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epidemiologic typing of enterobacter sakazakii in two neonatal nosocomial outbreaks.two unrelated hospital outbreaks of enterobacter sakazakii, involving meningitis, bacteremia, and colonization of neonates, were investigated. in each of these outbreaks, e. sakazakii was isolated from both patients and dried infant formula. in previous outbreaks, the source and mode of transmission of e. sakazakii in neonatal infections was not determined. in this study, we used a combination of typing methods (plasmid analysis, antibiograms, chromosomal restriction endonuclease analysis, ribot ...19902279379
enterobacter sakazakii: a tween 80 esterase-positive representative of the genus enterobacter isolated from powdered milk specimens.enterobacter sakazakii is the new species name introduced in 1977 for yellow-pigmented strains originally designated as yellow enterobacter cloacae. all of the six e.sakazakii strains isolated from powdered milk specimens were found to produce tween 80 esterase after 7 days of incubation at 25 degrees c and 37 degrees c. from e.cloacae it is distinguishable by reactions in four, or even three, biochemical tests, i.e. by production of yellow pigment, positive production of tween 80 esterase and b ...19846527001
enzymatic profiles of enterobacter sakazakii and related species with special reference to the alpha-glucosidase reaction and reproducibility of the test system.the enzymatic profiles of enterobacter sakazakii, enterobacter cloacae, enterobacter aerogenes, and enterobacter agglomerans were determined with the api zym system (api system s.a., la balme les grottes, france). each assay was performed three times. a simple formula was derived and applied to assess the reproducibility of the api zym tests. in addition, a separate alpha-glucosidase test was performed. all e. sakazakii isolates produced alpha-glucosidase, in contrast to the other enterobacter i ...19846386874
cefotaxime therapy of neonatal gram-negative bacillary meningitis.seven neonates were treated with cefotaxime during eight episodes of gram-negative bacillary meningitis and sepsis. the causative organisms were escherichia coli in six cases and klebsiella pneumoniae and enterobacter sakazakii in one each. after identification of the pathogen cefotaxime was used alone in six instances. two patients with brain abscesses received adjunctive therapy with another antibiotic. the sterility of cerebrospinal fluid was documented after a mean of 3.3 days of therapy. me ...19853900946
three cases of neonatal meningitis caused by enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk.three cases of neonatal infection caused by enterobacter sakazakii are reported from the department of neonatal intensive care, the national university hospital, reykjavík, iceland. these infections occurred during a 9-month period in 1986 and 1987. two of the neonates, who were normal at birth, survived but were left with brain damage. the third, who had down's syndrome and severe cardiac malformations, died. the same organism was also grown from groin and anal swabs from a healthy neonate. e. ...19892778070
quality of powdered substitutes for breast milk with regard to members of the family enterobacteriaceae.members of the family enterobacteriaceae were cultured from 52.5% of 141 milk substitute infant formulas which were obtained in 35 countries. the concentration did not exceed a level of 1 cfu/g in any product. the species which were isolated most frequently were enterobacter agglomerans, cloacae, enterobacter sakazakii, and klebsiella pneumoniae. if infections due to these organisms occur, it can be useful to include a check of the hygienic precautions which are taken during the preparation and ...19883284901
direct identification and susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli from bactec bottles by use of the ms-2 system with updated bacterial identification software.the abbott ms-2 system (abbott laboratories, diagnostic division, irving, tex.), equipped with updated bacterial identification software (version 03.02), was used to perform both direct identification and susceptibility tests on gram-negative bacilli from positive bactec blood culture bottles. ninety-eight of 101 enterobacteriaceae strains, one strain of acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and two strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa were correctly identified by following a direct inoculation procedure. o ...19846394624
dna relatedness between enterobacter sakazakii and other members of the genus enterobacter.a dna-dna hybridization study (nitrocellulose filter method) was carried out with 13 strains of enterobacter sakazakii and 38 strains belonging to other enterobacter species (e. cloacae, e. amnigenus, e. intermedium and e. gergoviae). e. sakazakii strains were highly related (mean relative binding ratio +/- standard deviation: 89% +/- 10) to the strain r 16-76 (labelled dna). no close relationship was found with the other enterobacter species. the low relative binding ratios were not due to a di ...19836638753
aztreonam in the treatment of serious orthopedic infections.aztreozam was evaluated in the treatment of a variety of orthopedic infections. included were 17 patients with osteomyelitis, three with purulent arthropathy with prostheses, and 16 with superficial infections secondary to trauma or surgical procedure. pathogens were gram-negative bacilli sensitive to aztreonam. concomitant antibiotics were administered for gram-positive cocci that were present initially or by superinfection. infecting organisms included pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimal inhibitor ...19853881949
enterobacter sakazakii meningitis in neonates. 19883282215
[human infections caused by enterobacter sakazakii. microbiologic considerations].the clinical and microbiological features of four patients with positive cultures for enterobacter sakazaii are reported. they corresponded to two wound exudates, one appendicitis and one newborn conjunctivitis. the biochemical and physiological characteristics of this organism are analyzed (inability to ferment d-sorbitol and production of a non-diffusible yellow pigment); its difficult identification and the clinical rarity of its isolation are discussed. the relevant literature is reviewed.19892490682
[biochemical typing of enterobacter isolated from several clinical materials].a total of 74 enterobacter species have been isolated from the patients applying to the department of microbiology, university of ankara, studying several biochemical test systems their strains have been found. 37 of these enterobacter species have been found to be enterobacter cloacae, 10 enterobacter agglomerans, 13 enterobacter aerogenes, 3 enterobacter hafniae (hafnia alvei), 1 enterobacter sakazakii. 2 of the strains couldn't be classified. in conclusion most of the strains were found to be ...19883078792
