[rotavirus: a frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis in children]. 1977189452
[acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. a summary of danish studies]. 1977202050
sequences of the four larger proteins of a porcine group c rotavirus and comparison with the equivalent group a rotavirus proteins.the sequences of the four larger proteins of rotavirus group c (cowden strain) are presented and compared with the sequences of the corresponding group a proteins. they exhibit a significant level of homology, allowing gene coding assignment for the group c rotavirus. the coding strategy of the group c virus rna segment is the same as that for the group a large segments as one long open reading frame is present in each segment. the genome segment 1 encodes the structural protein vp1 which presen ...19921310192
nucleotide sequences of normal and rearranged rna segments 10 of human rotaviruses.normal and rearranged rna segments 10 of group a rotaviruses isolated from a chronically infected immunodeficient child were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction as full-length cdna copies, and were subsequently cloned and sequenced. compared with the nucleotide sequence of the normal rna segment 10, the rearranged form contains a partial non-coding duplication at its 3' end and several point mutations. the normal rna segment 10 was similar to that of bovine rotavirus.19921312123
detection of human group c rotaviruses by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies was established for the detection of human group c rotaviruses. seventeen clinical samples which were found to contain group c rotaviruses were all strongly positive, whereas 9 samples containing group a rotaviruses and 51 samples lacking rotaviruses were all negative with this test.19921316369
coding assignments of the genome of adult diarrhea diarrhea rotavirus (adrv) has caused epidemics of diarrhea in china since 1982 and remains the only group b rotavirus associated with widespread disease in humans. we recently characterized the proteins of adrv and have now proceeded to identify the gene segments encoding each protein. viral rna transcripts were synthesized in vitro with the endogenous viral rna polymerase and separated by electrophoresis in agarose. the individual transcripts were translated in a cell-free system using nu ...19921322659
laboratory diagnosis of rotavirus infection in diarrhoeal patients by immunoenzymatic and latex-agglutination hundred stool samples from children with acute diarrhoea were examined by six commercial latex and immunoenzymatic assays for the diagnosis of rotavirus infection in four different laboratories. samples were also analyzed by solid-phase immune electron microscopy using a rabbit anti-group a rotavirus antiserum. with electron microscopy as a basis for comparison, sensitivity and specificity for the latex and elisa assays varied from 91.1 to 92.9% and from 94.2 to 99.4%, respectively. statisti ...19921323741
inhibition of rotavirus in vitro transcription by optimal concentrations of monoclonal antibodies specific for rotavirus vp6.three monoclonal antibodies (mabs) obtained from inoculation of mice with either a serotype 1 human rotavirus or rotavirus sa11 (serotype 3) inhibited the in vitro transcription of rotavirus sa11. two of the mabs exhibited a biphasic inhibitory response. removal of antibody from mab preparations by adsorption with sepharose-protein g reduced the inhibitory activity completely for all three mab preparations. analysis by radioimmunoprecipitation and western blotting indicated that all three mabs r ...19921331302
immunohistochemical detection of porcine rotavirus using immunogold silver staining (igss).immunogold silver staining (igss) was applied for the detection of porcine group a rotavirus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of small intestine. prior to the application of igss, the reactivity of protein a-gold as a marker was tested with group-specific antiserum in immunogold electron microscopy. immune aggregates were intensely and specifically labeled with the gold complex. application of igss to tissue sections resulted in specific dark staining of villous enterocytes in ...19921372832
antigenic and genetic analyses of human rotaviruses in chiang mai, thailand: evidence for a close relationship between human and animal rotaviruses.serotyping of group a rotaviruses obtained from stools of 158 diarrheic patients in chiang mai, thailand, by elisa with monoclonal antibodies revealed a yearly change in the prevalence of individual serotypes. three unusual human rotavirus strains were isolated. strain mc35 had subgroup i-serotype 10 antigen and a long rna electrophoretic type, a property hitherto found only in bovine rotaviruses. rna-rna hybridization tests showed that the strain is more closely related genetically to bovine th ...19921378870
localization of group-specific epitopes on the major capsid protein of group a rotavirus.chemical cleavage of the vp6 protein of bovine rotavirus showed that vp6-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reacted with the amino acid sequence between glycine 48 and asparagine 107. furthermore, three synthetic peptides (amino acids 48 to 64, 60 to 75 and 91 to 108) containing part of this sequence and 22 consecutive overlapping heptapeptides corresponding to the region between amino acids 48 and 75 were analysed for their immunoreactivity using group-specific mabs. the mabs recognized pept ...19921378880
identification and partial characterization of a rhesus rotavirus binding glycoprotein on murine order to assess the possibility that rotavirus binds to a specific cellular receptor on enterocytes, we have used a viral overlay protein blot assay to study viral binding to murine intestinal brush border membranes (bbm). infectious double-shelled particles of rhesus rotavirus bound specifically to two approximately 300- and 330-kda glycoproteins from bbm prepared from suckling mice. significantly less rotavirus binding was observed when adult bbm were examined. rats have never been shown to ...19911649504
epidemiology of group c rotavirus gastroenteritis in matsuyama, japan.the epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis was studied in the matsuyama district from january to may 1988. among strains of rotaviruses detected 46 showed the group c-specific page pattern of virus rna. group c rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred following an epidemic of group a rotavirus infection, primarily in children aged 4-7 years but rarely in those aged 0-1 years. this was seriologically confirmed after the epidemic. unlike the previous strains detected in matsuyama in 1985-1986, page o ...19911649541
rotavirus infection detected in neonates from hospitals in urban bangladesh.a study of neonatal group a rotavirus (rv) infection in 3 hospitals of urban bangladesh identified 60 infected babies of 100 studied in 2 hospitals. preliminary evidence based on serotyping and electropherotyping suggest that these rvs differ from community strains.19911650551
