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[receptors for cytomegaloviruses on the surface of human lymphocytes].the relationships between cytomegalovirus (cmv) and lymphocytes have already been noted because of: (a) the immunological abnormalities induced by this virus, and (b) activation of latent cmv in the course of lymphocyte reactions associated with anti-histocompatibility antigen immune response. the present work shows that the lymphocyte surface may have specific receptors for cmv. cultured fibroblasts infected with dmv were incubated with lymphocytes isolated from the blood of human immune subjec ...1977199370
central neuronal circuit innervating the rat heart defined by transneuronal transport of pseudorabies virus.we defined the central circuit innervating various regions of the rat heart using a neurotropic herpesvirus as a transneuronal tracer. location of viral antigens in the brain after cardiac injection of three strains of pseudorabies virus (prv) provided insight into vagal preganglionic neurons and their connected interneurons. at short survival times, labeled vagal preganglionic neurons were localized in both the nucleus ambiguus (na) and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmv), and in an arc ...19957891147
comparative analysis of the gene encoding the nucleocapsid protein of dolphin morbillivirus reveals its distant evolutionary relationship to measles virus and ruminant morbilliviruses.a morbillivirus of uncertain origin recently killed hundreds of mediterranean dolphins. this is the first report of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of a dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) gene. the sequence of the nucleocapsid (n) gene including boundaries was determined. when the dmv n gene coding region was compared with the corresponding sequences of other morbilliviruses a distant evolutionary relationship between these viruses and dmv was apparent. phylogenetic analysis of the seque ...19947931174
variability in the length of the amino terminal sequence contributes to the capsid protein diversity among dasheen mosaic potyvirus isolates.western blot analysis of several dasheen mosaic virus isolates revealed molecular weight differences among their capsid proteins (cps). sequence analysis of the cp gene showed that the cp of isolate ten was 15 amino acids shorter than that of isolate la due to a 57-base deletion and a 12-base insertion into the 5' end of the ten cp gene. our data suggest that frequent deletions and insertions are responsible for the cp size diversity among dmv isolates.19948031244
unusual amino-terminal sequence repeat characterizes the capsid protein of dasheen mosaic potyvirus.the 3'-terminal region of a florida isolate of dasheen mosaic potyvirus (dmv-la) genome including the coat protein (cp) gene was cloned and sequenced. protease digestion was predicted to occur between the glutamine and alanine residues at positions 79 and 80 of the 408 residue long polypeptide to produce a cp of 329 amino acids with an estimated m(r) of 36,229. following the putative protease recognition site is a dag sequence, which is conserved among aphid-transmitted potyviral cps. there is a ...19948113735
morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.infections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in europe and siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (pdv-1) and phocid distemper virus-2 (pdv-2) respectively. pdv-1 was characterized as a newly identified morbillivirus, most related to canine distemper virus (cdv), whereas pdv-2 most probably is a strain of cdv. morbilliviruses were also isol ...19938343804
a polymerase chain reaction method adapted for selective amplification and cloning of 3' sequences of potyviral genomes: application to dasheen mosaic virus. 19938366172
spatiotemporal responses of astrocytes, ramified microglia, and brain macrophages to central neuronal infection with pseudorabies virus.we examined the responses of astrocytes, ramified microglia, and brain macrophages to cns neuronal infection with virulent or attenuated strains of a swine alpha herpesvirus (pseudorabies virus, prv). after prv inoculation of the rat stomach or pancreas, the temporal course of viral replication and induced pathology of infected neurons were assessed in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmv) and amygdala using an antiserum generated against prv. specific monoclonal antibodies against glial f ...19938381171
pseudorabies virus infection of the rat central nervous system: ultrastructural characterization of viral replication, transport, and pathogenesis.pseudorabies virus (prv) has been used extensively to map synaptic circuits in the cns and pns. a fundamental assumption of these studies is that the virus replicates within synaptically linked populations of neurons and does not spread through the extracellular space or by cell-to-cell fusion. in the present analysis we have used electron microscopy to characterize pathways of viral replication and egress that lead to transneuronal infection of neurons, and to document the non-neuronal response ...19938388923
a polymerase chain reaction method adapted for selective amplification and cloning of 3' sequences of potyviral genomes: application to dasheen mosaic virus.'universal' degenerate oligonucleotide primers were used to amplify cdna sequences containing the 3' untranslated region (3' utr) and a portion of the coat protein gene sequence of dasheen mosaic potyvirus (dmv). these primers were based on the conserved wcien and qmkaaa 'boxes' of the potyviral coat protein and the poly-a tail found at the 3' end of the genome. the forward genome-sense primers were designed taking into consideration the codon degeneracy of the wcien and qmkaaa residues for seve ...19938432765
characterization of morbilliviruses isolated from dolphins and porpoises in europe.a previously unidentified morbillivirus was isolated from two harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) that had died in the dutch waddensea (north sea) in 1990. this porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and a dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), which had recently caused a heavy mortality in mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), were compared antigenically with other members of the genus morbillivirus, including the newly recognized phocine distemper virus type 1. dmv and pmv proved to be similar ...19938468554
comparative analysis of the attachment protein gene (h) of dolphin morbillivirus.dmv, dolphin morbillivirus, a paramyxovirus of uncertain origin recently emerged in mediterranean dolphins. this study presents the complete nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin (h) gene including the gene boundaries. the single open reading frame of the dmv h gene encodes a protein of 604 residues which exhibits overall sequence characteristics similar to the h genes of other morbilliviruses. when compared to its closest homologues, measles virus (mv) and rinderpest virus (rpv), dmv has, re ...19968725120
the phosphoprotein gene of a dolphin morbillivirus isolate exhibits genomic variation at the editing site.the nucleotide sequence of the phosphoprotein (p) gene of a dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) isolate was determined. like those of other morbilliviruses the dmv p gene encoded p and c proteins in overlapping open reading frames and v protein by editing the p gene transcript. among p mrna based clones the editing site variants gggc, gggg, gagc and ggggggc predicting a p protein, and the variants ggggc and gggggg predicting a v protein, were found. surprisingly, the three variants gggc, gggg and gagc w ...19958847510
