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post-prandial plasma aminograms in the assessment of protein quality for young children: maize and grain amaranth, alone and combined.post-prandial (p.p.) changes in plasma free amino acid (aa) concentrations of children consuming a single source of protein at critical levels are determined by its digestibility and total essential aa/total aa ratios; the molar proportion of the limiting eaa (eaa/teaa), if any, will fall significantly in plasma as it is utilized more completely than others. grain amaranths (am), reputedly rich in lysine (lys) and tryptophan (trp), but moderately deficient in leucine (leu), should be ideal compl ...19902354691
nutritional evaluation of grain amaranth for growing chickens.the nutritional value of raw and autoclaved grain amaranth, its milling fractions (perisperm and bran), fat-free flour, and of popped amaranth was evaluated for growing chickens. the control diet, which was composed primarily of corn and soybean meal, contained 3.06 kcal apparent me (ame)/g and 23.6% cp. test diets contained about the same ame and cp levels, and the following levels of the test samples: whole grain amaranth flour, 61.46%; fat-free flour, 62.10%; perisperm, 49.50%; bran, 35.30%; ...19883217305
assessment of extruded grain amaranth as a feed ingredient for broilers. 1. apparent metabolizable energy values.two trials were conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (ame) and nitrogen-corrected ame (amen) of extruded grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus). procedures for these determinations were the total collection method (tcm) and the use of acid-insoluble ash (aia) as a marker. the ame and amen values for the grain were determined both by regression analysis and by calculations based on differences from the basal diet. based on standard errors of the predicted values and coefficients ...19883405942
assessment of extruded grain amaranth as a feed ingredient for broilers. 2. apparent amino acid availability values.apparent amino acid availabilities (aaaa) were determined for grain amaranth in two experiments using broilers. total collection method (tcm) and acid-insoluble ash (aia), as a marker, were used for these determinations. individual amino acid availabilities for the extruded grain were calculated both by regression analysis and by difference from the basal diet. from the linear regression equations, tcm produced more accurate results than did the aia method, based on standard errors of the interc ...19883405943
performance and yields of broilers fed extruded grain amaranth and grown to market weight.a trial was conducted to determine the effects of feeding extruded grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) on performance of male broilers grown in batteries to 49 days of age. practical corn-soy rations were supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50% amaranth and formulated to meet nutrient requirements for the starter (0 to 21 days), grower (21 to 42 days), and finisher (42 to 49 days) periods. each diet was fed to six replicate pens of 10 male birds each. no differences were observed for feed u ...19883405950
effects of feeding extruded grain amaranth to laying hens.extruded grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) was incorporated into corn-soybean meal layer rations at 0, 10, 20, or 30%. diets were each fed to 20 single comb white leghorn laying hens for 6 wk beginning at 65 wk of age. data collected from the week prior to the test period were used as a covariate. egg production was significantly higher and egg weights were significantly lower for birds fed the 10 and 20% inclusion levels of amaranth than for those fed the control diet. however, no difference ...19873432197
[yield and chemical composition of the vegetal parts of the amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus, l.) at different physiological stages].the genus amaranthus comprises species which, consumed as vegetables, provide essential nutrients to man; they also have a high acceptability among the population. these two factors justify the need to increase their cultivation. therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish the most adequate physiological state of maturity, to harvest the leaves for human consumption. the field experiment utilized a randomized block design with three treatments and eight replications. these treatment ...19873454611
[evaluation of different levels of amaranth flour (vegetative parts), in substitution for alfalfa flour for growing rabbits].the vegetative part of the amaranth plant could be a useful resource for animal feeding due to its chemical characteristics and to the high yield obtained when harvested between 45 and 60 days after planting. six diets were evaluated in order to determine the feed efficiency of amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) for growing rabbits. the diets contained dehydrated amaranth leaves and stalks in levels of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60%, to replace equal amounts of alfalfa leaf meal. an additional diet co ...19873454616
some properties of starches of grain amaranths and several millets.starch granules were prepared from seeds of amaranthus hypochondriacus l., a. caudatus l., proso millet, japanese barnyard millet and foxtail millet. amylose contents and the distribution of alpha-1,4 linked chain of amylopectin were determined by gel filtration of isoamylase-debranched starches. some physical and chemical properties of the starches were also examined by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry, photopastegraphy, and differential scanning calorimetry, together with sta ...19816172576
amaranthus hypochondriacus and a. tricolor lectins: isolation and characterization.asialofetuin-linked amino activated silica was used for the affinity purification of lectins from amaranthus hypochondriacus linn (ahl) and a. tricolor linn (atl). like a few other amaranthus lectins, these lectins were also inhibited by n-acetyl-d-galactosamine, fetuin and asialofetuin; they agglutinated human and different animal erythrocytes. the purified lectins yielded a single band on page ph 8.3, ph 4.5 and sds-page, ph 8.3. these also gave a single peak in gel exclusion on biogel p-200, ...19947698887
evaluation of amaranth grains for ogi manufacture.grain amaranth was evaluated for its ogi making quality. amaranth, which produced lower (70%) yield of ogi than corn (80%), had higher protein content of 12.2% for its ogi than that of corn with a corresponding value of 6.7%. nutrient losses were lower for amaranth than corn ogi. amylograph pasting viscosity showed that amaranth ogi had slightly higher peak viscosity and lower setback value than corn ogi. it was apparent that amaranth grains would be suitable for ogi manufacture.19947971783
phytogrowth-inhibitory and antifungal constituents of helianthella quinquenervis.investigation on the roots of helianthella quinquenervis (hook.) a. gray (asteraceae), led to the isolation of one new benzofuran (6-methoxy-tremetone (1)) and a new prenylacetophenone (4-beta-d-(glucopyranosyloxy)-3-[3-methoxy-trans-isopenten-1 -yl] acetophenone (3)). in addition, 6-hydroxy-3-methoxytremetone (2), encecalin (6), euparin (5), demethylencecalin (4), and angelic acid were obtained. structural assignments of the isolated compounds were based on spectroscopic and spectrometric analy ...19968882437
