studies on theileriidae (sporozoa) in tanzania ix. unidentified bovine theileriae.two strains of nonpathogenic theileriae, designated as theileria sp. (idobogo) and theileria sp. (mwanza), were isolated from cattle in southern and northern tanzania respectively. they were similar to each other, producing low numbers of t. parva-like macroschizonts and of small piroplasms. both were readily transmitted by rhipicephalus appendiculatus. no serological relationship with t. mutans was found, while serum of some of the recovered animals gave fleeting, low titres in the indirect flu ...1977414387
bovine cerebral theileriosis (turning sickness) with spinal cord involvement.a case of bovine cerebral theileriosis is described in which the principle lesions occurred in the spinal cord and its meninges. these were clogging of vessels with lymphocytes, many of which were parasitised by theileria sp. schizonts (probably t. mutans), thrombosis and infarction of nervous tissue, and lymphocytic meningomyelitis. rare cerebral meningeal vessels showed thrombosis. clinically the animal showed posterior paresis.1979551186
a study of nephritis of beef cattle in north queensland.the incidence of subclinical nephritis in beef cattle slaughtered at a townsville abattoir during the period 1970-73 was 3.8 percent. a rising incidence coincided with the wet summer of 1973-74 reaching a peak of 8.2 percent thereafter in june 1974. all but 1 of 100 cases macroscopically identified as nephritis and studied histologically proved to be of interstitial type in which lymphocytic infiltration predominated. follicular lymphoid hyperplasia was also a common feature. the exceptional cas ...19761016164
immunisation of cattle against theileriosis in nakuru district of kenya by infection and treatment and the introduction of unconventional tick hundred and one cross european-boran cattle (50 cows and 51 calves), on a farm in nakuru district, kenya, were immunised against theileriosis using theileria parva lawrencei and theileria parva parva stocks from another district of kenya. the stabilates used were t.p.lawrencei (mara iii) used at 10(-1.7) dilution and t.p.parva (kilae) used at 10(-1.0) dilution. the stabilates were combined and inoculated simultaneously with a short-acting formulation of oxytetracycline hydrochloride given in ...19921496782
prevalence of hematozoans in lions (panthera leo) and cheetah (acinonyx jubatus) in serengeti national park and ngorongoro crater, tanzania.lions (panthera leo) and cheetah (acinonyx jubatus) from the serengeti national park and ngorongoro crater conservation area, tanzania were examined for the presence of blood protozoans. twenty-eight percent of the lions were infected with trypanosoma sp. and the prevalence of trypanosome infection varied significantly between adjacent habitats. all of the animals were infected with hepatozoon sp. and a theileria sp.-like piroplasm that was morphologically indistinguishable from theileria felis.19902117677
theileria taurotragi in zambia.theileria sp. (bwengwa) of low virulence was isolated by feeding r. appendiculatus ticks collected from the field on a susceptible calf and subsequently transmitted between cattle by r. appendiculatus ticks- theileria sp. (bwengwa) was shown to be t. taurotragi on parasitological, clinical and serological grounds. t. taurotragi is the fourth theileria sp. shown to be present in zambia.19863092433
ultrastructure of the intra-erythrocytic stage of theileria species from cattle and waterbuck.a transmission electron microscopic study of the intra-erythrocytic stages of a pathogenic theileria parva from cattle and a previously uncharacterized theileria sp. from waterbuck (kobus defassa) in kenya revealed several novel ultrastructural features, associated with feeding and multiplication, in these parasites. in trophozoites a connecting channel was observed between the parasite's cytostome and its intracytoplasmic food vacuole. in some cases the limiting membrane of the food vacuole was ...19873122362
the use of tick transmission by boophilus microplus to isolate pure strains of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale from cattle with mixed infections.pure strains of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale were isolated from cattle infected with all 3 species as well as theileria sp. and eperythrozoon teganodes, using only transmission by the tick, boophilus microplus. unengorged adult ticks transferred to susceptible cattle transmitted a. marginale, but not babesia. engorged adults gave rise to progeny that transmitted babesia, b. bovis by larvae and b. bigemina by male ticks. the theileria and e. teganodes were not transmitt ...19836686384
isoenzyme studies on theileria (protozoa, sporozoa). enzyme activity associated with the erythrocytic stage.bovine blood containing piroplasms of theileria parva, as well as non-infected blood, was lysed and subjected to iso-electric focussing. staining for 13 different enzymes revealed parasite-associated bands of glucose phosphate isomerase (gpi) activity, not of any of the other enzymes. there were no variations between individual donor animals in the host cell gpi bands and these bands did not interfere with the recognition of the parasite-associated bands, so that purification of the piroplasms w ...19816787731
