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trans-beta-farnesene as a feeding stimulant for the sand fly lutzomyia longipalpis (diptera: psychodidae).the aphid alarm pheromone, trans-beta-farnesene (tbf), was found to stimulate feeding in both male and female lutzomyia longipalpis lutz & neiva. four other structurally related compounds (farnesol; 808 farnesene; trans, trans-farnesyl acetate; farnesyl methyl ether) were slightly less stimulating to these insects. the effect of tbf varied with sand fly age and the concentration of the chemical used. in contrast, tbf did not stimulate feeding in either sex of four other sand fly species (l. shan ...19921495034
an improvised method of laboratory colonization of phlebotomus papatasi, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis.a cyclic colony of p. papatasi was successfully established, using wild caught females. the major obstacle in the colonization was infestation of fungus, which was solved when bentonite, a dehydrant was mixed in the larval diet i.e., powdered and sterilized faecal pellets of rabbit. the average duration of development from egg to adult was 46.41 +/- 3.26 days. females readily engorged on mouse, which was kept immobilized inside restrainer cages majority of the fed females laid viable eggs, when ...19921293020
seasonal abundance, natural survival & resting behaviour of phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: phlebotomidae) in pondicherry.a study was carried out on the seasonal abundance, natural survival and resting behaviour of ph. papatasi in four ecologically different areas of pondicherry. the average indoor resting density ranged from 2.25 (may 1989) to 16.70/man hour (october 1989). ph. papatasi was observed to be predominantly endophilic in its resting behaviour. a significant positive correlation was observed between rainfall and relative density. the daily survival of adult population ranged from 0.893 to 0.949 and show ...19921398812
[cloning leishmania at the promastigote stage using the vonbrun micromanipulator].a method was worked out for cloning leishmania strains at the promastigote stage from cultures reared on two-phase nutrient medium by means of vonbrün micromanipulator. by this method cultures of leishmania can be obtained from one cell of these protozoans. during the cloning of leishmania strains isolated from experimentally and naturally infected phlebotomus papatasi and ph. caucasicus the per cent of obtaining the clones from isolated promastigotes cultivated on a nutrient medium depends on t ...1977865880
studies on the epidemiology of sandfly fever in iran. iii. host-feeding patterns of phlebotomus papatasi in an endemic area of the disease.blood meals from 575 phlebotomus papatasi collected in an iranian village were identified by precipitin test. the majority of sandfly feedings (57.5%) were on birds, mainly chickens and pigeons. the remaining 42.5% were on mammals (humans, cows, mules, sheep, and goats) or were non-reactive. calculation of forage ratios of each host species indicated that chickens, equines, and bovines were the preferred hosts of p. papatasi in the village. results of this study demonstrate that p. papatasi has ...1977403821
[the laboratory cultivation of phlebotomus papatasi. the nature of the reaction of the sandflies to unfavorable environmental conditions].the breeding of phlebotomus papatasi in laboratory setting has been studied for 4 years. it has been found that in addition to the well-known factors such as temperature and humidity, sandfly development is affected by the features of reservoirs for their breeding, amount of nutrient substrate, duration of a diapause and developmental conditions of their parents. ph. papatasi responds to deterioration of dwelling conditions with prolonged period of development, increased number of diapausing lar ...19921387189
cutaneous leishmaniasis in the libyan arab republic: preliminary ecological findings.preliminary results show cutaneous leishmaniasis in libya to be, sometimes at least, a rural zoonotic infection. the parasites are transmitted, probably by phlebotomus papatasi, between the rodents psammomys obesus and meriones libycus. the banks and 'islands' in the main channel of seasonal wadis provide the right combination of vegetation and permanence for the maintenance of an intense focus.1977921363
leishmania infantum mon-98 isolated from naturally infected phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae) in el agamy, egypt.leishmania infantum zymodeme mon-98 was isolated in el agamy, egypt. a total of 15 (1.07%) leishmania-like infections in the anterior midgut and in the head was found in 1,405 phlebotomus langeroni (nitzulescu); none of 1,785 phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) was found infected. four of the 15 cultures (26.7%) were indistinguishable from a reference l. infantum mon-98 strain using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. the isolation and identification of l. infantum mon-98 from naturally infected p. la ...19921404272
[the spread of phlebotomus papatasi scop., 1786 through the territory of central asia and southern kazakhstan].the data on distribution of the main vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) phlebotomus papatasi through central asia and southern kazakhstan are presented. the highest indices of density of this species (100 and more specimen per stick trap) were observed only in the tejen oasis, rather high ones (1-10, 10-100) in the river valleys and at the foothill, and the lowest one (0.01-0.1)--over the desert territory where zcl was not practically found. using these data 2 maps were prepared. t ...19921435577
serological studies on the epidemiology of sandfly fever in the old world.selected human sera from 59 different localities in africa, the mediterranean littoral, eastern europe and asia were examined by plaque reduction neutralization test against eight sandfly (phlebotomus) fever virus serotypes (sicilian, naples, arumowot, sudan 754-61, karimabad, salehabad, gordil and saint floris) known to occur in the old world. results of these studies provide new information on the geographic distribution and prevalence of human infection with each of the viruses. specific neut ...1976829416
vector potential of phlebotomus papatasi scopoli (diptera, phlebotomidae) to kala azar in baghdad area. 1977617937