rinderpest and other animal morbillivirus infections: comparative aspects and recent developments.the genus morbillivirus presently comprises measles virus of man, rinderpest virus (rpv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), and canine distemper virus (cdv). 'emerging' morbilliviruses, such as phocid distemper virus (pdv) of seals, dolphin (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) have probably been present for a long period of time and outbreaks are possibly related to introduction into a highly susceptible population and/or be the result of interspecies transmission. in this review some c ...19968885706
dendritic morphology of cardiac related medullary neurons defined by circuit-specific infection by a recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing beta-galactosidase.the transneuronal herpesvirus tracer, pseudorabies virus (prv) was used to determine the dendritic architecture of cardiac-related neurons. we constructed a derivative of the bartha strain of prv called prv-bablu, that carries the lacz gene of e. coli. expression of beta-galactosidase by this recombinant virus enabled us to define the dendritic morphology of motoneurons and interneurons that innervate the heart. beta-galactosidase antigen filled dendritic processes that were clearly revealed by ...19959222378
serological evidence of morbillivirus infection in small cetaceans from the southeast pacific.the presence of morbillivirus-specific serum antibodies was examined by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) and virus neutralization tests in serum samples from 30 dusky dolphins (lagenorhynchus obscurus), 8 long-snouted common dolphins (delphinus capensis), 2 inshore and 6 offshore bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and 20 burmeister's porpoises (phocoena spinipinnis) taken in fisheries off central peru in 1993-1995. the sera from six dusky dolphins, one common dolphin ...19989549850
monk seal mortality: virus or toxin?during the past few months, more than half of the total population of about 300 highly endangered mediterranean monk seals (monachus monachus) on the western saharan coast of africa, died in a mysterious disease outbreak. epizootiological and postmortem findings were reminiscent of similar outbreaks amongst pinniped and cetacean species in recent years, which were caused by an infection with newly discovered morbilliviruses (for review see osterhaus et al.). virological, as well as toxicological ...19989682347
morbillivirus infection in stranded common dolphins from the pacific ocean.from august 1995 to august 1997, six of 18 common dolphins (delphinus delphis) that stranded along beaches of southern california (usa) tested antibody positive for dolphin morbillivirus (dmv). titers ascertained by virus neutralization ranged from 1:50 to 1:910 while those determined by elisa ranged from 1:80 to 1:195. the first individual to strand survived and was released back into the pacific ocean 14 mo later. histopathologic examination of tissues from the other five dolphins did not reve ...19989813847
the distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide in gastric vagal circuit of rats.in the present study, we performed the retrograde tracing method using the neurotropic pseudorabies virus bartha strain (prv-ba) and immunohistochemistry against cgrp, to identify whether cgrp exists in the gastric monosynaptic vagal circuit between dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve (dmv) and nucleus tractus solitarius (nts). at the results, prv immunoreactive neurons were found in both dmv and nts. however, cgrp-immunoreactive cells were present only in nts, which contained no double-labeled ...19989818453
a morbillivirus antibody survey of atlantic walrus, narwhal and beluga in canada.a longitudinal serologic survey was conducted for morbillivirus antibodies in atlantic walruses (odobenus rosmarus rosmarus), narwhal (monodon monoceros), and beluga (delphinapterus leucas) from the northwest territories, nunavut and the st. lawrence estuary (canada). sixty-five of 131 (50%) walruses sampled between 1984 and 1993 had detectable morbillivirus neutralizing antibodies. positive walrus were identified from four of five arctic sampling sites, to as far back as 1984. prevalence of mor ...200010941737
molecular characterisation of an isolate of dasheen mosaic virus from zantedeschia aethiopica in china and comparisons in the genus potyvirus.the complete nucleotide sequence of an isolate of dasheen mosaic virus from zantedeschia aethiopica in zhejiang province, china, was determined. the 9991 nucleotide genome was typical of the genus potyvirus and phylogenetic analysis showed it to be a member of the bean common mosaic virus subgroup. the 3'-terminal sequence, including the coat protein region, was determined for three further isolates from china and japan. variations in the length and composition of the n-terminus of the coat prot ...200111699967
rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses exhibit neurovirulence in mice.members of the morbillivirus genus, canine distemper (cdv), phocine distemper virus (pdv), and the cetacean viruses of dolphins and porpoises exhibit high levels of cns infection in their natural hosts. cns complications are rare for measles virus (mv) and are not associated with rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection. however, it is possible that all morbilliviruses infect the cns but in some hosts are rapidly cleared by the immune response. in this study, ...200211847591
emerging morbillivirus infections of marine mammals: development of two diagnostic approaches.in the last 13 years, four viruses belonging in the morbillivirus genus of the paramyxoviridae family have emerged as significant causes of disease and mortality in marine mammals. the viruses involved are canine distemper virus (cdv) in seals and polar bears, dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) in cetaceans, and phocine distemper virus (pdv) in pinnipeds. the two cetacean morbilliviruses (dmv and pmv) are now considered to be the same viral species, named cetacean morbi ...200212381563
[the clone and comparison of very virulent plus marek's disease virus(vv+ dmv)648 strain glycoprotein e(ge) gene].the glycoprotein e(ge) gene of very virulent plus marek's disease (vv+ mdv) 648 strain was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and cloned into puc18 vector. the ge sequence was determined and analysed. the whole length of 648 strain ge gene is 1494 base pairs. the protein encoded by ge gene has several features characteristic of a membrane-associated glycoprotein. it contains eight potential glycosylation sites, a markedly hydrophobic region at the n terminus that could function as a si ...200112549019
sequence analysis of the phosphoprotein gene of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus: editing of the gene transcript.the gene encoding the phosphoprotein of the vaccine strain of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus (nigeria 75/1 vaccine strain) has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence been determined. this gene is 1655 nucleotides long and encodes two overlapping open reading frames (orfs). translation from the first aug would produce a polypeptide of 509 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 54.9 kda, the longest of the published morbillivirus p proteins. translation from the second aug ...200312951268
[on the biological characterization of mouse dermatomyositis virus (dmv virus)]. 196314078993
[latest acquisitions on the influence of prednisolone in infection due to the dmv virus]. 196514348530
