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human rabies--montana and washington, 1997.on january 5 and january 18, 1997, respectively, a man in montana and a man in washington died of neurologic illnesses initially suspected to be creutzfeldt-jakob disease (cjd) but diagnosed as rabies encephalitis during subsequent histologic examination on autopsy. the cases were not linked epidemiologically, and no secondary cases occurred. postexposure prophylaxis (pep) was administered to 113 potential contacts. this report summarizes the clinical presentations of the cases and the epidemiol ...19979272584
the columnar region of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus in the big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus): synaptic arrangements and structural correlates of feedforward inhibitory function.neurons of the columnar region of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus of eptesicus fuscus respond with high-precision constant-latency responses to sound onsets and possess remarkably broad tuning. to study the synaptic basis for this specialized monaural auditory processing and to elucidate the excitatory or inhibitory nature of the input and output circuitry, we have used classical transmission electron microscopy, and postembedding immunocytochemistry for gamma aminobutyric acid (gab ...19979211825
six new eimeria species from vespertilionid bats of north america.twenty species of bats (molossidae, vespertilionidae) were collected from california, new mexico, oregon, south carolina, utah, and baja california norte (mexico), and 29 of 404 (7%) animals, including antrozous pallidus, eptesicus fuscus, myotis auriculus, myotis californicus, myotis ciliolabrum, myotis evotis, myotis lucifugus, myotis thysanodes, myotis vivesi, myotis volans, myotis yumanensis, and nycticeius humeralis were infected with eimeria spp., which represent 6 new species. sporulated ...199910386443
sound source elevation and external ear cues influence the discrimination of spectral notches by the big brown bat, eptesicus fuscus.measurements of external ear transfer functions in the echolocating bat eptesicus fuscus have revealed a prominent spectral notch that decreases in center frequency (50 to 30-35 khz) as elevation decreases [wotton et al., j. acoust. soc. am. 98, 1423-1445 (1995)]. to examine the influence of this notch, four eptesicus were trained to discriminate between two sets of electronically generated artificial echoes. the negative (unrewarded) stimulus contained a test spectral notch at a specific freque ...19968817902
capillary-fiber geometry in pectoralis muscles of one of the smallest bats.we previously reported striking similarities in the structural capacity for o2 flux in the highly aerobic flight muscles of a hummingbird and bat despite their significant differences in capillary-fiber geometry and number, and fiber size. however, the bats of that study (eptesicus fuscus, bw 15-16 g) were about 5 times larger than the hummingbirds (selasphorus rufus; bw 3-4 g). in this study, we examined the flight muscle in a bat of approximately the same size as the hummingbird to determine w ...19948191038
the epidemiology of bat rabies in new york state, 1988-92.in 1993 new york and texas each reported a human rabies case traced to a rare variant of rabies virus found in an uncommon species of bat. this study examined the epidemiology of bat rabies in new york state. demographic, species, and animal-contact information for bats submitted for rabies testing from 1988-92 was analysed. the prevalence of rabies in 6810 bats was 4.6%. nearly 90% of the 308 rabid bats identified to species were the common big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus), which comprised 62% ...19947995360
differential in rectal and chest muscle temperature during arousal in eptesicus fuscus and myotis sodalis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae). 19744156236
[histoplasma capsulatum: isolation from bats in cuba].a mycologic-serologic study of 169 bats of species artibeus jamaicensis parvipos, brachyphyllanana, eptesicus fuscus dutertreus, tadarida brasiliensis muscula and mormoops blainvillei which were catched in a cave of havana province is presented. histoplasma capsulatum were isolated from the lungs, liver and spleen, in four out of the five species studied. all species were serologically negative.1976802802
prolonged incubation period of rabies in a naturally infected insectivorous bat, eptesicus fuscus (beauvois). 19705424435
major antigenic groups of rabies virus in canada determined by anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies.a total of 123 rabies virus isolates from various geographical areas in canada were characterized by a panel of 43 anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. four major antigenic groups are found in terrestrial mammals: "canadian arctic" from ontario, quebec and the northwest territories; "south-eastern georgian bay" from ontario; "south mid-central skunk" from alberta, saskatchewan and manitoba; and "brook's, alberta skunk" from a restricted area in alberta. bat isolates can be divided into 4 maj ...19863769442
rabies in insectivorous bats of western canada, 1979 to 1983.a total of 1,745, 362, and 536 bats collected in alberta, british columbia, and saskatchewan, respectively, was tested for rabies virus between 1979 and 1983. only one (0.1%) of 769 bats collected at random from buildings was infected with rabies virus in contrast to 95 (5%) of 1,874 symptomatic, rabies-suspect bats submitted for testing. the pattern of infection in the rabies-suspect bats was similar in alberta and saskatchewan, but differed in british columbia. rabies was diagnosed in four spe ...19863735577
calcium-binding protein-containing neuronal populations in mammalian visual cortex: a comparative study in whales, insectivores, bats, rodents, and primates.this study is focused on comparative analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid-positive (gabaergic) neuronal populations in primary visual cortex of totally aquatic toothed whales and select terrestrial mammals with different evolutionary histories and various ecological adaptations. the distribution of neuronal populations containing the calcium-binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin, which are recognized markers for the gabaergic neurons in cerebral cortex, is compared in five species of toothed ...19938324371
studies of arthropod-borne virus infections in chiroptera. iv. the immune response of the big brown bat (eptesicus f. fuscus) maintained at various environmental temperatures to experimental japanese b encephalitis virus infection. 19664287168
eimeria from bats of the world. ii. a new species in tadarida femorosacca from sonora, mexico.between 1979 and 1980, 104 bats representing 13 species in 4 families were collected in california and new mexico, u.s.a., and baja california and sonora, mexico, and were examined for coccidia; only 3 (3%) had oocysts in their feces. bats examined and their infection rates were: molossidae: 0 of 12 tadarida brasiliensis, 1 of 18 (6%) t. femorosacca; natalidae: 0 of 1 natalus stramineus; phyllostomatidae: 0 of 1 choeronycteris mexicana, 0 of 2 leptonycteris sanborni, 0 of 1 macrotus californicus ...19883357122