treatment of childhood bacterial meningitis.one hundred and eighty-seven children with identified bacterial meningitis were treated with intravenous cefotaxime: 15 patients were neonates, 79 infants, and 93 were aged from 1 to 14 years. causative organisms were: neisseria meningitidis in 80 cases, streptococcus pneumoniae in 41, haemophilus influenzae in 40, enteric gram-negative bacilli in 20 and staphylococcus spp. in six. enteric gram-negative bacilli included: salmonella spp. in 14 cases, klebsiella pneumoniae in two, and escherichia ...19892689353
abscedation of posterior fossa dermoid cysts.dermoid cysts of the posterior fossa are uncommon. when associated with a dermal sinus, these cysts are often diagnosed during early childhood. the main risk of such an association is contamination of the cyst leading to abscedation of the dermoid itself or formation of daughter abscesses within the cerebellar hemisphere. we recently treated a 20-month-old girl who had a congenital dermal sinus leading to an intradural dermoid cyst. in addition to the midline dermoid cyst, computerized tomograph ...19968816296
comparative in vitro susceptibilities of eight enterobacter species, with special reference to enterobacter sakazakii.an agar dilution method was used to measure the mics of 29 antimicrobial agents against enterobacter sakazakii, e. cloacae, e. aerogenes, e. agglomerans, e. amnigenus, e. gergoviae, e. intermedium, and e. taylorae (formerly enteric group 19). e. sakazakii was the most susceptible species. results showing resistance to ampicillin are likely to exclude e. sakazakii.19863636109
in vitro activity and stability against novel beta-lactamases of investigational beta-lactams (cefepime, cefpirome, flomoxef, sce2787 and piperacillin plus tazobactam) in comparison with established compounds (cefotaxime, latamoxef and piperacillin).the therapeutic perspectives of flomoxef, sce 2787, cefpirome, cefepime, latamoxef, cefotaxime and of piperacillin plus tazobactam were comparatively evaluated by their in vitro activity against 1119 clinical isolates of 83 bacterial species. escherichia coli, klebsiella spp. enterobacter sakazakii, proteus spp. and shigella spp. were about equally susceptible to the cephalosporins (mic90: 0.06 to 0.5 mg/l), while the mic90 for piperacillin plus tazobactam was between 2 and 16 mg/l. enterobacter ...19911664418
bacteremia associated with enterobacter sakazakii (yellow, pigmented enterobacter cloacae).a case report of bacteremia due to enterobacter sakazakii, listed previously as yellow-pigmented enterobacter cloacae (r. sakazaki, in r. e. buchanan and n. e. gibbons, ed., bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th ed., p. 325, 1974), occurred in a 7-day-old, caucasian male who responded successfully to ampicillin therapy. the source of the infection was not known; however, because of the time lapse between birth and the onset of symptoms, the infection was thought to have occurred pos ...1979521484
enterobacter sakazakii bacteremia in an adult.we have reported a case of e sakazakii primary bacteremia in an elderly patient in whom evaluation failed to reveal a source of infection. this patient had an uneventful recovery after intravenous administration of a third-generation cephalosporin for 7 days followed by 1 week of oral ciprofloxacin. this excellent response supports the previous suggestion that agents more active against gram-negative bacilli should be considered, despite apparent susceptibility to less active agents. since this ...19912052979
thermal resistance of enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted dried-infant formula.enterobacter sakazakii, designated a unique species in 1980, has been implicated in a rare but severe form of neonatal meningitis, with dried-infant formula being implicated as the mode of transmission. the high mortality rate (40-80%) and the lack of information about this organism led to a study of the heat resistance of ent. sakazakii in reconstituted dried-infant formula. ten canadian ent. sakazakii strains (5 clinical and 5 food isolates) were used to determine the heat resistance of this o ...19979023998
phenotypic and genotypic typing of food and clinical isolates of enterobacter sakazakii.enterobacter sakazakii, designated a unique species in 1980, has been implicated as the causative organism in a rare but severe form of neonatal meningitis. dried infant formula milk has been identified as a potential source of the organism. e. sakazakii isolates from dried infant formula available in canada and clinical isolates obtained from canadian hospital culture collections were characterised by phenotypic (biotype and antibiograms) and genotypic (ribotyping, random amplification of polym ...199910359305
pathogenesis of brain abscess caused by citrobacter diversus or enterobacter sakazakii. 19883211637
cerebral infarctions due to cns infection with enterobacter sakazakii.recent reports have implicated enterobacter sakazakii, a gram-negative enteric bacillus, in neonatal sepsis and meningitis. cases of severe central nervous system involvement, including ventriculitis, brain abscess, infarction, and cyst formation, have been described. we present serial head ct findings in a case of neonatal e. sakazakii meningitis complicated by a ring enhancing cerebral infarction which mimicked abscess formation. in meningitis secondary to this agent, a recognized pattern of c ...19912027718
production of cellulose and curli fimbriae by members of the family enterobacteriaceae isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract.citrobacter spp., enterobacter spp., and klebsiella spp. isolated from the human gut were investigated for the biosynthesis of cellulose and curli fimbriae (csg). while citrobacter spp. produced curli fimbriae and cellulose and enterobacter spp. produced cellulose with various temperature-regulatory programs, klebsiella spp. did not show pronounced expression of those extracellular matrix components. investigation of multicellular behavior in two citrobacter species and enterobacter sakazakii sh ...200312819107
meningoencephalitis and compartmentalization of the cerebral ventricles caused by enterobacter sakazakii.a necrotizing meningoencephalitis complicated by ventricular compartmentalization and abscess formation caused by enterobacter sakazakii in a previously healthy 5-week-old female is described. a detailed description of the isolate is presented. this communication firmly establishes the pathogenicity of e. sakazakii.19817287892