viral susceptibility of newly established cell lines from the hawaiian monk seal monachus schauinslandi.ten of 11 cell lines, recently established from the snout (ms-sn), periorbital soft tissue (ms-ey), liver (ms-lv), kidney (ms-kd), lung (ms-lg), spleen (ms-sp), heart (ms-ht), thyroid (ms-ty), brain (ms-br) and urinary bladder (ms-ub) of a juvenile hawaiian monk seal monachus schauinslandi, were evaluated in vitro for their susceptibility to 5 mammalian viruses: herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), reovirus type 3 (reo-3), poliovirus type 1 (polio-1) and vaccini ...200314960030
antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in canada.antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [cav-2], feline herpesvirus [fhv], phocine herpesvirus [phv-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [dmv], phocine distemper virus [pdv], parainfluenza virus type 3 [pi3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [drv], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, borrelia burgdorferi and toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mam ...200415338705
cetacean morbilliviruses are phylogenetically divergent.we performed a phylogenetic comparison of porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) isolates from porpoises and dolphins respectively according to criteria adopted by the world health organization for the phylogenetic comparison of measles viruses. pmv and dmv were more divergent than the most distantly related measles virus strains, thus challenging the classification of pmv and dmv as two strains of a single species, cetacean morbillivirus.200415747165
full genome sequence of peste des petits ruminants virus, a member of the morbillivirus genus.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) causes an acute febrile illness in small ruminant species, mostly sheep and goats. pprv is a member of the morbillivirus genus which includes measles, rinderpest (cattle plague), canine distemper, phocine distemper and the morbilliviruses found in whales, porpoises and dolphins. full length genome sequences for these morbilliviruses are available and reverse genetic rescue systems have been developed for the viruses of terrestrial mammals, with the excepti ...200515845262
involvement of morbilliviruses in the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease.two members of the morbillivirus genus of the family paramyxoviridae, canine distemper virus (cdv) and measles virus (mv), are well-known for their ability to cause a chronic demyelinating disease of the cns in their natural hosts, dogs and humans, respectively. both viruses have been studied for their potential involvement in the neuropathogenesis of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (ms). recently, three new members of the morbillivirus genus, phocine distemper virus (pdv), po ...200717410634
identification and sequence analysis of potyviruses infecting crops in vietnam.fifty-two virus isolates from 13 distinct potyvirus species infecting crops in vietnam were identified and the 3' region of each genome was sequenced. the viruses were: bean common mosaic virus (bcmv), potato virus y (pvy), sugarcane mosaic virus (scmv), sorghum mosaic virus (srmv), chilli veinal mottle virus (chivmv), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (zymv), leek yellow stripe virus (lymv), shallot yellow stripe virus (sysv), onion yellow dwarf virus (oydv), turnip mosaic virus (tumv), dasheen mosa ...200817906829
mutation in murine coronavirus replication protein nsp4 alters assembly of double membrane vesicles.coronaviruses are positive-strand rna viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells by generating a membrane-associated replicase complex. the replicase complex assembles on double membrane vesicles (dmvs). here, we studied the role of a putative replicase anchor, nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4), in the assembly of murine coronavirus dmvs. we used reverse genetics to generate infectious clone viruses (icv) with an alanine substitution at nsp4 glycosylation site n176 or n237, or an asp ...200818295294
real-time rt-pcr assays for the rapid and differential detection of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses.real-time rt-pcr (rtrt-pcr) assays for identifying and differentiating infections caused by dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) were developed by targeting the hypervariable c-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid (n) gene. total dmv and pmv rna extracted from infected vero cells expressing the canine signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (slam) produced positive cycle threshold (c(t)) values after the 17th and 25th cycles, respectively. the assays were then validated u ...200919084557
massachusetts live vaccination protects against a novel infectious bronchitis virus s1 genotype dmv/5642/06.four infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) isolates were recovered from commercial broiler chicken flocks located on the delmarva peninsula (east coast of the united states) in the spring of 2006. sequence analysis of the s1 subunit of the spike glycoprotein gene showed the four isolates were highly related to each other (> or = 99.6% nucleotide identity; > or = 98.9% amino acid identity). basic local alignment search tool analysis indicated the highest s1 amino acid identity of isolate dmv/5642/06, ...200919432014
development of a short oligonucleotide microarray for the detection and identification of multiple potyviruses.the genus potyvirus is the largest and one of the most economically important virus genera infecting plants. however, current diagnostic techniques are limited in their ability to identify multiple potyvirus infections. an assay that can identify multiple potyviruses simultaneously, with good specificity and sensitivity, is therefore highly desirable. to determine the feasibility of simultaneous detection of multiple potyviruses a 25-mer oligonucleotide microarray was developed targeting four di ...200919654025
expression from baculovirus and serological reactivity of the nucleocapsid protein of dolphin morbillivirus.the nucleocapsid (n) protein of dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) was expressed from a baculovirus (autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus) vector and shown by sds-page and western blot analysis to be about 57 kda. transmission electron microscopy revealed fully assembled nucleocapsid-like particles (nlps) exhibiting the typical helical herringbone morphology. these nlps were approximately 20-22 nm in diameter and varied in length from 50 to 100 nm. purified dmv-n protein was used as antige ...201020005643
dynamics of coronavirus replication-transcription complexes.coronaviruses induce in infected cells the formation of double-membrane vesicles (dmvs) in which the replication-transcription complexes (rtcs) are anchored. to study the dynamics of these coronavirus replicative structures, we generated recombinant murine hepatitis coronaviruses that express tagged versions of the nonstructural protein nsp2. we demonstrated by using immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy that this protein is recruited to the dmv-anchored rtcs, for which its c terminu ...201020007278
coronaviruses hijack the lc3-i-positive edemosomes, er-derived vesicles exporting short-lived erad regulators, for replication.coronaviruses (cov), including sars and mouse hepatitis virus (mhv), are enveloped rna viruses that induce formation of double-membrane vesicles (dmvs) and target their replication and transcription complexes (rtcs) on the dmv-limiting membranes. the dmv biogenesis has been connected with the early secretory pathway. cov-induced dmvs, however, lack conventional endoplasmic reticulum (er) or golgi protein markers, leaving their membrane origins in question. we show that mhv co-opts the host cell ...201020542253