increased nutritive value of transgenic potato by expressing a nonallergenic seed albumin gene from amaranthus hypochondriacus.improvement of nutritive value of crop plants, in particular the amino acid composition, has been a major long-term goal of plant breeding programs. toward this end, we reported earlier the cloning of the seed albumin gene ama1 from amaranthus hypochondriacus. the ama1 protein is nonallergenic in nature and is rich in all essential amino acids, and the composition corresponds well with the world health organization standards for optimal human nutrition. in an attempt to improve the nutritional v ...200010716698
phytotoxic compounds from the new coprophilous fungus guanomyces polythrix.bioactivity-directed fractionation of the fermentation broth and mycelium of the coprophilous fungus guanomyces polythrix led to the isolation of several phytotoxic compounds, including five new naphthopyranone derivatives (1-5). in addition, rubrofusarin b, emodin, citrinin, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester were obtained. the structures of the new compounds were established by spectral and chiroptical methods. the isolates caused significant inhibition of radicle growth of two weed seedli ...200010869195
effect of feeding crude red palm oil (elaeis guineensis) and grain amaranth (amaranthus paniculatus) to hens on total lipids, cholesterol, pufa levels and acceptability of eggs.eggs, though a very nutritious food, also have high amounts of cholesterol and hence are not recommended to be consumed regularly by persons having hypercholesterolemia and associated cardiovascular diseases (cvd). in this context, an attempt was made in this study to reduce the cholesterol content of eggs by diet manipulation, using two naturally available and already proved hypocholesteromic agents [red palm oil (rpo) and grain amaranth]. thirteen experimental rations using raw and popped grai ...200010898484
[cloning of aha gene from amaranthus hypochondriacus and it's aphid inhibitory effect in transgenic tabacco plants].using total dna isolated from amaranthus hypochondriacus as template, amaranthus hypochondriacus agglutinin aha gene was amplified by pcr and cloned. sequence analysis results showed that this gene is consisted of 2453 base pairs including one 1538 bp intron and two exons of 212 bp and 703 bp respectively. after inverse pcr amplification, coding region of aha gene was obtained. aha gene with it's intron (ahag) and withou intron (ahac) were inserted downstream of 35s promotor in the binary vector ...200111330184
phytotoxic naphthopyranone derivatives from the coprophilous fungus guanomyces polythrix.reinvestigation of the fermentation broth and mycelium of the coprophilous fungus guanomyces polythrix, grown in static conditions, led to the isolation of several phytotoxic compounds, including two new naphthopyranone derivatives, namely (2s, 3r)-5-hydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-4h-naphtho[2,3-b]-pyran-4-one and (2s, 3r)-5-hydroxy-6,8,10-trimethoxy-2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-4h-naphtho[2,3-b]-pyran-4-one. the structures of the new compounds were established by spectral and chirop ...200111672740
phytotoxic compounds from prionosciadium watsoni.bioassay-guided fractionation of a phytotoxic extract of prionosciadium watsoni led to the isolation of three new pyranocoumarins and two pyranochromones. the new compounds were characterized as propionic acid (9r,10r)-9-acetoxy-8,8-dimethyl-9,10-dihydro-2h,8h-benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b']dipyran-2-one-10-yl ester (1), isobutyric acid (9r,10r)-9-hydroxy-8,8-dimethyl-9,10-dihydro-2h,8h-benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b']dipyran-2-one-10-yl ester (2), isobutyric acid (9r)-8,8-dimethyl-9,10-dihydro-2h,8h-benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b'] ...200212088423
sesquiterpene lactones and phenylpropanoids from cosmos pringlei.activity-directed fractionation of a phytotoxic extract from cosmos pringlei led to the isolation of three new compounds, namely, 1'-isovaleroyloxy-4-o-isobutyryleugenol (1), zaluzanin c isobutyrate (2), and zaluzanin c isovalerate (3). in addition, mokko lactone, 1'-isobutiroyloxy-4-o-isobutyryleugenol (4), dehydrocostus lactone (5), costunolide (6), 15-isovaleroyloxycostunolide (7), 15-isobutiroyloxycostunolide (8), 1',2'-epoxy-3',4'-di-isobutyryl-z-coniferyl alcohol, and 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha- ...200212141867
oat (avena sativa l.) and amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) meals positively affect plasma lipid profile in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets.cereals are an important part of diets for hypercholesterolemic patients. however, some of these patients are allergic to these natural products. the purpose of the current study was to compare oatmeal with equal in nutritional values two allergy-free amaranth meals to determine whether this pseudocereal can be a substitute for allergic to cereals individuals. the total phenols of the samples were determined with the folin-chocalteu reagent, anthocyanins, and flavonoids spectrophotometrically. t ...200415542354
allelochemicals from stauranthus perforatus, a rutaceous tree of the yucatan peninsula, mexico.aqueous leachates and a chcl3-meoh (1:1) extract of roots of stauranthus perforatus showed a significant phytotoxic effect on amaranthus hypochondriacus and echinochloa crus-galli. bioassay-directed fractionation of the active organic extract led to the isolation and characterization of ten secondary metabolites, which included two pyranocoumarins [xanthyletin (1) and 3-(1',1'-dimethylallyl)-xanthyletin (2)], four furanocoumarins [chalepensin (3), ammirin (4), chalepin (5) and 2'-isopropyl-psora ...200515694456
phytotoxins from hofmeisteria schaffneri: isolation and synthesis of 2'-(2' '-hydroxy-4' '-methylphenyl)-2'-oxoethyl acetate1.activity-directed fractionation of a ch(2)cl(2)-meoh (1:1) extract of hofmeisteria schaffneri led to the isolation of a new phytotoxin characterized as 2'-(2' '-hydroxy-4' '-methylphenyl)-2'-oxoethyl acetate and designated the trivial name of hofmeisterin (1). in addition, the known compounds beta-carotene, euparin, and 3',4',4a',9a'-tetrahydro-6,7'-dimethylspiro[benzofuran-3(2h),2'-pyrano[2,3-b]benzofuran]-2,4a'-diol (2) were obtained. the identification of the isolates was accomplished by spec ...200515974630
3-o-acetyl-narcissidine, a bioactive alkaloid from hippeastrum puniceum lam. (amaryllidaceae).in the context of the study on plant defensive compounds we have isolated the main alkaloid from hippeastrum puniceum (amaryllidaceae), 3-o-acetyl-narcissidine (1), and its biological activities tested against two divergent insect species and several plant species. 1 was isolated from the bioactive alkaloidal fraction of h. puniceum. its chemical structure was established by spectroscopic analysis. the biological activity tests showed that 1 is an antifeedant against the polyphagous insect spodo ...200819040099
expression, purification and preliminary crystallization of amaranth 11s proglobulin seed storage protein from amaranthus hypochondriacus l.11s globulin is one of the major seed storage proteins in amaranth. recombinant protein was produced as up to approximately 80% of the total bacterial protein using escherichia coli rosetta-gami (de3) containing pet21d with amaranth 11s globulin cdna. the best expression condition was at 302 k for 20 h using lb medium containing 0.5 m nacl. the recombinant protein was easily separated from most of the escherichia coli proteins by precipitation with 0-40% ammonium sulfate solution. it formed aggr ...201020693668
