perirenal fat and muscle. these concentrations are generally in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) for 95% of the common uropathogens, including escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella spp., proteus spp., enterobacter spp ...19892653693
is resistance to novobiocin a reliable test for confirmation of the identification of staphylococcus saprophyticus?staphylococcus saprophyticus, a coagulase-negative staphylococcus (cns), causes acute urinary tract infection predominantly in young women (15-30 years). in the clinical microbiology laboratory identification and differentiation of s. saprophyticus from other cns usually depends solely upon the demonstration of resistance to the antimicrobial agent novobiocin. phenotypic characteristics of 36 novobiocin-resistant cns isolated from the urine of patients with acute urinary tract infections were fu ...19892689651
diversity of plasmids in staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from urinary tract infections in women.a group of 150 staphylococcus saprophyticus strains isolated from urinary tract infections in women were included in this study. antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that these isolates were sensitive to most antimicrobial agents. all strains were sensitive to penicillin, cephalothin, gentamicin, kanamycin, trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin. resistance to tetracycline was present in 10.6% of the strains, to chloramphenicol in 4%, to erythromycin in 1.3% and to streptomycin in 1.3%. all strain ...19892737253
[the incidence of staphylococcus saprophyticus in urine and its identification].having in mind the known fact that staphylococcus saproplyticus is one of the most common causes of acute urinary infections, especially in females in the generative period, we have studied its incidence in 12,556 urine samples (6,374 of females and 6,182 of males) taken at the clinics and polyclinics of the military medical academy. for identification of staphylococcus saprophyticus we have used disk-diffusion test for sensitivity to novobiocin. in order to check realiability of this test we ha ...19892741379
[antimicrobial activity of cefteram comparison with other oral antibiotics].antimicrobacterial activities of cefteram (cftm) against clinical isolates collected in 1988 were compared with those of new beta-lactams. 1. antibacterial activities of cftm against streptococcus pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes, haemophilus influenzae, branhamella catarrhalis isolated from acute respiratory tract infections were 8- to 16-fold higher than those of cefaclor (ccl). 2. activities of cefixime (cfix) were superior to those of cftm against b. catarrhalis, escherichia coli, klebsiel ...19892746861
absence of factors associated with significant urinary tract infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci.coagulase-negative staphylococci, excluding staphylococcus saprophyticus, have recently been implicated as pathogens in urinary tract infections, especially in catheterized patients. in order to evaluate any laboratory markers for significant isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci, we prospectively studied 72 patients with significant, indeterminant, or contaminant urine isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci. patients in the three categories did not differ by age, sex, presence of a ...19892752711
granulocyte activation by a cell surface complex of staphylococcus saprophyticus: a receptor-mediated phenomenon.high molecular weight cell surface complex (csc) from staphylococcus saprophyticus strain s 1 could be shown to be a potent stimulator of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (pmn) chemiluminescence whereas human monocytes were not activated. heating of the csc (100 degrees c for 5 min) as well as protease treatment significantly (p less than 0.001) inhibited the pmn activating process suggesting that the protein part of the molecule mediates its biological activity. data on the biochemical charact ...19892765086
cloning and expression of staphylococcus saprophyticus urease gene sequences in staphylococcus carnosus and contribution of the enzyme to virulence.the urease gene of staphylococcus saprophyticus ccm883 was cloned and expressed in staphylococcus carnosus tm300. in vitro translation of the cloned dna sequences revealed six polypeptides (of 70, 47, 29, 27, 20, and 17 kilodaltons) that were associated with enzyme activity. introduction of the cloned genes into a urease-negative mutant of s. saprophyticus restored the virulence of this strain, confirming our previous suggestion (s. gatermann, j. john, and r. marre, infect. immun. 57:110-116, 19 ...19892777370
improved detection of beta-lactamase activity in isolates of staphylococcus saprophyticus with the use of a modified cefinase disk procedure.the cefinase disk (bbl microbiology systems, cockeysville, md) technique has been reported to be relatively insensitive for detection of beta-lactamase production by staphylococcus saprophyticus. the effects of time (up to 24 hours) and temperature (25 degrees c vs. 35 degrees c) of test incubation as well as enzyme induction on cefinase detection of beta-lactamase activity in clinical isolates of s. saprophyticus was investigated. results were compared to beta-lactamase detection with the use o ...19892784284
effects of extracellular products from staphylococcus saprophyticus on human lymphocytes.extracellular products from staphylococcus saprophyticus were isolated and tested for their effect on the lymphoproliferative activity of con a and lps and on the growth of human lymphocytes. the stimulatory effects of con a or lps were not affected but a t-cell mitogenic activity was noted after 5 days of incubation. the extracellular material was separated by gel chromatography and the mitogenic activity was shown to be located to the protein fraction.19892803756
binding of staphylococci to mucus in vivo and in vitro.the association of staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, and staphylococcus saprophyticus with tissues of the upper respiratory tract were compared by using an in vivo ferret model. ferrets were challenged intranasally with a 1-ml volume of radiolabeled staphylococci (3 mg [dry weight]), were allowed to clear the bacteria in vivo for 90 min, and were sacrificed. tissues from the right nasal fossa were harvested and processed for radioassay or histology. of the recoverable staphyloco ...19892807545
staphylococcus saprophyticus in males with symptoms of chronic prostatitis.staphylococcus saprophyticus was isolated in 17 percent (12 of 71 men) during one year, but with a peak in august and september to 21 percent in patients referred to the urology department with a suspicion of chronic bacterial prostatitis. seven of the 12 men had s. saprophyticus in highest number at the prostatic level. three of these were designated as chronic bacterial prostatitis. in this study the occurrence of s. saprophyticus appears to follow, and possibly depends on, previous antibiotic ...19892815444
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