phylogenetic analysis of a new cetacean morbillivirus from a short-finned pilot whale stranded in the canary islands.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is considered the most pathogenic virus in cetaceans. three strains have been already described: the dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), the porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and the tentatively named pilot whale morbillivirus (pwmv). this study describes the molecular characterization of a strain of cemv detected in the brain of a short-finned pilot whale that had stranded in the eastern atlantic ocean around the canary islands and that showed lesions compatible with morbilliv ...201120576281
the nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of dasheen mosaic virus (caladium isolate) and expression of its coat protein in escherichia coli for antiserum production.a caladium isolate of dasheen mosaic virus (dsmv-ch) was cloned as cdna from genomic rna. the sequence of the 3'-terminal 3158 nucleotides, which consisted of the 3'-terminus of the nia gene, the nib gene, the coat protein (cp) gene, and a 246-nucleotide non-coding region, was between 57-68% similar at the nucleotide level and 72-82% similar at the amino acid level when compared with other potyviruses. phylogenetic analysis of aligned, selected potyviral cp sequences indicate that dsmv-ch is sim ...19989930202
genetic comparison among dolphin morbillivirus in the 1990-1992 and 2006-2008 mediterranean outbreaks.in 1990, dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) killed thousands of striped dolphins in the mediterranean. subsequently, the prevalence of the infection declined in this species. in 2006-2008, the virus killed not only numerous striped dolphins but also long-finned pilot whales. all partial sequences of the phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein genes obtained thus far from different host species during the 2006-2008 outbreak show 100% identity, suggesting that a single virus was involved, and these sequences ar ...201121888991
Post-epizootic chronic dolphin morbillivirus infection in Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba.Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused 2 epizootics with high mortality rates on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, in 1990 and 2006-07, mainly affecting striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba. Following the first epizootic unusual DMV infections affecting only the central nervous system of striped dolphins were found, with histological features similar to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and old dog encephalitis, the chronic latent localised infections caused by defective forms of measles viru ...201122132497
genomic characterization of pararetroviral sequences in wild dahlia spp. in natural habitats.the genome structure and organization of endogenous caulimovirus sequences from dahlia (dahlia spp), dahlia mosaic virus (dmv)-d10 from three wild species, d. coccinea (d10-dc), d. sherffii (d10-ds) and d. tenuicaulis (d10-dt), were determined and compared to those from cultivated species of dahlia, d. variabilis (dveprs). the complete ca. 7-kb dsdna genomes of d10-dc, d10-ds, and d10-dt had a structure and organization typical of a caulimovirus and shared 89.3 to 96.6% amino acid sequence ident ...201121837417
the dahlia mosaic virus gene vi product n-terminal region is involved in self-association.the genome of the floriculture pathogen dahlia mosaic caulimovirus (dmv) encodes six open reading frames. generally, caulimovirus gene vi products (p6s) are thought to be multifunctional proteins required for viral infection and it is likely that self-association is required for some of these functions. in this study, yeast two-hybrid and maltose binding protein (mbp) pull-down assays indicated that full-length dmv p6 specifically self-associates. further analyses indicated that only the dmv p6 ...201121571015
nucleotide sequence and genome organization of dweet mottle virus and its relationship to members of the family betaflexiviridae.the nucleotide sequence of dweet mottle virus (dmv) was determined and compared to sequences of members of the families alphaflexiviridae and betaflexiviridae. the dmv genome has 8,747 nucleotides (nt) excluding the 3' poly-(a) tail. dmv genomic rna contains three putative open reading frames (orfs) and untranslated regions of 73 nt at the 5' and 541 nt at 3' termini. orf1 potentially encoding a 227.48-kda polyprotein, which has methyltransferase, oxygenase, endopeptidase, helicase, and rna-depe ...201020644968
murine hepatitis virus nonstructural protein 4 regulates virus-induced membrane modifications and replication complex function.positive-strand rna viruses induce modifications of cytoplasmic membranes to form replication complexes. for coronaviruses, replicase nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4) has been proposed to function in the formation and organization of replication complexes. murine hepatitis virus (mhv) nsp4 is glycosylated at residues asn176 (n176) and n237 during plasmid expression of nsp4 in cells. to test if mhv nsp4 residues n176 and n237 are glycosylated during virus replication and to determine the effects of ...201019846526
morphogenesis of coronavirus hcov-nl63 in cell culture: a transmission electron microscopic study.nl63 (hcov-nl63) is a recently discovered human coronavirus that causes respiratory disease in infants and young children. nl63 productively infects llcmk2 cells and ciliated epithelial cells of human airway cell cultures. transmission electron microscopic (tem) studies of nl63 infected llcmk2 cells revealed that virions are spherical, spiked, and range from 75 to 115 nm in diameter. virus replication predominantly occurs on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rer), both perinuclear and cytoplasmic ...200819844604
sequence characterization of dasheen mosaic virus isolates from cocoyam in nicaragua.dasheen mosaic virus (dsmv) is an important constraint to production of cocoyam (xanthosoma spp.) in nicaragua. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the coat protein (cp) region from ten nicaraguan dsmv isolates. these isolates showed high nucleotide identity to dsmv isolates from the usa, eastern asia and australasia. all nicaraguan isolates except one shared a tandem repeat in the n-terminus of the cp. phylogenetic analyses showed that the nicaraguan isolates for ...200919034605
brainstem sites controlling the lower esophageal sphincter and crural diaphragm in the ferret: a neuroanatomical study.the lower esophageal sphincter (les) and the crural diaphragm (cd) surrounding the esophagogastric junction are key components of the gastroesophageal reflex mechanism, which engages the vago-vagal brainstem circuitry. although both components work in conjunction to prevent gastroesophageal reflux, little is known about the brain area(s) where this integration takes place. the aims of this study were to: (1) trace the brainstem circuitry associated with the cd and the les, and (2) determine poss ...200818986853