leishmania infections damage the feeding mechanism of the sandfly vector and implement parasite transmission by bite.leishmania parasites are transmitted by the bites of infected female sandflies by a mechanism that has not been clarified. leishmania infections in the vector develop only in the gut, and the parasites' exit is through the food channel in the proboscis. the problem is how during the bite, when blood flows in, parasites are emitted through the same channel in the opposite direction. it is well documented that infected sandflies maintained on sugar diets are potent vectors, whereas transmission fa ...19921409724
biting rhythm & biting activity of phlebotomid sandflies.the biting behaviour of phlebotomid sandflies was studied in a rural village of pondicherry through all night collections for a period of one year, using human volunteers and cattle as baits. phlebotomus papatasi was caught only on human bait, showing anthropophily while ph. argentipes was caught on cattle baits, showing zoophily. the biting activity was seen throughout the night, reaching a peak of 0100 h in ph. papatasi and 0200 h in ph. argentipes.19921291465
[epidemiology of leishmaniasis in algeria. 4. the phlebotomi (diptera, psychodidae) of tje aurès region].following their epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis in algeria, the authors report the results of an entomological survey in the aurès region. they point out the presence in this region of three common vectors of leishmaniasis: two species (phlebotomus papatasi and p. sergenti) for the cutaneous form, and a third one (p. perniciosus) for the visceral form. thus, the aurès region appears to be a potential focus of leishmaniasis.1977555290
occurrence of entomophilic nematode infestation among phlebotomid sandfly, phlebotomus papatasi--a preliminary report.infestation of a nematode parasite was observed in the natural population of phlebotomus papatasi in pondicherry, india. of the 877 males and 959 females sandflies examined for the natural infection, 11 females were found infested with nematodes (0.59%). the number of juveniles and/or eggs of nematodes per infected fly ranged from 1 to 192 (mean 51.36 +/- s.d 55.95). the presence of a stylet at the opening of the dorsal oesophageal duct suggests that the parasite belongs to the super family tyle ...19921296959
studies on the epidemiology of sandfly fever in iran. i. virus isolates obtained from phlebotomus.a total of 62 virus isolates was obtained from 12,485 male and female sandflies (predominately phlebotomus papatasi) collected in a village in central iran during the summer of 1975. the overall virus isolation rate from female sandflies was 1 per 177 insects processed. of the 62 virus strains obtained, 49 were identified as sicilian virus, 11 as karimabad, and 2 as a new member of the vesicular stomatitis serogroup. one isolate each of sicilian and karimabad virus was made from pools of male sa ...1977192092
[the minimum effective dosages of repellents].method of thin-layer chromatography was used to estimate threshold dosages of diethytoluamide, benzoylhexamethylene, dihexamethylenecarbamide, diethilamide of phenoxyacetic acid and dimethylphthalate for repelling of mosquitoes (aedes hexodontus, aedes vexans, aedes caspius caspius), simuliids (simulium venustrum), midges (culicoides obsoletus) and sand-flies (phlebotomus papatsi). maximum sensitivity to all the preparations studied was shown by sand-flies (phlebotomus papatasi, and most sensiti ...19751190554
isfahan virus, a new vesiculovirus infecting humans, gerbils, and sandflies in iran.the characteristics and ecology of isfahan virus, a new vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) serotype, are described. two strains of the agent were isolated from pools of phlebotomus papatasi collected in iran in 1975. its animal pathogenicity, growth rate, cytopathic effect, and plaque morphology are similar to those of the other vsv serotypes. electron microscopic examination of the virus demonstrated a bullet shape, the presence of truncated particles and maturation at plasma membranes. antigenic ...1977192094
[long-term phenological observations on flies, inhabitants of burrows of great gerbils in the karshinskaia steppe: phenology of phlebotomus papatasi].observations conducted over a period of 1960--1973 in the uzbek ssr have shown that ph. papatasi has two generations a year. the flight of sand flies in the oasis begins as a rule in the middle of may and lasts to the middle of september with peaks at the beginning of june and the end of july--beginning of august. shifts in the main phenological dates in the same observation site are no more than two weeks. in desert territories situated southwards from the oasis phenological dates pass ahead th ...1976141022
[an anomaly of style spines in phlebotomus papatasi scopoli, 1786 (diptera, psychodidae)]. 1979546365
[natural foci of viruses borne by phlebotomus papatasi in the ussr according to a serologic study of the population].seven hundred sixteen blood serum specimens from residents of presumable foci of phlebotomus fevers in turkmenia, tajikistan, uzbekistan, azerbaijan, and moldavia were examined by the neutralization, complement fixation, hemagglutionation-inhibition and indirect immunofluorescence tests for the presence of antibody to viruses of the group of phlebotomus fevers (sicilyan, neapolitan, and karimabad) and to rhabdovirus isfahan transmitted by phlebotomus papatasi. for the first time, antibody to kar ...1978153653
susceptibility of phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae) to ddt in some foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in iran.the susceptibility of phlebotomus papatasi to ddt was studied in field surveys at localities in different areas of iran during 1985-88. in many parts of iran houses had been treated with ddt for malaria control (1950-68). tests were carried out in localities where the application of ddt had been discontinued since 1969. this investigation showed that p. papatasi from isfahan is more tolerant to ddt than flies from other areas, probably a manifestation of ddt resistance.19921583501