[neonatal meningitis caused by enterobacter sakazakii: milk powder is not sterile and bacteria like milk too!].powdered milk for infants can contain very low numbers of enterobacter sakazakii. larger amounts of this organism can result in non-infective colonization. in infants, particularly the premature newborn, such colonization has been associated with abdominal distention and bloody diarrhoea or bacteriuria, but cases of sepsis and meningitis have also been reported. infection has been associated with the use of contaminated spoons or blenders as well as the habit of keeping the ready-made milk hot i ...19902247876
molecular epidemiology of the integron-located veb-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in nosocomial enterobacterial isolates in bangkok, thailand.over a 21/2-month period in 1999, 37 ceftazidime-resistant nonrepetitive enterobacterial isolates were collected from 37 patients in a bangkok hospital, thailand. eighty-one percent of these strains expressed a clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-cephalosporin resistance profile. an identical extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl), veb-1, was found in 16 unrelated enterobacterial isolates (escherichia coli, n = 10; enterobacter cloacae, n = 2; enterobacter sakazakii, n = 1; and klebsiella pneumo ...200111136767
outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with enterobacter sakazakii in powdered milk formula.we describe an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) that occurred in the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital. a total of 12 neonates developed nec in june-july 1998. for two of them, twin brothers, the nec turned out to be fatal. enterobacter sakazakii, a known contaminant of powdered milk formula, was isolated from a stomach aspirate, anal swab, and/or blood sample for 6 of the 12 neonates. a review of feeding procedures revealed that 10 of the 12 patients were fed orally with t ...200111136786
[detection of gram-negative bacteria in patients and hospital environment at a room in geriatric wards under the infection control against mrsa].we prospectively surveyed gram-negative bacteria in patients and hospital environment in a room in the geriatric ward which was specifically under the infection control against mrsa once every two weeks between september and december 1996. we investigated the inpatients in an 8-bed room in the geriatric wards (190 beds) of aino memorial hospital, affiliated with nagasaki university. during the study period, we performed a total of 431 cultures. the number of specimens cultured was 116 from airwa ...200111260881
two isolations of enteric group 69 from human clinical specimens.enteric group 69 has previously only been isolated from beef muscle. two cases of isolations from human clinical specimens are reported on here: one from a throat swab and one from an abscess. in both cases, only eg 69 was cultured. this group has biochemical reactions similar to enterobacter cloacae and enterobacter sakazakii. eg 69 produces yellow pigment as e. sakazakii but only the former ferments sorbitol and dulcitol. eg 69 utilizes malonate and usually ferments sucrose slowly (3-4 days). ...19863788575
enterobacter sakazakii meningitis in neonates: causative role of formula? 19902352824
outbreak of colonization of neonates with enterobacter sakazakii.an outbreak of colonization of 11 neonates with enterobacter sakazakii occurred in a neonatal intensive care unit from the 10 september to 17 october 1984. during this period ent. sakazakii was isolated from throat and rectal swabs and tracheal aspirates, but not from blood, of the neonates. the duration of colonization ranged from 2 to 8 weeks. the isolates were resistant to amikacin and to tobramycin, but sensitive to gentamicin. four of the 11 colonized neonates had clinical signs of severe s ...19872883221
neonatal meningitis due to enterobacter sakazakii. 19827135378
enterobacter sakazakii infections among neonates, infants, children, and adults. case reports and a review of the literature.enterobacter sakazakii can cause serious infections especially among the very young and the elderly. it continues to be more common among neonates and infants than adults. its tropism for the central nervous system in neonates and infants remains a mystery. among neonates and infants, e. sakazakii has a propensity to cause meningitis resulting in ventriculitis, brain abscess or cyst formation, and development of hydrocephalus requiring ventricular-peritoneal shunt. computed tomography of the hea ...200111307587
pcr analyses of trna intergenic spacer, 16s-23s internal transcribed spacer, and randomly amplified polymorphic dna reveal inter- and intraspecific relationships of enterobacter cloacae strains.pcr analysis of trna intergenic spacer (tdna-pcr) and of the 16s-23s internal transcribed spacer (its-pcr) and random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis were evaluated for their usefulness in characterization of enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from both clinical origins and vaccine microbial contamination. tdna-pcr presented specific and reproducible patterns for enterobacter sakazakii atcc 29004, enterobacter aerogenes atcc 13048, and enterobacter cloacae atcc 13047 and 23355 that ...200111682499
enterobacter sakazakii brain abscess in the neonate: the importance of neuroradiologic imaging.enterobacter sakazakii is a rare but important cause of life-threatening neonatal sepsis and meningitis complicated by the development of brain abscess.200010663506
killing activity of microwaves in milk.the killing activity of microwaves of 2450 mhz frequency and 600 w power on pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, enterobacter sakazakii, klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, candida albicans, mycobacterium terrae and poliomyelitis vaccine-virus suspended in five infant formula preparations was investigated. the samples were brought to the boil (85-100 s depending on milk type). they had reached average temperatures of 82-93 degrees c at this point. most of the vegetative organisms ...19968864939