experimentally induced rabies in four cats inoculated with a rabies virus isolated from a bat.four cats were inoculated im with rabies virus isolated from the salivary gland of a naturally infected big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus). the 4 cats developed clinical signs of rabies after a median incubation period of 42 days. the median duration of clinical illness was 5 days. results of fluorescent antibody evaluation, mouse inoculation, and tissue culture isolation indicated large differences in virus concentrations in various areas of the cns of individual cats. these differences also were ...19863516030
anesthesia and blood sampling of wild big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) with an assessment of impacts on survival.we anesthetized and blood sampled wild big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) in fort collins, colorado (usa) in 2001 and 2002 and assessed effects on survival. inhalant anesthesia was delivered into a specially designed restraint and inhalation capsule that minimized handling and bite exposures. bats were immobilized an average of 9.1+/-5.1 (sd) min (range 1-71, n=876); blood sample volumes averaged 58+/-12 microl (range 13-126, n=718). we randomly selected control (subject to multiple procedures be ...200515827214
apneic oxygen uptake in the torpid pocket mouse perognathus parvus.the apneas of many torpid mammals can persist longer than estimated o2 stores allow. this suggests that some o2 is acquired during these apneas by either cutaneous uptake or by a nonventilatory flux down an open airway (tracheal flux). previous experiments confirmed apneic o2 uptake in the bat eptesicus fuscus with the conclusion that the uptake most likely occurred by tracheal flux. however, the bat's large cutaneous wing area remained a potential source of cutaneous o2 uptake, leaving uncertai ...19989798250
antigenic and genetic divergence of rabies viruses from bat species indigenous to canada.antigenic characterisation of over 350 chiropteran rabies viruses of the americas, especially from species reported rabid in canada, distinguished 13 viral types. in close accord with this classification, nucleotide sequencing of representative isolates, at both the n and g loci, identified four principal phylogenetic groups (i-iv), sub-groups of which circulated in particular bat species. amongst the north american bat viruses, there was a notable division between group i specimens associated w ...200111226582
pathogenesis of rabies virus from a danish bat (eptesicus serotinus): neuronal changes suggestive of spongiosis.rabies virus strains isolated from a european bat (eptesicus serotinus) in denmark (dbv), a north american big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) in new york state (ny-bat), and a human in south africa (duvenhage strain (duv-1) were studied by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and by inoculating mice, cats, and dogs. the ten danish virus isolates from the same bat species reacted identically with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. immunofluorescence, monoclonal antibody, and histopathologic studie ...19883369944
bat rabies in canada 1963-1967.six hundred and twenty-eight insectivorous bats originating from seven provinces were submitted to this institute for rabies diagnosis between august 1, 1963 and december 31, 1967. brain tissue was examined by the fluorescent antibody technique and the mouse infectivity test was carried out with brain, salivary gland, interscapular adipose tissue and kidney samples. rabies virus was detected in 44 bats, 29 of which were from ontario, 12 from british columbia and three from manitoba. most of the ...19694242773
food chain aspects of chlordane poisoning in birds and bats.we have observed recurring chlordane poisonings of large numbers of common grackles (quiscalus quiscula), european starlings (sturnus vulgaris), and american robins (turdus migratorius) at suburban roosts in new jersey during the month of july. this paper describes aspects of the food chain uptake of chlordane that account for the periodicity of these poisonings. chlordane concentrations ranged from < 0.02 to 20.3 microg/g wet weight in 11 soil samples collected from residential lawns and a golf ...200111243332
genetic divergence of rabies viruses from bat species of colorado, usa.molecular epidemiological studies have linked many cryptic human rabies cases in the united states with exposure to rabies virus (rv) variants associated with insectivorous bats. in colorado, bats accounted for 98% of all reported animal rabies cases between 1977 and 1996. the genetic divergence of rv was investigated in bat and terrestrial animal specimens that were submitted for rabies diagnosis to the colorado department of public health and environment (cdphe), colorado, usa. rv isolates fro ...200516417429
echolocating bats use a nearly time-optimal strategy to intercept prey.acquisition of food in many animal species depends on the pursuit and capture of moving prey. among modern humans, the pursuit and interception of moving targets plays a central role in a variety of sports, such as tennis, football, frisbee, and baseball. studies of target pursuit in animals, ranging from dragonflies to fish and dogs to humans, have suggested that they all use a constant bearing (cb) strategy to pursue prey or other moving targets. cb is best known as the interception strategy e ...200616605303
bat ectoparasites from the trans-pecos region of texas, including notes from big bend national park.ectoparasites of 13 species of molossid, mormoopid, and vespertilionid bats from the trans-pecos region of texas were studied, as follows: antrozous pallidus (leconte), corynorhinus townsendii (cooper), eptesicus fuscus (palisot de beauvois), lasiurus cinereus (palisot de beauvois), mormoops megalophylla (peters), myotis thysanodes g. s. miller, myotis velifer (j. a. allen), myotis volans (h. allen), myotis yumanensis (h. allen), nyctinomops femorosaccus (merriam), nyctinomops macrotis (gray), p ...200111372965
prevalence of rabies in bats in michigan, 1981-1993.to analyze the species distribution of animals submitted to the michigan department of public health (mdph) for rabies testing during 1993. to determine whether any of the 9 species of bats residing in michigan carries a disproportionate rabies burden, and to determine whether bats contributed the most cases of confirmed rabies during 1981 through 1992.19979018352
experimental and natural infection of north american bats with west nile virus.big brown (eptesicus fuscus) and mexican free-tailed (tadarida brasiliensis) bats were inoculated with the new york 99 strain of west nile virus to assess their potential to serve as amplifying hosts and determine the clinical effect of infection. groups of three or four bats were bled at daily intervals between 1 and 6 days after inoculation to determine the pattern of viremia. beginning 2 days after inoculation, virus was isolated each day from one or more e. fuscus bats, in titers ranging fro ...200516103624
