genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region.mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. for example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or fse) during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) epidemic in the united kingdom, whereas no canine bse cases were detected. whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or cwd) remains an open question. variation in the host-encoded pri ...201223236380
aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mustelids in finland - a cross-sectional epidemiological and phylogenetic study.aleutian mink disease virus (amdv) can cause severe immune-complex-mediated disease in american mink. amdv has also been detected in several other mustelid species with potential negative impact on their health and population. a molecular and cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to obtain data on the prevalence, distribution, transmission and diversity of amdv strains in finnish free-ranging mustelids and risk factors associated with infection. the presence of anti-amdv antibodies ...201525667324
microsatellite variability of sardinian pine martens, martes martes.the pine marten, martes martes, is a medium-sized terrestrial carnivore associated with woodland habitats of the western palearctic region. the present distribution area of the species also includes six islands of the western mediterranean basin. the origin of these insular populations and their taxonomic status are still debated; their molecular characterization appears relevant for conservation purposes. to describe the genetic variability of the pine martens from sardinia we characterized 40 ...201121800998
[analyzing spatial-temporal dynamics of the ecological niche: a marten (martes martes) population case study].a potential of discriminant analysis is demonstrated in a case study of the common marten (martes martes l., 1758) ecological niche within the central forest reserve and its buffer zone. the analysis is aimed at identifying how the probability to encounter a marten's footprint along a walking route depends on the relief and other parameters of the environment discerned by remote sensing. the analyses that were done individually for each of the eleven months from a three-year observation period h ...201021268859
leptospirosis in free-ranging endangered european mink (mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores (mustelidae, viverridae) from southwestern study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered european mink (mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed american mink (mustela vison) in southwestern france. an indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (australi ...201020966265
a coprological survey of parasites of wild carnivores in ireland.the increasing movement of people to wilderness areas, shrinking of wildlife habitats and the resulting urbanisation of wildlife has led to growing concerns about the transfer of parasitic diseases, particularly from contaminated faeces. faecal samples from wild carnivores in ireland were examined for the presence of protozoan and nematode parasites. red fox (vulpes vulpes) samples (n = 91) were positive for uncinaria stenocephala (38%), eucoleus aerophilus (26%), toxocara canis (20%), trichuris ...201323900557
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from spain.serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of spain were tested for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of iberian lynx (lynx pardinus), 3 of 6 european wildcats (felis silvestris), 66 of 102 (64.7%) red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 15 of 32 (46.9%) wolves (canis lupus), 26 of 37 (70.3%) eurasian badgers (meles meles), 17 of 20 (85.0%) stone martens (martes foina), 4 ...200717689869
rabies in the baltic states: decoding a process of control and elimination.rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. in europe, the oral rabies vaccination (orv) of red foxes (vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in western and some central european countries. following the accession of the three baltic countries--estonia, latvia and lithuania--to the european union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ...201626849358
occurrence of internal parasites in stone martens (martes foina) from cracow and suburbs.the pine marten martes martes and the stone marten martes foina are the only representatives of the genus martes in poland. during the last few decades, an intensive synurbisation of stone martens has been recorded. the aim of the study was to assess the level of infection by internal parasites of martes foina in the cracow urban area. eleven necropsies were performed of stone martens killed during animal-vehicle collisions. additionally, coprological examination of 129 stone marten scats was in ...201324791348
antibodies to aleutian mink disease parvovirus in free-ranging european mink (mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores from southwestern france.owing to the rapid decline of the european mink (mustela lutreola) in france, a national conservation action plan has been initiated, in which scientific research to improve understanding of the causes of the decline is one of the primary objectives. in order to investigate the possible role of aleutian disease parvovirus (adv) in decline of the species, a serologic survey was conducted from march 1996 to march 2002 in 420 free-ranging individuals of six species of small carnivores distributed i ...200415465705
development of a real-time pcr for a sensitive one-step coprodiagnosis allowing both the identification of carnivore feces and the detection of toxocara spp. and echinococcus multilocularis.studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. detecting and quantifying toxocara spp. and echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in european carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. a rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative pcr (qpcr) allowing detection of e. multilocularis and toxocara spp. w ...201626969697