the isolation of theileria? taurotragi in south 3 out of 4 attempts strains of a theileria sp. of low virulence were isolated in the laboratory by feeding adult rhipicephalus appendiculatus collected from the field on susceptible cattle. one of the strains, previously identified as theileria? taurotragi (tzaneen), was found to be serologically cross reactive with the other 2 strains. it was concluded that t.? taurotragi is prevalent in south africa in those parts where the vector exists. infection was characterized by a transient fever and ...19816801567
epidemiology and transmission of theileria sp of cattle in australia.theileria sp occurs in cattle in australia where boophilus microplus is not present. two species of ixodid ticks namely haemaphysalis longicornis and h. bancrofti have been implicated as natural vectors. experimental transmission was obtained with these two species but attempts to transmit the infection with b. microplus, ixodes holocyclus and amblyomma triguttatum were not successful. although calves born in the enzootic area may become infected before one-month-old most show evidence of infect ...19826818938
discrimination between six species of theileria using oligonucleotide probes which detect small subunit ribosomal rna sequences.the complete small subunit ribosomal rna (srrna) gene of theileria parva was cloned and sequenced. two primers were designed which permitted the specific amplification of part of the theileria srrna gene from theileria-infected cell line samples which were predominantly (> 95%) bovine dna. the sequence of the central (variable) region of the srrna genes of t. annulata, t. taurotragi, t. mutants and two unidentified parasites referred to as theileria sp. (buffalo) and theileria sp. (marula) were ...19938414670
an unidentified species of theileria infective for cattle discovered in china.infection experiments, morphological observations and transmission experiments were conducted with an unidentified theileria sp. isolated from a naturally infected ox. the results showed that the protozoa could multiply extensively in a splenectomized ox and the parasitaemia could reach 52.69%. the theileria sp. was polymorphic: being pear-shaped, circular, elliptical, rod-like, comma-shaped, three-leafed- or cross-shaped and having many other irregular-shapes which were seldom detected. in eryt ...19979512745
phylogenetic relationships of the benign theileria species in cattle and asian buffalo based on the major piroplasm surface protein (p33/34) gene order to examine the taxonomic relationship of theileria sp. of asian buffalo to the benign theileria spp. of cattle, we sequenced and compared the major piroplasm protein (p33/34) genes of these parasites. the two consensus sequences determined for the buffalo parasite were of the same length (852 bp) and showed >80% identity with the sequences of the homologous genes (849 bp) in the cattle parasites. alignment of the inferred aa sequences with those of theileria sergenti and theileria buffe ...199910428638
theileria sp. infections associated with bovine fatalities in the united states confirmed by small-subunit rrna gene analyses of blood and tick samples.theileria sp.-specific small subunit (ssu) rrna gene amplification confirmed the presence of the organism in cattle and in amblyomma americanum and dermacentor variabilis ticks collected from a cattle herd in missouri. blood from the index animal had type a and type d theileria ssu rrna genes. the type d gene was also found in blood from two cohort cattle and tick tissues. the type a ssu rrna gene was previously reported from bovine theileria isolates from texas and north carolina; the type d ge ...199910449501
a study of the systematics of theileria spp. based upon small-subunit ribosomal rna gene sequences.the systematics of benign and moderately pathogenic theileria isolates from cattle and deer originating from different geographic regions was undertaken by small-subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) gene nucleotide-sequence analysis. a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree constructed from these sequences resulted in two major divisions, each with a common ancestor. one major division branches into four relatively divergent groups, including (1) bovine theileria sp. type d (usa and korea), (2) t. mut ...199910540946
theileria annulata in cd5(+) macrophages and b1 b cells.theileria parasites infect and transform bovine leukocytes. we have analyzed laboratory-established theileria sp.-infected leukocyte lines and observed that transformed macrophages express cd5. low-level expression of cd5 by macrophages was further confirmed on three independent theileria annulata clinical isolates from tunisia. interestingly, the fourth cd5(+) clinical isolate (mb2) was morphologically different, expressed surface immunoglobulin m (igm) and bola class ii, and had rearranged ig ...199910569790
theileriosis in a missouri beef herd caused by theileria buffeli: case report, herd investigation, ultrastructure, phylogenetic analysis, and experimental transmission.a 6-year-old simmental cow infected with theileria buffeli had a clinical disease characterized by theilerial parasitemia, macrocytic normochromic anemia with acanthocytosis and spherocytosis, lymphoid hyperplasia (lymphocytosis, edematous lymphadenomegaly), dysproteinemia, evidence of liver disease, and a low serum antibody titer against t. buffeli. the cow was in a herd in which all cattle originated in missouri; 22/75 (29%) of cattle had a theilerial parasitemia and 26/75 (35%) had titers to ...200010643976