new insight into dolphin morbillivirus phylogeny and epidemiology in the northeast atlantic: opportunistic study in cetaceans stranded along the portuguese and galician coasts.screening atlantic cetacean populations for cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is essential to understand the epidemiology of the disease. in europe, portugal and spain have the highest cetacean stranding rates, mostly due to the vast extension of coastline. morbillivirus infection has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in cetaceans, especially in outbreaks reported in the mediterranean sea. however, scarce information is available regarding this disease in cetaceans from the north-eas ...201627566667
a simultaneous diagnosis and genotyping method for global surveillance of cetacean morbillivirus.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is considered one of the most important viral pathogens in cetaceans. cemv outbreaks of lethal disease have repeatedly been observed in europe, the americas, and australia, while large herds of gregarious species were found to be the likely reservoirs and sources of cemv infection to susceptible species in the atlantic and pacific oceans. furthermore, three new strains were detected recently in hawaii, brazil and australia. to clarify the real global distribution of ...201627484954
molecular analysis of dolphin morbillivirus: a new sensitive detection method based on nested rt-pcr.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) has been identified as the most pathogenic virus for cetaceans. over the past three decades, this rna virus has caused several outbreaks of lethal disease in odontocetes and mysticetes worldwide. isolation and identification of cemv rna is very challenging in whales because of the poor preservation status frequently shown by tissues from stranded animals. nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested rt-pcr) is used instead of conventional rt-pcr wh ...201627220282
diagnosis of cetacean morbillivirus: a sensitive one step real time rt fast-pcr method based on sybr(®) green.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) (family paramyxoviridae, genus morbillivirus) is considered the most pathogenic virus of cetaceans. it was first implicated in the bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) mass stranding episode along the northwestern atlantic coast in the late 1980s, and in several more recent worldwide epizootics in different odontoceti species. this study describes a new one step real-time reverse transcription fast polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-fast pcr) method based on ...201526454114
simultaneous diagnosis of cetacean morbillivirus infection in dolphins stranded in the spanish mediterranean sea in 2011 using a novel universal probe library (upl) rt-pcr assay.a highly sensitive and specific real-time (rt) rt-pcr assay has been developed for rapid, simultaneous detection of three strains of cetacean morbillivirus (cemv). in this assay, two pcr primers and a hydrolysis probe from a commercially available universal probe library (upl) are used to amplify a highly conserved region within the fusion protein gene. rt-pcr is carried out on the same sample using two primer sets in parallel: one set detects the more virulent strains, dolphin morbillivirus (dm ...201323380457
nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a member of a new and distinct caulimovirus species from dahlia.a distinct caulimovirus, associated with dahlia mosaic, was cloned and sequenced. the caulimovirus, tentatively designated as dahlia common mosaic virus (dcmv), had a double-stranded dna genome of ca. 8 kb. the genome organization of dcmv was found to be typical of members of the genus caulimovirus and consisted of six major open reading frames (orfs), orfs i-vi, and one minor orf, orf vii. sequence comparisons with the dna genomes of two known caulimoviruses isolated from dahlia, dahlia mosaic ...200818974923
the in vitro rna synthesizing activity of the isolated arterivirus replication/transcription complex is dependent on a host factor.the cytoplasmic replication of positive-stranded rna viruses is associated with characteristic, virus-induced membrane structures that are derived from host cell organelles. we used the prototype arterivirus, equine arteritis virus (eav), to gain insight into the structure and function of the replication/transcription complex (rtc) of nidoviruses. rtcs were isolated from eav-infected cells, and their activity was studied using a newly developed in vitro assay for viral rna synthesis, which repro ...200818411274
formation of the arterivirus replication/transcription complex: a key role for nonstructural protein 3 in the remodeling of intracellular membranes.the replication/transcription complex of the arterivirus equine arteritis virus (eav) is associated with paired membranes and/or double-membrane vesicles (dmvs) that are thought to originate from the endoplasmic reticulum. previously, coexpression of two putative transmembrane nonstructural proteins (nsp2 and nsp3) was found to suffice to induce these remarkable membrane structures, which are typical of arterivirus infection. here, site-directed mutagenesis was used to investigate the role of ns ...200818305048
molecular characterization and evolutionary analysis of soybean mosaic virus infecting pinellia ternata in china.twenty-nine pinellia ternata specimens were collected from representative areas in china, including the major production provinces of zhejiang, henan, shanxi, hunan, shandong and hubei. seven isolates related to soybean mosaic virus (smv), which could be pathogenic on p. ternata and some soybean [glycine max (l.) merr.] cultivars, were detected using double antibody sandwich immunosorbent assay (das-elisa) and rt-pcr amplification performed with degenerate primer of potyviruses. it is revealed t ...200818058013
white adipose tissue lacks significant vagal innervation and immunohistochemical evidence of parasympathetic innervation.converging evidence indicates that white adipose tissue (wat) is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system (sns) based on immunohistochemical labeling of a sns marker (tyrosine hydroxylase [th]), tract tracing of wat sympathetic postganglionic innervation, pseudorabies virus (prv) transneuronal labeling of wat sns outflow neurons, and functional evidence from denervation studies. recently, wat para-sns (psns) innervation was suggested because local surgical wat sympathectomy (sparing hypothes ...200616809481
vanilla mosaic virus isolates from french polynesia and the cook islands are dasheen mosaic virus strains that exclusively infect vanilla.sequence was determined for the coat protein (cp) gene and 3' non-translated region (3'ntr) of two vanilla mosaic virus (vanmv) isolates from vanilla tahitensis, respectively from the cook islands (vanmv-ci) and french polynesia (vanmv-fp). both viruses displayed distinctive features in the n-terminal region of their cps; for vanmv-ci, a 16-amino-acid deletion including the aphid transmission-related dag motif, and for vanmv-fp, a stretch of gtn repeats that putatively belongs to the class of na ...200616421638
further molecular characterisation of potyviruses infecting aroid plants for medicinal use in china.degenerate primers were used to detect and amplify 3'-terminal genome fragments of potyviruses from medicinal aroid plants growing at 16 sites in china. virus was detected in 7 samples of which six, all of pinellia ternata, contained a strain of soybean mosaic virus (smv) similar to that previously reported from this host in china. the complete sequence of one isolate and the p1 protein coding region of the other isolates were also sequenced. in all cases, the p1 proteins resembled isolates of d ...200515449140