importance of free living mustelid carnivores in circulation of adiaspiromycosis.the study of adiaspiromycosis in 8 species of free living mustelid carnivores (266 specimens) revealed the average intensity of infection to be 41.4%. the highest incidence rate was found in the exoanthropic species putorius eversmanni (73.1%) and martes martes (72.2%) while the lowest was observed in the hemisynanthropic species putorius putorius (30.6%). the stone marten (martes foina)) is a new, still unknown reservoir host of c. parvum var. crescens, c. parvum for which putorius eversmanni a ...1977559252
emergence of canine distemper virus strains with modified molecular signature and enhanced neuronal tropism leading to high mortality in wild ongoing canine distemper epidemic was first detected in switzerland in the spring of 2009. compared to previous local canine distemper outbreaks, it was characterized by unusually high morbidity and mortality, rapid spread over the country, and susceptibility of several wild carnivore species. here, the authors describe the associated pathologic changes and phylogenetic and biological features of a multiple highly virulent canine distemper virus (cdv) strain detected in and/or isolated from r ...201222362965
large-scale serosurvey of besnoitia besnoiti in free-living carnivores in spain.the disease bovine besnoitiosis is responsible for severe economic losses caused by the protozoan besnoitia besnoiti. the identity of the definitive host (dh) of this parasite has yet to be determined, although it is presumed to be a carnivore. with the aim of advancing in the identification of b. besnoiti dh, a necessary step in implementing control strategies, the contact rate of 205 free-roaming carnivores with this parasite in spain was studied. the study included 16 wolves (canis lupus), 41 ...201222770702
trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in croatia.the differences in metal exposure (as, cd, cu, pb and hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (ursus arctos), grey wolfs (canis lupus), eurasian lynxs (lynx lynx), eurasian badgers (meles meles) and pine martens (martes martes) from croatia were observed. the highest mean cd levels were found in kidney and liver of eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). the highest cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear ( ...201122037661
investigating the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. the only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. this study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. a sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: american mink (mustela vison), red foxes (vulpes vulpes), pine martens (martes martes), badgers (meles meles), stoats (mustela erminea), otters (lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (mustela ...201323068142
an investigation into alternative reservoirs of canine leishmaniasis on the endemic island of mallorca (spain).the role of wild and free-roaming domestic carnivores as a reservoir of leishmania infantum was investigated on the mediterranean island of mallorca (balearic islands, spain), an endemic area for this disease. serum, blood and/or spleen samples from 169 animals [48 dogs from a kennel, 86 wild-caught feral cats, 23 pine martens (martes martes), 10 common genets (genetta genetta) and two weasels (mustela nivalis)] were analysed. seroprevalence determined by western blotting was 38% in dogs and 16% ...201121733133
angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the iberian peninsula.a survey of angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the basque country (northern spain). parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also pcr amplification and sequencing analysis. the animal species included in this study were eurasian badger (meles meles), weasel (mustela nivalis), beech marten (martes foina), pine ma ...201020728995
parasitological and molecular features of the hepatozoon species in the myocardium of japanese martens (martes melampus melampus).the hepatozoon species in the myocardium of japanese martens (martes melampus melampus) was characterized by histological and molecular methods. histologically, granulomatous nodules with hepatozoon sp. merozoites/gametocytes, or schizonts, or both were observed in the hearts of japanese martens. the most frequently observed forms were merozoites/gametocytes within phagocytes; each host cell included a zoite, which was not microscopically identifiable as a merozoite or gametocyte. schizonts were ...200919575543
feeding ecology of the stone and pine marten revealed by element analysis of their skeletons.feeding habits of free-ranging martens (martes martes and martes foina) are evaluated by means of trace element and stable carbon isotope analyses of their skeletons. this investigation was carried out as an inter-disciplinary project of both wildlife biology and physical anthropology. as a result, data are obtained on the feeding ecology of the two species; in addition, a baseline is provided for dietary reconstruction of past human populations. both species of martens are omnivorous feeders, m ...19902305240
molecular identification of trichinella britovi in martens (martes martes) and badgers (meles meles); new host records in poland.trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (martes martes) and a badger (meles meles) in poland. the animals were found dead following car accidents. all examined animals derived from the mazurian lake district, north-east poland, near the village kosewo górne where trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. the muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-hcl digestion method. the parasites were identified as trichinella britovi by multiplex polym ...201223129201