two successive years studies on phlebotomus papatasi in north sinai governorate, egypt.no doubt, zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) is increasing in north sinai governorate. the causative agent, l. major was identified as well as two animal reservoir hosts, gerbillus pyramidum and meriones crassus. this paper was intended to study the seasonal abundance and the sex ratio of the suspected insect, phlebotomus papatasi as well as to search for natural infected in wild caught females. the c.d.c. miniature light traps were used for adult collections, dissection was used for demonst ...19921578184
sandfly fauna of domestic & para-domestic habitats in arid & semi-arid zones of rajasthan.sandfly fauna of three districts of rajasthan representing arid and semi-arid environments are described. a total of 2,042 sandflies belonging to two genera and seven species were collected. the arid district of bikaner with irrigational development (by means of canal) showed considerably higher density of species phlebotomus papatasi (16.5 pmh) as compared to jodhpur district (1.0 pmh). the species encountered were ph. papatasi, ph. sergenti, sergentomyia punjabensis, s. babu babu, s. clydei, s ...19921601477
recoverability of rift valley fever and sandfly fever sicilian viruses from infected phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae) trapped in various oils.we studied the effects of various oils used to trap sand flies on the recovery of virus from infected adult phlebotomus papatasi. both rift valley fever and sandfly fever sicilian viruses were readily recovered from virus-inoculated specimens held at 26 degrees c on mineral, olive or castor oil-soaked sheets for up to 12 h. however, after 50 h on oil-soaked paper, significantly greater titers were recovered from sand flies trapped with mineral oil than from sand flies trapped with either of the ...19921316427
chitinase secreted by leishmania functions in the sandfly vector.leishmania major parasites ingested with host blood by the sandfly phlebotomus papatasi multiply confined within the peritrophic membrane. this membrane consists of a chitin framework and a protein carbohydrate matrix and it is secreted around the food by the insect midgut. histological sections of infected flies show lysis of the chitin layer in the anterior region of the peritrophic membrane that permits the essential forward migration of a concentrated mass of parasites. both the location and ...19911682935
[duration and character of the course of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the midday gerbil (meriones meridianus pall.)].the development of the infection process during cutaneous leishmaniosis was traced in one midday gerbil (meriones meridianus pall). the gerbil fell ill with cutaneous leishmaniosis after the feeding of san flies of phlebotomus papatasi and ph. mongolensis on it. the incubation process of the disease was less than 23 days. leishmaniosic process began at the base of the concha auriculae and caused the destruction of ear tissues. the complete recover set in 67 days after the infection. thus, the in ...19751221346
[isolation of leishmania major in phlebotomus papatasi in biskra (algeria). the end of an ecoepidemiological saga].out of 1,167 females of sandflies dissected, one specimen of phlebotomus papatasi captured at a transmission site near biskra, a well known algerian focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, was found naturally infected with leishmania major zymodeme mon-25. this supports classical observations of sergent and al. p. papatasi as vector in this focus in 1921.19921642393
experimental efficiency of phlebotomus papatasi in maintaining development of four species of leishmania.experimental infections were carried out to evaluate the capability of 3 species of phlebotomus to acquire and allow development of 4 species of leishmania. the sand-flies were allowed to feed on infective blood by a membrane feeding technique and infected vertebrate hosts. the species of phlebotomus experimented with were p. papatasi (egyptian and indian strains), p. dubosqi (sinegal strain), and p. perniciosus (french strain). the species of leishmania used were l. tropica (afganistanian strai ...19921578171
laboratory studies on the biology of phlebotomus papatasi scopoli sandfly (diptera: psychodidae). 19751225416
[comparison between phlebotomus duboscqi neveu-lemaire, 1906, and phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli, 1786): morphological and isoenzymatic studies].phlebotomus duboscqi et p.papatasi are morphologically closely related. both species can be vectors of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the old world. in some african areas these two species are sympatric. until now the females of the two species could not be differentiated. the authors investigated morphological characters and isoenzymatic characterization. constant differences were observed. moreover three interbreeding attempts were unsuccessful. these two species seemed to be considered a ...19911841233
daily and seasonal activities of some sandflies from surrugia village, khartoum, sudan.the present study is concerned with four species of phlebotomine sandflies prevailing in khartoum area between the years 1984 and 1987. flies studied were phlebotomus papatasi, sergentomyia antennata, s. clydei and s. schewtzi. the indoor and outdoor daily rhythmic and biting activities were determined during the transmission season for both males and females p. papatasi. peaks of daily activities and the time at which man is at greatest risk were determined. for each year the monthly relative p ...19911841209
demonstration of hybridization between phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) and phlebotomus bergeroti parrot.to determine the genetic similarity between phlebotomus bergeroti and p. papatasi, and to explain the infrequent sympatry of these two species, cross-mating experiments were conducted. female p. bergeroti interbred with male p. papatasi to produce hybrid offspring. the reciprocal cross, female p. papatasi x male p. bergeroti, failed to produce viable eggs and offspring. the morphology and behavior of the hybrids was intermediate between the two parent species.19911841213
predictive estimation of sandfly biting density at a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the north sinai desert, egypt.human-landing rates were compared with cdc light trap and oiled paper sticky trap rates to evaluate efficacy for estimating human-biting density of phlebotomus papatasi. strong correlation coefficients of 0.83 and 0.93 were obtained for monthly sticky trap rates and cdc light trap rates, respectively, against the monthly means for sandfly landing rate/man/hour suggesting that both methods could provide a reliable alternative method for estimating and predicting human-biting density.19911841214