[molecular identification of araceae-infecting viruses and their ecology].a filamentous virus and a spherical virus were detected from partial purification with natural-infected araceae plants. the filamentous virus was confirmed as dasheen mosaic virus (dsmv) by rna spot hybridization (rsh) and sequence determination, while the spherical virus was identified as a new strain of cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and sequence determination of the 3' end genes of rna3. cmv was firstly confirmed as one of the principal viruses infecting the ...200415334946
knockdown of neuropeptide y in the dorsomedial hypothalamus promotes hepatic insulin sensitivity in male rats.recent evidence has shown that alterations in dorsomedial hypothalamic (dmh) neuropeptide y (npy) signaling influence glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism through which dmh npy acts to affect glucose homeostasis remains unclear. here we report that dmh npy descending signals to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmv) modulate hepatic insulin sensitivity to control hepatic glucose production in rats. using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, we revealed that knockdown of npy in the dmh b ...201627805869
a virus related to soybean mosaic virus from pinellia ternata in china and its comparison with local soybean smv isolates.a potyvirus isolated from pinellia ternata in china was characterised and shown to be related to soybean mosaic virus (smv). the virus was pathogenic on p. ternata and some soybean cultivars, whereas the local soybean smv isolate hh5 did not infect p. ternata. western blot experiments demonstrated a serological relationship between the virus from pinellia, smv and watermelon mosaic virus (wmv). the complete nucleotide sequences of the pinellia virus (isolate p-1, 9735 nt) and of the chinese soyb ...200414745600
coronavirus replication complex formation utilizes components of cellular autophagy.the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (mhv) performs rna replication on double membrane vesicles (dmvs) in the cytoplasm of the host cell. however, the mechanism by which these dmvs form has not been determined. using genetic, biochemical, and cell imaging approaches, the role of autophagy in dmv formation and mhv replication was investigated. the results demonstrated that replication complexes co-localize with the autophagy proteins, microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 and apg12. mhv i ...200414699140
selective enhancement of synaptic inhibition by hypocretin (orexin) in rat vagal motor neurons: implications for autonomic regulation.the hypocretins (orexins) are hypothalamic neuropeptides implicated in feeding, arousal, and autonomic regulation. these studies were designed to determine the actions of hypocretin peptides on synaptic transmission in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (dmv). whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from dmv neurons in transverse slices of rat brainstem. some of the neurons were identified as gastric-related by retrograde labeling after inoculation of the stomach wall with pseudorab ...200312736355
zantedeschia mosaic virus causing leaf mosaic symptom in calla lily is a new potyvirus.anovel virus, zantedeschia mosaic virus (zamv-kr), causing mosaic and malformation symptoms was isolated from calla lily ( zantedeschia spp.) in korea and its biological and molecular properties were characterized. the virus was distinct from dasheen mosaic virus, an araceae-infecting potyvirus, by serological and sequence analyses. multiple alignments of the cp amino acid sequence between the virus and other potyviruses showed 51.8 to 62.1% identity. phylogenetic analyses of the cp revealed tha ...200212491097
characterization and application of a common epitope recognized by a broad-spectrum c4 monoclonal antibody against capsid proteins of plant potyviruses.a broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody (c4 mab) against the capsid proteins (cps) of plant potyviruses has been generated in previous studies. to clarify which epitope is recognized by this mab, epitope mapping was performed via phage display library screening and amino acid substitution analysis. subsequently, a 12-residue epitope in the core region of potyvirus cps was identified and termed the c4 epitope (wxmmdgxxqxxy/f). this epitope contains tryptophan and tyrosine residues that are crucial f ...201626541335
an insight into the epidemiology of dolphin morbillivirus worldwide.serum samples from 288 cetaceans representing 25 species and originating from 11 different countries were collected between 1995 and 1999 and examined for the presence of dolphin morbillivirus (dmv)-specific antibodies by an indirect elisa (ielisa) (n = 267) or a plaque reduction assay (n = 21). a total of 35 odontocetes were seropositive: three harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and a common dolphin (delphinus delphis) from the northeastern (ne) atlantic, a bottlenose dolphin (tursiops trunc ...200111390111
parasympathetic and sympathetic control of the pancreas: a role for the suprachiasmatic nucleus and other hypothalamic centers that are involved in the regulation of food intake.to reveal brain regions and transmitter systems involved in control of pancreatic hormone secretion, specific vagal and sympathetic denervation were combined with injection of a retrograde transsynaptic tracer, pseudorabies virus (prv), into the pancreas. after sympathetic or vagal transsection first-order neurons were revealed in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (dmv) or in preganglionic spinal cord neurons (spn), respectively. careful timing of the survival of the animals allowed the dete ...200111223811
rapid and sensitive detection of dasheen mosaic virus infecting elephant foot yam by reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification of coat protein gene.dasheen mosaic virus (dsmv), the pathogen causing mosaic disease of elephant foot yam (amorphophallus paeoniifoilius) is disseminated mainly through vegetative propagation of the tubers. for the rapid and sensitive detection of the virus, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rt-lamp) assay based on the coat protein gene has been developed. a final concentration of 5.4 mm magnesium sulphate and 0.7 m betaine in the reaction mixture was found to be optimum for getting ch ...201526096915
pseudorabies virus tracing of neural pathways between the uterine cervix and cns: effects of survival time, estrogen treatment, rhizotomy, and pelvic nerve transection.the transneuronal tracer, pseudorabies virus (prv), was used to identify pathways from the uterine cervix which may be involved in induction of analgesia and abbreviation of estrus by vaginocervical stimulation. in experiment i, prv immunoreactivity (prv-ir) in brain and spinal cord was examined 3-5 days after injection into the cervix of ovariectomized (ovx) female rats given estrogen (e) or control treatments. no differences in viral labeling were observed between ovx and ovx+e females at any ...200010713575
colocalization of gaba(a) and nmda receptors within the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (dmv) of the rat.changes in gastric motor activity are observed in response to glutamate and gaba in the dmv. we investigated the expression of gaba(a) and nmda receptors within dmv neurons projecting to the stomach using pseudorabies virus (prv). prv immunoreactive (prv-ir) cells expressing gaba(a) alpha1-ir, also expressed nmdar1 suggesting that nmda and gaba(a) receptors are colocalized. these results provide a neuroanatomical basis for these receptors jointly playing a role in gastric motor functions.19979272836