myocarditis and myositis due to infection with hepatozoon species in pine martens (martes martes) in scotland.postmortem examinations of four pine martens which had died as a result of road accidents in scotland revealed focal, granulomatous lesions in the heart and skeletal muscles of three of them. an immunoperoxidase staining technique showed that the lesions were due to infection with hepatozoon species. a pcr-based assay was used to confirm the presence of hepatozoon dna in the infected tissues. the nucleotide base sequence of the pcr products suggested that the infecting organism was probably a ne ...200515828725
echinococcus multilocularis in carnivores from the klatovy district of the czech republic.a unique human case of alveolar echinococcosis was described in 1979 from the klatovy district of the czech republic. however, there were no previous epidemiological studies in this area focusing on detection of the source of infection--echinococcus multilocularis adults producing eggs. during the period june 1997 to april 1999, 29 out of a total of 46 (63.3%) red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in the klatovy district and one of four foxes (25.0%) in the pilsen south district were found to be infected wi ...200111345074
stress physiological responses to tourist pressure in a wild population of european pine marten.the tourist pressure in natural parks is a potential source of stress and may cause an increase in the adrenal activity of wild populations of european pine marten (martes martes). seventy-six faecal samples were collected during 15 months in a natural park of northwest spain. analysis of faecal dna was used for the specific identification using the pcr-rflps technique. faecal steroid determinations were performed by eia. natural park was divided in three areas: free entry, restricted area, and ...200717467268
electrophoretic variation in large mammals. ii. the red fox, vulpes vulpes, the stoat, mustela erminea, the weasel, mustela nivalis, the pole cat, mustela putorius, the pine marten, martes martes, the beech marten, martes foina, and the badger, meles meles. 19827107306
sarcoptic mange in swedish wildlife.mange caused by sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes appeared among red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in scandinavia (south-west finland) for the first time in this century in 1967. the disease was most probably introduced by foxes crossing the gulf of finland from estonia. the mange epizootic spread northwards through finland and reached sweden in late 1975, when mangy foxes appeared in the northern part of the country. in 1984, mange was observed in most parts of sweden. the disease was observed to spread ra ...19921305857
[genetics and evolution of the mink lpm-system. viii. characteristic changes in the antigenic structure of lpm-protein and alpha2- macroglobulin in mustelidae family].interspecific variability of the isotypic structure of two macroglobulins (lpm and alpha 2m) in mustelidae family was investigated using monospecific rabbit antisera against lpm and alpha 2m mustela vison. it was established that all the species studied may be divided into four groups, according to the degree of their homology with lpm: 1) m. vison; 2) m. altaica, m. erminea, kolonocus sibirica, putorius eversmany, p. putorius, luteola lutreola; 3) vormela peregusna; 4) martes martes, m. foina, ...19882461887
trichinella britovi biomass in naturally infected pine martens (martes martes) of latvia.parasites of the genus trichinella are cosmopolitan nematodes infecting primarily wild animals, which represent the main reservoirs of these zoonotic pathogens. to investigate the transmission patterns of trichinella spp. from wild to domestic animals and to humans and for the risk assessment of these parasites in a geographical area, it is important to know the number of possible transmission events deriving from carcasses of infected hosts. for this purpose, the evaluation of the larval biomas ...201627265552
the role of the wolf in endemic sylvatic trichinella britovi infection in the abruzzi region of central italy.during the period 2004-2014 in the abruzzi region (central italy), muscle samples gathered from hunted wild boars (n=16,323) and retrieved from carcasses of other susceptible wild mammals (n=838) and birds (n=438) were tested for trichinella larvae according to european union regulations. although no positive samples were found from wild birds, 91 wild mammals tested positive. six species were found to harbor trichinella spp. infections, namely wolf (canis lupus, 59 positive samples out of 218), ...201627522469
a survey of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores from the tatra national park, southern poland.from january 2011 to july 2012, 144 faecal samples of wild carnivores from the tatra national park were examined to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal helminths--72 of wolves (canis lupus), 45 of red foxes (vulpes vulpes), 15 of pine martens (martes martes) and 12 of brown bears (ursus arctos). in wolves, monospecific infection with trichuris vulpis (13.9%), toxocara canis (6.9%), ancylostoma/uncinaria (5.6%) and taeniids (1.4%) was revealed. in red foxes, the most prevalent infection was 7 v ...201324791342
first findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from serbia.heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. during the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild ca ...201424951168