characterization of enterobacter cloacae and e. sakazakii by electrophoretic polymorphism of acid phosphatase, esterases, and glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases.acid phosphatase, esterases, and glutamate, lactate and malate dehydrogenases of 34 strains of enterobacter cloacae and 22 strains of enterobacter sakazakii were analysed by horizontal polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis and by isoelectrofocusing in thin-layer polyacrylamide gel. the two species could be separated on the basis of distinct electrophoretic patterns of all enzymes analysed. glutamate dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase were detected exclusively in e. cloacae, whereas esterase ...19863625169
enterobacter sakazakii infections in neonates associated with intrinsic contamination of a powdered infant formula.we report an outbreak of enterobacter sakazakii infection and colonization in neonates related to an infant formula contaminated during the manufacturing process. the outbreak occurred in a 20-bed neonatal intensive care unit during a six-week period in 1988, and involved a total of four infants. three infants had sepsis and three had bloody diarrhea; all patients responded to intravenous antibiotics and recovered without complications. the e sakazakii isolated from the formula had the same plas ...19892794464
tween-esterase activity in enterobacter sakazakii.seventy-one of 73 e. sakazakii strains isolated in czechoslovakia produced tween 80 esterase; its production was slower and less intensive than in serratia, vibrios and aeromonads. the e. sakazakii strains did not produce lecithinase (yolk reaction was negative for 8 days). the following set of tests was recommended for verification of e. sakazakii identification: pigment (was produced by 100% of strains), tween 80 esterase (was positive in 97.3%), mucate (negative in 100%) and sorbitol (negativ ...19836659742
enterobacter sakazakii infection in the newborn.enterobacter sakazakii, a gram-negative bacillus, previously known as "yellow pigmented enterobacter cloacae", is a rare cause of neonatal infection. we describe the detailed clinical presentation of two cases in whom e. sakazakii was isolated in our neonatal service during the course of 1 mo. these include one case of sepsis and meningitis complicated by cerebral infarction, and one case of sepsis. in addition, three cases of intestinal colonization were identified. the source of the organism w ...200111332182
analysis of eight cases of neonatal meningitis and sepsis due to enterobacter sakazakii.eight cases of neonatal meningitis due to enterobacter sakazakii (formerly known as yellow-pigmented enterobacter cloacae) which occurred in the netherlands during the last 6 years were investigated retrospectively. two patients had necrotizing enterocolitis and meningitis simultaneously. despite treatment (in most cases with ampicillin and gentamicin), the fatality rate was 75%. strains were much more susceptible to some of the new beta-lactam antibiotics than to ampicillin. a mode of transmiss ...19836885983
enterobacter sakazakii: infectivity and enterotoxin production in vitro and in vivo.enterobacter sakazakii has been implicated as the causal organism in a severe form of neonatal meningitis, with reported mortality rates of 40 to 80%. dried infant formula has been identified as a potential source of the organism in both outbreaks and sporadic cases. in this study, clinical and foodborne isolates of e. sakazakii were evaluated for enterotoxin production by the suckling mouse assay. in addition, suckling mice were challenged both orally and by intraperitoneal injection. of 18 e. ...200312636287
vaginal infection by enterobacter sakazakii. 200212473818
[multiple cerebral infarcts with resulting multicystic encephalomalacia in a premature infant with enterobacter sakazakii meningitis].enterobacter sakazakii is an uncommon cause of neonatal meningitis. the prognosis of newborns with meningitis due to enterobacter sakazakii is poor, the fatality rate is reported as high as 50%. survivors usually have severe neurologic complications. most computed tomography (ct) findings were low density lesions of white matter and cortex suggesting infarctions which underwent cystic degeneration. we present one premature baby with meningitis due to enterobacter sakazakii and large bilateral re ...19948051914
cluster of neonatal infections in jerusalem due to unusual biochemical variant of enterobacter sakazakii.reported here is a cluster of infections due to a nitrate-negative variant of enterobacter sakazakii, which occurred among premature neonates at the hadassah hospital, mount scopus, jerusalem, in december 1999-january 2000. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed cluster isolates to be identical but unrelated to previous systemic isolates recovered in 1993 and 1998. the organism was not isolated from infant formula powder, but it was recovered from prepared formula and from a kitchen blender. el ...200212226694
isolation of enterobacter sakazakii from midgut of stomoxys calcitrans. 200314626227
desiccation and heat tolerance of enterobacter sakazakii.enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen which has been isolated at low levels from powdered infant formulas. this study was performed to demonstrate that ent. sakazakii is not particularly thermotolerant, but can adapt to osmotic and dry stress.200314633024
from the centers for disease control and prevention. enterobacter sakazakii infections associated with the use of powdered infant formula--tennessee, 2001. 200211987295
effects of powdered human milk fortifiers on the antibacterial actions of human milk.to evaluate the effects of powdered fortifiers and the addition of iron and medium-chain triglycerides on preterm human milk antibacterial activity.200314647156
a medium for the presumptive detection of enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula: interlaboratory study.a standard method for the detection of enterobacteriaceae was modified for the presumptive detection of enterobacter sakazakii, and the modified method was validated in an interlaboratory trial with 16 laboratories from 8 european countries. the modification included a differential-elective medium for the isolation of e. sakazakii, consisting of nutrient agar (na) supplemented with 4-methyl-umbelliferyl alpha-d-glucoside (alpha-mug). a 25 g sample was added to 225 ml buffered peptone water. afte ...200415287658
antibody reactivity of a standardized human serum protein solution against a spectrum of microbial pathogens and toxins: comparison with fresh frozen plasma.in this study, we compared a standardized solution of human serum protein (hsp) and fresh frozen plasma (ffp) with regard to the antibody specificity against a number of microbial pathogens and some important pathogenicity factors of bacterial pathogens. due to the clinical use of hsp and ffp for therapeutical plasma exchange, we have chosen a spectrum of microbial pathogens for serological analysis that is critical in clinical settings. with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique, we c ...200211982956