neorickettsia risticii is vertically transmitted in the trematode acanthatrium oregonense and horizontally transmitted to bats.potomac horse fever is known to be transmitted through the ingestion of caddisflies parasitized with neorickettsia (formerly ehrlichia) risticii-infected metacercaria. however, the species of trematode involved and how n. risticii is maintained in nature are unknown. in this study, gravid trematodes were recovered from the intestines of 12 out of 15 eptesicus fuscus big brown bats and eight out of nine myotis lucifugus little brown bats from various sites in pennsylvania, usa. trematode specimen ...200515658987
reservoir of st. louis encephalitis virus in ohio bats.inoculation of the big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) with a small dose of a st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus strain isolated in ohio indicated that the big brown bat was susceptible to infection. the virus was maintained in the bats through hibernation (70 days), and the bats developed a viremia within 4 days of arousal from hibernation (105 days after inoculation). a field survey of 390 big brown bats and little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) conducted in 5 regions of ohio during 1979 to 1981 r ...19836638648
exposure of hooded capuchin monkeys (cebus apella cay) to a rabid bat at a zoological park.on 27 may 1999, a big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) was discovered on an island exhibit at the denver zoo that contained a troop of 15 hooded capuchin monkeys (cebus apella cay). the monkeys were attacking the bat when it was discovered. the bat was collected and humanely euthanatized without direct handling and submitted to the colorado department of public health and environment virology laboratory for rabies evaluation. the monkeys had not been vaccinated against rabies virus. the next day, th ...200112790408
molecular evolution of leptin.leptin, a hormone produced mainly by adipocytes, is involved in the regulation of food intake, metabolism, and reproduction. the objective of this study was to determine the evolutionary relationships of leptin genes. partial nucleotide sequences of leptin were cloned and sequenced from six mammalian species: large hairy armadillo (chaetophractus villosus), rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) [corrected], striped skunk (mephitis mephitis), raccoon (procyon lotor), an ...200111703084
effect of pseudorabies virus (aujeszky strain) in the large brown bat (eptesicus fuscus). 195313050899
ectoparasite associations of bats from central pennsylvania.between april and october 1997, 689 bats representing seven species were captured at pennsylvania's canoe creek state park. each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and four species were collected from 13.2% of the host individuals. ectoparasites include the bat flea myodopsylla insignis (rothschild), the wing mite spinturnix americanus (banks), the bed bug cimex adjunctus barber, and the soft tick ornithodoros kelleyi cooley & kohls. prevalence, relative density, and mean intensity we ...200314765658
west nile virus antibodies in bats from new jersey and new york.eighty-three serum samples were obtained from big brown (eptesicus fuscus), little brown (myotis lucifugus), and northern long-eared (myotis septentriotalis) bats (chiroptera: vespertilionidae), from new jersey and new york (usa) between july and october 2002. samples were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies to west nile virus (wnv) and st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus. one little brown bat and one northern long-eared bat tested positive for wnv neutralizing antibodies. no bats had antibodies ...200415362837
rabies in a captive colony of big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus).our research has focused on the ecology of commensal populations of big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) in fort collins, colorado (usa), in relation to rabies virus (rv) transmission. we captured 35 big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) in late summer 2001 and held them captive for 4.8 mo. the bats were initially placed in an indoor cage for 1 mo then segregated into groups of two to six per cage. two of the bats succumbed to rabies virus (rv) within the first month of capture. despite group housing, ...200415465706
bat rabies in illinois: 1965 to 1986.from 1968 to 1986, illinois (usa) citizens and agencies submitted 4,272 bats to the illinois department of public health for rabies testing. of this number, 6% tested positive, a rate comparable to similar studies from other parts of north america. due to sampling biases, the true infection rate among bats in illinois is probably lower than 6%. additional analysis relied on a subsample (n = 2,433) of the specimens collected from 1965 to 1986. prevalences were significantly different among years, ...19892915390
comparative analysis of expression and secretion of placental leptin in mammals.increased plasma level of leptin appears to be a ubiquitous feature of pregnant mammals. the mechanisms by which leptin levels are increased may be species specific, however, with some species upregulating adipose leptin production and others expressing leptin in the placenta. placental leptin expression was examined in representative species of the two most abundant mammalian orders, rodentia and chiroptera, and in cultured human choriocarcinoma (bewo) cells. leptin mrna was expressed in bewo c ...200312702488
immunocytochemical localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lhrh) in the nervus terminalis and brain of the big brown bat, eptesicus fuscus.little is known about the immunohistochemistry of the nervous system in bats. this is particularly true of the nervus terminalis, which exerts strong influence on the reproductive system during ontogeny and in the adult. luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (lhrh) was visualized immunocytochemically in the nervus terminalis and brain of juvenile and adult big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus). the peripheral lhrh-immunoreactive (ir) cells and fibers (nervus terminalis) are dispersed along the basal ...19921740548
ectoparasitic mites (acari) of sympatric brazilian free-tailed bats and big brown bats in alabama.seven species of mites were recovered from 133 brazilian free-tailed bats, tadarida brasiliensis, and 94 big brown bats, eptesicus fuscus, from february through november 1990 in colonies that shared roosting space in east-central alabama. the macronyssid chiroptonyssus robustipes (ewing) was the most common mite on t. brasiliensis (964 mites, 87% of bats infested) and on e. fuscus (109 mites, 29% of bats infested). however, c. rubustipes normally is a specific parasite of t. brasiliensis. the ma ...19921625301
rabid bat diagnosed in hawaii.since 1966, the hawaii state government has been conducting fluorescent rabies antibody (fra) testing on animal brains as part of a statewide rabies-surveillance program. on april 3, 1991, the department of health (doh) laboratory diagnosed the first case of rabies detected in the state. a large brown bat, eptesicus fuscus fuscus, captured in a transport container that had just been off-loaded from a ship at honolulu harbor, was caught. it's brain was examined and showed typical fluorescent stai ...19921517074