identification and characterization of a plaque forming avian rotavirus isolated from a wild bird in japan.from fresh faeces of a wild bird (melanitta fusca), a virus that showed granular cytopathic effects (cpe) on chicken kidney cell (ckc) cultures was isolated. by indirect immunofluorescence analyses (ifa), this isolate reacted with an antiserum against a bovine rotavirus. the isolate produced clear plaques on ckc by conventional techniques, without trypsin. three virus plaques were selected by plaque size (small, medium, and large) and cloned by three successive plaque cloning. in the sds-page an ...19911653040
rotavirus-associated diarrhea in rural bangladesh: two-year study of incidence and serotype distribution.stools were evaluated from 5,811 patient visits for treatment of diarrhea in matlab, bangladesh, between june 1987 and may 1989. the stools were analyzed to determine the distribution of serotypes of group a rotaviruses (rv). a total of 898 stool samples (15.5%) contained rv, as determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. rv isolates from 855 of these samples were serotyped by using serotype-specific synthetic oligonucleotide probes. a total of 558 (65.3%) could be assigned to spec ...19911653263
rotavirus infection of the oropharynx and respiratory tract in young children.oropharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 89 infants hospitalized with respiratory illnesses accompanied or not by diarrhea and 33 control patients without the diseases. rotavirus was detected from 25 of these patients by immunocytology, isolation of the virus in cultures of ma104 cells, or both. none of the control patients gave a positive result. the infection involves squamous cells and globlet cells probably originating from the oropharynx, and ciliated columnar epithelial cells from the re ...19911653306
detection of group b and c rotaviruses by polymerase chain reaction.we adapted the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detect the noncultivatable group b and c rotaviruses and introduced a simple and convenient technique to purify viral rna from stool specimens. double-stranded rna present in stool extracts was purified by adsorption to hydroxyapatite and was used as the template for reverse transcription and polymerase amplification. primer pairs specific for group b (gene 8) and group c (gene 6) rotaviruses were selected to amplify group-characteristic sizes of ...19911645368
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to porcine group c rotaviruses cross-reactive with group a rotaviruses.five monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to porcine group (gp) c rotaviruses (cowden and ah strains) reactive with both gp a and c rotaviruses in cell culture immunofluorescence (ccif) tests were produced and characterized. these mabs reacted with three strains of gp a and two strains of gp c rotaviruses in a ccif test and were classified into two groups based on their ccif titers. the mabs also reacted to various degrees with cell-culture-propagated porcine gp c rotavirus (cowden) and bovine gp a rota ...19921384230
group c rotavirus requires sialic acid for erythrocyte and cell receptor binding.current immunological and biochemical information regarding the hemagglutinin and virus-cell interactions of rotavirus is obtained exclusively from studies with group a rotaviruses. in this study, i report that the immunologically and genetically distinct group c rotavirus also possesses a hemagglutinin. the viral hemagglutinin was identified on a cultivable porcine group c rotavirus strain (strain amc-1) by using agglutinated human and guinea pig erythrocytes. neuraminidase treatment of fresh h ...19921380096
comparisons of rotavirus vp7-typing monoclonal antibodies by competition binding assay.three sets of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) used to type the outer capsid protein vp7 of four group a rotavirus serotypes (1 through 4) were compared in competition immunoassays. reciprocal competition was observed for each of the vp7 type 2-, 3-, and 4-specific mabs. the vp7 type 1 mabs exhibited variable competition patterns with other vp7 type 1 mabs. mab rv4:3, which has been used to recognize antigenic variants within vp7 type 1 strains, showed reciprocal competition with the fo ...19921372622
cloning of noncultivatable human rotavirus by single primer amplification.a novel, sequence-independent strategy has been developed for the amplification of full-length cdna copies of the genes of double-stranded rna (dsrna) viruses. using human (bristol) group c rotavirus as an example, a single amino-linked modified oligonucleotide (primer 1) was ligated to either end of each dsrna genome segment by using t4 rna ligase. following reverse transcription, annealing, and repair of cdna strands, amplification of the viral dsrna genome was accomplished by polymerase chain ...19921371174
production of monoclonal antibodies to rotavirus suitable for detection of rotavirus in stool samples by one-step eia.two stable hybridoma cell clones producing high amounts of monoclonal antibodies (mab) to rotavirus have been selected. the mabs were shown to recognize different epitopes of the major inner capsid rotavirus protein vp 6. the two types of mab in question cross-reacted with human and animal group a rotaviruses. due to their high affinity and good binding capacity to microtiter plates a simultaneous eia was developed for detection of rotavirus in stool samples. the sensitivity and specificity of m ...19921360749
an evaluation of the staphylococcal co-agglutination test for the detection of group a rotavirus in human faeces.the group a rotavirus staphylococcal co-agglutination test was evaluated and its sensitivity and specificity compared with an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and a commercial latex agglutination test (rotalex). in addition, the storage stability of the staphylococcal reagents was ascertained. examination of 136 clarified suspensions of diarrhoeal faeces by the staphylococcal co-agglutination test revealed a high proportion of false positives (26%) and uninterpretable results ( ...19921338997
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against an avian group a rotavirus.fifteen monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against an avian group a rotavirus were cloned and characterized. eight of the 15 mabs had neutralizing activity (n-mabs). five of the n-mabs (1g1, 5b8, 4e2, 3g1, 2e3) were vp4-specific by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (ripa), and two n-mabs (2d11, 6e8) were possibly vp7-specific (faint bands by ripa). one n-mab (4h12) of undefined protein specificity cross-reacted with serotype 3 simian rotaviruses. the other seven n-mabs did not cross-react with any of the ...19911659369
[detection and serotyping of hrvs collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in winter of 1986 to 1991].fecal samples from sporadic acute gastroenteritis patients who visited at a pediatrician during five consecutive winter seasons in kurume city located at north part of kyushu district. fecal samples were subjected to detection of rotavirus and other viruses and study of yearly changes in serotype of rotavirus. the rate of group a rotavirus positives in third winter and other consecutive winters were 12.5%, 40 to 65%, respectively. 60% specimens were successfully serotyped: 58% was serotype 1.22% ...19921338087