a new protocol for the detection of enterobacter sakazakii applied to environmental samples.enterobacter sakazakii is a motile, peritrichous, gram-negative rod that was previously known as a yellow pigmented enterobacter cloacae. it is documented as a rare cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of life-threatening neonatal meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis. e. sakazakii has been isolated from milk powder-based formulas, and there is thus a need to investigate whether and where e. sakazakii occurs in these manufacturing environments. for this purpose, a simple detection m ...200415222563
enterobacter sakazakii in factories and households. 200415288733
volatile compounds produced in cheese by enterobacteriaceae strains of dairy origin.the formation of volatile compounds in fresh cheese by 10 enterobacteriaceae strains of dairy origin (4 hafnia alvei, 2 serratia liquefaciens, 1 enterobacter cloacae, 1 enterobacter sakazakii, and 2 escherichia coli strains) was investigated. small cheeses were made from pasteurized cow's milk separately inoculated with 1-3 x 10(3) cfu/ml of each of the enterobacteriaceae strains, with glucono-8-lactone added to achieve a ph value of 5.2 in the curds. all strains reached counts close to 10(8) cf ...200415035375
preparation and handling of powdered infant formula: a commentary by the espghan committee on nutrition.powdered infant formulae are not sterile and may contain pathogenic bacteria. in addition, milk products are excellent media for bacterial proliferation. multiplication of enterobacter sakazakii in prepared formula feeds can cause devastating sepsis, particularly in the first 2 months of life. in approximately 50 published case reports of severe infection, there are high rates of meningitis, brain abscesses and necrotizing enterocolitis, with an overall mortality from 33% to 80%. breast feeding ...200415448416
enterobacter sakazakii: a review.enterobacter sakazakii, previously referred to as a yellow-pigmented enterobacter cloacae was designated as a unique species in 1980. this reclassification was based on differences from e. cloacae in dna relatedness, pigment production and biochemical reactions. e. sakazakii has been implicated in a severe form of neonatal meningitis. although studies have failed to identify an environmental source for the organism, dried-infant formula has been implicated in both outbreaks and sporadic cases of ...19979039558
identification and phylogeny of enterobacter sakazakii relative to enterobacter and citrobacter species.the phylogenetic relationships of enterobacter sakazakii strains were investigated using 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) and hsp60 sequencing. each analysis distributed e. sakazakii strains among four clusters, indicating substantial taxonomic heterogeneity. the e. sakazakii type strain 16s rdna sequence was 97.8% similar to that of citrobacter koseri but 97.0% similar to that of enterobacter cloacae.200415528745
16s rrna gene based analysis of enterobacter sakazakii strains from different sources and development of a pcr assay for identification.e. sakazakii is considered to be an opportunistic pathogen, implicated in food borne diseases causing meningitis or enteritis especially in neonates and infants. cultural standard identification procedures for e. sakazakii include the observation of yellow pigmentation of colonies and a positive glucosidase activity. up to now, only one pcr system based on a single available 16s rrna gene sequence has been published for e. sakazakii identification. however, in our hands a preliminary evaluation ...200415563736
enterobacter sakazakii infections associated with the use of powdered infant formula--tennessee, 2001.enterobacter sakazakii, a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, is a rare cause of invasive infection with high death rates in neonates. this report summarizes the investigation of a fatal infection associated with e. sakazakii in a hospitalized neonate, which indicated that the infection was associated with the presence of the organism in commercial powdered formula fed to the infant. the implicated batch of formula has been recalled by the manufacturer. clinicians should be aware of the potenti ...200212002167
antimicrobial resistance of bacterial organisms isolated from rats.to determine if antimicrobial resistance occurs in various bacterial species isolated from rats.200112199446
treatment of winery effluent with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (uasb)--granular sludges enriched with enterobacter sakazakii.three upflow anaerobic sludge blankets (uasbs) were evaluated for the treatment of winery wastewater: the first was seeded with granular sludge enriched with enterobacter sakazakii and reached a 90% cod removal within 17 d at hydraulic retention time of 24 h; the second was seeded with brewery granules and achieved 85% cod removal within 50 d, the third was seeded with just sludge and showed the typical problems encountered with conventional sludge seeding and had continuously to be re-seeded. a ...200314719823
natural antibiotic susceptibility of enterobacter amnigenus, enterobacter cancerogenus, enterobacter gergoviae and enterobacter sakazakii strains.to investigate the natural susceptibility to 69 antimicrobial agents of 107 enterobacter strains comprising e. amnigenus (n = 18), e. cancerogenus (n = 26), e. gergoviae (n = 28) and e. sakazakii (n = 35).200212427217
microbiological quality of sous and tamarind, traditional drinks consumed in jordan.this study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of sous (a drink prepared by extracting dried roots of glycyrrhiza glabra) and tamarind (a drink prepared by infusing tamarindus indica dried pulp), traditional drinks consumed in jordan. twenty-one samples of sous and 44 samples of tamarind were collected from the local market in amman, jordan. water is the major component of the drinks. sous drink is characterized by having an alkaline ph (range, 6.6 to 9.9; mean, 8.6), whereas t ...200515830669
enterobacter sakazakii: a coliform of increased concern to infant health.the first cases of neonatal meningitis believed to have been caused by enterobacter sakazakii were reported in 1961. prompted by several subsequent outbreaks of e. sakazakii infections in neonates and an increasing number of neonates in intensive care units being fed rehydrated powdered infant formula, considered to be a source of the pathogen, public health authorities and researchers are exploring ways to eliminate the bacterium or control its growth in dry infant formula, processing environme ...200516039742