viability of the lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in the bat (eptesicus fuscus). 195214949015
sodium pentobarbital induced alterations in regional distribution of blood in peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) and eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat). 1977606346
electrical response of bat retina to spectral stimulation: comparison of four microhiropteran species.electrical responses of the retinas of 4 species of microchiropteran bats stimulated by spectrally restricted light flashes were found to diverge systematically from the rhodopsin absorption spectrum. the divergence was progressively greater across the 4 species. the results appeared explainable by assuming a second photoreceptor class and photopigment which was present in progressively greater numbers in the retinas of eptesicus fuscus, desmodus rotundus, artibeus jamaicensis and carollia persp ...1979488274
tonotopic and functional organization in the auditory cortex of the big brown bat, eptesicus fuscus.1. in eptesicus the auditory cortex, as defined by electrical activity recorded from microelectrodes in response to tone bursts, fm sweeps, and combinations of fm sweeps, encompasses an average cortical surface area of 5.7 mm2. this area is large with respect to the total cortical surface area and reflects the importance of auditory processing to this species of bat. 2. the predominant pattern of organization in response to tone bursts observed in each cortex is tonotopic, with three discernible ...19938294966
detection of polyoma and corona viruses in bats of canada.several instances of emerging diseases in humans appear to be caused by the spillover of viruses endemic to bats, either directly or through other animal intermediaries. the objective of this study was to detect, identify and characterize viruses in bats in the province of manitoba and other regions of canada. bats were sampled from three sources: live-trapped myotis lucifugus from manitoba, rabies-negative eptesicus fuscus, m. lucifugus, m. yumanensis, m. septentrionalis, m. californicus, m. ev ...200919357225
corticofugal feedback for auditory midbrain plasticity elicited by tones and electrical stimulation of basal forebrain in mice.the auditory cortex (ac) is the major origin of descending auditory projections and is one of the targets of the cholinergic basal forebrain, nucleus basalis (nb). in the big brown bat, cortical activation evokes frequency-specific plasticity in the inferior colliculus and the nb augments this collicular plasticity. to examine whether cortical descending function and nb contributions to collicular plasticity are different between the bat and mouse and to extend the findings in the bat, we induce ...200516115210
use of artificial roost structures by bats at the indianapolis international airport.from 1992-1996, 3204 artificial roosts of 9 types were placed in woodlots near indianapolis international airport in an effort to provide habitat for the federally-endangered indiana myotis (myotis sodalis) and to determine the feasibility of using these structures to manage bats in a rapidly developing suburban area. we surveyed these structures at least annually during 1992-1999 and found only northern myotis (myotis septentrionalis) regularly using the structures. four other species were occa ...200616622759
a survey for west nile virus in bats from illinois.a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test 97 serum samples from big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) captured in six counties in illinois between may 2002 and february 2004 for west nile virus (wnv) antibodies. one female big brown bat tested positive for wnv antibodies. samples of kidney, liver, and heart tissue were collected from 312 bats of seven species that were submitted to the illinois (usa) department of public health or the illinois department of agriculture diagnostic ...200616870875
experimental infection of big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) with eurasian bat lyssaviruses aravan, khujand, and irkut virus.here we describe the results of experimental infections of captive big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) with three newly isolated bat lyssaviruses from eurasia (aravan, khujand, and irkut viruses). infection of e. fuscus was moderate (total, 55-75%). there was no evidence of transmission to in-contact cage mates. incubation periods for irkut virus infection were significantly shorter (p < 0.05) than for either aravan or khujand virus infections. in turn, quantification of viral rna by taqman pcr su ...200616705370
nigrotectal projection to the inferior colliculus: horseradish peroxidase transport and tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemical studies in rats, cats, and bats.the present study investigated descending projections from the substantia nigra to the auditory tectum. small (0.02-0.05 microliters) injections of a 30-60% aqueous solution of horseradish peroxidase (hrp) were made unilaterally into the inferior colliculus in rats, cats, and bats (eptesicus fuscus). tissue blocks including the substantia nigra, superior colliculus, and inferior colliculus were removed, sectioned, and processed for visualization of hrp. results show that the substantia nigra, pa ...19892565350
rabies in bats from alabama.data on rabies virus infection in bats that were submitted to the alabama department of public health from 1995-2005 were analyzed. demographic factors, such as species and sex, and temporal aspects, such as yearly and monthly trends, were investigated. thirteen species of bats were submitted, and of those, individuals from seven species were rabid; prevalence was highest in lasiurus borealis and pipistrellus subflavus and lowest in eptesicus fuscus and nycticeius humeralis. there was no differe ...200717495316
ectoparasites in an urban population of big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) in colorado.ectoparasites of an urban population of big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) in fort collins, colorado, were investigated during summers 2002, 2003, and 2004. eleven species of ectoparasites were found (the macronyssid mite steatonyssus occidentalis, the wing mite spinturnix bakeri, the myobiid mites acanthophthirius caudata and pteracarus aculeus, the chirodiscid mite alabidocarpus eptesicus, the demodicid mite demodex sp., the chigger leptotrombidium myotis, the soft tick carios kelleyi, the batf ...200717626343
bat rabies in ontario.rabies has been diagnosed for the first time in the bat population of ontario. in the course of a study involving 72 bats from 24 counties of the province, five big brown bats (e. fuscus) were found to be infected with rabies through the mouse inoculation test. at the present time, it does not look as if bats have been connected with the epizootic of sylvatic rabies in ontario.la rage est apparue pour la première fois chez les chauves-souris en ontario. au cours d'une étude qui a porté sur 72 de ...196417649490