isolation, characterization, and serial propagation of a bovine group c rotavirus in a monkey kidney cell line (ma104).a virus (designated the shintoku strain) which was morphologically indistinguishable from group a rotaviruses was detected in the feces of adult cows with diarrhea in japan. the virus contained 11 segments of double-stranded rna and had an electrophoretic migration pattern in polyacrylamide gels similar to that of other group c rotaviruses (4-3-2-2). feces containing the bovine virus reacted with antiserum to porcine group c rotavirus (cowden strain) but not group a or b rotaviruses in immunoele ...19911663512
typing of human group a rotavirus with alkaline phosphatase-labeled oligonucleotide probes.rotavirus (rv) in stools of children less than 1 year of age with diarrhea in bangkok in 1989 were serotyped by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay (meia). rna extracted from these specimens was tested for hybridization with alkaline phosphatase (ap) and 32p-labeled oligonucleotides constructed from the nucleotide sequences of vp7 of human g types 1 (hug1ac), 2 (hug2ac), 3 (hug3ac), and 4 (hug4ac). of 148 specimens that contained rv, 72% (106/148) hybridized with rv g type specific ap-labeled oligonuc ...19921331307
a novel group a rotavirus g serotype: serological and genomic characterization of equine isolate fi23.equine rotavirus fi23 was shown to be prototypic of a novel g serotype, provisionally g14, by cross-neutralization and vp7 sequence determination. although distinct, there are as few as six differing amino acid residues (92, 94, 96, 146, 147, and 221) in the vp7 antigenic regions of fi23 and g3 rotaviruses.19911663521
reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to the 41-kilodalton protein of porcine group c rotavirus with homologous and heterologous rotavirus serogroups in immunofluorescence tests.three monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to porcine group c rotavirus immunoprecipitated the major inner capsid protein (41 kda) but failed to precipitate group a rotavirus proteins. in immunofluorescence tests of rotavirus-infected cell cultures or pig intestines, the mabs recognized porcine and bovine group c rotaviruses but not group a or b rotaviruses. these mabs may recognize the group c rotavirus counterpart to vp6 of group a rotaviruses and may be useful as diagnostic reagents.19911663522
the prevalence of enteric pathogens in diarrhoeic thoroughbred foals in britain and ireland.a survey of 77 normal and 326 diarrhoeic foals in britain and ireland from 1987 to 1989 revealed a significantly higher prevalence of group a rotaviruses and aeromonas hydrophila in diarrhoeic foals. the prevalence of cryptosporidia, potentially pathogenic escherichia coli, yersinia enterocolitica and clostridium perfringens was similar in normal or diarrhoeic foals. rotaviruses had a similar prevalence in all age groups of scouring foals up to three months of age, with an overall prevalence of ...19911663866
rapid techniques for diagnostic and epidemiological studies of rotavirus infection.two rapid procedures modifying the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) standard technique for the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus infections are described. these assays permit the detection of both group a and non-group-a rotaviruses, and can be employed in most microbiology laboratories. the cost per sample is minimal compared with that of enzyme immune assays (elisa) or the agglutination tests available commercially.19911666113
terminal sequence conservation among the genomic segments of a group b rotavirus (idir strain).terminal nucleic acid sequences were determined for all 11 segments of the idir strain of group b rotavirus. consensus sequences were defined at both ends of the (+) rna strands as 5' ggn(a/u)na(a/u)(a/u)(a/u)---and---(a/u)na(a/g)n(a/c)(c/a)cc3 '. the 5' and 3' terminal sequences of the (+) strand idir rna were not complementary to one another. the idir terminal sequences and those of group a rotaviruses (gar) were similar in that each of the (+) strands began with "gg" and ended with "cc." othe ...19921329334
characterization of an oligomerization domain and rna-binding properties on rotavirus nonstructural protein ns34.intermolecular interactions between polypeptide chains often play essential roles in such biological phenomena as replication, transcription, translation, transport, ligand binding, and assembly. we have initiated studies of the functions of the rotavirus sa114f gene 7 product by sequence analysis and expression in insect cells. this nonstructural protein, ns34, is a slightly acidic protein, and its secondary structure is predicted to be 78% alpha-helix, with several heptad repeats of hydrophobi ...19921326821
expression of the major capsid protein vp6 of group c rotavirus and synthesis of chimeric single-shelled particles by using recombinant baculoviruses.vp6 of group c (cowden strain) rotavirus was expressed in the baculovirus system. the recombinant protein, expressed to a high level in insect cells, was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. the purified protein was proven to be trimeric. the effect of ph on the trimer's stability was investigated. coexpression of vp6 from group a (bovine strain rf) and vp6 from group c in the baculovirus system did not result in the formation of chimeric trimers. coexpression of vp2 from group a rotavirus ( ...19921326644
studies on the age resistance of swine to group a rotavirus determine whether swine become naturally age resistant to group a rotavirus infection, colostrum-deprived, rotavirus-naive newborn pigs that were raised in isolation (n = 34) were studied. neonatal pigs and pigs 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of age were inoculated orally with group a porcine rotavirus or mock inoculum and euthanatized at 24, 31, or 48 hours post-infection. nine sections of small intestine, cecum, and colon were harvested and immunohistochemically examined for evidence of ro ...19921321528
detection and differentiation of bovine group a rotavirus serotypes using polymerase chain reaction-generated probes to the vp7 and northern blot hybridization assays were developed to detect and differentiate group a bovine rotavirus serotypes using radiolabeled serotype 6 (nebraska calf diarrhea virus [ncdv] and united kingdom [uk] strains) or serotype 10 (crocker [cr] strain) vp7 gene probes. partial length vp7-specific cdna encompassing areas of major sequence diversity were generated by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using either cloned vp7 genes (ncdv and uk strains) or reverse transcribed mrna (cr strain) ...19921319748
development, characterization, and utilization of an intestinal xenograft model for infectious disease research.paired xenografts of near-term fetal rabbit jejunum were subcutaneously implanted in the backs of athymic nude (nu/nu) mice. at 3 to 4 weeks post-implantation, the grafts had histologic, ultrastructural, and biochemical (lactase, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase) parameters comparable to age-matched control rabbits. four weeks post-transplantation the xenografts were intraluminally inoculated with various strains of lapine attaching and effacing e. coli or group a rotavirus. ...19911753715