recent advances in laboratory mass rearing of phlebotomine sand flies.recent technical and procedural advances in mass rearing of sand flies have resulted in larger, healthier, and less labor-intensive colonies. we now maintain closed colonies of phlebotomus papatasi, p. duboscqi, p. argentipes, and lutzomyia longipalpis which produce up to 1,000 females per week, in excess of colony-maintenance requirements, for use in research. advances include larval food preparation in acrylic-plastic incubator cabinets, strict regulation of food quantity and moisture in 500-m ...19911841228
[fate of the promastigotes of leishmania tropica major and l. gymnodactyli in the body of phlebotomus papatasi under conditions of a mixed infection].experimental infection of males and females of phlebotomus papatasi sc. with leishmania tropica major from man and l. gimnodactyli from agama sanguinolenta was carried out in order to obtain mixed infection. sand flies from the laboratory culture were successively infected with promastigotes of each species of leishmania by means of compulsory dose feeding according to alekseev's method. for identification of leishmania cultures isolated from experimentally infected sand flies alder's serologica ...1976940687
studies on mating plug of two sandfly species, phlebotomus perniciosus and phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae).a study was undertaken to interpret the nature and function of the "plug like formation" observed inside the spermathecae of many phlebotomine sandflies dissected during field surveys. trials were carried out on two laboratory reared species, phlebotomus perniciosus and p. papatasi. the results showed that the "plug like formation" is a true mating plug (mp) containing immotile sperms. our studies showed also that the mp evolves differently according to the physiological state of the mated femal ...19911841236
geographical and age-related variation in the activity of some enzymes associated with insecticide detoxification in sandflies (diptera: phlebotominae).the activity of glutathione s-transferase (gst), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd), and esterases (est1, est2) was measured using microtitre plate assays of laboratory colonised phlebotomus papatasi originating in afghanistan, cyprus, india, iraq, saudi arabia, spain and tunisia. the mean enzyme activity of the seven populations was significantly different. enzyme activity did not vary significantly with age in sandflies, unlike some mosquitoes. a baseline enzyme activity for susceptibili ...19911841242
refractory barriers in the sand fly phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae) to infection with leishmania panamensis.the life cycle of leishmania panamensis in phlebotomus papatasi was studied to characterize barriers limiting parasite colonization, differentiation, migration, and attachment in an unnatural sand fly host. the insects were fed a suspension of l. panamensis-infected macrophages and human erythrocytes, and were examined up to 16 days post-infection by light and electron microscopy. histologic examination of 401 flies showed the peritrophic membrane to be the first important barrier to parasite es ...19921539756
adult diet as a factor affecting biology of the sandfly phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae).the effects of adult nutrients on egg retention, immature development and adult survival of p. papatasi, the important vector of leishmaniasis in egypt were investigated. the tested nutrients were distilled water, overripe fig fruits, guinea pig blood, sucrose solution and alternative meals of blood and sucrose. egg retention was observed in females irrespective to the type of offered nutrient (r = 0.21) but higher proportion (47%) of blood fed females had retained eggs. duration of the life cyc ...19911800616
entomopathogens of phlebotomine sand flies: laboratory experiments and natural infections.the susceptibility of different geographical strains of phlebotomus papatasi to a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (cpv) was determined experimentally by feeding polyhedra to larvae. of the indian p. papatasi, 15.6% became infected, whereas egyptian p. papatasi were mostly refractory. infection rates were not augmented in colony flies from the jordan valley, 23.8% of which were naturally infected with cpv. the infectivity of serratia marcescens and beauvaria bassiana to p. papatasi were determined ...19911783777
isolation and characterization of leishmania major from phlebotomus papatasi and military personnel in north sinai, egypt. 19911780981
host preference pattern of phlebotomine sandflies of bikaner city.host preference pattern of phlebotomine sandflies was ascertained using the precipitin test. engorged sandflies from endemic localities revealed that out of 126 blood meals 88.8 per cent were human blood, 7.3 per cent bovine blood and 3.9 per cent mixed for both human and bovine. four of five sergentomyia babu were positive for human blood and the remaining one for bovine. two s. baghdadis collected had only human blood, of two s. punjabensis collected, one had human blood. mixed human and bovin ...19911778622
[morphological abnormalities of sandflies (diptera, psychodidae) in albania].out of about 15,000 sandflies examined within surveys on leishmaniasis in albania, morphological abnormalities were recorded in 25 specimens. among them 21 are sergentomyia minuta, 3 phlebotomus papatasi and 1 p. neglectus. twenty-four were males and one female. in 20 s. minuta and 1 p. neglectus males there was anomaly in the number of spines of the styles, in 2 p. papatasi in spines of the lateral lobes. another p. papatasi showed very much changed genitalia (gynandromorph?) and in 1 s. minuta ...19911844508
retrotransposons and evolution in phlebotomines.the polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a segment of the reverse transcriptase (rt) gene of putative retrotransposons from phlebotomus (larroussius) perniciosus, p. (l.) perfiliewi, p. (phlebotomus) papatasi and lutzomyia (lutzomyia) longipalpis. based on amino acid sequence comparisons with known rt genes, the amplified products of these species were shown to be derived from non-ltr retrotransposons related to the f element of drosophila melanogaster. the usefulness of this technique ...19911726736