serologic survey of eptesicus fuscus from georgia, u.s.a. for rickettsia and borrelia and laboratory transmission of a rickettsia by bat ticks.bats and their ectoparasites are associated with bacterial agents of unknown pathogenicity. we tested sera from 56 eptesicus fuscus from georgia against borrelia hermsii, orientia tsutsugamushi, rickettsia conorii, and rickettsia rickettsii. we detected antibodies reactive against a relapsing fever borrelia and spotted fever group rickettsia in 3/56 and 1/56 bats, respectively. we attempted to culture bartonella from the blood of these bats but were unsuccessful. in addition, we fed bat ticks, c ...200617249357
evolutionary timescale of rabies virus adaptation to north american bats inferred from the substitution rate of the nucleoprotein gene.throughout north america, rabies virus (rv) is endemic in bats. distinct rv variants exist that are closely associated with infection of individual host species, such that there is little or no sustained spillover infection away from the primary host. using bayesian methodology, nucleotide substitution rates were estimated from alignments of partial nucleoprotein (n) gene sequences of nine distinct bat rv variants from north america. substitution rates ranged from 2.32 x 10(-4) to 1.38 x 10(-3) ...200515831959
bat rabies in british columbia 1971-1985.rabies virus was demonstrated in 99 of 1154 bats submitted from british columbia between 1971 and 1985. rabies was diagnosed in seven species including big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus), the latter accounting for 51% of all positive cases. colonial species represented 92.9% of all identified bats and 87.7% of all rabid cases. most bats were submitted from the more densely populated areas of the province, and submissions and positive cases both peaked in the month of august. daytime activity and ...198817422945
transmission of a strain of rabies virus to the large brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) and to the cave bat (myotis lucifugus). 195114849156
host immunity to repeated rabies virus infection in big brown bats.bats are natural reservoirs for the majority of lyssaviruses globally, and are unique among mammals in having exceptional sociality and longevity. given these facets, and the recognized status of bats as reservoirs for rabies viruses (rabvs) in the americas, individual bats may experience repeated exposure to rabv during their lifetime. nevertheless, little information exists with regard to within-host infection dynamics and the role of immunological memory that may result from abortive rabv inf ...201020519458
organization of the primary somatosensory cortex and wing representation in the big brown bat, eptesicus fuscus.bats are the only mammals capable of true powered flight. the bat wing exhibits specializations, allowing these animals to perform complicated flight maneuvers like landing upside-down, and hovering. the wing membrane contains various tactile receptors, including hair-associated merkel receptors that might be involved in stabilizing bat flight. here, we studied the neuronal representation of the wing membrane in the primary somatosensory cortex (s1) of the anesthetized big brown bat, eptesicus f ...201020878405
metagenomic analysis of the viromes of three north american bat species: viral diversity among different bat species that share a common habitat.effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. the importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including ebola, marburg, nipah, hendra, and rabies viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (sars-cov), has been established; however, the large viral population diversity ( ...201020926577
a need for standardized rabies-virus diagnostic procedures: effect of cover-glass mountant on the reliability of antigen detection by the fluorescent antibody test.the direct fluorescent antibody test is a sensitive and specific procedure used in the routine diagnosis of rabies. however, given the critical role of the rabies diagnostic laboratory in patient management and public health decision-making, the use of a standardized national rabies diagnostic procedure is highly recommended. seemingly small variations in test procedures may have dramatic effects on sensitivity. for example, two independent reports of diminished staining performance of two lots ...200515896406
host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance.rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). as such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including sars-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. unfortunate ...201121646516
two recently sequenced vertebrate genomes are contaminated with apicomplexan species of the sarcocystidae family.this paper highlights a general problem, namely that host genome sequences can easily be contaminated with parasite sequences, thus careful isolation of genetic material and careful bioinformatics analysis are needed in all cases. two recently published genomes are shown here to be contaminated with sequences of apicomplexan parasites which belong to the sarcocystidae family. sequences of the characteristic apicomplexan organelle, the apicoplast, were used as queries in blastn searches against n ...201526264549
Naturally Acquired Rabies Virus Infections in Wild-Caught Bats.Abstract The study of a zoonotic disease requires an understanding of the disease incidence in animal reservoirs. Rabies incidence in bats submitted to diagnostic laboratories does not accurately reflect the true incidence in wild bat populations as a bias exists for testing bats that have been in contact with humans or pets. This article details the rabies incidence in two species of bats collected from natural settings without such bias. In this study, brain smears from 0.6% and 2.5% of wild-c ...201121923271
alphacoronaviruses in new world bats: prevalence, persistence, phylogeny, and potential for interaction with humans.bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (covs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. we sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within colorado from 2007 to 2009. we detected alphacoronavirus rna in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats ...201121589915
temperatures and locations used by hibernating bats, including myotis sodalis (indiana bat), in a limestone mine: implications for conservation and management.understanding temperatures used by hibernating bats will aid conservation and management efforts for many species. a limestone mine with 71 km of passages, used as a hibernaculum by approximately 30,000 bats, was visited four times during a 6-year period. the mine had been surveyed and mapped; therefore, bats could be precisely located and temperatures (t (s)) of the entire hibernaculum ceiling accurately mapped. it was predicted that bats should hibernate between 5 and 10 degrees c to (1) use t ...200717874161