molecular cloning, sequence analysis, in vitro expression, and immunoprecipitation of the major inner capsid protein of the idir strain of group b rotavirus (gbr).the sixth genomic segment of the infectious diarrhea of infant rats (idir) strain of group b rotavirus (gbr) was cloned from double-stranded rna purified from infected rat feces. sequence comparison with group a rotaviruses (gar) and the human adrv strain of gbr indicated that idir gene 6 encoded the major inner capsid protein. the nucleic acid sequences of the two gbr genes were 72.9% conserved, and 83.4% of the amino acids were identical. sequence substitutions between idir and adrv were more ...19921316675
isolation of an avianlike group a rotavirus from a calf with atypical group a rotavirus (993/83) was isolated from a 3-day-old german calf with diarrhea. it differed from 35 conventional german bovine rotavirus isolates analyzed previously with respect to subgroup (strain 993/83 was non-subgroup i and non-subgroup ii), serotype (strain 993/83 showed a two-way cross-reaction with serotype 7 and a one-way cross-reaction with serotype 3), and electropherotype (strain 993/83 showed comigrating gene segments 10 and 11). isolate 993/83 reacted with only one ...19921310334
rotavirus serotype g3 predominates in horses.foal fecal group a rotavirus strains were characterized by electropherotype, serotype, and subgroup and shown to be distinctly different from rotaviruses of other mammals. of 86 strains that were electropherotyped, 98% had similar profiles, with gene segments 3 and 4 close together and segments 7, 8, and 9 widely spaced. of 70 strains that had sufficient detectable vp7 antigen to be serotyped by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas), 63% were serotype g3 (39% were subtype g3a and 24% were ...19921310333
expression of the major inner capsid protein of the group b rotavirus adrv: primary characterization of genome segment 5.a complete cdna copy of the fifth rna segment of the human group b rotavirus, adrv, has been cloned into plasmid ad512. gene segment 5 contains 1269 bases and encodes one long open reading frame of 391 amino acids beginning at base 31 and terminating at base 1203. the gene 5 polypeptide, expressed in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate, comigrates with the 44-kda major inner capsid protein present on edta treated adrv virions. the gene 5 protein is immunoprecipitable by hyperimmune serum to ad ...19911850929
a one year community-based study on the incidence of diarrhoea and rotavirus infection in urban and suburban malaysian children.a 1 year longitudinal study of 156 malaysian children from urban and suburban areas in the klang valley revealed that the incidence rate of diarrhoea was 23.6 per 100 person-year with abnormal faeces reported on 0.26% of the total days of observation. diarrhoea cases were detected in children from all socioeconomic classes. rotavirus was isolated from 12% of the diarrheic children and asymptomatic rotavirus infection occurred in 3.2% of the children. all rotaviruses isolated were group a rotavir ...19921303484
serological and genomic characterization of l338, a novel equine group a rotavirus g serotype.a group a rotavirus designated l338 was isolated from the faeces of a diarrhoeic foal and was compared to 11 standard g serotype strains of group a rotaviruses by cross-neutralization. it was clearly distinct from serotypes g1 to g11 and thus representative of a novel rotavirus g serotype tentatively designated g13. the nucleic acid sequence of the virion protein 7 (vp7) coding region was determined and the deduced amino acid sequence compared to published sequences. within vp7 regions a and b, ...19911851806
[adult diarrhea rotavirus in jilin, china].in may 1986, an outbreak of epidemic acute diarrhea occurred in one city and three counties in yanbian area. the diarrheal cases were seen in all age groups, the majority of the cases were seen in adult age group. no bacterial pathogens were isolated in 22 fecal samples examined, however rotavirus like particles of 52-68 nm in diameter were found in 50% (11/22) of fecal samples by the immunoelectron microscopy using convalescent sera. examination by the adult diarrhea rotavirus (adrv) elisa kit ...19901962974
[rotavirus etiology of hospital cases of acute gastroenteritis].the etiology of enteric illnesses occurring during hospitalization in children admitted in january-may, 1985, for respiratory tract illnesses was studied by several methods including electron microscopy (em), enzyme immunoassay (eia), and pag electrophoresis. rotaviruses were detected in 22 (44.9%) t of 49 children with symptoms of intestinal infection, in february in 11 (84.6%) out of 13 patients. the analysis of virus genome rna of 7 isolates positive in em and eia revealed in all the isolates ...19901964515
comparison of three bovine group a rotaviruses possessing supershot genome electropherotypes. 19901965588
molecular analysis of the gene 6 from a porcine group c rotavirus that encodes the ns34 equivalent of group a rotaviruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene 6 from the porcine group (gp) c rotavirus strain cowden was determined from gene 6-specific clones selected from a cdna library and from viral transcript rna. the gene is 1348 nucleotides in length with a potential initiation codon beginning at nucleotide 25 and a stop codon at nucleotide 1231. the deduced protein contains 402 amino acids. comparison of the gene 6 from this gp c strain with sequences in the genbank data base indicated that this gene s ...19911653496
group a rotavirus infection in animals from an animal house and in wild-caught monkeys.randomly selected samples from different animal colonies from two laboratory animal houses and from the wild-caught monkeys were tested for the presence of anti-rotavirus antibodies to estimate the rates of infection with group a rotavirus. antibodies to the common group a rotaviral antigen were detected by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using reagents of who elisa rotavirus detection kit. the results of the study showed that white mice, albino rats, and guinea pigs from ...19902122998
detection of rotaviruses in the day care environment by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain a rotavirus is an important cause of morbidity among infants and toddlers in day care centers. transmission by the fecal-oral route is well established, but fomites and environmental surfaces may also play an important role in transmission. a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was used to detect rotavirus rna in day care environments. areas sampled included floors, diaper change areas, toy balls, and other surfaces. in two centers undergoing outbreaks of rotavirus, 7 (3 ...19921380049
association between diarrhoea and shedding of group a and atypical groups b to e rotaviruses in suckling pigs.the frequency of shedding of rotavirus in faeces of diarrhoeic piglets was studied in 2 farms. in farm i, where 82% of the litters had diarrhoea, group a rotavirus was detected in 52/117 (44%) faeces of pigs with diarrhoea while atypical groups b to e rotaviruses were detected in 2/117 (2%) faeces of diarrhoeic piglets that came from litters where group a rotavirus had also been found. in farm ii where the morbidity due to diarrhoeas was lower (57% of the litters had diarrhoea), 8/141 (6%) faece ...19911654762