tick-borne diseases of livestock in italy: general review and results of recent studies carried out in the apulia region.this paper reviews basic information on the knowledge of tick-borne diseases, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and theileriosis, in horses, cattle, sheep and goats in italy with particular reference to the southern part of the country. it is stressed that there is limited knowledge about the parasite species present, their vectors, distribution, prevalence and impact on livestock production and there is the need to assess their epidemiology. a study carried out in the apulia region to assess the prevale ...199911071537
bovine piroplasms in minorca (balearic islands, spain): a comparison of pcr-based and light microscopy detection.the present study provides the first epidemiological data regarding infection by theileria and babesia piroplasms in cattle in minorca. more than 94% of the studied animals were positive for the presence of theileria sp., and of those, 41.3% were positive for the presence of theileria annulata. these results indicate that the prevalence of mediterranean theileriosis caused by t. annulata is very high in minorcan dairy farms and that other theileria sp. are also present in the area. the prevalenc ...200111502372
inhibition of apoptosis by intracellular protozoan parasites.protozoan parasites which reside inside a host cell avoid direct destruction by the immune system of the host. the infected cell, however, still has the capacity to counteract the invasive pathogen by initiating its own death, a process which is called programmed cell death or apoptosis. apoptotic cells are recognised and phagocytosed by macrophages and the parasite is potentially eliminated together with the infected cell. this potent defence mechanism of the host cell puts strong selective pre ...200111563357
molecular phylogenetic study of theileria sp. (thung song) based on the thymidylate synthetase gene.theileria type thung song is an indigenous hemoparasite of dairy cattle from the south of thailand. it has previously been classified using the analysis of a comparative set of small subunit ribosomal rna nucleotide sequences. however, the classification of this parasite is still questionable since the theileria type thung song was located as the intermediate parasite between pathogenic and benign groups. we use the thymidylate synthetase gene (ts) as an alternative for the rapid molecular phylo ...200212051604
development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of theileria sp. infection in sheep.a rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic method, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), was developed for the diagnosis of theileria sp. infection in sheep; and optimal conditions were established, such as antigen concentration, serum dilution, coating time, tween-20 concentration and conjugate. the results were analyzed by measuring the coefficient of variation (cv). three sera titers (high, middle, low) were analyzed over the measurement range, resulting in a cv of around 10%, whereas ...200212051613
molecular diagnosis of theileriosis and heartwater in bovines in africa.the advent of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) coupled with the specificity of deoxyribocucleic acid (dna)-dna hybridization has led to the development of specific and sensitive molecular diagnostic tests to detect and characterize the organisms that cause theileriosis and heartwater. theileriosis is a widespread disease of wild and domestic ruminants caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus theileria. species-specific variations in small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid genes (ssurrna ...200212055842
pcr-elisa for diagnosis of trypanosoma evansi in animals and vector.a highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) based assay for the detection of trypanosoma evansi present in the blood of different animals and vector was developed. a simple lysis method was used to remove of the red blood cells to facilitate direct input of samples into the pcr reactions. the primer set was designed and synthesized to amplify a single band of 257 bp pcr product that was subsequently examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the sensitivity limit ...200212144767
experiments on transmission of an unidentified theileria sp. to small ruminants with haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum.experiments on the transmission of an unidentified theileria sp. infective for small ruminants by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis and hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum were carried out. three theileria-free batches of adult, larvae, and nymphs of laboratory reared h. qinghaiensis and hy. a. anatolicum ticks were infected by feeding them on sheep infected with theileria sp. the theileria sp. was originally isolated from adult ticks of h. qinghaiensis, by inoculation of blood stabilates or tick transmissi ...200212191896
occurrence of concurrent trypanosomosis, theileriosis, anaplasmosis and helminthosis in friesian, zebu and sahiwal cattle in epidemiological investigation was conducted on farms in tororo and soroti districts of uganda from january to february 2000 to determine the cause of reported persistent mortality of cattle. blood and faecal material of 98 cattle comprising of 33 friesians, 58 zebu and 7 sahiwal were examined. results revealed that seven (7.1 %) cattle had trypanosome infection, mainly due to trypanosoma vivax and t. brucei, 17 (17.3%) fasciola infection, 28 (28.6%) gastrointestinal nematode infection, 33 (33 ...200212233999