The transformation of enterovirus replication structures: a three-dimensional study of single- and double-membrane compartments.All positive-strand RNA viruses induce membrane structures in their host cells which are thought to serve as suitable microenvironments for viral RNA synthesis. The structures induced by enteroviruses, which are members of the family Picornaviridae, have so far been described as either single- or double-membrane vesicles (DMVs). Aside from the number of delimiting membranes, their exact architecture has also remained elusive due to the limitations of conventional electron microscopy. In this stu ...201121972238
genomic characterization of a novel picornavirus in pekin ducks.a novel picornavirus was detected from pekin ducks (anas platyrhynchos domestica) and completely sequenced. the virus was most closely related to megriviruses, with amino acid identities of 32-68%, 35-45%, 51-57%, 41-50%, and 61-63% in the p1, p2, p3, polyprotein, and 2c and 3cd regions, respectively. the virus was thus identified as an additional species in the genus megrivirus and named duck megrivirus (dmv). sequence analyses indicated that the dmv genome possessed a megrivirus-like organizat ...201424933161
Ultrastructural characterization of arterivirus replication structures: Reshaping the endoplasmic reticulum to accommodate viral RNA synthesis.Virus-induced membrane structures support the assembly and function of positive-stranded RNA virus replication complexes. The replicase proteins of arteriviruses are associated with double-membrane vesicles (DMVs), which were previously proposed to derive from endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Using electron tomography, we performed an in-depth ultrastructural analysis of cells infected with the prototypic arterivirus equine arteritis virus (EAV). We established that the outer membranes of EAV-induced ...201122190716
molecular characterization of dasheen mosaic virus isolates infecting edible aroids in india.dasheen mosaic virus (dsmv) infecting three major edible aroids namely amorphophallus paeoniifolius, colocasia esculenta, and xanthosoma sagittifolium cultivated in india was characterized. infected plants showing typical dsmv symptoms were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and an amplification of a 963 bp fragment which encoded the coat protein (cp) gene was obtained. blast analysis of the cloned dna amplicon revealed the identity of the virus to be that of dsmv. seq ...201424717027
detection and identification of dasheen mosaic virus infecting colocasia esculenta in india.reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of the infected leaf samples of colocasia esculenta plants showing severe whitish feathery symptoms were carried out using potyvirus group specific primers, resulting in an amplicon of 327 bp, encoding the core region of the coat protein gene. sequencing and blast analysis showed that the virus is distinct, closely related to dasheen mosaic virus (dsmv). sequence analysis revealed 86 and 96% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level respectiv ...201123637503
a strategy for generating a broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody and soluble single-chain variable fragments against plant potyviruses.potyviruses are major pathogens that often cause mixed infection in calla lilies. to reduce the time and cost of virus indexing, a detection method for the simultaneous targeting of multiple potyviruses was developed by generating a broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody (mab) for detecting the greatest possible number of potyviruses. the conserved 121-amino-acid core regions of the capsid proteins of dasheen mosaic potyvirus (dsmv), konjak mosaic potyvirus (komv), and zantedeschia mild mosaic potyv ...201526209665
characterization and comparative analysis of promoters from three plant pararetroviruses associated with dahlia (dahlia variabilis).two distinct caulimoviruses, dahlia mosaic virus (dmv) and dahlia common mosaic virus (dcmv), and an endogenous plant pararetroviral sequence (dveprs, formerly known as dmv-d10) were reported from dahlia (dahlia spp). promoter elements from these dahlia-associated pararetroviruses were identified and characterized. the tata box, the caat box, the transcription start site, the polyadenylation signal, and regulation factors, characteristic of caulimovirus promoters, were present in each of these p ...201525947569
taro (colocasia esculenta (l.) schott).genetic engineering of taro is an effective method to improve taro quality and the resistance to various diseases of taro. agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of taro is more efficient than the particle bombardment transformation method based on current research. the development of a regeneration system starting from taro shoot tip explants could produce dasheen mosaic virus (dsmv)-free plantlets. highly regenerative calluses could be developed from dsmv-free, in vitro plantlets on ...201525416252
simultaneous detection of tomato spotted wilt virus, dahlia mosaic virus and chrysanthemum stunt viroid by multiplex rt-pcr in dahlias and their distribution in japanese dahlias.tomato spotted wilt virus (tswv), dahlia mosaic virus (dmv) and chrysanthemum stunt viroid (csvd) are economically important viruses and viroid that infect cultivated dahlias. prior to this investigation, no multiplex rt-pcr assay for the detection of dahlia virus and viroid infections existed. in this study, we report the development of a multiplex rt-pcr that simultaneously detects tswv, dmv and csvd infections in dahlias. in addition, a simple rt-pcr method that does not require rna extractio ...201525976592
comparative analysis of endogenous plant pararetroviruses in cultivated and wild dahlia spp.two distinct caulimoviruses, dahlia mosaic virus (dmv) and dahlia common mosaic virus, and an endogenous plant pararetroviral sequence (dveprs) were reported in dahlia spp. dveprs, previously referred to as dmv-d10, was originally identified in the us from the cultivated dahlia variabilis, and has also been found in new zealand, lithuania and egypt, as well as in wild dahlia species growing in their natural habitats in mexico. sequence analysis of three new eprss from cultivated dahlias from lit ...201424353027
sars-coronavirus replication is supported by a reticulovesicular network of modified endoplasmic reticulum.positive-strand rna viruses, a large group including human pathogens such as sars-coronavirus (sars-cov), replicate in the cytoplasm of infected host cells. their replication complexes are commonly associated with modified host cell membranes. membrane structures supporting viral rna synthesis range from distinct spherular membrane invaginations to more elaborate webs of packed membranes and vesicles. generally, their ultrastructure, morphogenesis, and exact role in viral replication remain to b ...200818798692
dolphin morbillivirus in a cuvier's beaked whale (ziphius cavirostris), italy.dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) has caused several mortality events in mediterranean striped (stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose (tursiops truncatus) dolphins populations since 19; in the last 5 years, the virus was reported to infect new hosts in this basin, such as fin whales (balaenoptera physalus), sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus), and even a harbor seal (phoca vitulina). very recently, a calf cuvier's beaked whale (ziphius cavirostris) calf stranded on the southern italian coastline wit ...201728197145
genetic characterization of two novel megriviruses in geese.two goose megriviruses (w18 and hn56) were detected and sequenced. both viruses possessed megirivirs-like genomic features, including unusually long genomes (9840 and 10101 nt). w18 and hn56 were very similar to duck megrivirus (dmv) in the p2 and p3 regions, but much less similar in the p1 and 2a1 regions. hn56 may be a potential recombinant virus, with a distinct p1 region possibly originating from an unknown picornavirus. w18 may represent a novel type of dmv, showing a p1 sequence identity o ...201728141510