rotavirus electropherotypes in malaysian children.a 12-month study was carried out on the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in urban and suburban malaysian children. analysis of faecal samples from 973 hospitalized diarrhoeic children by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis detected 268 rotaviruses (28%). all isolates were group a rotaviruses, which produced 22 electropherotypes: 16 (91.5%) with long rna migration patterns and 6 (8.5%) with short patterns. one of the long-pattern electropherotypes was the predominant strain (71.1% of the total ...19921334446
prevalence of bovine group a rotavirus shedding among dairy calves in ohio.fecal samples were collected from 450 neonatal calves, ranging from 1 to 30 days old, between may, 1988 and may, 1989 to estimate the prevalence of bovine group a rotavirus in a stratified random sample of ohio dairy herds. calves were from 47 dairy herds chosen to be representative of ohio herds. bovine group a rotavirus was detected in fecal samples by a cell culture immunofluorescence test (ccif) and elisa. of 450 samples tested, 46 (10%) were positive by ccif and 67 (15%) were positive by el ...19921315490
cultivation and characterization of novel human group a rotaviruses with long rna electropherotypes, subgroup ii specificities, and serotype 2 vp7 genes.during an epidemiological study of human rotavirus infections in bangladesh, three group a strains hybridized with a serotype 2 oligonucleotide probe, but they had long rna electropherotypes. the three strains were collected from 8- to 20-month-old infants with acute diarrhea and moderate malnutrition. by a modified isolation procedure, two strains (t-b and t-c) were adapted in ma104 cell cultures. they were identified to be subgroup ii specific by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with subgroup ...19911658036
detection of animal and human group b rotaviruses in fecal specimens by polymerase chain reaction.a combined reverse transcriptase reaction-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) was developed to achieve the sensitive detection of group b rotaviruses (gbr). sequences derived from genomic segment 3 of the idir (intestinal disease of infant rats) strain of gbr permitted the detection of greater than or equal to 0.08 pg of purified idir genomic rna (4,000 genome copies). primers complementary to the terminal sequences of gene 11 of gbr strain adrv (adult diarrhea rotavirus) allowed for the detectio ...19911709948
identification of the gene encoding the group b rotavirus vp7 equivalent: primary characterization of the adrv segment 9 rna.gene segment 9 of the adult diarrheal rotavirus, adrv, has been cloned, and the full-length gene 9 cdna has been sequenced. sequences at the 5' and 3' termini of the gene 9 double-stranded rna were confirmed by direct rna sequencing. the ninth rna segment is 814 bases in length with a single open reading frame beginning at base 10 and terminating at base 757. the encoded polypeptide contains 249 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 28.5 kda. the protein contains three potential n-li ...19902167559
the shedding of group a rotavirus antigen in a newly established closed specific pathogen-free swine herd.a longitudinal study was undertaken in a newly established specific pathogen-free (spf) swine herd to determine the dynamics of rotavirus antigen shedding in a closed swine facility. pregnant spf gilts which populated the herd, and their offspring, were monitored weekly for three consecutive lactations. fecal samples were assayed for the presence of group-specific viral antigen by a solid phase immunoassay (elisa). results indicate that in the week prior to farrow, 35% of samples from gilts/sows ...19911654666
a longitudinal study of rotavirus antibody titers in swine in a closed specific pathogen-free a newly established closed specific pathogen-free (spf) swine herd, gilt/sow suckling and weaned pig rotavirus specific antibody titers were followed for three lactations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to gain insight into the dynamics of herd antibody titers to group a rotavirus. among gilts/sows, serum antirotavirus igg titers increased during each lactation with a subsequent drop in titer between farrowings. serum antirotavirus igm titers declined during each lactation and wi ...19911654667
sequence analysis of the gene (6) encoding the major capsid protein (vp6) of group c rotavirus: higher than expected homology to the corresponding protein from group a virus.two overlapping c-dna clones, which hybridized in northern blots to rna segment 6 of the prototype strain (cowden) of group c rotavirus, were selected from a c-dna library in pbr322 and sequenced. the gene 6 sequence obtained was 1349 nucleotides and contained a single long open reading frame encoding a protein of 394 amino acids (total mw, 44,479) which is in line with the size of the major capsid protein vp6. comparison of the group c sequence with that of the corresponding group a rotavirus g ...19902171196
serotypic differentiation of group a rotaviruses with porcine rotavirus gene 9 probes.the serotypic specificities of gottfried and osu porcine rotavirus gene 9 probes were investigated in a dot hybridization assay. the probes were reacted with homologous and heterologous serotypes of group a rotaviruses of human and animal origin. hybridizations were conducted under relatively low-stringency (52 degrees c, no formamide, 5 x ssc) and high-stringency (52 degrees c, 50% formamide, formamide, 5 x ssc) conditions (1 x ssc is 0.15 m nacl plus 0.015 m sodium citrate). under conditions o ...19902174902
comparison of group b rotavirus genes 9 and b rotaviruses (gbrs) were recognized recently as causative agents of gastroenteritis. investigations into the relatedness of various heterologous gbr strains have been hindered by the difficulty of growing these viruses in cell culture. viral rna extracted from experimentally infected rats used to prepare cdna clones. from these, the nucleotide sequences of genes 9 and 11 of the idir strain of gbr were determined and compared with the corresponding sequences of the human adrv strain of gbr ...19911658208
transfer of maternal antibody against group a rotavirus from sows to piglets and serological responses following natural enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the measurement of antirotaviral antibody in sera and faeces from pigs and used to study the dynamics of antirotaviral antibody responses in three cohorts of pigs. piglets acquired antirotaviral antibody by sucking their dams soon after birth. antirotaviral antibodies of iga and igg classes were detected in both colostrum and milk of all sows tested but igm class antibodies were not. the antibody levels in colostrum were eight to 32 ...19902359885
heterogeneity in the genome rnas and polypeptides of five members of a novel group of rotavirus-like viruses isolated from aquatic animals.biochemical characteristics of five rotavirus-like viruses isolated from striped bass (morone saxatilis), turbot (scophthalmus maximus), smelt (osmerus mordax) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar) in north america and europe were compared. the genome of each isolate was composed of 11 segments of dsrna and each isolate had a unique electropherotype in polyacrylamide gels. agarose gel electrophoresis showed similar rna profiles for all four isolates from north america, whereas the rna profile of the ...19911846647