lack of association between ectoparasite intensities and rabies virus neutralizing antibody seroprevalence in wild big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus), fort collins, colorado.recently, bat ectoparasites have been demonstrated to harbor pathogens of potential importance to humans. we evaluated antirabies antibody seroprevalence and the presence of ectoparasites in big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) sampled in 2002 and 2003 in colorado to investigate if an association existed between ectoparasite intensity and exposure to rabies virus (rv). we used logistic regression and akaike's information criteria adjusted for sample size (aicc) in a post-hoc analysis to investigate ...200717979542
effects of backward masking on the responses of the inferior collicular neurons in the big brown bat, eptesicus fuscus.temporal features of sound convey information vital for behaviors as diverse as speech recognition by human and echolocation by bats. however, auditory stimuli presented in temporal proximity might interfere with each other. although much progress has been made in the description of this phenomenon from psychophysical studies, the neural mechanism responsible for its formation at central auditory structures especially at the inferior colliculus (ic), a midbrain auditory nucleus which practically ...200515830109
neuronal connexin expression in the cochlear nucleus of big brown bats.we present immunohistochemical data describing the presence and distribution of connexins, structural component of gap junctions, in the cochlear nuclei of adult big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus). echolocating big brown bats show microsecond scale echo-delay sensitivity that requires accurate synchronization of neuronal responses to the timing of echoes. midbrain and auditory cortical neuronal response timing is similar to that observed in other non-echolocating mammals, suggesting that lower au ...200818241843
postnatal bone elongation of the manus versus pes: analysis of the chondrocytic differentiation cascade in mus musculus and eptesicus fuscus.bones elongate postnatally by endochondral ossification as cells of the cartilaginous growth plate undergo a differentiation cascade of proliferation, cellular hypertrophy and matrix synthesis. interspecific comparisons of homologous bones elongating at different rates has been a useful approach for studying the dynamics of this process. the purpose of this study was to measure quantitative stereological parameters of growth plates of the third digit of the manus and pes of the laboratory mouse, ...200818160802
susceptibility of north american big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) to infection with european bat lyssavirus type 1.the aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of insectivorous bats (using the big brown bat as a model) to infection with european bat lyssavirus type 1a (eblv-1a), to assess the dynamics of host immune responses and to evaluate the opportunity for horizontal viral transmission within colonies. two isolates of eblv-1a, originating from slovakia (eblv-1ask) and germany (eblv-1age), were tested. four different routes of inoculation were used with isolate eblv-1ask [10(4.8) mouse intra ...200818632972
projections to the medial superior olive from the medial and lateral nuclei of the trapezoid body in rodents and bats.in this study we present direct evidence of axonal projections from both the medial and lateral nuclei of the trapezoid body to the medial superior olive. projections were traced by intracellularly labeling cells and axons in a tissue slice preparation of two rodent species, mus musculus and meriones unguiculatus and two bat species, eptesicus fuscus and pteronotus parnellii. the main axon of most principal cells in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body gives off one or more collateral branch ...19921430335
experimental rabies virus infection of big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus).a captive colony of adult big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) was experimentally infected with a rabies virus (rabv) variant isolated from the salivary glands of a naturally infected big brown bat and passaged once through murine neuroblastoma cell culture. bats were divided into 11 groups, which were composed of one to three noninfected and one to three infected individuals each. twenty of 38 animals were infected intramuscularly into both left and right masseter muscles; they received a total of ...200818689646
examining the mechanisms responsible for lower ros release rates in liver mitochondria from the long-lived house sparrow (passer domesticus) and big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) compared to the short-lived mouse (mus musculus).lower ros release rate in long-lived species is likely caused by decreased reduction of electron transport chain (etc) complexes, but how this is achieved remains largely unknown. we compared liver mitochondrial h(2)o(2) release rates among endotherms of comparable size and metabolic rate: house sparrow and big brown bat (both long-lived) and house mouse (short-lived). we hypothesized that low ros release rates in long-lived species result from (i) lower mitochondrial respiration rate, (ii) incr ...200919464314
detection of high levels of european bat lyssavirus type-1 viral rna in the thyroid gland of experimentally-infected eptesicus fuscus bats.two common bat lyssavirus species have been identified in many european countries: european bat lyssavirus type-1 and -2 (eblv-1 and eblv-2). only limited knowledge on the susceptibility of the natural eblv-hosts, insectivorous bats, to lyssavirus infection is available. our study was undertaken to evaluate the susceptibility and pathology associated with an eblv-1 infection in eptesicus fuscus following different routes of virus inoculation including intracranial (n = 6), intramuscular (n = 14) ...200919497087
renal infection by a new coccidian genus in big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus).a novel coccidian parasite from the kidney of big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) is described. this coccidian (nephroisospora eptesici nov. gen., n. sp.) was associated with a generally mild, focal or multifocal, well-demarcated cortical renal lesion less than 1 mm in diameter. the lesion represented cystic, dilated tubules with hypertrophied tubular epithelial cells and was present in the kidneys of 29 of 590 bats. numerous coccidian parasites in various stages of development were present within ...201019863159
range resolution and the possible use of spectral information in the echolocating bat, eptesicus fuscus.individuals of the echolocating bat eptesicus fuscus were trained to discriminate simulated two-wave-front targets with internal time delays of 0 to 100 microns between the wave fronts from a one-wave-front target. the ability of bats to discriminate between such targets can be referred to as range resolution. in eptesicus fuscus, this ability is limited to distinct internal time delays (12, 32-40, and 52-100 microns) between the two wave fronts of a double-wave-front target. analysis of the sim ...19982212300