a test for genetic exchange in mixed infections of leishmania major in the sand fly phlebotomus papatasi.we tested if genetic exchange was observable between two strains of leishmania major (trypanosomatidae) during mixed infection of the sand fly phlebotomus papatasi. previous studies suggested that genetic exchange may occur in natural populations of leishmania at a low frequency, but experimental crosses examining small numbers of progeny (less than 60) did not reveal hybrid parasites. accordingly, a strategy was devised to increase the number of progeny that could be screened by 100-fold. clona ...19911880760
analysis of enhancing effect of sand fly saliva on leishmania infection in mice.salivary gland lysates of the sand fly lutzomyia longipalpis markedly enhance the course of infection with leishmania major in mice. here we examine various parameters of this phenomenon. the exacerbative effect of l. longipalpis salivary gland lysates occurred in five different mouse strains; however, the character of the effect varied from one strain to another. consistent exacerbation of infection was achieved with as little as 1/10 of a gland. the exacerbative effect applied to more than one ...19912019430
leishmania-sandfly interactions: an empirical field study.phlebotomus papatasi is the sandfly vector of leishmania major in the jordan valley. the objective of this study was to characterize vector-parasite relations in an active zoonotic focus. seasonality and intensity of promastigote infection rates in female sandflies and the developmental stage of these hosts were established. on 153 trap-nights, 641 female p. papatasi were caught and examined. of these, 48 (7.4%, range 12.9-4.8%) were infected with l. major promastigotes. correlating the number o ...19912010872
species- and infective stage-specific monoclonal antibodies to leishmania major produced by an in vitro immunization method.monoclonal antibodies specific to the infective-stage promastigotes of leishmania major are needed for developing rapid diagnostic assays of infected sand flies. an in vitro immunization protocol was applied for the production of monoclonal antibodies using small amounts of l. major. infective-stage promastigotes were isolated from sand flies (phlebotomus papatasi) 7-10 days after infection and used as antigen for immunization. two weeks after a primary immunization, murine splenocytes were remo ...19902087235
populations of phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae) and the risk of leishmania major transmission in three jordan valley habitats.the abundance, population structure, and leishmania infection rates of phlebotomus papatasi were studied at two villages, a 10-yr old date plantation, and an undisturbed natural habitat in the jordan valley throughout one season. on 109 trap nights in the villages, 53 female and 61 male p. papatasi were caught, whereas in burrows in the natural and agriculturally modified habitat, greater than 3,500 sandflies were trapped on 157 trap nights. burrows in the data plantation produced larger numbers ...19911941907
transmission and scanning em-immunogold labeling of leishmania major lipophosphoglycan in the sandfly phlebotomus papatasi.previous studies using immunostaining and light microscopy demonstrated expression of leishmania major lipophosphoglycan (lpg) on parasites developing in the sandfly gut from 2 days post infection. by days 4 to 7 post infection, there appeared to be large amounts of parasite-free lpg deposited on/in the microvilli and epithelial cells lining the thoracic midgut, while forward migration of parasites and the morphological changes which accompany metacyclogenesis were associated with developmental ...19911935998
leishmania infecting man and wild animals in saudi arabia. 8. the influence of prior infection with leishmania arabica on challenge with l. major in man.a clinical trial is described of an attempt to protect against leishmania major by prior vaccination with live l. arabica. after a single, previously leishmanin-negative, adult male volunteer was bitten by 8 phlebotomus papatasi infected with l. arabica, no infected lesions were observed. he remained leishmanin-negative and his lymphocytes reacted weakly to antigens of l. arabica or l. major. subsequently he and 3 other leishmanin-negative adult male volunteers were vaccinated with cultures cont ...19902126153
the characterization of leishmania major from phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) caught in northern sinai, egypt. 19902096507
expression of lpg and gp63 by different developmental stages of leishmania major in the sandfly phlebotomus papatasi.development and forward migration of leishmania parasites in the sandfly gut is accompanied by morphological transformation to highly motile, non-dividing 'metacyclic' forms. previous studies in vitro have demonstrated that this metacyclogenesis is associated with developmentally regulated changes in expression of two major surface glycoconjugates of leishmania, the lipophosphoglycan (lpg) and the glycoprotein protease gp63. studies presented here are the first to examine in situ the changes in ...19902092290
abnormalities in the sand fly phlebotomus papatasi scopoli (diptera: psychodidae) of egypt. 19882979940
oviposition diapause and other factors affecting the egg-laying of phlebotomus papatasi in the laboratory.stimuli which modulate oviposition of p. papatasi were investigated to improve insectary breeding efficiency. oviposition and survival of gravid females were observed weekly during april-december 1987, in plastic cages at 28 +/- 1 degrees c with l:d 17:7. oviposition of controls was subject to seasonal variation despite the relatively uniform insectary conditions. from april to mid-october (summer), mean weekly oviposition ranged from 11.6 to 18.6 eggs per fly, dropping to 1.4 eggs/fly in novemb ...19902132971
sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) in mersa matruh and siwa oasis, a.r. egypt.sandflies were surveyed 3 times during 1989 in mersa matruh city and siwa oasis to investigate their status. only phlebotomus papatasi was identified from inside houses and outdoor sites. more flies were collected in mersa matruh than in siwa. results document for the first time the presence of p. papatasi in mersa matruh and verify its presence in siwa oasis.19902133902