identification of cross-reactive and serotype 2-specific neutralization epitopes on vp3 of human rotavirus.the group a rotaviruses are composed of at least seven serotypes. serotype specificity is defined mainly by an outer capsid protein, vp7. in contrast, the other surface protein, vp3 (775 amino acids), appears to be associated with both serotype-specific and heterotypic immunity. to identify the cross-reactive and serotype-specific neutralization epitopes on vp3 of human rotavirus, we sequenced the vp3 gene of antigenic mutants resistant to each of seven anti-vp3 neutralizing monoclonal antibodie ...19882453680
identification of a group-reactive epitope of group b rotaviruses recognized by monoclonal antibody and application to the development of a sensitive immunoassay for viral b rotaviruses (gbrs) are fastidious agents which cause enteric disease in humans and a number of other animal species. detailed study of the role of gbrs in human disease has been hampered by the lack of immunoreagents suitable for large-scale studies. we developed a monoclonal antibody which recognizes a group-reactive antigen contained in a number of strains of gbrs. when utilized in conjunction with a hyperimmune guinea pig antiserum to gbr, this monoclonal antibody can be used in an en ...19882460499
culture adaptation and characterization of group a rotaviruses causing diarrheal illnesses in bangladesh from 1985 to a rotaviruses collected between 1985 and 1986 during comprehensive surveillance of treated diarrheal episodes occurring in a rural bangladesh population were culture adapted and characterized by electropherotype, serotype, and subgroup. of 454 episodes of rotavirus-associated diarrhea, rotaviruses were culture adapted from 381 (84%), and 335 contained 11 electrophoretically identical segments in unpassaged and cultured preparations. these 335 comprised 69 different electropherotypes with b ...19911663517
rotavirus excretion by village pigs in papua new guinea.cohort studies were conducted on 29 pigs from 3 villages in the highlands of papua new guinea. animals ranged in age from 9 d to 5 m old. three hundred and twenty nine faecal samples were collected from individual pigs followed over 3 to 6 w periods, and were examined for group a rotavirus antigen by elisa, and rotaviral genomic rna by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). electron microscopy was also conducted on selected samples. group a rotavirus was detected in the faeces of 16 pigs wit ...19911850980
preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to utilizing a strain of cultivable simian rotavirus (sa-11) as an immunizing antigen, we prepared 4 clones of mouse-mouse hybridoma, namely c127, c139, c172, and c214 which secreted monoclonal antibodies against the immunogen itself, sa-11 and also against other group a strains such as wa and s2. western blot analyses revealed that all of these antibodies are directed against vp6, a 42 kda major inner capsid protein of group a rotavirus. competitive experiments suggested that c127, c172 and c21 ...19892469693
cdna cloning of each genomic segment of the group b rotavirus adrv: molecular characterization of the 11th rna segment.the group b noncultivatable rotavirus, adrv, was purified from infected stool specimens. double-stranded rna was extracted, polyadenylated, reverse transcribed into cdna, and cloned into plasmid vector pat153. each cdna clone hybridized to a single adrv rna segment and cdna clones of each genomic rna segment were identified. sequencing of genomic rna and a full-length cdna clone (ad63) determined that adrv rna segment 11 is 631 bases in length and contains a single open reading frame of 170 amin ...19902158190
adaptation and serial passage of porcine group c rotavirus in st-cells, an established diploid swine testicular cell line.a porcine group c rotavirus (strain cowden-amc-1) was adapted and serially passaged in an established diploid swine testicular cell line (st cells). growth of group c rotavirus in st cells, which in maintenance medium required trypsin, but not pancreatin resulted in cytopathic effect characterized by cellular stranding and subsequent cell lysis. active replication and assembly were confirmed by rna profile analysis, immune electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. adaptation of non-group a rot ...19911659801
nonreactivity of american avian group a rotaviruses with subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies.nine group a rotavirus isolates recovered from commercially reared poultry in the united states did not react with subgroup 1 (255/60) or subgroup 2 (631/9) specific monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.19892480363
seroepidemiology of adult diarrhea rotavirus in china, 1977 to 1982, large outbreaks of diarrhea that were caused by group b adult diarrhea rotavirus (adrv) occurred throughout the people's republic of china. until 1982, group b rotavirus had never been associated with disease in humans. to determine whether adrv was a new virus introduced in 1982 or had been present before that time, we examined antibody titers of adrv in gamma globulin (pooled immunoglobulin) pools that were prepared during 1977 to 1987 in four cities in the people's republic of china ...19892479654
growth of group a rotaviruses in a human liver cell line.recent observations in children with rotavirus gastroenteritis and in infant mice given rotavirus vaccine by oral administration suggest that this well-known gastrointestinal pathogen may infect the liver. to examine this possibility, the susceptibility of hep g2 cells to infection with a variety of rotavirus strains was tested. these cells were used because they are considered to be well differentiated and exhibit many liver-specific functions. the hep g2 cells supported the growth of the simia ...19902170264
biochemical characterization of the structural and nonstructural polypeptides of a porcine group c rotavirus.purified virions or radiolabeled lysates of infected ma104 cells were used to characterize the structural and nonstructural polypeptides of a porcine group c rotavirus. at least six structural proteins were identified from purified group c rotavirus by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. of these, two (37,000- and 33,000-molecular-weight polypeptides) were associated with the outer shell, as demonstrated by the ability of edta to remove them from the purified virion. the o ...19902161936
monoclonal antibodies to the vp6 of porcine subgroup i rotaviruses reactive with subgroup i and non-subgroup i non-subgroup ii strains.a panel of 10 monoclonal antibodies produced after immunization with two porcine subgroup i rotavirus strains (osu and a46), and directed against the major inner capsid protein (vp6), fell into six patterns of reactivity when tested against a collection of human and animal group a rotavirus strains. monoclonal antibodies of pattern i recognized all rotavirus strains. antibodies of patterns 2 and 3 recognized all subgroup ii strains and some, but not all, subgroup i strains. pattern 4 antibodies ...19901693668