genomic and structural investigation on dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) in mediterranean fin whales (balaenoptera physalus).dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) has been deemed as one of the most relevant threats for fin whales (balaenoptera physalus) being responsible for a mortality outbreak in the mediterranean sea in the last years. knowledge of the complete viral genome is essential to understand any structural changes that could modify virus pathogenesis and viral tissue tropism. we report the complete dmv sequence of n, p/v/c, m, f and h genes identified from a fin whale and the comparison of primary to quaternary stru ...201728134317
saxitoxin increases phocine distemper virus replication upon in-vitro infection in harbor seal immune cells.several marine mammal epizootics have been closely linked to infectious diseases, as well as to the biotoxins produced by harmful algal blooms (habs). in two of three saxitoxin (stx) associated mortality events, dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) or phocine distemper virus (pdv) was isolated in affected individuals. while stx is notorious for its neurotoxicity, immunotoxic effects have also been described. this study investigated the role of stx in altering immune function, specifically t lymphocyte pr ...201628003064
antiviral innate immune response interferes with the formation of replication-associated membrane structures induced by a positive-strand rna virus.infection with nidoviruses like corona- and arteriviruses induces a reticulovesicular network of interconnected endoplasmic reticulum (er)-derived double-membrane vesicles (dmvs) and other membrane structures. this network is thought to accommodate the viral replication machinery and protect it from innate immune detection. we hypothesized that the innate immune response has tools to counteract the formation of these virus-induced replication organelles in order to inhibit virus replication. her ...201627923923
first complete genome sequence of vanilla mosaic strain of dasheen mosaic virus isolated from the cook islands.we present the first complete genome of vanilla mosaic virus (vanmv). the vanmv genomic structure is consistent with that of a potyvirus, containing a single open reading frame (orf) encoding a polyprotein of 3139 amino acids. motif analyses indicate the polyprotein can be cleaved into the expected ten individual proteins; other recognised potyvirus motifs are also present. as expected, the vanmv genome shows high sequence similarity to the published dasheen mosaic virus (dsmv) genome sequences; ...201727812834
efficacy of recombinant hvt-ibd vaccines administered to broiler chicks from a single breeder flock at 30 and 60 weeks of age.the efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rhvt-ibd) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an ibdv-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (trial 1) and 60 wk of age (trial 2). in parallel, specific-pathogen-free (spf) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (mda) associated with the broiler chickens. broilers and spf leghorns were vac ...201627610719
overexpression of at2r in the solitary-vagal complex improves baroreflex in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.the aim of this study was to investigate the physiological effects of increased angiotensin ii type 2 receptor (at2r) expression in the solitary-vagal complex (nucleus of the solitary tract/dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus; nts/dvm) on baroreflex function in non-anaesthetised normotensive (nt) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (shr). ten week old nt holtzman and shr were microinjected with either an adeno-associated virus expressing at2r (aav2-cba-at2r) or enhanced green fluorescent protein ( ...201627469059
ultrastructural characterization of membranous torovirus replication factories.plus-stranded rna viruses replicate in the cytosol of infected cells, in membrane-bound replication complexes containing the replicase proteins, the viral rna and host proteins. the formation of the replication and transcription complexes (rtcs) through the rearrangement of cellular membranes is currently being actively studied for viruses belonging to different viral families. in this work, we identified double-membrane vesicles (dmvs) in the cytoplasm of cells infected with the equine toroviru ...201627218226
biogenesis and architecture of arterivirus replication organelles.all eukaryotic positive-stranded rna (+rna) viruses appropriate host cell membranes and transform them into replication organelles, specialized micro-environments that are thought to support viral rna synthesis. arteriviruses (order nidovirales) belong to the subset of +rna viruses that induce double-membrane vesicles (dmvs), similar to the structures induced by e.g. coronaviruses, picornaviruses and hepatitis c virus. in the last years, electron tomography has revealed substantial differences b ...201627071852
distribution and characterisation of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor expressing cells in the mouse brain.although glucagon-like peptide 1 is a key regulator of energy metabolism and food intake, the precise location of glp-1 receptors and the physiological relevance of certain populations is debatable. this study investigated the novel glp-1r-cre mouse as a functional tool to address this question.201526500843
ns5a domain 1 and polyprotein cleavage kinetics are critical for induction of double-membrane vesicles associated with hepatitis c virus replication.induction of membrane rearrangements in the cytoplasm of infected cells is a hallmark of positive-strand rna viruses. these altered membranes serve as scaffolds for the assembly of viral replication factories (rfs). we have recently shown that hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection induces endoplasmic reticulum-derived double-membrane vesicles (dmvs) representing the major constituent of the rf within the infected cell. rf formation requires the concerted action of nonstructural action of nonstructur ...201526152585
melanocortin-4 receptor expression in autonomic circuitry involved in gastric function.several studies have shown that cns provides the regulation of gastric functions. recent evidence indicated that the activation of melanocortin 4 receptors (mc4r) in brain nuclei played an important role in modulating gastric activity. this study was designed to assess whether mc4r signaling existed in autonomic circuitry modulated the activity of stomach by a virally mediated transsynaptic tracing study. pseudorabies virus (prv)-614 was injected into the ventral stomach wall in adult male mc4r- ...201526064324
cyclophilin and ns5a inhibitors, but not other anti-hepatitis c virus (hcv) agents, preclude hcv-mediated formation of double-membrane-vesicle viral factories.although the mechanisms of action (moa) of nonstructural protein 3 inhibitors (ns3i) and ns5b inhibitors (ns5bi) are well understood, the moa of cyclophilin inhibitors (cypi) and ns5a inhibitors (ns5ai) are not fully defined. in this study, we examined whether cypi and ns5ai interfere with hepatitis c virus (hcv) rna synthesis of replication complexes (rcs) or with an earlier step of hcv rna replication, the creation of double-membrane vesicles (dmvs) essential for hcv rna replication. in contra ...201525666154
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