electrophoretic comparison of the leishmania vectors phlebotomus papatasi and p. langeroni (diptera: psychodidae).cellulose acetate electrophoresis was employed to detect 22 different enzyme systems in laboratory-reared populations of the sympatric leishmania vectors, phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) and p. langeroni nitzulescu. electrophoretic conditions sensitive enough to permit as many as eight separate enzyme assays to be performed on individual specimens were developed. under these conditions, 18 enzymes were detected with high resolution and regularity. evidence was obtained which suggested that a numb ...19902388235
enzyme electrophoresis as an alternative method for separating the sympatric leishmania vectors phlebotomus papatasi and phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae).trials were conducted to determine the accuracy of separating the sympatric sand fly species phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) and p. langeroni nitzulescu by means of cellulose acetate enzyme electrophoresis. malic enzyme, phosphoglucomutase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and fumarate hydratase were each evaluated in laboratory-reared and field-collected populations of the two species. each of the four enzyme-based identifications was highly sensitive (greater than 97%) and specific (greater th ...19902146393
released glycoconjugate of indigenous leishmania major enhances survival of a foreign l. major in phlebotomus papatasi.the effect of leishmania glycoconjugate in the vector was investigated using phlebotomus papatasi artificially infected with a leishmania major strain that this vector does not transmit in nature. glycoconjugate of the vector-specific strain of l. major was added to the infective meals of some fly groups and the success of infections with or without this substance was compared 4 d later. in the absence of glycoconjugate the parasites survived in 15.6% of the flies, while the addition of 0.5 mg/m ...19902260168
genetic factors controlling susceptibility to leishmania major infection in the sand fly phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae).studies of the genetic factors controlling leishmania major infection in phlebotomus papatasi were carried out using 2 different sand fly lines: one highly susceptible and the other refractory to the parasite. l. major infection rates in both f1 and f2 generations from reciprocal crosses and in backcrosses between the parent lines showed that susceptibility and refractoriness of ph. papatasi to infection with l. major are controlled by less than 1 gene. neither susceptibility nor refractoriness ...19902331042
selection of phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae) lines susceptible and refractory to leishmania major infection.variation in susceptibility to infection with cultured promastigotes of leishmania major was detected among 3 different geographic strains (israel, egypt, and india) of the sand fly phlebotomus papatasi. the israel strain showed the greatest susceptibility and was chosen for subsequent genetic selection experiments. after 13 generations of genetic selection in this strain, a stable refractory line was obtained in which only 7.5% of the insects could be infected. a highly susceptible line was als ...19902331041
experimental infection of old and new world phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) with ascogregarina chagasi (eugregarinorida: lecudinidae).the aseptate gregarine, ascogregarina chagasi (adler and mayrink), found in a colombian strain of lutzomyia longipalpis (lutz and neiva), was fed to the larvae of seven species of laboratory-bred sand flies: phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli), p. argentipes annandale and brunetti, p. perniciosus newstead, l. serrana (damasceno and arouck), l. abonnenci (floch and chassignet), l. columbiana (ristorcelli and van ty), and a gregarine-free brazilian strain of l. longipalpis. trophozoites of the gregarin ...19892769700
cutaneous leishmaniasis in the peace keeping force in east sinai.during the period from october 1982 to july 1985 cutaneous leishmaniasis was diagnosed in 113 multinational force and observers (mfo) soldiers from various nations, east sinai. leishmania was isolated from twelve of these patients and maintained in vitro using tanabe's medium. intrasplenic inoculation of promastigotes from isolate cultures into hamsters resulted in dissemination patterns typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis. the excreted factor in culture when serotyped against known marker strain ...19892768872
leishmaniasis in the jordan valley. v. dispersal characteristics of the sandfly phlebotomus papatasi.several characteristics of dispersing and non-dispersing phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) were quantified and compared. the majority of dispersing sandflies, trapped crossing fallow fields, were females (68.5% v. 51.1%); of the dispersing females, 55.4% were parous, 48.1% were inseminated and 11.6% were gravid. in the population of sandflies sampled exiting from burrows of the sand rat psammomys obesus cretschmar, these categories, respectively, represented 39%, 90% and 26% of the females examined ...19882980198
base-line susceptibility of phlebotomus papatasi to insecticides.susceptibility of the leishmaniasis vector sandfly phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) to three insecticides was assessed on a colony originating in the jordan valley, israel. results are considered to show susceptibility to ddt and permethrin. the results for methoxychlor indicated the possibility of heterogeneity in the population and tolerance towards this compound.19872979528
trypsin and chymotrypsin-like enzymes of the sandfly phlebotomus papatasi infected with leishmania and their possible role in vector competence.phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) is susceptible to infection with leishmania major yakimov & schokov and resistant to l. donovani laveran & mesnil. the possibility that susceptibility depends on midgut levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin-like (esterolytic) enzymes was investigated. infection with l. major reduced the trypsin-like activity to 93.5% and 86% of the control value at 20 and 30 h post feeding and increased it to 106% at 52 h. infection with l. donovani reduced trypsin-like activity to 64 ...19872979536