antioxidant properties of amaranthus hypochondriacus seeds and their effect on the liver of alcohol-treated rats.amaranth constitutes a valuable pseudocereal, due to its nutritional quality and its nutraceutical properties, which contribute to improve human health. this work evaluated the effect of a diet based on amaranthus hypochondriacus (ah) seed on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in the liver of rats sub-chronically exposed to ethanol. the seed extract was investigated for antioxidant capacity in vitro, showing an adequate content of total phenols and antioxidant activity elevated. for in vivo ...201121547507
burkholderia ambifaria and b. caribensis promote growth and increase yield in grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus and a. hypochondriacus) by improving plant nitrogen uptake.grain amaranth is an emerging crop that produces seeds having high quality protein with balanced amino-acid content. however, production is restricted by agronomic limitations that result in yields that are lower than those normally produced by cereals. in this work, the use of five different rhizobacteria were explored as a strategy to promote growth and yields in amaranthus hypochondriacus cv. nutrisol and a. cruentus cv. candil, two commercially important grain amaranth cultivars. the plants ...201424533068
changes in the metabolome and histopathology of amaranthus hypochondriacus l. in response to ageratum enation virus infection.amaranthus hypochondriacus l. infected with ageratum enation virus (aev) was investigated for identifying alteration in the anatomical structures, sap translocation and metabolomic variations using light microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, nmr spectroscopy and gc-ms, respectively. combination of gc-ms and nmr spectroscopy identified 68 polar and non-polar metabolites that were present in different levels in healthy and virus-infected a. hypochondriacus. contrast of t₁ and t₂ weighted mr imag ...201222683210
treatment of amaranthus cruentus with chemical and biological inducers of resistance has contrasting effects on fitness and protection against compatible gram positive and gram negative bacterial pathogens.amaranthus cruentus (ac) plants were treated with the synthetic systemic acquired resistance (sar) inducer benzothiadiazole (bth), methyl jasmonate (meja) and the incompatible pathogen, pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (pss), under greenhouse conditions. the treatments induced a set of marker genes in the absence of pathogen infection: bth and pss similarly induced genes coding for pathogenesis-related and antioxidant proteins, whereas meja induced the arginase, lox2 and amarandin 1 genes. bth ...201424913050
antifungal, anti-oomycete and phytotoxic effects of volatile organic compounds from the endophytic fungus xylaria sp. strain pb3f3 isolated from haematoxylon brasiletto.to determine the antifungal, anti-oomycete and phytotoxic activity; and chemical composition of the volatile organic compounds (vocs) produced by endophytic fungus xylaria sp. pb3f3 isolated from haematoxylon brasiletto karst.201626920072
analysis of phylogenetic relationships and genome size evolution of the amaranthus genus using gbs indicates the ancestors of an ancient crop.the genus amaranthus consists of 50-70 species and harbors several cultivated and weedy species of great economic importance. a small number of suitable traits, phenotypic plasticity, gene flow and hybridization made it difficult to establish the taxonomy and phylogeny of the whole genus despite various studies using molecular markers. we inferred the phylogeny of the amaranthus genus using genotyping by sequencing (gbs) of 94 genebank accessions representing 35 amaranthus species and measured t ...201728057554
a rapid and reliable pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) marker for the identification of amaranthus cruentus species.a rapid and reliable pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) marker was developed to identify the amaranthus cruentus species by comparing sequences of the starch branching enzyme (sbe) locus among the three cultivated grain amaranths. we determined the partial sbe genomic sequence in 72 accessions collected from diverse locations around the world by direct sequence analysis. then, we aligned the gene sequences and searched for restriction enzyme cleavage sites specific to each speci ...201425914599
molecular characterization of an isoamylase 1-type starch debranching enzyme (dbei) in grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.).the purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular profile of a starch debranching enzyme (dbe) in grain amaranth. a cdna clone that encodes a putative dbe was isolated from amaranth perisperm and then sequenced. this amaranth dbe appears to be an isa1-type dbe (dbei), based on its substrate specificity and the sequence similarity between the 2,391-bp cdna clone and isa1 s from potato and arabidopsis. the mature dbei of amaranth consists of 796 amino acids (90.5 kda). we analyzed the tr ...201425167854
bioavailability to rats of iron from fortified grain amaranth.in this study, fortified and unfortified grain amaranth seed flour diets and a feso4-fortified casein diet (used as a control) were evaluated for their iron (fe) bioavailability. nafeedta, ferrous fumarate, and feso4-fortified grain amaranth were fed to growing sprague-dawley weaning male rats. iron intake, hemoglobin iron (hbfe) gain, fe availability, total iron binding capacity (tibc), serum iron, non-haem liver iron and red bloodcell volume (rbv) were determined, and the values were compared ...19948052576
evaluation of the nutritional quality of the grain protein of new amaranths varieties.the efforts for promoting the consumption of food of plant origin are increasingly growing. the amaranth grain is an important vegetable protein source, superior in content and quality to traditional cereals. in the central-west region of argentina, new amaranth varieties have been obtained to optimize its agronomic traits and promote its use. in this work, the analysis of the wholemeal flour protein from seeds of two new varieties of amaranthus cruentus var. candil (cc) and amaranthus hypochond ...201525501792
extraction and purification of squalene from amaranthus grain.grain amaranth has been suggested as an alternative to marine animals as a natural source of squalene. oil contents, squalene contents, and fatty acid profiles were determined in 11 genotypes of four grain amaranth species. although the oil contents of grain amaranth were low (from 5.1% in amaranthus tricolor to 7.7% in amaranthus cruentus) as compared to other oil-containing grains, high concentrations of squalene were found in total lipids, ranging from 3.6% in amaranthus hypochondriacus to 6. ...200211782209
the tolerance of grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.) to defoliation during vegetative growth is compromised during flowering.the biochemical processes underlying variations of tolerance are often accompanied by source-sink transitions affecting carbon (c) metabolism. we investigated the tolerance of amaranthus cruentus l. to total mechanical defoliation through development and in different growing seasons. defoliated a. cruentus recovered ∼80% of their above-ground biomass and ∼100% of grain yield compared to intact plants if defoliation occurred early during ontogeny, but could not compensate when defoliation occurre ...201525863889
purification and characterization of a lectin from amaranthus hypochondriacus var. mexico seeds.a lectin from amaranthus hypochondriacus var. mexico (ahml) was purified by affinity chromatography using asialofetuin-sepharose 4b. ahml is specific for n-acetyl-d-galactosamine as are the other amaranthus lectins. ahml has no carbohydrate moiety and requires no metal ion for the hemagglutination activity. the pi of ahml is 6.8. ahml has a native molecular mass of 45.0 kda and is composed of homo-subunits having molecular masses of 36.8 kda.19968988637
metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus) in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory.amaranthus cruentus and a. hypochondriacus are crop plants grown for grain production in subtropical countries. recently, the generation of large-scale transcriptomic data opened the possibility to study representative genes of primary metabolism to gain a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying tolerance to defoliation in these species. a multi-level approach was followed involving gene expression analysis, enzyme activity and metabolite measurements.201222966837
iron, zinc and calcium dialyzability from extruded product based on whole grain amaranth (amaranthus caudatus and amaranthus cruentus) and amaranth/zea mays blends.amaranth is a native american grain appreciated for its high nutritional properties including high mineral content. the aim of this study was to evaluate the availability of fe, zn and ca from extruded products made with two varieties of amaranth and their mixtures with maize at two levels of replacement. mineral availability was estimated using dialyzability method. the contents of fe (64.0-84.0 mg/kg), ca (1977.5-2348.8 mg/kg) and zn (30.0-32.1 mg/kg) were higher in amaranth than in maize prod ...201323256750
characterization and expression analysis of the starch synthase gene family in grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus l.).characterization and expression analysis of the starch synthase gene family was performed from grain amaranth. extensive searches for sequence data for amaranth starch synthase genes were done in the literature and in genbank, and identified four genes encoding gbssi, sssi, sssii, and sbe. alignment of predicted amino acid sequences showed that there were low levels of sequence identity among these four genes (10.6-34.5%). there was higher homology in the c-terminal region and lower homology in ...201223412630
grain amaranths are defoliation tolerant crop species capable of utilizing stem and root carbohydrate reserves to sustain vegetative and reproductive growth after leaf loss.tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. this trait was studied in grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus and a. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. the physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mech ...201323861825
cytogenetic studies in four cultivated amaranthus (amaranthaceae) species.in the present study, the chromosomes numbers were confirmed, 2n = 34 for amaranthus cruentus linnaeus, 1759, and 2n = 32 for amaranthus hypochondriacus linnaeus, 1753, amaranthus mantegazzianus passer, 1864, and amaranthus caudatus linnaeus, 1753. the distribution and variability of constitutive heterochromatin were detailed using dapi-cma3 banding technique. the position of the nucleolus organizer region (nor) was observed using ag-nor banding (active loci) and fluorescent in situ hybridizatio ...201324260690
ahdgr2, an amaranth abiotic stress-induced duf642 protein gene, modifies cell wall structure and composition and causes salt and aba hyper-sensibility in transgenic arabidopsis.an amaranth dgr gene, induced under abiotic stress, modifies cell wall structure and causes hypersensitivity to aba and salt when overexpressed in arabidopsis. duf642 is a highly conserved plant-specific family of unknown cell wall-associated proteins. the ahdgr2 gene, coding for a duf642 protein, was significantly induced in grain amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) plants subjected to water-deficit and salinity stress, thereby suggesting its participation in abiotic stress tolerance in this ...201727988887
the amaranth genome: genome, transcriptome, and physical map assembly.amaranth ( l.) is an emerging pseudocereal native to the new world that has garnered increased attention in recent years because of its nutritional quality, in particular its seed protein and more specifically its high levels of the essential amino acid lysine. it belongs to the amaranthaceae family, is an ancient paleopolyploid that shows disomic inheritance (2 = 32), and has an estimated genome size of 466 mb. here we present a high-quality draft genome sequence of the grain amaranth. the geno ...201627898770
overexpression of grain amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) aherf or ahdof transcription factors in arabidopsis thaliana increases water deficit- and salt-stress tolerance, respectively, via contrasting stress-amelioration mechanisms.two grain amaranth transcription factor (tf) genes were overexpressed in arabidopsis plants. the first, coding for a group vii ethylene response factor tf (i.e., aherf-vii) conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (ws) in transgenic arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. a significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to ws was associated with this trait. ws tolerance was also associated wit ...201627749893
the complete chloroplast genome sequences for four amaranthus species (amaranthaceae).the amaranth genus contains many important grain and weedy species. we further our understanding of the genus through the development of a complete reference chloroplast genome.201627672525
effect of grain moisture content during milling on pasting profile and functional properties of amaranth fractions.evaluation of functional properties of milled fractions of grain amaranth may be useful to decide the end uses of the grain. hence, pasting profiles of amaranth fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture contents were studied in relation with their starch profile and also with their swelling power and solubility indices. it was observed that, for flour fraction, the viscosity parameters were lowest at 14-16 % moisture content. swelling power and solubility indices of the samp ...201627407210
effect of heat processing on selected grain amaranth physicochemical properties.grain amaranth is a pseudocereal with unique agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. this study was undertaken to determine the effect of different heat-processing methods on physicochemical and nutraceutical properties in two main grain amaranth species, of amaranthus hypochondriacus l. and amaranthus cruentus l. grains were prepared by roasting and popping, milled and analyzed for changes in in vitro protein digestibility, gruel viscosity, pasting characteristics, antioxidant act ...201424804060
antioxidant, functional and rheological properties of optimized composite flour, consisting wheat and amaranth seed, brewers' spent grain and apple pomace.consumer's interest in functional food has continued to increase due to its potential health benefits. this study therefore is aimed at developing a functional wheat based flour comprising, amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed, brewers' spent grain and apple pomace. the statistical analyses were carried out using response surface methodology (rsm). for the experimental design, the composite flour components were the variables while the proximate and mineral compositions were the responses. ...201627162395
phytotoxic potential of secondary metabolites and semisynthetic compounds from endophytic fungus xylaria feejeensis strain sm3e-1b isolated from sapium macrocarpum.bioactivity-directed fractionation of the combined culture medium and mycelium extract of the endophytic fungus xylaria feejeensis strain sm3e-1b, isolated from sapium macrocarpum, led to the isolation of three known natural products: (4s,5s,6s)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methyl-5,6-epoxycyclohex-2-enone or coriloxine, 1; 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, 2; and 2,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione or fumiquinone b, 3. this is the first report of comp ...201627159617
phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from the endophyte hypoxylon anthochroum strain blaci isolated from bursera lancifolia (burseraceae).to evaluate the phytotoxic, antifungal and antioomycete activity; and, determine the chemical composition of the volatile organic compounds (vocs) and semi-volatile metabolites produced by the endophyte hypoxylon anthochroum strain blaci isolated from bursera lancifolia.201627159426
physiological and molecular analysis of aluminium-induced organic acid anion secretion from grain amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus l.) roots.grain amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus l.) is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (al) stress. however, the features of al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (oa) and potential genes responsible for oa secretion are poorly understood. here, al-induced oa secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) together with quantitative real-time pcr (qrt-pcr) was used to i ...201627144562
drought-tolerant streptomyces pactum act12 assist phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soil by amaranthus hypochondriacus: great potential application in arid/semi-arid areas.microbe-assisted phytoremediation provides an effective approach to clean up heavy metal-contaminated soils. however, severe drought may affect the function of microbes in arid/semi-arid areas. streptomyces pactum act12 is a drought-tolerant soil actinomycete strain isolated from an extreme environment on the qinghai-tibet plateau, china. in this study, pot experiments were conducted to assess the effect of act12 on cd tolerance, uptake, and accumulation in amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) ...201627072036
optimized formulation and processing protocol for a supplementary bean-based composite flour.protein-energy malnutrition is the most serious nutritional body depletion disorder among infants and young children in developing countries, attributable to inadequate energy and nutrient intake, partly due to high dietary bulk of weaning and infant foods. the gruels fed to children are typically of low nutrient and energy density due to the low flour incorporation rate required for drinking viscosity. the aim of this study was to develop a nutritious product, based on common dry beans and othe ...201526788294
[evaluation of the chemical characteristics and physical and rheological properties of the starch isolated from 2 amaranth species (amaranthus cruentus and amaranthus hypochondriacus)].in this study the chemical composition, and the physical and rheological properties of starches isolated from seeds of three experimental varieties of amaranthus cruentus and amaranthus hypochondriacus, were evaluated. the starch content of amaranth grains was evaluated by two methods. the starch obtained showed a high purity with protein contents ranging from 0.90 to 0.93; the fat content was higher in a. cruentus starch than in the other two samples. the amylose content was different between t ...199810205917
antithrombotic effects of amaranthus hypochondriacus proteins in rats.cardiovascular disease (cvd) is a major cause of disability and premature death throughout the world. diets with antithrombotic components offer a convenient and effective way of preventing and reducing cvd incidence. the aim of the present work was to assess in vivo and ex vivo effects of amaranthus hypochondriacus proteins on platelet plug formation and coagulation cascade. amaranth proteins were orally administrated to rats (ag, 8 animals) and bleeding time was determined showing no significa ...201626627100
novel avian single-chain fragment variable (scfv) targets dietary gluten and related natural grain prolamins, toxic entities of celiac disease.celiac disease (cd) is a chronic, small intestinal inflammatory disease mediated by dietary gluten and related prolamins. the only current therapeutic option is maintenance of a strict life-long gluten-free diet, which implies substantial burden for cd patients. different treatment regimes might be feasible, including masking of toxic celiac peptides with blocking antibodies or fragments thereof. the objective of this study was therefore to select and produce a recombinant avian single-chain fra ...201526625857
the overexpression of an amaranthus hypochondriacus nf-yc gene modifies growth and confers water deficit stress resistance in arabidopsis.nuclear factor-y (nf-y), is a plant heterotrimeric transcription factor constituted by nf-ya, nf-yb and nf-yc subunits. the function of many nf-y subunits, mostly of the a and b type, has been studied in plants, but knowledge regarding the c subunit remains fragmentary. here, a water stress-induced nf-yc gene from amaranthus hypochondriacus (ahnf-yc) was further characterized by its overexpression in transgenic arabidospis thaliana plants. a role in development was inferred from modified growth ...201526475185
the novel and taxonomically restricted ah24 gene from grain amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) has a dual role in development and defense.grain amaranths tolerate stress and produce highly nutritious seeds. we have identified several (a)biotic stress-responsive genes of unknown function in amaranthus hypochondriacus, including the so-called ah24 gene. ah24 was expressed in young or developing tissues; it was also strongly induced by mechanical damage, insect herbivory and methyl jasmonate and in meristems and newly emerging leaves of severely defoliated plants. interestingly, an in silico analysis of its 1304 bp promoter region sh ...201526300899
correction to neutral pectin side chains of amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) contain long, partially branched arabinans and short galactans, both with terminal arabinopyranoses. 201526176260
endoplasmic reticulum-retention c-terminal sequence enhances production of an 11s seed globulin from amaranthus hypochondriacus in pichia pastoris.the methylotrophic yeast pichia pastoris was used to express an 11s seed globulin from amaranthus hypochondriacus. three different plasmids were tested for expression of amarantin. one of them, which included the untranslated regions (utr) of the full cdna, failed to express the amarantin under tested conditions, whereas the other plasmids, one without utr and the other similar but including the endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal kdel, were able to express the proamarantin in p. pastoris. af ...200617004299
premature termination of rna polymerase ii mediated transcription of a seed protein gene in schizosaccharomyces pombe.the poly(a) signal and downstream elements with transcriptional pausing activity play an important role in termination of rna polymerase ii transcription. we show that an intronic sequence derived from the plant seed protein gene (ama1) specifically acts as a transcriptional terminator in the fission yeast, schizosaccharomyces pombe. the 3'-end points of mrna encoded by the ama1 gene were mapped at different positions in s.pombe and in native cells of amaranthus hypochondriacus. deletion analyse ...200212087180