generalist predator, cyclic voles and cavity nests: testing the alternative prey hypothesis.the alternative prey hypothesis (aph) states that when the density of the main prey declines, generalist predators switch to alternative prey and vice versa, meaning that predation pressure on the alternative prey should be negatively correlated with the density of the main prey. we tested the aph in a system comprising one generalist predator (pine marten, martes martes), cyclic main prey (microtine voles, microtus agrestis and myodes glareolus) and alternative prey (cavity nests of common gold ...201627665542
responses to inter- and intraspecific scent marks in pine martens (martes martes).in order to analyze intra and interspecific olfactory discrimination, behavioral responses (sniffing and marking) towards various odors were observed in pine martens (manes martes). two adult males and two adult females were tested for intraspecific discrimination of abdominal gland odors and urine. both sexes sniffed and marked objects carrying their own scent less than unscented objects. there were no differences in sniffing or marking objects impregnated with odors from known and unknown cons ...199024263516
[the seasonal thyroid cycle of the european marten, martes martes]. 19684236618
[induction of new luteal generations during progestation in the european marten (martes martes l.)]. 19694982507
complete mitochondrial genome of european pine marten, martes martes.abstract we undertook the first sequencing of the entire mitogenome of martes martes. the genome is 16,486 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 trna genes, two rrna genes and a control region. the total base composition of the mitogenome is 31.9% for a, 27. 6% for c, 25.8% for t and 14.7% for g. the genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage do not differ significantly from other martens. this mitogenome sequence data might be useful for phylogenetic and systema ...201423815327
[population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the mustelidae: mustela lutreola, neovison vison, mustela putorius, martes martes as an example].size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four mustelidae species. by extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: european pine marten (martes martes), european mink (mustela lutreola), american mink (neovison vison), and european polecat (mustela putorius). extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. it is shown that m. martes takes specific and relatively narrow eco ...201623662464
characteristics of the population size structure of the pine marten (martes martes linnaeus, 1758) in the species area. 201619760881
serologic survey for selected viral pathogens in free-ranging endangered european mink (mustela lutreola) and other mustelids from south-western investigate the possible role of selected pathogens in the decline of endangered european mink (mustela lutreola) populations and the potential for these pathogens to affect mink survival, a serologic survey was conducted using serum samples collected from march 1996 to march 2003 in eight departments of south-western france. in total, 481 free-ranging individuals of five mustelid species (including the european mink) were tested. sympatric mustelids can serve as sentinels to determine the pr ...200818957635
brains of native and alien mesocarnivores in biomonitoring of toxic metals in europe.mercury (hg), lead (pb) and cadmium (cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. however, little is known about pb and cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. the aims of the study include the estimation of hg, pb and cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western poland near the polish-german border. the investigation covered the nativ ...201627513467
mercury in various tissues of three mustelid species and other trace metals in liver of european otter from eastern finland.mercury concentrations were monitored in european otter (lutra lutra), european polecat (mustela putorius) and european pine marten (martes martes) collected in eastern finland during the period 1972-2008. otters mainly eat fish, which is an important reason to monitor the bioaccumulation of mercury in this predator. in this species, the highest concentrations were found in fur followed by liver and kidney, and the mercury concentrations increased with increasing age and body weight. males showe ...201423974535
independent nonframeshift deletions in the mc1r gene are not associated with melanistic coat coloration in three mustelid lineages.sequence variation within the 5' flanking (about 240 bp) and exon regions (426 bp) of the melanocortin-1 receptor (mc1r) gene was examined to determine the potential role of this protein in the melanistic coat coloration of 17 mustelid species in four genera: gulo (wolverines), martes (martens), mustela (weasels), and meles (badgers). members of the genera mustela and meles, together with martes flavigula and martes pennanti, were shown to have intact gene sequences. however, several "in frame" ...200616135707
epizootiologic investigations of parvovirus infections in free-ranging carnivores from assess if wild carnivores in germany play a role in the epizootiology of canine parvovirus (cpv) infection, seroprevalences against cpv in free-ranging carnivores (n=1,496) from selected urban and rural areas were compared. antibodies against cpv were found in sera from red foxes (vulpes vulpes; 136 of 1,442; 9%), raccoon dogs (nyctereutes procyonides; two of 33; 6%), stone martens (martes foina; four of 13; 31%), and pine martens (martes martes; one of two) using the hemagglutination-inhibit ...200515827228
functional diversity among seed dispersal kernels generated by carnivorous mammals.1. knowledge of the spatial scale of the dispersal service provided by important seed dispersers (i.e. common and/or keystone species) is essential to our understanding of their role on plant ecology, ecosystem functioning and, ultimately, biodiversity conservation. 2. carnivores are the main mammalian frugivores and seed dispersers in temperate climate regions. however, information on the seed dispersal distances they generate is still very limited. we focused on two common temperate carnivores ...201323228197