a simple and rapid cultural method for detection of enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples.a method was developed to detect and identify enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. the method is based on selective enrichment at 45+/-0.5 degrees c in lauryl sulfate tryptose broth supplemented with 0.5 m nacl and 10 mg/liter vancomycin (mlst) for 22 to 24 h followed by streaking on tryptone soy agar with bile salts. when exposed to light during incubation at 37 degrees c, e. sakazakii produces yellow colonies within 24 h; identification was confirmed by testing for alpha-glucosidas ...200515690805
detection and characterization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among bloodstream isolates of enterobacter spp. in hong kong, 2000-2002.a total of 139 consecutive and non-duplicate bloodstream isolates of enterobacter spp. collected from inpatients in hong kong during 2000-2002 were studied for production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls).200515681579
isolation and identification of bacteria associated with adult laboratory mexican fruit flies, anastrepha ludens (diptera: tephritidae).from the guts of new and old colonies (female and male) of mexican fruit flies, anastrepha ludens (diptera: tephritidae), we identified a total of 18 different bacterial species belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonadaceae, vibrionaceae, micrococcaceae, deinococcacea, bacillaceae, and the genus listeria. enterobacter, providencia, serratia, and staphylococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated genera, with citrobacter, streptococcus, aerococcus, and listeria found less freque ...200111178731
enterobacter sakazakii is a rare cause of neonatal septicemia or meningitis in vlbw infants.to determine the rates of enterobacter sakazakii (es) infections among very low birth weight infants, culture data from the national institute of child health and human development neonatal research network were reviewed. only one case of es sepsis was identified among 10660 neonates. these data suggest that outside of the epidemic situation, es is very rare in very low birth weight infants.200415192634
survival and growth of enterobacter sakazakii in infant rice cereal reconstituted with water, milk, liquid infant formula, or apple juice.to determine survival and growth characteristics of enterobacter sakazakii in infant rice cereal as affected by type of liquid used for reconstitution and storage temperature after reconstitution.200516162235
enterobacter sakazakii--new foods for thought? 200414723984
powdered infant formula and fatal infection with enterobacter sakazakii. 200212074129
a selective differential medium for enterobacter sakazakii, a preliminary study.enterobacter sakazakii can cause fatal invasive infection of neonates associated with the presence of this organism in powdered infant milk formula. a new chromogenic medium (druggan-forsythe-iversen agar, dfi) is described for the selective detection of this emergent pathogen. the medium is based on the alpha-glucosidase reaction which is detected using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-alpha,d-glucopyranoside (xalphaglc). ent. sakazakii hydrolyses this substrate to an indigo pigment, producing blue-g ...200415364468
rapid, specific detection of enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula using a real-time pcr assay.enterobacter sakazakii is a rare cause of invasive infection with high mortality rates in neonates. powdered milk-based infant formulas have been associated with the e. sakazakii-related outbreaks in premature or other immunocompromised infants. in this study, an assay was developed for the specific detection of e. sakazakii in infant formula using an application of the fluorogenic 5' nuclease assay (taqman). a set of primers and probe was designed using the e. sakazakii partial macromolecular s ...200515690804
occurrence of enterobacter sakazakii in food production environments and households.enterobacter sakazakii occasionally causes illness in premature babies and neonates. contamination of infant formulae during factory production or bottle preparation is implicated. advice to health-care professionals focuses on bottle preparation, but the effectiveness of prevention depends on the degree of contamination and contamination sites, which are generally unknown. to keep contamination to a minimum in the finished product depends on knowledge of the occurrence of e sakazakii. we used a ...200414723994
fluorogenic selective and differential medium for isolation of enterobacter sakazakii.4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-d-glucoside, the fluorogenic substrate of alpha-glucosidase, was used as a selective marker to develop a differential medium for enterobacter sakazakii. this bacterium showed strong fluorogenic characteristics clearly distinguishable from other microorganisms. on the basis of reducing background noise, an optimum basal medium and nitrogen source were selected. incubation conditions were optimized.200415345462
survival and growth of enterobacter sakazakii on fresh-cut fruits and vegetables and in unpasteurized juices as affected by storage temperature.enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging foodborne pathogen that has caused illnesses and deaths in infants and elderly immunocompromised adults. outbreaks of e. sakazakii infection have been associated with infant formulas, but the documented presence of this pathogen in a wide variety of ready-to-eat foods, including lettuce and other raw vegetables, makes it important to learn more about its behavior in these environments. we investigated the survival and growth characteristics of e. sakazakii o ...200516355824
characterization of the enterobacteriaceae isolated from an artisanal italian ewe's cheese (pecorino abruzzese).to evaluate some physiological characteristics of the enterobacteriaceae isolated from pecorino cheese.200616882142
biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell signaling in various enterobacter sakazakii strains: aspects promoting environmental persistence.enterobacter sakazakii is considered an opportunistic pathogen and has been implicated in food-associated cases of meningitis or enteritis, especially in neonates and infants. the organism has been detected in various types of food and in food production units, but so far only powdered infant formula has been linked to outbreaks of disease. survival and persistence in such environments requires the ability to adapt to high osmotic potentials and/or dry conditions. fifty-six e. sakazakii strains ...200516300064