novel cryptosporidium bat genotypes iii and iv in bats from the usa and czech republic.bats from the families rhinolophidae (nā€‰=ā€‰90) and vespertilionidae (nā€‰=ā€‰191) in the usa and czech republic were screened for the presence of cryptosporidium by microscopic and molecular analysis of faecal samples collected from rectum of dissected animals and from the ground beneath roosting sites. cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 281 faecal specimens examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. nested pcr amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic anal ...201526255170
experimental infection of big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) with west caucasian bat virus (wcbv).big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus), either recently captured individuals or survivors from previous experimental infection with irkut virus (irkv), were inoculated with west caucasian bat virus (wcbv), intramuscularly into the masseter (n=7) or neck (n=8) muscles, or orally (n=6). three bats inoculated into the neck muscles developed rabies and died between days 10 and 18. viral rna was detected in a number of tissues but isolation was successful only from the brain. an oral swab of one of these ...200818634495
use of pcr to identify leptospira in kidneys of big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) in kansas and nebraska, usa.bats have been implicated as potential carriers of leptospira as a result of surveys, mostly in australia and south america. we measured the prevalence of pathogenic leptospires in kidneys of bats from kansas and nebraska. from 7 august 2012 to 21 august 2012, we extracted dna from kidneys of 98 big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) submitted and found negative for rabies. the dna was processed in a two-step, seminested pcr assay with a dual-labeled taqman probe specific for pathogenic leptospires. ...201424807182
an analysis of correspondence between unique rabies virus variants and divergent big brown bat (eptesicus fuscus) mitochondrial dna lineages.the literature supports that unique rabies virus (rabv) variants are often compartmentalized in different species of bats. in colorado, two divergent mtdna lineages of big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) co-occur. rabv associated with this species also segregates into two clades. we hypothesized that unique rabv variants might be associated with mtdna lineages of colorado big brown bats. dna was extracted from brain tissue of rabid big brown bats, the nd2 gene was amplified to determine mtdna line ...200818398562
acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus).we report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) in wisconsin, usa. mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.201424171580
broad and temperature independent replication potential of filoviruses on cells derived from old and new world bat species.filoviruses are strongly associated with several species of bats as their natural reservoirs. in this study, we determined the replication potential of all filovirus species: marburg marburgvirus, taï forest ebolavirus, reston ebolavirus, sudan ebolavirus, zaire ebolavirus, and bundibugyo ebolavirus. filovirus replication was supported by all cell lines derived from 6 old and new world bat species: the hammer-headed fruit bat, buettikofer's epauletted fruit bat, the egyptian fruit bat, the jamai ...201627354372
role of the spike glycoprotein of human middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) in virus entry and syncytia formation.little is known about the biology of the emerging human group c betacoronavirus, middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov). because coronavirus spike glycoproteins (s) mediate virus entry, affect viral host range, and elicit neutralizing antibodies, analyzing the functions of mers-cov s protein is a high research priority. mers-cov s on lentivirus pseudovirions mediated entry into a variety of cell types including embryo cells from new world eptesicus fuscus bats. surprisingly, a p ...201324098509
variability in seroprevalence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and associated factors in a colorado population of big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus).in 2001-2005 we sampled permanently marked big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) at summer roosts in buildings at fort collins, colorado, for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rvna). seroprevalence was higher in adult females (17.9%, n = 2,332) than males (9.4%, n = 128; p = 0.007) or volant juveniles (10.2%, n = 738; p<0.0001). seroprevalence was lowest in a drought year with local insecticide use and highest in the year with normal conditions, suggesting that environmental stress may suppress ...201424465996
spatial and temporal dynamics of rabies virus variants in big brown bat populations across canada: footprints of an emerging zoonosis.phylogenetic analysis of a collection of rabies viruses that currently circulate in canadian big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) identified five distinct lineages which have emerged from a common ancestor that existed over 400 years ago. four of these lineages are regionally restricted in their range while the fifth lineage, comprising two-thirds of all specimens, has emerged in recent times and exhibits a recent demographic expansion with rapid spread across the canadian range of its host. four o ...201020406385
auditory spatial sensitivity of inferior collicular neurons of echolocating bats.the sensitivity of 94 inferior collicular (ic) neurons of eptesicus fuscus and myotis lucifugus to spatial location of the acoustic stimulus were studied under free-field stimulus conditions. the best frequency (bf) and minimum threshold (mt) of each neuron were determined with sound delivered in front of the bat. then the variation in discharge rate of the neuron was measured with a bf sound broadcast from a moving loudspeaker at different angular positions along the horizontal, vertical or dia ...20123409031
responses of mice to inoculation with low doses of a bat rabies virus variant.rabies is generally considered a fatal disease, yet neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus (rv) have frequently been found in sera from healthy, insectivorous bats, and mark-recapture studies have demonstrated bats that are still alive years after the first detection of anti-rv antibodies. to explore this phenomenon, we exposed mice to a big brown bat variant of rv, using three routes of inoculation, two doses of virus and two frequencies of exposure. we found the highest rate of seroconversion ...201323381393
multidisciplinary approach to epizootiology and pathogenesis of bat rabies viruses in the united states.zoonotic disease surveillance is typically initiated after an animal pathogen has caused disease in humans. early detection of potentially high-risk pathogens within animal hosts may facilitate medical interventions to cope with an emerging disease. to effectively spillover to a novel host, a pathogen may undergo genetic changes resulting in varying transmission potential in the new host and potentially to humans. rabies virus (rabv) is one model pathogen to consider for studying the dynamics of ...201323137052