subgroup classification of porcine group-a rotaviruses, using monoclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.fifty-six samples of feces and intestinal contents from nonvaccinated diarrheal pigs with rotavirus infections were tested, using a subgroup (sgp)-specific elisa, to determine rotavirus sgp classification. forty-one percent (23/56) were sgp 1, 25% (14/56) were sgp 2, and 34% (19/56) were not classifiable. for classifiable samples, the geographic distribution for sgp 1 and sgp 2, respectively was: 60%/40% from ohio (n = 15), 63%/37% from other midwestern states (iowa, minnesota, nebraska, south d ...19901695069
removal of inhibitory substances from human fecal specimens for detection of group a rotaviruses by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions.a method was developed for the purification of rotavirus rna from fecal extracts in order to permit the sensitive identification of group a rotavirus in fecal specimens by the polymerase chain reaction. sequential reactions with reverse transcriptase and taq polymerase with directed primers from rotavirus gene 6 yielded characteristic 259-base-pair fragments that were then visualized by silver stain on a polyacrylamide gel. as few as 500 genomic copies of purified rotavirus rna could be detected ...19901696283
improved detection of rotavirus shedding by polymerase chain improve identification of children excreting rotavirus a method for the amplification of rotavirus rna by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was developed. the assay was compared with a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay in the detection of rotavirus shedding by infants in hospital during the winter peak of rotavirus infections. forty children were studied in an intermediate care unit after transfer from intensive care units. only two were admitted primarily because of diarrhoea; the other thirt ...19911703618
molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in children attending day care centers in houston.serotype distribution of group a rotavirus in children attending day care centers has not been previously reported. fifteen centers in houston participated in longitudinal monitoring of rotavirus infection during one to three consecutive rotavirus seasons. monitoring included daily recording of the presence of diarrhea and weekly stool collection. stool specimens containing rotavirus were analyzed by a monoclonal antibody (mab)-based elisa specific for the vp7 protein of serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 ...19902169496
serotype variation of group a rotaviruses over nine winter epidemics in southeastern new the use of enzyme immunoassay and rna electrophoresis, rotavirus serotyping was performed with stool specimens from 605 children. serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 accounted for 63, 9, 9, and 19% of the cases, respectively, with considerable yearly variation. an average of three serotypes cocirculated each year.19921320630
characterization by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using subgroup- and serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies of human rotavirus obtained from diarrheic patients in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with group a-, subgroup-, and serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs), we tested 414 stool specimens collected from pediatric and adult patients hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis between january and june 1988. of 414 specimens tested, 124 (30%) were positive for group a rotavirus. the subgroup was determined in 110 specimens (88.7%); 16.1% were subgroup i, and 72.6% were subgroup ii. two specimens reacted with both subgroup i- and subgroup ii-spe ...19892549093
studies on rotavirus homologous and heterologous active immunity in infant mice.homologous and heterologous active immunity was studied in mice with mammalian group a rotaviruses. one day old mice were vaccinated with one of the following rotaviruses: bovine b641 (serotype 6), bovine b223 (untyped), simian sa11 (serotype 3) and murine edim (untyped). at 10 days of age they were challenged with edim virulent virus or sa11 virus. all the vaccines induced a serological antibody response in the mice but only the homologous immune response was protective.19892550022
identification of group a rotavirus gene 4 types by polymerase chain reaction.five genetically distinct human rotavirus (hrv) gene 4 groups have been described on the basis of comparative nucleotide sequencing and the predicted amino acid sequences, and at least four of them represent distinct vp4 antigenic types. to identify each gene 4 type and investigate its distribution in hrv isolates from patients with diarrhea, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) typing method using sequence information available for four genetically distinct gene 4 types. rotavirus dou ...19921320625
serotyping of human group a rotavirus with oligonucleotide probes.rotaviruses (rv) in stools of children with diarrhea in thailand were serotyped by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay (meia), and rna extracted from these specimens were tested for hybridization with oligonucleotides constructed from the nucleotide sequences of vp7 of human serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4. of 178 specimens that contained rv as identified with a monoclonal antibody to group a rv, 84% (149/178) hybridized with serotype-specific oligonucleotides, and 42% (74/178) were serotyped by meia (p less ...19902165109
relative prevalence of typical and atypical strains among rotaviruses from diarrheic pigs in conventional swine herds.polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted on genomic rna extracted from rotaviruses detected in diarrheic pigs from conventional swine herds. ninety samples contained sufficient virus for rna band visualization and genome classification. genome profiles were characteristic of typical group a rotaviruses in 67.8% of the 90 samples, of group b rotaviruses in 10.0%, and of group c rotaviruses in 11.1%. in 11.1% of the samples, the presence of more than 11 bands suggested concurrent infection ...19901965637
rapid screening test for the diagnosis of rotavirus infection.the early diagnosis of human rotavirus infection is essential for effective patient management and infection control. we report here a rapid, easy-to-perform, and inexpensive test for rotavirus detection. the viral rna is extracted directly from the stools and electrophoresed on 1% agarose gels. currently available immunoassays for routine diagnostic purposes are directed at the common group a-specific antigen. as reports become available on human gastroenteritis caused by the atypical or novel ...19892555394
[epidemiological study of group c rotavirus].by electron microscopy survey of acute gastroenteritis of children in matsuyama, rotaviruses were detected in 561 of 2479 fecal samples obtained between october, 1984 and september, 1988, in which 60 atypical and 259 typical rotaviruses, so far tested, were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) of viral rna. out of 60 atypical rotaviruses, 5 were observed in 1985, 7 in 1986, none in 1987 and 48 in 1988. these atypical rotaviruses were morphologically indistinguishable from typica ...19902258643