thermal inactivation of enterobacter sakazakii in rehydrated infant formula.the presence of low levels of enterobacter sakazakii in dried infant formula have been linked to outbreaks of meningitis, septicemia, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates, particularly those who are premature or immunocompromised. in the current study, the ability of 12 strains of e. sakazakii to survive heating in rehydrated infant formula was determined at 58 degrees c with a submerged coil apparatus. the observed d58-values ranged from 30.5 to 591.9 s, with the strains appearing to fall ...200414717352
adhesion of selected bifidobacterium strains to human intestinal mucus and the role of adhesion in enteropathogen exclusion.the ability of potential probiotic strains to adhere to the intestinal mucosa and exclude and displace pathogens is of utmost importance for therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microbiota. the ability of seven selected human bifidobacterial strains and five human enteropathogenic strains to adhere to human intestinal mucus was analyzed and compared with that of four strains isolated from chicken intestines. the adhesion of the bifidobacterial strains ranged from 3 to 16% depending on the str ...200516355841
a chromogenic plating medium for the isolation and identification of enterobacter sakazakii from foods, food ingredients, and environmental sources.a chromogenic agar, r&f enterobacter sakazakii chromogenic plating medium (espm), was developed for isolating presumptive colonies of e. sakazakii from foods and environmental sources. espm contains two chromogenic substrates (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-alpha-d-glucopyranoside and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-beta-d-cellobioside), three sugars (sorbitol, d-arabitol, and adonitol), a ph indicator, and inhibitors (bile salts, vancomycin, and cefsulodin), which all contribute to its selectivity and d ...200616496571
continuous hydrogen production from organic waste.the antibiotic effects of lactic acid bacteria, lactobacillus paracasei, on hydrogen production were investigated using glucose as the substrate for the batch experiments. the effects of lactic acid bacteria on hydrogen fermentation depended on ph and the inhibition of hydrogen-producing bacteria was prevented by keeping the ph over 5.0. then, a continuous hydrogen production experiment was conducted by using bean curd manufacturing waste as an actual organic waste at ph 5.5 at 35 degrees c. the ...200516180421
performance of media for recovering stressed cells of enterobacter sakazakii as determined using spiral plating and ecometric techniques.a study was done to determine the performance of differential, selective media for supporting resuscitation and colony development by stressed cells of enterobacter sakazakii. cells of four strains of e. sakazakii isolated from powdered infant formula were exposed to five stress conditions: heat (55 degrees c for 5 min), freezing (-20 degrees c for 24 h, thawed, frozen again at -20 degrees c for 2 h, thawed), acidic ph (3.54), alkaline ph (11.25), and desiccation in powdered infant formula (wate ...200516332738
fortifying fresh human milk with commercial powdered human milk fortifiers does not affect bacterial growth during 6 hours at room temperature.to evaluate the growth of resident aerobic mesophilic flora and added enterobacter sakazakii in fresh, unfortified human milk; fresh human milk fortified with two commercial powdered fortifiers differing in iron content; and infant formula prepared from powder.200516183356
casein-derived antimicrobial peptides generated by lactobacillus acidophilus dpc6026.three peptides produced by a lactobacillus acidophilus dpc6026 fermentation of sodium caseinate and showing antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains enterobacter sakazakii atcc 12868 and escherichia coli dpc5063 were characterized. these peptides were all generated from bovine alpha(s1)-casein and identified as ikhqglpqe, vlnenllr, and sdipnpigsensek. these peptides may have bioprotective applicability and potential use in milk-based formula, which has been linked to e. sakazakii infect ...200616517684
comparison of two chromogenic media and evaluation of two molecular based identification systems for enterobacter sakazakii detection.enterobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. the current fda detection method includes two enrichment steps, the subculturing of the second enrichment broth on a selective agar (vrbg), a further subculturing of selected grown colonies on tsa and the subsequent biochemical identification of yellow-pigmented colonies by api20e. however, there is a strong nee ...200616504079
microbiological, epidemiological, and food safety aspects of enterobacter sakazakii.enterobacter sakazakii is considered to be an opportunistic pathogen and has been implicated in foodborne diseases causing meningitis or enteritis, especially in neonates and infants. the u.s foodnet 2002 survey rate of invasive infections with this organism in infants under 1 year of age was 1 per 100,000 infants. severity of the disease is a matter of concern. in a recent study on the occurrence of e. sakazakii in production environments from food (milk powder, chocolate, cereal, potato, and p ...200415633700
inactivation of enterobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula by monocaprylin.enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen that causes meningitis, bacteremia, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and children, with a mortality rate of 14%. epidemiological studies have implicated dried infant formula as the principal source of the pathogen. caprylic acid is a natural eight-carbon fatty acid present in breast milk and bovine milk and is approved as generally recognizable as safe by the u.s. food and drug administration. the objective of this study was to dete ...200415633694
the growth profile, thermotolerance and biofilm formation of enterobacter sakazakii grown in infant formula milk.to study the growth, thermotolerance and biofilm formation of the emergent pathogen enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula milk (ifm).200415059207
enterobacter sakazakii and other bacteria in powdered infant milk formula.recently there has been considerable concern related to the presence of bacteria, in particular enterobacter sakazakii, in powdered infant formula milk. this paper considers the bacteria in these products at point of sale, with reference to current microbiological testing and the need for good hygienic practice in their subsequent preparation before feeding. the ingestion of raised numbers of e. sakazakii resulting from temperature abuse after reconstitution is highlighted as well as the uncerta ...200516881878