alternative strategies in the acquisition of home ranges by male pine martens in a high-density population.two strategies of home range acquisition by male subadult pine martens (martes martes) were described from a high-density population inhabiting białowieża national park. four mother-offspring pairs were identified by genetic parentage assignments. four subadult males showed two different strategies of home range acquisition: dispersal and sedentary. the dispersing males used an area 4-10 times larger than in sedentary subadult males. a sedentary subadult male used his natal area with his mother, ...201223002288
physiological stress responses, fecal marking behavior, and reproduction in wild european pine martens (martes martes).the relationship among physiological stress responses, fecal marking behavior, and reproduction in male and female european pine martens was investigated. between july 2004 and june 2007, 145 fresh fecal samples were collected in a protected area of northwest spain. fecal dna was used for specific identification by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. glucocorticoids (cortisol) and sex steroid hormones (p, progesterone; e, estradiol; t, testoste ...201121384140
experimental increase of predation risk induces breeding dispersal of tengmalm's owl.nest predation and its avoidance are critical components of an individual's fitness and play an important role in life history evolution. almost all studies on this topic have been observational, and thus have not been able to separate the effects of individual quality, habitat selection and predation risk of given nest sites from each other. more experimental studies on nest predation and breeding dispersal, therefore, are needed to avoid confusing interpretations of the results. in western fin ...200128547448
mitochondrial phylogeography and population history of pine martens martes martes compared with polecats mustela putorius.the flora and fauna of europe are linked by a common biogeographic history, most recently the pleistocene glaciations that restricted the range of most species to southern refugial populations. changes in population size and migration, as well as selection, have all left a signature on the genetic differentiation. thus, three paradigms of postglacial recolonization have been described, inferred from the patterns of dna differentiation. yet some species, especially wide-ranging carnivores, exhibi ...200111742548
abundances of red fox and pine marten in relation to the composition of boreal forest landscapes.the effects of human-caused fragmentation of boreal forest on the abundance of red fox vulpes vulpes l. and pine marten martes martes l. were studied by combining the finnish wildlife-triangle snow-track data (1990-94) with land-use and forest resources data employing the gis. two study areas (each 45 000 km(2) ) located in northern and southern finland were selected for the investigation. the extent of landscape that best explained predator abundance (tracks per 10 km 24 h(-1) ) was the same (a ...199826412368
amino acid sequences of mammalian kazal-type proteinase inhibitors from salivary glands.1. the amino acid sequences of bikazins (the double-headed kazal-type proteinase inhibitors from submandibular glands) isolated from the snow leopard (unica unica), the european mink (mustela lutreola), and the european pine marten (martes martes) were determined. 2. n-terminal domains of bikazins are characterized by a cysteine residue spacing that differs from that of c-terminal domains of bikazins and other kazal-type proteinase inhibitor domains. 3. n-terminal sequences of bikazins seem to b ...19938403842
spatial niche segregation of sympatric stone marten and pine marten--avoidance of competition or selection of optimal habitat?coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. however, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. stone marten (martes foina) and pine marten (martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in central europe and utilize simil ...201526444280
prevalence and molecular identification of the sinus worm skrjabingylus petrowi (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) from martes spp. in germany.the nematodes of the genus skrjabingylus (family metastrongylidae) can parasitise the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of different carnivore species. until recently, skrjabingylus petrowi bageanov & petrov, 1941, has mainly been described in pine martens (martes martes linnaeus, 1758) and sables (martes zibellina linnaeus, 1758) sampled in the european part of the former soviet union. newer finds in the stone marten (martes foina erxleben, 1777) and from different parts of europe suggest, howev ...201525681145
presence of skrjabingylus petrowi (nematoda) in central europe.examination of the nasolacrimal sinuses of pine marten (martes martes), stone marten (m. foina) and polecat (mustela putorius) from 27 localities in the czech republic were carried out. in 1 of the 23 stone martens, 6 nematodes (2 males, 4 females) were found and classified as skrjabingylus petrowi bageanov (in petrov 1941). this is the first finding of s. petrowi in central europe. the morphometry of the specimens in the present study was in agreement with that of the original description. the ...200415372229