molecular studies on babesia, theileria and hepatozoon in southern europe. part i. epizootiological aspects.molecular epizootiology of piroplasmids (babesia spp., theileria spp.) and hepatozoon canis was studied in mammals from southern europe (mainly from spain, but also from portugal and france). partial amplification and sequencing of the 18s rrna gene was used for molecular diagnosis. in some particular cases (b. ovis and b. bovis) the complete 18s rrna gene was sequenced. blood samples were taken from domestic animals showing clinical symptoms: 10 dogs, 10 horses, 10 cows, 9 sheep and 1 goat. in ...200312719133
molecular studies on babesia, theileria and hepatozoon in southern europe. part ii. phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary history.following a study on molecular epizootiology of hepatozoon canis and piroplasmids (babesia spp. and theileria spp.) in southern europe, newly obtained sequences of 18s rrna gene were used for phylogenetic analysis. partial sequences were analysed in isolates showing high degree of homology (>99%) with previous genbank entries: h. canis, b. canis vogeli, b. equi (two isolates, spain1 and spain2), t. annulata and theileria sp. the complete gene sequences were used for b. ovis and b. bovis, that sh ...200312788253
observation on the schizont stage of an unidentified theileria sp. in experimentally infected sheep.the schizont stage of an unidentified theileria sp. infective for small ruminants was observed. intact sheep were infected with adult haemaphysalis qinghaiensis collected from fields where ovine theileriosis was prevalent. when the infested sheep developed theileriosis, tissue and organ smears were prepared. theileria schizonts were demonstrated in liver, spleen, lung, kidney, lymph node and peripheral blood. most of the schizonts were found outside the host cells, which was probably a smear art ...200312884011
theileria sp. in a deer in the united states. 196214459529
phylogeny of sheep and goat theileria and babesia parasites.the phylogenetic relationship of theileria and babesia species infecting sheep and goats on the basis of their 18s rna gene structure was addressed in the present study. for this purpose, the complete sequences of the small ribosomal rna genes of a panel of sheep and goat piroplasm isolates, including t. lestoquardi, t. ovis, t. separata, b. ovis, b. motasi, b. crassa and several novel species, were sequenced and compared. the classification based on the established phylogenetic tree corresponde ...200314505044
phylogenetic analysis of theileria species transmitted by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis.the phylogenetic relationships between six isolates of theileria spp. infective to small ruminants, and two isolates of theileria spp. infective to yak, all transmitted by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, together with the theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli group and t. sinensis, were analyzed using the 18s ssrrna gene sequence. the target dna segment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the pcr product was used either for direct sequencing or was ligated to the pcr ii vector for sequ ...200414598167
simultaneous detection and differentiation of theileria and babesia parasites infecting small ruminants by reverse line blotting.characteristic sequence signatures were identified within the hypervariable region 4 (v4 region) of the small ribosomal rna gene of ovine/caprine piroplasm species including theileria lestoquardi, t. ovis, t. separata, babesia ovis, b. motasi, b. crassa [comprising strains b. crassa (iran) and b. crassa (turkey)] and several novel species: theileria sp. 1 (china), theileria sp. 2 (china) and babesia sp. (china), [comprising strain babesia sp. (lintan), and babesia sp. (ningxian)] as defined prev ...200414652747
phylogenetic analysis of theileria sp. from sika deer, cervus nippon, in japan.the 18s rrna genes of theileria species detected in sika deer, cervus nippon centralis in yamaguchi and cervus nippon yesoensis in hokkaido, were analyzed. the percent identities of the nucleotide sequences of theileria from cervus nippon centralis and cervus nippon yesoensis were more than 99%. the percent identities of the theileria sp. from sika deer and theileria sergenti, theileria buffeli and theileria cervi were 97, 96 and 95%, respectively. phylogenetic analysis of the gene sequences als ...200415063944
identification, genetic diversity and prevalence of theileria and babesia species in a sheep population from northern spain.the genetic diversity and prevalence of virtually all theileria and babesia species in a sheep population were studied using a specifically designed reverse line blot macroarray. the amplified hypervariable v4 region of the 18s rrna gene was hybridised against generic and species-specific probes. in a first screening (study i), 320 apparently healthy animals corresponding to 32 flocks located in the basque country (northern spain) were analysed. the survey demonstrated a high prevalence of subcl ...200415313132