survival of enterobacter sakazakii on fresh produce as affected by temperature, and effectiveness of sanitizers for its elimination.a study was done to determine the survival characteristics of enterobacter sakazakii on the surface of apples, cantaloupes, strawberries, lettuce, and tomatoes stored at 4, 12, and 25 degrees c for 8-28 days. populations significantly decreased (p<or=0.05) on all test produce at all storage temperatures. the efficacy of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a peroxyacetic acid-based sanitizer (tsunami 200) treatments (1 and 5 min) in killing the bacterium on apples, tomatoes, and lettuce was determine ...200616891023
a top-down proteomics approach for differentiating thermal resistant strains of enterobacter sakazakii.thermal tolerance has been identified as an important factor relevant to the pathogenicity of enterobacter sakazakii in human neonates. to identify a biomarker specific for this phenotypic trait, intact protein expression profiles of 12 strains of e. sakazakii were obtained using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. proteins were extracted from the bacterial cells, separated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and mass analyzed. at the end of the chromatography run, the uncharged masses ...200516196092
the presence of endotoxin in powdered infant formula milk and the influence of endotoxin and enterobacter sakazakii on bacterial translocation in the infant rat.lipopolysaccharide (lps) is a heat stable endotoxin that persists during the processing of powdered infant formula milk (ifm). upon ingestion it may increase the permeability of the neonatal intestinal epithelium and consequently bacterial translocation from the gut. to determine the level of endotoxin present in ifm, 75 samples were collected from seven countries (representing 31 brands) and analysed for endotoxin using the kinetic colorimetric limulus amoebocyte lysate (lal) assay. the endotox ...200716943096
a study of the gamma hypothesis: predictive modelling of the growth and inhibition of enterobacter sakazakii.although the temperature growth profile of the opportunistic pathogen enterobacter sakazakii is known, few other environmental factors affecting growth have been analysed. using a model based on the gamma hypothesis--that antimicrobial factors in mixtures exert independent effects--a range of weak acids (lactic, acetic, propionic, citric, sorbic and benzoic), ph, salt and temperature and some of their combinations were examined. the weak acids examined inhibited principally with the acid-form of ...200717196279
enterobacter sakazakii bacteriophages can prevent bacterial growth in reconstituted infant formula.reconstituted infant formula has been implicated in outbreaks of enterobacter sakazakii infections, causing high mortality and serious sequelae. current prevention methods appear to be insufficient to ensure that such foods are free of e. sakazakii. in this study, the usefulness of bacteriophages for biocontrol of e. sakazakii was investigated. of a total of six new e. sakazakii phages isolated from sewage and uv irradiated cultures, two were selected for further study by electron microscopy, dn ...200717196280
survival of enterobacter sakazakii in a dehydrated powdered infant formula.a quantity of dehydrated powdered infant formula was prepared to contain enterobacter sakazakii strain 607 at approximately 106 cfu/ml when rehydrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. the survival of the microorganism in the dry formula was followed for 2 years, during which samples periodically were rehydrated and analyzed for viable e. sakazakii. during the initial 5 months of storage at room temperature, viable counts declined approximately 2.4 log cycles. during the subsequent 1 ...200516161690
attachment of and biofilm formation by enterobacter sakazakii on stainless steel and enteral feeding tubes.enterobacter sakazakii has been reported to form biofilms, but environmental conditions affecting attachment to and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces have not been described. we did a study to determine the effects of temperature and nutrient availability on attachment and biofilm formation by e. sakazakii on stainless steel and enteral feeding tubes. five strains grown to stationary phase in tryptic soy broth (tsb), infant formula broth (ifb), or lettuce juice broth (ljb) at 12 and 25 degre ...200616957203
real time pcr using taqman and sybr green for detection of enterobacter sakazakii in infant formula.enterobacter sakazakii is an emerging pathogen that causes meningitis, bacteremia, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates and children. powdered milk-based infant formulas have been associated with the e. sakazakii-related outbreaks in premature or other immunocompromised infants. in this study, we developed two real time pcr assays using taqman and sybr green to identify the pathogen after selective enrichment in mlst and bhi. the accuracy of two detections was tested by 35 strains o ...200616081174
characterisation of the microflora of attiéké, a fermented cassava product, during traditional small-scale preparation.attiéké is a fermented cassava product consumed mainly in cote d'ivoire. the aim of this study was to characterise the attiéké fermentation by examining products from 15 small-scale production sites at various stages of its preparation. for the preparation of attiéké, fresh cassava is grated to a pulp and inoculated with 10% of a spontaneous traditional inoculum. the inocula contained aerobic mesophiles at mean numbers of 8.2 x 10(7) cfu/g and lactic and acetic acids at mean concentrations of 0. ...200616213052
adhesion properties and competitive pathogen exclusion ability of bifidobacteria with acquired acid resistance.the adhesion properties of bifidobacterium longum and bifidobacterium catenulatum strains with an acquired resistance to acid and their ability to competitively exclude salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, escherichia coli, listeria monocytogenes, enterobacter sakazakii, and clostridium difficile from adhering to human intestinal mucus were evaluated and compared with the results when the same experiments were run with the original acid-sensitive strains. in half of the four studied cases, t ...200616865903
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