isolation by distance, resistance and/or clusters? lessons learned from a forest-dwelling carnivore inhabiting a heterogeneous landscape.landscape genetics provides a valuable framework to understand how landscape features influence gene flow and to disentangle the factors that lead to discrete and/or clinal population structure. here, we attempt to differentiate between these processes in a forest-dwelling small carnivore [european pine marten (martes martes)]. specifically, we used complementary analytical approaches to quantify the spatially explicit genetic structure and diversity and analyse patterns of gene flow for 140 ind ...201526394893
modelling the distribution of forest-dependent species in human-dominated landscapes: patterns for the pine marten in intensively cultivated recent years, the "forest-specialist" pine marten martes martes has been reported to also occur also in largely fragmented, lowland landscapes of north-western italy. the colonization of such an apparently unsuitable area provided the opportunity for investigating pine marten ecological requirements and predicting its potential south- and eastwards expansion. we collected available pine marten occurrence data in the flood plain of the river po (n italy) and relate them to 11 environmental var ...201627368056
[a formal description of mammals' behavior based on data on snow tracking, with pine marten (martes martes) as a case study].the formalism allowing to describe animals' behavior is based on the model of informational interactions between an animal and its environment. the model may be represented as an assemblage consisting of two blocks. the first block, which corresponds to the perception system, is a probabilistic operator: it selects an object of certain class out of many objects randomly encountered by an animal while it moves around. the selected object keeps its actuality as an input symbol for the second block ...201525771677
landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: the european pine marten (martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network.coherent ecological networks (en) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. however, empirical assessment of the performance of en designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a d ...201425329047
"reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine traps deployed at a badger meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten martes martes. the vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of may 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made ...201424954928
application of molecular genetics method for differentiating martes zibellina l. heart from its adulterants in traditional chinese medicine based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.the use of martes zibellina l. heart as a famous kind of traditional chinese medicine has been documented for many years in china. identification of its authenticity as raw materials became a key in controlling of herbal preparations. in this study, the characteristics of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene from four species of martes were explored, and a specific molecular genetics technique for identifying the heart of m. zibellina l. in addition to some close relatives from their counterf ...201423919324
viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores.recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. this exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans.201424886057
mitochondrial genomes reveal the pattern and timing of marten (martes), wolverine (gulo), and fisher (pekania) diversification.despite recent advances in understanding the pattern and timescale of evolutionary diversification in the marten, wolverine, fisher, and tayra subfamily guloninae (mustelidae, carnivora), several important issues still remain contentious. among these are the phylogenetic position of gulo relative to the subgenera of martes (martes and charronia), the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus martes, and the timing of gulonine divergences. to elucidate these issues we explored nucleotide var ...201425132128
avian top predator and the landscape of fear: responses of mammalian mesopredators to risk imposed by the golden predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (igp). the impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. we examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (aquila chrysaetos, l.), on its potential mammalian mesopredator prey, the r ...201525691975
novel adenoviruses detected in british mustelids, including a unique aviadenovirus in the tissues of pine martens (martes martes).several adenoviruses are known to cause severe disease in veterinary species. recent evidence suggests that canine adenovirus type 1 (cav-1) persists in the tissues of healthy red foxes (vulpes vulpes), which may be a source of infection for susceptible species. it was hypothesized that mustelids native to the uk, including pine martens (martes martes) and eurasian otters (lutra lutra), may also be persistently infected with adenoviruses. based on high-throughput sequencing and additional sanger ...201728749327
guardian or threat: does golden eagle predation risk have cascading effects on forest grouse?previous studies on intraguild predation have mainly focused on within-class assemblages, even though avian top predators may also influence mammalian mesopredator prey. by using nation-wide long-term data from finland, northern europe, we examined the impacts of golden eagles (aquila chrysaetos) together with red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and pine martens (martes martes) on forest-dwelling herbivores, black grouse (tetrao tetrix) and hazel grouse (tetrastes bonasia). we hypothesized that eagles may ...201627342659