group- and type-specific serologic response in infants and children with primary rotavirus infections and gastroenteritis caused by a strain of known serotype.antibody response to group a rotavirus (rv), investigated in paired sera from 72 infants and young children with acute gastroenteritis caused by an rv infection, was diagnosed on the basis of a fourfold or greater rise in group a common rv igg antibody titer. virus-specific igm was detected in sera from 64 patients showing seroconversion; these were considered primary infection. rv was detected in stools of 56 (77.8%) patients with serologic evidence of infection and 54 were considered primary i ...19902161039
serotype variation of human group a rotaviruses in two regions of the usa.the first longitudinal study of group a rotavirus serotype distribution in the usa is reported. elisas incorporating neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific for the vp7 protein of serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 were used to determine the antigenic variation of group a rotaviruses in two collections of stool specimens. stool samples were collected from children hospitalized during 1979-1989 at texas children's hospital, houston, and from children from a more rural population hospitalized during 198 ...19902167332
presence of group a and non-a rotaviruses in neonatal piglets in campinas, sp, brazil.rotaviruses were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) in 11 (84.6%) of 13 faecal specimens from neonatal piglets with acute diarrhoea in a piggery near the city of campinas, state of são paulo, brazil. an immunoenzimatic assay for group a rotavirus (iea-a) was positive in ten of the samples, all of which showed a page profile typical of that group. another sample was showed a group b profile in page. an immunoenzimatic assay specific for group b (iea-b) for this faecal sample wa ...19892559308
molecular epidemiology and subgroup determination of bovine group a rotaviruses associated with diarrhea in dairy and beef calves.the genome electropherotyping technique was used to examine group a rotaviral infections of diarrheic calves ranging from 1 to 85 days of age in 2 beef and 27 dairy herds. coelectrophoresis studies demonstrated 38 distinct bovine group a rotavirus genome electropherotypes; all were long genome electropherotypes, and none had extra segments or unusual segment rearrangements. genome electropherotypes in fecal specimens from diarrheic calves previously inoculated orally with a commercial, modified- ...19892463994
non-group a rotavirus infection associated with severe gastroenteritis in a bone marrow transplant patient. 19882830587
human rotavirus strain 69m has a unique vp4 as determined by amino acid sequence analysis.the group a rotavirus strain 69m has recently been classified as a new rotavirus serotype, g8, based on the antigenic specificity of its vp7 outer capsid glycoprotein. the fourth gene of 69m, which encodes the other outer capsid protein vp4, was sequenced. the gene is 2362 nucleotides in length and contains one long open reading frame beginning at the 10th nucleotide from the 5' end and terminating with a stop codon 22 bases from the 3' end. the encoded vp4 contains 776 amino acids. comparative ...19911850912
[heterologous system of immunoenzyme analysis for the diagnosis of human rotavirus infection and its comparison with rna electrophoresis].on the basis of porcine rotavirus a heterologous eia test system was worked out and tested for diagnosis of human rotavirus infection. a high sensitivity and specificity of the test system was demonstrated, its results were compared with those of electron microscopy, diffuse precipitation test, and rna electrophoresis. out of 201 specimens (fecal filtrates) collected from children ranging in ages from 14 days to 10 years, rotavirus antigen was detected in 68 (33.8%) rna electrophoresis demonstra ...19882835872
sequence conservation of gene 8 between human and porcine group c rotaviruses and its relationship to the vp7 gene of group a rotaviruses.cdna libraries from porcine group (gp) c rotavirus strain cowden and a human gp c rotavirus strain were generated. the complete nucleotide sequence of gene 8 from the cowden strain was determined from gene 8-specific clones and viral transcript rna. a full-length gene 8 clone was generated from the human gp c virus by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using primers deduced from the 3' and 5' ends of the cowden strain gene 8, and the sequence of the human gp c gene 8 was determined from this clone ...19911850919
electron microscopy procedure influences detection of rotaviruses.technical parameters of electron microscope staining procedures (type of stain, ph of stain, and time of staining) influence particle integrity for three groups of rotaviruses. simian rotavirus sa11 (group a), chinese adult diarrhea rotavirus and porcine rotavirus-like agent (group b), and porcine pararotavirus (group c) were tested. all rotavirus strains were quite stable in uranyl acetate and phosphotungstic acid at ph 4.5 and relatively stable in ammonium molybdate. however, staining with pho ...19872444622
serial propagation of porcine group c rotavirus (pararotavirus) in a continuous cell line and characterization of the passaged virus.the cowden strain of porcine group c rotavirus (pararotavirus) was adapted to serial passage in a continuous monkey kidney cell line (ma104). key factors in its successful adaptation included use of virus passaged in primary porcine kidney cells as the initial inoculum, use of roller tubes, and addition of pancreatin to the maintenance medium. a cell culture immunofluorescence test was used to quantitate the virus at each passage level, since a possible cytopathic effect was obscured by the effe ...19882842368
monoclonal antibody assay for detection of double-stranded rna and application for detection of group a and non-group a rotaviruses.fastidious viruses are generally detected in human body fluids by means of immunoassay or nucleic acid hybridization systems. these approaches can be difficult to apply to the detection of viruses which display variations in antigenic or genetic composition. rotaviruses are examples of viruses which can display such variations. recently identified antigenic variants, designated as non-group a rotaviruses, cannot be detected by immunoassays or nucleic acid hybridization assays which utilize reage ...19892536393
purification and characterization of adult diarrhea rotavirus: identification of viral structural diarrhea rotavirus (adrv) is a newly identified strain of noncultivable human group b rotavirus that has been epidemic in the people's republic of china since 1982. we have used sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western (immuno-) blot analysis to examine the viral proteins present in the outer and inner capsids of adrv and compared these with the proteins of a group a rotavirus, sa11. edta treatment of double-shelled virions removed the outer capsid and resulted ...19892539512
serological evidence of rotavirus infection in a guinea pig colony.antibodies reacting with simian rotavirus sa11 were detected by enzyme immunoassay (eia) and western blot assay (wba) in sera from guinea pigs bred for experimental use at the fundação oswaldo cruz, rio de janeiro, brazil. the proportion of antibody-positive animals and the antibody titres rose sharply in 1985, were maintained at a high levels in 1986 and declined in 1987. there were no obvious signs of disease coinciding with serological evidence of infection. results of wba suggest that the vi ...19882856077
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