phlebotomus papatasi a possible vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in khartoum, sudan. 19902332661
experimental infection of phlebotomus papatasi with sand fly fever sicilian virus.experimental studies were conducted to evaluate humans as hosts infecting the sand fly phlebotomus papatasi with sand fly fever sicilian (sfs) virus. viral antigen and infectious virus circulated in the blood of infected volunteers on days 4 and 5 after intravenous inoculation with sfs virus. viremia levels during the latter period were high enough to infect feeding sand flies, but only 13% (9/69) of the flies became infected. one out of every 3 infected sand flies that survived to feed a second ...19882849886
feeding patterns of phlebotomus papatasi and phlebotomus langeroni (diptera: psychodidae) in el agamy, egypt.blood meals from 602 phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) and 49 phlebotomus langeroni nitzulescu were collected in el agamy, egypt, and were identified using counterimmunoelectrophoresis. blood meals were tested against specific antisera of eight vertebrate hosts (human, cat, dog, rat, sheep, goat, general avian, and general bovine). of 597 p. papatasi collected indoors, 594 contained human blood and three had mixed blood meals (human-dog, human-rat, and human-avian). four of five p. papatasi collect ...19892795623
leishmaniasis in the jordan valley: differential attraction of dispersing and breeding site populations of phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae) to manure and water.the response of phlebotomus papatasi scopoli to traps baited with manure or water was used to compare the behavior of flies near rodent burrows (breeding sites) and dispersing flies in fallow fields. the degree of response in each biotype was defined for each bait by the difference between catches in baited and unbaited traps. manure bait attracted twice as many flies near the burrows and 2.7 times more flies in the field compared with unbaited traps. in both locations, the manure bait increased ...19892795612
dna hybridizations on squash-blotted sandflies to identify both phlebotomus papatasi and infecting leishmania major.epidemiological field studies on leishmaniasis have been hampered by the laborious, and often inefficient, methods used to assess the rates of infection of sandfly vectors (diptera; phlebotominae) by species of the causative disease organisms, protozoal parasites of the genus leishmania (kinetoplastida; trypanosomatidae). we report the rapid and accurate identification of both sandfly vector (phlebotomus (phlebotomus) papatasi (scopoli] and infecting leishmania major yakimov & schokov by dna hyb ...19882856540
[visceral leishmaniasis in ordubad district, nakhichevan assr].visceral leishmaniasis (vl) focus in the ordubad district of the nakhichevan assr has become active for the last years. complex study of the focus, performed in 1985-1987, allowed to establish the following: vl causative agent, circulating in the ordubad district belongs to the leishmania infantum species. it was identified by isoenzymatic analysis (for 12 enzymes) and the adler serological test. disease cases prevailed in the upper part of the town of ordubad and were confined to a small area ( ...19892528672
fluid mechanics of bloodmeal uptake by leishmania-infected sandflies.the fluid mechanics of blood flow in the pharynx and cibarium of phlebotomus papatasi are described using a simple static model. the flow is characterized as viscous laminar. the hagen-poiseuille equation is used to assess the effects of attached parasites in the foregut of leishmania-infected sandflies on blood flow. the reductions in flow rate imposed by parasite colonization of the pharynx and cibarium will reduce the ability of an infected fly to take a bloodmeal, thus encouraging further pr ...19862872786
[sensitivity of phlebotomus papatasi, scopoli, 1786 (diptera, phlebotominae) to ddt in the uzbek ssr]. 19862945088
the peritrophic membrane of the female sandfly phlebotomus papatasi.the ultrastructure of the peritrophic membrane of the female sandfly phlebotomus papatasi has been studied at various times after blood meals. the membrane begins to form within four hours of the blood meal with the secretion by the entire midgut epithelium of an electron-dense amorphous material. subsequently, the membrane is stabilized and strengthened by the production of a layer of irregular chitinous microfibres, the whole membrane then forming a complete and resilient sac apparently unaffe ...19883256279
the ultrastructure of leishmania major in the foregut and proboscis of phlebotomus papatasi. 19883194371
cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses in phlebotomus papatasi inhibit development of leishmania major.cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (cpv's) were observed in wild-caught and laboratory-reared phlebotomus papatasi. chronic cpv pathology of the midgut, characterized by structural aberrations in the epithelium and the peritrophic membrane, interfered with blood digestion and rendered the sand flies refractory to leishmania major infections. rates of natural and artificial l. major infections were inversely correlated to the incidence of cpv infections. the interaction between viruses and protozoa ...19873298600
development of leishmania major in the phlebotomine sandflies, phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli) and phlebotomus langeroni (nitzulescu).laboratory bred phlebolomus papatasi and p. langeroni were examined for their susceptibility to develop leishmania major promastigotes under laboratory conditions. promastigotes were demonstrated in the gut of both species when they were given sugar 24 hr before or after an infective blood meal and in flies offered only an infective blood. the overall infection rate was slightly higher in p. langeroni than p. papatasi. head promastigotes were detected in p. papatasi provided with sugar 24 hr bef ...19883421642
occurrence and indoor activity of phlebotomus papatasi scopoli at gharbia governorate, egypt. 19883418147
[natural infestation of phlebotomus papatasi in a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in tunisia].the presence of phlebotomus papatasi naturally infected with leishmania (2 females out of 24), is reported for the first time, in a tunisian zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis focus.19873440311