[spatial-temporal dynamics of the pine marten (martes martes l.), mountain hare (lepus timidus l.) and red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris l.) trail activity in the european southern taiga].observations of trail activity of the martens, mountain hares, and red squirrels in winter along fixed routes in the central forest reserve showed its high variability and synchronism in time and space. polynomial dependence of the trail activity and correlation between spatial distribution of marten, mountain hare and squirrel are detected. the influence of weather on the trail activity is smaller, but statistically significant. it is proved that the space-time dynamics of the trail activity is ...201830024137
first record of troglotrema acutum (trematoda: troglotrematidae) from a pine marten martes martes in germany.we examined 438 fresh skulls of pine marten (martes martes) from germany to check for the presence of the cranial trematode troglotrema acutum. the parasite was detected in the frontal sinuses of one 3-year-old road-killed male from the rhoen mountains (thuringia). we detected 19 adult t. acutum and 34 eggs. the infested pine martens showed no deformations or lesions of the skull. this is the first time that specimens of the trematode were recovered from a pine marten from germany, but the low p ...202032174711
large-scale spatial synchrony in red squirrel populations driven by a bottom-up effect.spatial synchrony between populations emerges from endogenous and exogenous processes, such as intra- and interspecific interactions and abiotic factors. understanding factors contributing to synchronous population dynamics help to better understand what determines abundance of a species. this study focuses on spatial and temporal dynamics in the eurasian red squirrel (sciurus vulgaris) using snow-track data from finland from 29 years. we disentangled the effects of bottom-up and top-down forces ...202031927627
conflicting selection on cneorum tricoccon (rutaceae) seed size caused by native and alien seed dispersers.the disappearance of native seed dispersers due to anthropogenic activities is often accompanied by the introduction of alien species, which may to some extent replace the ecological service provided by the extinct ones. yet, little empirical evidence exists demonstrating the evolutionary consequences of such alien "replacement." here, we document the conflicting selection exerted on seed size by two native lizards (podarcis lilfordi and p. pityusensis) and an alien mammal species (martes martes ...201931583688
the potential of vkorc1 polymorphisms in mustelidae for evolving anticoagulant resistance through selection along the food response to strong selection, new mutations can arise quickly and sweep through populations, particularly, if survival and reproduction depend on certain allele copies for adaptation to rapidly changing environments, like resistance against deadly diseases or strong toxins. since the 1950s, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in several rodents has emerged through single nucleotide mutations in the vitamin-k-epoxid-reductase-complex-subunit-1 (vkorc1) gene, often located in its exon 3. d ...201931465484
native and invasive squirrels show different behavioural responses to scent of a shared native predator.invasive species pose a serious threat to native species. in europe, invasive grey squirrels (sciurus carolinensis) have replaced native red squirrels (sciurus vulgaris) in locations across britain, ireland and italy. the european pine marten (martes martes) can reverse the replacement of red squirrels by grey squirrels, but the underlying mechanism of how pine martens suppress grey squirrels is little understood. research suggests the reversal process is driven by direct predation, but why the ...202032257340
the enemy of my enemy is my friend: native pine marten recovery reverses the decline of the red squirrel by suppressing grey squirrel populations.shared enemies may instigate or modify competitive interactions between species. the dis-equilibrium caused by non-native species introductions has revealed that the outcome of such indirect interactions can often be dramatic. however, studies of enemy-mediated competition mostly consider the impact of a single enemy, despite species being embedded in complex networks of interactions. here, we demonstrate that native red and invasive grey squirrels in britain, two terrestrial species linked by r ...201829514972
living with roommates in a shared den: spatial and temporal segregation among semifossorial mammals.positive interspecific interactions in animal communities (i.e. den sharing) have long been overlooked in animal ecology. the assessment of spatiotemporal overlap among species living within the same burrow system is paramount to explain their strategies of interspecific coexistence. we studied spatiotemporal behavioural patterns of coexistence among four den-sharing mammal species (i.e. the crested porcupine hystrix cristata, the eurasian badger meles meles, the red fox vulpes vulpes and the eu ...201931022506
thelazia callipaeda in mustelids from romania with the european badger, meles meles, as a new host for this parasite.thelazia callipaeda (spirurida, thelaziidae) is a vector-borne zoonotic eye worm with a broad host spectrum. in europe, it is an emerging threat, having greatly expanded its geographical distribution during the past two decades. in romania, t. callipaeda has been previously reported in domestic and wild canids and felids. the aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of t. callipaeda in mustelids in the country.201931349861
role of mustelids in the life-cycle of ixodid ticks and transmission cycles of four tick-borne pathogens.elucidating which wildlife species significantly contribute to the maintenance of ixodes ricinus populations and the enzootic cycles of the pathogens they transmit is imperative in understanding the driving forces behind the emergence of tick-borne diseases. here, we aimed to quantify the relative contribution of four mustelid species in the life-cycles of i. ricinus and borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) in forested areas and to investigate their role in the transmission of other tick-borne path ...201830458847