viremia in north american mammals and birds after experimental infection with chikungunya viruses.chikungunya virus (chikv) is an arthropod-borne virus, which is known to cause severe disease only in humans. to investigate its potential zoonotic host range and evaluate reservoir competence among these hosts, experimental infections were performed on individuals from nine avian and 12 mammalian species representing both domestic and wild animals common to north america. hamsters and inbred mice have previously been shown to develop viremia after inoculation with chikv and were used as positiv ...201626666699
claudin gene expression patterns do not associate with interspecific differences in paracellular nutrient absorption.bats exhibit higher paracellular absorption of glucose-sized molecules than non-flying mammals, a phenomenon that may be driven by higher permeability of the intestinal tight junctions. the various claudins, occludin, and other proteins making up the tight junctions are thought to determine their permeability properties. here we show that absorption of the paracellular probe l-arabinose is higher in a bat (eptesicus fuscus) than in a vole (microtus pennsylvanicus) or a hedgehog (atelerix albiven ...201626393434
unique characteristics of bat rabies viruses in big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus).rabies virus infection has been documented in several north american bat species, including eptesicus fuscus. the virus-host relationship between bats and rabies virus (rv) is not well understood. the incidence of non-lethal rv exposure, based on the presence of viral neutralizing antibodies, demonstrates that exposure to rv does not always lead to clinical infection in bats. it is unknown how the route of exposure, rabies virus variant, or health of the bat affects the outcome following exposur ...201323208279
efficacy of visual surveys for white-nose syndrome at bat hibernacula.white-nose syndrome (wns) is an epizootic disease in hibernating bats caused by the fungus pseudogymnoascus destructans. surveillance for p. destructans at bat hibernacula consists primarily of visual surveys of bats, collection of potentially infected bats, and submission of these bats for laboratory testing. cryptic infections (bats that are infected but display no visual signs of fungus) could lead to the mischaracterization of the infection status of a site and the inadvertent spread of p. d ...201526197236
sebaceous lipid profiling of bat integumentary tissues: quantitative analysis of free fatty acids, monoacylglycerides, squalene, and sterols.white-nose syndrome (wns) is a fungal disease caused by pseudogymnoascus destructans and is devastating north american bat populations. sebaceous lipids secreted from host integumentary tissues are implicated in the initial attachment and recognition of host tissues by pathogenic fungi. we are interested in determining if ratios of lipid classes in sebum can be used as biomarkers to diagnose severity of fungal infection in bats. to first establish lipid compositions in bats, we isolated secreted ...201324327437
overwintering of rabies virus in silver haired bats (lasionycteris noctivagans).silver-haired bats, (lasionycteris noctivagans) are semi-colonial, migratory tree bats that have infrequent contact with humans. despite the species rarity, the l. noctivagans rabies variant is the most commonly reported rabies virus variant (rabv) in domestically acquired human rabies cases in the us. unlike big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) and little brown bats (myotis lucifugus), l. noctivagans are not considered true hibernators. it is unknown if rabv can overwinter in hibernating l. noctiv ...201627195489
rabies surveillance among bats in tennessee, usa, 1996-2010.rabies virus (rabv) infects multiple bat species in the americas, and enzootic foci perpetuate in bats principally via intraspecific transmission. in recent years, bats have been implicated in over 90% of human rabies cases in the us. in tennessee, two human cases of rabies have occurred since 1960: one case in 1994 associated with a tricolored bat (perimyotis subflavus) rabv variant and another in 2002 associated with the tricolored/silver-haired bat (p. subflavus/lasionycteris noctivagans) rab ...201526251992
rabies virus infection in eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naïve bats).the study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. to date, all rabies virus (rabv) studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. determining the rabv exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (vna) may be misleading. previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of vna following natural ...201323741396
susceptibility and pathogenesis of little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) to heterologous and homologous rabies viruses.rabies virus (rabv) maintenance in bats is not well understood. big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (myotis lucifugus), and mexican free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the united states. these colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. however, the silver-haired bat (lasionycteris noctivagans) rabv is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the united states and cana ...201323741002
anthropogenic roost switching and rabies virus dynamics in house-roosting big brown bats.big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) are the most commonly encountered rabid bat in north america and represent an important source of wildlife rabies epizootics. urban and suburban colonies of e. fuscus are often evicted from their roosts in houses, with poorly understood consequences for bat dispersal, population dynamics, and rabies virus transmission. we combined radiotelemetry and mark-recapture of e. fuscus with enhanced surveillance to understand the frequency of rabies virus exposure in hou ...201323590325
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from colorado and new mexico, united states.we determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (rvna) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in colorado and new mexico, united states in 2003-2005. a subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus rna in saliva. we sampled little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in larimer county, colorado; big brown bats (eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in morgan county, colorado; and big brown bats at five mat ...201323568912
prevalence and distribution of pseudogymnoascus destructans in michigan bats submitted for rabies surveillance.since 2006, bat populations in north america have suffered devastating mortality from an emerging disease known as white-nose syndrome (wns). the causal agent of wns is the fungus pseudogymnoascus destructans. in april 2014, wns was discovered in little brown bats ( myotis lucifugus ) in michigan, and has since been documented in 12 counties. because current surveillance for wns focuses primarily on mine-hibernating species in winter, it is subject geographic, species, and seasonal bias. to inve ...201728318379
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