studies on phlebotomus papatasi scopoli in gharbia governorate, egypt. 19883373063
marking of phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae) by feeding on sprayed, coloured sugar bait: a possible means for behavioural and control studies. 19873445342
age determination of phlebotomus papatasi by detection of cuticular growthlines. 19873445309
isolation of leishmania major from phlebotomus papatasi in tunisia. 19873449994
the agglutination of erythrocytes and leishmania parasites by sandfly gut extracts: evidence for lectin activity.lysates of heads, hind- and midguts of male and female phlebotomus papatasi were found to contain lectins or lectin-like molecules capable of agglutinating human red blood cell types of the abo(h) system and promastigotes of leishmania aethiopica, l. major and l. donovani but not l. hertigi hertigi promastigotes or crithidia fasciculata choanomastigotes. the agglutination of erythrocytes from the human o rhesus positive blood group by sandfly midgut extracts was inhibited by two disaccharides; t ...19863563322
the effect of post-bloodmeal nutrition of phlebotomus papatasi on the transmission of leishmania major.to test the effects of post-bloodmeal nutrition of sand flies on the transmission of leishmania major, groups of infected p. papatasi females maintained on diets of sucrose, trehalose, albumin or a mixture of sucrose and albumin, were subjected to forced feeding with capillaries. transmission was evaluated by counting the parasites egested; numbers ranged from 0 to over 1,000 promastigotes. infections of the anterior midgut were seen in the majority of flies from all the experimental groups but ...19863766853
evidence for polygamy in phlebotomus papatasi scopoli. 19863566088
sandflies of district sabarkantha (gujarat) india and abnormalities in male hypopygium of phlebotomus papatasi. 19883241070
[clinico-epidemiologic forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis in tunisia].from an analysis of 1,546 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis collected throughout tunisia three clinico-epidemiological forms could be determined. these forms are due to three different species of leishmania and are observed in different geographical areas. sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis (scl), 63 cases. this form is found in northern tunisia, in known foci of kala-azar. 96% of the patients have a single, small, ulcerated and crusty lesion on the face surrounded by an important zone of infiltrat ...19883242407
leishmania infecting man and wild animals in saudi arabia. 1. general survey.using up to 13 enzymes, biochemical characterization of 75 isolates of leishmania made from man, wild animals and sandflies from a wide variety of localities in the kingdom of saudi arabia has revealed the presence of l. major (two similar zymodemes), l. tropica (two zymodemes) and a parasite of the l. donovani-l. infantum complex. zymodeme lon-4 of l. major has been found in 52 of 53 isolates so far characterized from man, from one specimen of phlebotomus papatasi, from 15 psammomys obesus, fro ...19853914117
survival of albumin, igg, igm, and complement (c3) in human blood after ingestion by aedes albopictus and phlebotomus papatasi.the levels of albumin, igg, igm, and complement (c3) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in aedes albopictus and phlebotomus papatasi at regular intervals after feeding on human blood. albumin disappeared most rapidly; by 48 hr, detectable levels of albumin had decreased 100-fold. in contrast, igg and igm survived longer and were still detectable at low levels several days after ingestion. c3 was intermediate in its rate of degradation. in general, serum protein disappearance oc ...19883400799
development of sandfly forms of leishmania major in sucrose solutions.stages of leishmania developing in the vector include different morphs that are exposed first to ingested blood and then to sugar meals. this study sought to determine whether stages occurring in the latter medium could be induced by culturing in sugar-based media. in sucrose solutions, l. major continued to divide and multiplied by 38-46%. paramastigotes and aflagellates are forms present in late stages of leishmania infection in phlebotomus papatasi. they constituted 79% of the forms in sucros ...19873625431
leishmaniasis in the jordan valley. iii. nocturnal activity of phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae) in relation to nutrition and ovarian development. 19863735348
effect of diet on biological activities of the sandfly phlebotomus papatasi scopoli (diptera, psychodidae). 19863722902
scanning electron microscopy of leishmania major in phlebotomus papatasi.the morphology of leishmania major parasites and their interactions with various regions of the alimentary canal of phlebotomus papatasi were studied by scanning electron microscopy. parasites were observed to undergo development initiated with the ingestion of amastigotes and culminating in a characteristic distribution of four distinct morphological forms in various parts of the alimentary canal: namely, large numbers of elongate nectomonads in the abdominal mid-gut, haptomonad forms attached ...19863751230
[interrelations of phlebotomus papatasi sc. with different species of leishmania]. 19873683290
phytophagy and the feeding cycle of phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae) under experimental conditions. 19863950922
laboratory testing of repellents against the sand fly phlebotomus papatasi (diptera: psychodidae). 19863950928
zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in saudi arabia: the incrimination of phlebotomus papatasi as the vector in the al-hassa oasis.surveys of the phlebotomine fauna in a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (zcl) in the al-hassa oasis, eastern province, saudi arabia, revealed only one species of phlebotomus (p. papatasi) and three of sergentomyia (s. antennata, s. clydei and s. fallax). 11 specimens of p. papatasi from six sites in the oasis were found with promastigotes in the midgut. an isolate from one of the sandflies was typed by the examination of isoenzymes and identified as leishmania major, zymodeme lon-4 (= m ...19854002297
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