predator avoidance behavior of nocturnal and diurnal rodents.animals trade-off predation risk against feeding opportunities and prey species may use signals or cues of predators to assess predation risk. we analyzed the mesopredators pine and stone marten (martes martes, m. foina) and nocturnal and diurnal rodents (glis glis, apodemus spp., sciurus vulgaris). the non-experimental approach used camera traps at feeders which were visited by both, predator and prey. as prey species can eavesdrop on predator signals/cues, there should show some avoidance beha ...202032768461
trichinella britovi infection and muscle distribution in free-living martens (martes spp.) from the głęboki bród forest district, poland.trichinella nematodes occur in many carnivorous and omnivorous animal species in the sylvatic cycle. due to their widespread occurrence throughout poland and diet, free-living mustelids can act as a potential reservoir for nematodes of the genus trichinella and play a role in their circulation. the study was designed to determine the presence and predilection sites for trichinella nematodes in martens (martes spp.) from the głęboki bród forest district, poland. trichinella britovi larvae were de ...202032612926
postrelease movement and habitat selection of translocated pine martens martes martes.monitoring postrelease establishment and movement of animals is important in evaluating conservation translocations. we translocated 39 wild pine martens martes martes (19 females, 20 males) from scotland to wales. we released them into forested areas with no conspecifics in 2015, followed by a second release in 2016, alongside the previously released animals. we used radio-tracking to describe postrelease movement and habitat selection. six martens (15%) were not re-encountered during the track ...202032551086
the pine marten (martes martes) and the stone marten (martes foina) as possible wild reservoirs of toxoplasma gondii in the baltic states.toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic parasite that infects a wide spectrum of mammals. moreover, its presence in wild carnivores is indicative of environmental contamination by the parasite. a total of 186 marten (152 pine marten; 34 stone marten) meat juice samples from latvia and lithuania were tested for t. gondii seroprevalence. samples were tested for t. gondii specific antibodies by a commercial elisa and antibodies were found in 121 (65.1%) samples. higher prevalence (67.8%) occurre ...201731014846
causes of mortality and morbidity in free-ranging mustelids in switzerland: necropsy data from over 50 years of general health surveillance.although mustelids occur worldwide and include a wide range of species, little is known about the diseases affecting them. mustelids have regularly been submitted for post mortem investigation in the framework of the program for general wildlife health surveillance in switzerland, which has been in place for nearly 60 years. we performed a retrospective analysis of the necropsy reports on mustelids submitted to the diagnostic service of the university of bern. the aims of this study were to pres ...201829921290
hepatozoon martis n. sp. (adeleorina: hepatozoidae): morphological and pathological features of a hepatozoon species infecting martens (family mustelidae).species of the genus hepatozoon (adeleorina: hepatozoidae) are arthropod-transmitted protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. in the present study, we describe a new species of hepatozoon primarily infecting martens and propose the name hepatozoon martis n. sp., based on its unique morphological, molecular and pathogenic features. the overall prevalence of infection with h. martis n. sp. assessed by pcr in european pine martens (martes martes) from bosnia and herzegovina ...201829605549
anatomical basis of differences in locomotor behavior in martens: a comparison of the forelimb musculature between two sympatric species of martes.arboreal locomotion imposes selective pressures that may affect the evolution of the locomotor apparatus. the limbs have to be mobile to reach across discontinuities, yet at the same time need to be forceful to move against gravity during climbing. however, as intermediaries between the arboreal and terrestrial environment, semi-arboreal mammals appear not extremely specialized and, thus, anatomical adaptations may be less evident than expected for arboreal climbers. here, we present quantitativ ...201829418114
hope and caution: rewilding to mitigate the impacts of biological invasions.rewilding is a novel approach to ecological restoration. trophic rewilding in particular aims to reinstate ecological functions, especially trophic interactions, through the introduction of animals. we consider the potential for trophic rewilding to address biological invasions. in this broad review, we note some of the important conceptual and ethical foundations of rewilding, including a focus on ecosystem function rather than composition, reliance on animal agency, and an appeal to an ethic o ...201830348875
high diversity of hemotropic mycoplasmas in iberian wild carnivores.two-hundred and thirty-one wild carnivores belonging to 10 species of in spain were analyzed for the presence of dna of hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) by means of a universal real-time pcr targeting a 16s rrna gene fragment. positive reactions were found for wolf (canis lupus: 6/37), fox (vulpes vulpes: 1/41), eurasian badger (meles meles: 49/85), pine marten (martes martes: 11/23), stone marten (martes foina: 6/9), least weasel (mustela nivalis: 4/4), european wildcat (felis s. silvestris ...201830396424
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