a surface plasmon resonance assay for the binding of amaranthus hypochondriacus var. mexico lectin to glycoprotein.we have used the analytical system based on surface plasmon resonance to monitor the interaction between amaranthus hypochondriacus var. mexico lectin and four different fetuins; fetuin, asialofetuin, agalactofetuin, and agalactosaminofetuin. agalactofetuin and agalactosaminofetuin were prepared by enzymic digestion of asialofetuin using jack bean beta-galactosidase or endo-alpha-n-acetylgalactosaminidase from diplococcus pneumoniae. ligands were immobilized onto a sensor surface via amide linka ...19989503165
[antioxidant capacity of byproducts from amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) seeds].the antioxidant capacity (ca) of byproducts from amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) seeds from two harvest parcels as a function of three extraction methods and two solvents was evaluated. on a first stage the effect of extraction method (homogenization, low frequency ultrasound, or the combination homogenization-ultrasound) and extraction solvent (methanol or ethanol, 100%) were evaluated; on a second stage, the effect of extraction solvent concentration (100%, 70%, or 50%) was evaluated. ca ...201425796717
multielemental analysis and classification of amaranth seeds according to their botanical origin.the characterization of amaranth seeds (amaranthus spp.) was developed for amaranthus hypochondriacus, amaranthus cruentus, and amaranthus dubius. the elemental concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optic atomic spectroscopy. pattern recognition methods were used for the characterization of seed samples: nonsupervised methods included principal components analysis and cluster analysis; supervised methods were linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares discrimin ...201121797241
effects of heat and ph treatments and in vitro digestion on the biological activity of protein hydrolysates of amaranthus hypochondriacus l. grain.the aim of this work was to assess the effects of temperature (t), time (t) and ph treatments and an in vitro digestion on the stability of the angiotensin i-converting-enzyme-inhibitory activity (aceia) and antithrombotic activity (ata; assessed as inhibition of platelet aggregation) of selected protein hydrolysates of amaranth named alb1h103 and gloh88 and gluh24 with dipeptidyl peptidase iv inhibitory activity (dppivia). heat treatment (40-100 °c) for 1 h showed no significant differences amo ...201628115770
neutral pectin side chains of amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) contain long, partially branched arabinans and short galactans, both with terminal arabinopyranoses.amaranth is a pseudocereal of high nutritional value, including a high dietary fiber content. amaranth dietary fiber was suggested to contain large amounts of neutral rhamnogalacturonan i side chains. in this study, endo-arabinanase and endo-galactanase were used to liberate arabinan and galactan oligosaccharides from amaranth fiber. the liberated oligosaccharides were identified by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (hpaec-pad) and hplc-ms(n) using ...201525529336
taxonomic and functional structure of phytophagous insect communities associated with grain amaranth.amaranthus are worldwide attacked mainly by leaf chewers and sucker insects. stem borers and leaf miners follow in importance, while minor herbivores are leaf rollers, folders, and rasping-sucking insects. the herbivorous community observed on amaranthus spp. in argentina was consistent with the information reported worldwide both in guild composition and order proportion. amaranth plants had a higher number of phytophagous species in their native rather than in its introduced range. occurrence ...201427194061
influences of calcium silicate on chemical forms and subcellular distribution of cadmium in amaranthus hypochondriacus l.a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of calcium silicate (cs) on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (cd) in grain amaranths (amaranthus hypochondriacus l. cv. 'k112') grown in a cd contaminated soil. results showed that the dry weight and the photosynthetic pigments contents in grain amaranths increased significantly with the increasing doses of cs treatments, with the highest value found for the treatment of cs3 (1.65 g/kg). compared with the control ...201728074912
the draft genome and transcriptome of amaranthus hypochondriacus: a c4 dicot producing high-lysine edible pseudo-cereal.grain amaranths, edible c4 dicots, produce pseudo-cereals high in lysine. lysine being one of the most limiting essential amino acids in cereals and c4 photosynthesis being one of the most sought-after phenotypes in protein-rich legume crops, the genome of one of the grain amaranths is likely to play a critical role in crop research. we have sequenced the genome and transcriptome of amaranthus hypochondriacus, a diploid (2n = 32) belonging to the order caryophyllales with an estimated genome siz ...201425071079
development of a nutrient-dense complementary food using amaranth-sorghum grains.thin porridge from cereals and starchy tubers is a common complementary food in sub saharan africa. it may be high in antinutrients, low in energy, and nutrient density hence inadequate in providing infants' high energy and nutrients requirements per unit body weight. consequently, undernourishment levels among children under 5 years are high. therefore, there is need to avail nutrient-dense complementary foods especially for children in low-resource settings. the study was aimed at developing a ...201728070319
genomic and phenotypic evidence for an incomplete domestication of south american grain amaranth (amaranthus caudatus).the domestication syndrome comprises phenotypic changes that differentiate crops from their wild ancestors. we compared the genomic variation and phenotypic differentiation of the two putative domestication traits seed size and seed colour of the grain amaranth amaranthus caudatus, which is an ancient crop of south america, and its two close wild relatives and putative ancestors a. hybridus and a. quitensis. genotyping 119 accessions of the three species from the andean region using genotyping b ...201728019043
naphthoquinone spiroketals and organic extracts from the endophytic fungus edenia gomezpompae as potential herbicides.from the fermentation mycelium of the endophytic fungus edenia gomezpompae were obtained several phytotoxic compounds including two new members of the naphthoquinone spiroketal family, namely, palmarumycin eg1 (1) and preussomerin eg4 (4). in addition, preussomerins eg1-eg3 (7-9) and palmarumycins cp19 (2), cp17 (3), and cp2 (6), as well as ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (5), were obtained. compounds 2, 3, and 5 are new to this species. the structures of palmarumycins cp19 (2) and cp17 (3) w ...201424689520
extrusion improved the anti-inflammatory effect of amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) hydrolysates in lps-induced human thp-1 macrophage-like and mouse raw 264.7 macrophages by preventing activation of nf-κb signaling.the objective was to compare the anti-inflammatory potential of unprocessed and extruded amaranth pepsin/pancreatin hydrolysates in lps-induced human thp-1 macrophages-like and mouse raw 264.7 macrophages focusing on their anti-inflammatory mechanism of action related to nf-κb signaling pathway.201424431078
crossing methods and cultivation conditions for rapid production of segregating populations in three grain amaranth species.grain amaranths (amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in central and south america. their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. the development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important fo ...201627375666
inclusion of ancient latin-american crops in bread formulation improves intestinal iron absorption and modulates inflammatory markers.this study compares iron (fe) absorption in fe-deficient animals from bread formulations prepared by substitution of white wheat flour (wb) by whole wheat flour (wwb), amaranth flour (amaranthus hypochondriacus, 25%) (ab) and quinoa flour (chenopodium quinoa, 25%) (qb), or chia flour (salvia hispanica l, 5%) (chb). hematological parameters of fe homeostasis, plasmatic active hepcidin peptide production (lc coupled to ms/ms), and liver tfr-2 and il-6 expression (rt-qpcr) were determined. the diff ...201626787109
biochemical and molecular characterization of a novel cu/zn superoxide dismutase from amaranthus hypochondriacus l.: an intrinsically disordered protein.a novel cu/znsod from amaranthus hypochondriacus was cloned, expressed, and characterized. nucleotide sequence analysis showed an open reading frame (orf) of 456 bp, which was predicted to encode a 15.6-kda molecular weight protein with a pi of 5.4. structural analysis showed highly conserved amino acid residues involved in cu/zn binding. recombinant amaranth superoxide dismutase (rahsod) displayed more than 50 % of catalytic activity after incubation at 100 °c for 30 min. in silico analysis of ...201526129702
a pitfall in determining the globulin/albumin ratio in amaranth grains.in amaranth grains (amaranthus hypochondriacus l. and amaranthus cruentus l.), there were two albumin (alb) fractions, alb-1 and alb-2; alb-1 was extracted with water or 0.5 m nacl, and alb-2 was extracted with water after extracting alb-1 and globulin. the amount of alb-2 comprised about 30% of the total albumin and globulin content. little or no measurable protein corresponding to the amaranth alb-2 was extracted from seeds of buckwheat (fagopyrum esculentum moench), quinoa (chenopodium quinoa ...19921506925
mature amaranthus hypochondriacus seeds contain non-processed 11s precursors.amaranth is a dicotyledonous plant whose major seed storage proteins are globulins and glutelins. an unique feature of amaranth seeds is the presence of a fraction named albumin-2, that is extractable with water only after an exhaustive extraction of globulins and albumin-1. in this work, we tested the hypothesis that albumin-2 fraction could be constituted by a non-processed 11s globulin (proglobulin). to this end, the gene encoding the amaranth 11s subunit was cloned and expressed in escherich ...200817714748
characterization of peptides found in unprocessed and extruded amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) pepsin/pancreatin hydrolysates.the objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (uah) and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (eah) and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °c of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for ...201525894223
formulation of a drinkable peanut-based therapeutic food for malnourished children using plant sources.high ingredient costs continue to hamper local production of therapeutic foods (tfs). development of formulations without milk, the most expensive ingredient, is one way of reducing cost. this study formulated a ready-to-drink peanut-based tf that matched the nutrient composition of f100 using plant sources. three least cost formulations namely, a, b and c were designed using computer formulation software with peanuts, beans, sesame, cowpeas and grain amaranth as ingredients. a 100 g portion of ...201323198736
phytotoxic compounds from flourensia cernua.bioassay-directed fractionation of a ch(2)cl(2)-meoh (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of flourensia cernua led to the isolation of three phytotoxic compounds, namely, dehydroflourensic acid (1), flourensadiol (2) and methyl orsellinate (3). dehydroflourensic acid is a new natural product whose structure was established by spectral means. in addition, the known flavonoid ermanin and seven hitherto unknown gamma-lactones were obtained, these being tetracosan-4-olide, pentacosan-4-olide, hexacosan ...200312946427
utilization of super bac pools and fluidigm access array platform for high-throughput bac clone identification: proof of concept.bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) libraries are critical for identifying full-length genomic sequences, correlating genetic and physical maps, and comparative genomics. here we describe the utilization of the fluidigm access array genotyping system in conjunction with kaspar genotyping technology to identify individual bac clones corresponding to specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) from an amplicon express seven-plate super pooled amaranthus hypochondriacus bac library. ninety-si ...201222910714
angiotensin i-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities and surfactant properties of protein hydrolysates as obtained of amaranthus hypochondriacus l. grain.even though some research has been carried out on surfactant properties of amaranth protein hydrolysates, their bio-functionality has not been studied yet. in this work amaranth grain alb 1 and glob were hydrolyzed (alb 1h, glob h) and foams and emulsions at optimal conditions (t, e/s, ph5) were prepared in order to assess techno-functional properties such as foaming (f) and emulsifying (e) (capacity (c) and stability (s)). fc and ec were much better for glob h than for alb h. angiotensin i-conv ...201525829587
a chimera polypeptide with active sites of hwtx-i and aai.the functional amino acid sequence and its neighbouring fragments in the molecule of amaranth alpha-amylase inhibitor isolated from seeds of the mexican crop plant amaranthus hypochondriacus were transferred, by solid phase chemical synthesis, into n-terminal region of the huwentoxin-i(hwtx-i). the synthetic chimera polypeptide was confirmed by edman degradation and maldi-tof mass spectroscopy. the formation of three disulfide bonds and special conformation of the synthetic chimera was induced b ...200012075454
the potential influence of plant-based feed supplements on sperm quantity and quality in livestock: a review.the reproductive performance of male livestock is of economic importance, and improving semen quantity and quality, especially for artificial insemination, additionally helps to avoid the loss of valuable genotypes. the review focuses on the impact of oxidative stress on sperm production and quality in livestock, and the potential role of plant based anti-oxidants to control this impact. from scientific reports dealing with livestock, the paper compiles evidence on effective dietary measures aff ...201222575847
effect of fertilizers on cd uptake of amaranthus hypochondriacus, a high biomass, fast growing and easily cultivated potential cd hyperaccumulator.in a greenhouse pot experiment, we assessed the phytoextraction potential for cd of three amaranth cultivars (amaranthus hypochondriacus l. cvs. k112, r104, and k472) and the effect of application of n, np, and npk fertilizer on cd uptake of the three cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg kg(-1) cd. all three amaranth cultivars had high levels of cd concentration in their tissues, which ranged from 95.1 to 179.1 mg kg(-1) in leaves, 58.9 to 95.4 mg kg(-1) in stems, and 62.4 to 107.2 mg kg(- ...201222567702
plant pre-mrna splicing in fission yeast, schizosaccharomyces pombe.pre-mrna splicing or the removal of introns from precursor messenger rnas depends on the accurate recognition of intron sequences by the splicing machinery. we have analyzed various aspects of intron sequence and structure in relation to splice site selection and splicing efficiency of a plant gene ama1 in schizosaccharomyces pombe. earlier, we reported the cloning of ama1, a seed albumin gene from amaranthus hypochondriacus [a. raina, a. datta, proc. natl. acad. sci. usa 89 (1992) 11774]. in th ...200212054504
immunological characteristics of pep carboxylase from leaves of c3-, c4- and c3-c4 intermediate species of alternanthera--comparison with selected c3- and c4- plants.immunological cross-reactivity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc) in leaf extracts of c3-, c4- and c3-c4 intermediate species of alternanthera (along with a few other c3- and c4- plants) was studied using anti-pepc antibodies raised against pepc of amaranthus hypochondriacus (belonging to the same family as that of alternanthera, namely amaranthaceae). antibodies were also raised in rabbits against the purified pepc from zea mays (c4- monocot-poaceae) as well as alternanthera pungens (c4- ...200112019756
transcriptomic analysis of grain amaranth (amaranthus hypochondriacus) using 454 pyrosequencing: comparison with a. tuberculatus, expression profiling in stems and in response to biotic and abiotic stress.amaranthus hypochondriacus, a grain amaranth, is a c4 plant noted by its ability to tolerate stressful conditions and produce highly nutritious seeds. these possess an optimal amino acid balance and constitute a rich source of health-promoting peptides. although several recent studies, mostly involving subtractive hybridization strategies, have contributed to increase the relatively low number of grain amaranth expressed sequence tags (ests), transcriptomic information of this species remains li ...201121752295
immunolocalization of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in porcine kidney.polyclonal anti-badh serum was raised in rabbits against native badh purified from porcine kidney. the antiserum cross-reacted strongly with badh purified from kidney, amaranthus palmierii, and pseudomona aeuroginosa (1:1000), and weakly with amaranthus hypochondriacus l (1:100). antibodies bound to purified native kidney badh in immunoblots showed a major band of an apparent molecular mass of 340 kda and a subunit with an apparent molecular mass of 52 kda. data on activity assays showed higher ...199910329454
stimulation by abscisic acid of the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in leaf disks of amaranthus hypochondriacus l., c4 plant: role of ph and protein levels.c4 plants can more efficiently fix carbon in drought, high temperatures, and limitations of nitrogen or co2. primary carboxylation is mediated by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc, 4.1.1.31) in mesophyll cytosol of c4 plants. studies on hormonal regulation of c4 pepc have been quite limited. we have examined the activity/regulation of pepc by abscisic acid (aba), a plant hormone, in the leaves of amaranthus hypochondriacus. pepc activity was enhanced upon 1-h incubation with 20 μm aba by abo ...201728251362
partial characterization of the lysine rich 280kd globulin from common buckwheat (fagopyrum esculentum moench): its antigenic homology with seed proteins of some other crops.a high molecular weight (hmw) globulin, the main storage protein in grains of the common buckwheat (fagopyrum esculentum moench) has been partially characterized. the protein exists as an oligomeric complex with molecular mass of 280 kd and is composed of three groups (alpha, beta and gamma of polypeptides with molecular weights ranging between 55-60, 32-44 and 16-29 kd respectively. the protein showed serological cross reactivity with globulins of soya bean, mung bean and pea. antibodies raised ...19968908369
multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: a potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.in a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. this cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. it has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. in the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as ...201525345487
betacyanin biosynthetic genes and enzymes are differentially induced by (a)biotic stress in amaranthus hypochondriacus.an analysis of key genes and enzymes of the betacyanin biosynthetic pathway in amaranthus hypochondriacus (ah) was performed. complete cdna sequence of ah genes coding for cyclo-dopa 5-o glucosyltransferase (ahcdopa5-gt), two 4, 5-dopa-extradiol-dioxygenase isoforms (ahdoda-1 and ahdoda-2, respectively), and a betanidin 5-o-glucosyltransferase (ahb5-gt), plus the partial sequence of an orthologue of the cytochrome p-450 r gene (cyp76ad1) were obtained. with the exception ahdoda-2, which had a cl ...201424896616
contrasting effects of silicates on cadmium uptake by three dicotyledonous crops grown in contaminated soil.the effects of several silicates (talcum powder (tp), calcium silicate (cs), sodium silicate (ss), and potassium silicate (ps)), in comparison with other amendments (quicklime (ql) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pdp)) on cadmium (cd) uptake by three dicotyledonous crops (amaranthus hypochondriacus l. cv. 'k112', amaranthus tricolor l., and brassica oleracea var. albiflora kuntze) were investigated in cd-contaminated soil. the effects of both application methods of amendments (singly and com ...201424801288
enhancement of cd phytoextraction by two amaranthus species with endophytic rahnella sp. jn27.microbe-assisted phytoextraction shows a potential for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. the aim of this study was to isolate, characterize, and evaluate the potential of endophytic bacteria in improving plant growth and metal uptake by cd-hyperaccumulators-amaranthus hypochondriacus and amaranthus mangostanus. an endophytic bacterial strain jn27 isolated from roots of zea mays displayed high tolerance and mobilization to cd, and was identified as rahnella sp. based on 16s rdna sequen ...201424314897
[the oil, fatty acid and squalene content of varieties of raw and processed amaranth grain].the oil, fatty acid and squalene content of varieties of raw and processed grain amaranth. six amaranth grain varieties were processed to yield a nixtamalized flour, one cooked in water, one expanded, a malted one and a laminate samples after a thermic treatment. the chemical values of the raw samples contained from 14.5% to 15.1% protein, 5.9 to 6.7% ether extract and from 2.3% to 3.2% ash on a dry weight basis. the flours from the different processes yield products with a fat content which var ...200919480349
biochemical and molecular study of the influence of amaranthus hypochondriacus flour on serum and liver lipids in rats treated with ethanol.hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis are frequent alterations due to alcohol abuse. amaranth is a pseudocereal with hypolipidemic potential among other nutraceutical actions. here we study the effect of amaranthus hypochondriacus (ah) seeds on serum and liver lipids, and the expression of genes associated to lipid metabolism and liver histology in male wistar rats intoxicated with ethanol. the animals were divided into four groups; two groups were fed the american institute of nutrition 1993 for ...201324122546
ace inhibitory tetrapeptides from amaranthus hypochondriacus 11s globulin.amaranth seed is a valuable source of dietary protein with very high nutritional quality, and recently its potential as a nutraceutical has been proposed. the aim of this work was to provide experimental evidence for the presence of anti-hypertensive peptides in globulin 11s, one of the major constituents of the seed, by means of an in-silico based peptide library screening method. a three-dimensional model of globulin 11s was built, upon which anti-hypertensive peptides were mapped via a databa ...200919443002
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