incidence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in domestic ruminants in ghana.giemsa-stained thin blood smears prepared monthly from cattle, sheep and goats in the greater accra region of ghana between may 1994 and december 1996 were examined for presence of tick-borne haemoparasites. the majority of animals were less than 2 months old at the start of the survey. monthly and cumulative incidences are presented of anaplasma sp., babesia bigemina, borrelia sp., eperythrozoon sp., theileria mutans and theileria velifera in cattle, anaplasma sp., borrelia sp., and theileria s ...200415350659
the risks of translocating wildlife. pathogenic infection with theileria sp. and elaeophora elaphi in an imported red is well known that the translocation of wild animals poses risks of the introduction of pathogens into populations, and regulations and recommendations regarding quarantine and screening protocols for wild animals do exist. less is known about the infection of imported animals with local endemic pathogens. a red deer stag that had been imported from germany was found recumbent and died from hemolytic anaemia and a process of exertional myopathy. infection with theileria sp. was detected in th ...200415567043
prevalence of theileriosis in red hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus caama) in namibia.a total of 23 blood samples from red hartebeest and 28 ticks of the subspecies rhipicephalus evertsi were collected in namibia during the summer 2003. for a piroplasmida species, theileria sp 95.7% of blood and 50.0% of tick samples (all r. e. mimeticus, none of r. e. evertsi were carrying the pathogen) were pcr positive. sequencing showed infection from a re-emerging mild species of theileria phylogenetically different from other african theileria species such as theileria parva, t. buffeli, t. ...200515986252
theileria orientalis, a blood parasite of cattle. first report in new zealand.a theileria sp. piroplasm has been found in cattle from 10 northland herds. transmission studies, involving two splenectomized calves, led to its identification as t. orientalis, which has not been previously found in new zealand. this piroplasm is relatively benign hut can cause severe anaemia in heavily parasitized animals. the cattle tick haemaphysalis longicornis is considered to be the likely vector.198416031086
development of a polymerase chain reaction method for diagnosis of babesia ovis infection in sheep and this study, a pair of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) gene of babesia ovis isolated from sheep in eastern turkey. the primers were used to detect parasite dna from blood samples of b. ovis-infected sheep and goats by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a 549-bp dna fragment was specifically amplified from blood samples from sheep and goats, naturally infected with b. ovis. no pcr products resulted from babes ...200516043298
development of a recombinant indirect elisa for the diagnosis of theileria sp. (china) infection in small ruminants.theileria sp. (china) causes severe limitations on the development of the livestock industry in the north-west of china. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) based on merozoite homogenate of the parasite for diagnosis of infection has been established; however, cross-reactivity with other small ruminant-infecting piroplasms could not be excluded. thus, a prerequisite for epidemiological surveys and diagnosis was the establishment of a recombinant protein-based elisa. to this end, serum f ...200616425067
a preliminary survey of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites of beef cattle in the tropical livestock farming system in nan province, northern thailand.parasitism is a primary cause of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world, including thailand. a cross-sectional study was designed to determine baseline data on the prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites of beef cattle in nan province, northern thailand and to investigate the factors associated with the prevalence of parasitic infections. a total of 207 faecal and 162 blood samples were collected during the summer of 2005. the basic data of management were re ...200616565814
[roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) as a reservoir of protozoans from babesia and theileria genus in north-western poland].the species of genus babesia and thelieria are obligate intracellular pathogens that multiply in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. some species of babesia cause bovine babesiosis infecting erythrocytes of the cattle and wild ruminants, and undergo a complex developmental cycle in ticks which serve as biological vectors. majority of theileria spp. cause bovine theileriosis infecting lymphocytes as well as erythrocytes of the cattle and wild ruminants, and similar to babesia undergo a comple ...200516913530
molecular detection and characterization of piroplasms infecting cervids and chamois in northern spain.wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens of veterinary and zoonotic importance. to investigate the role of wild ruminants as reservoir of piroplasm infection, 28 red deer, 69 roe deer and 38 chamois from northern spain were examined by reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization. the survey detected a prevalence of 85.7% in red deer, 62.3% in roe deer and 28.9% in chamois. four different piroplasms were identified: theileria sp. ot3 (previously described in sheep) as the most pr ...200717076924
identification and characterization of merozoite antigens of a theileria species highly pathogenic for small ruminants in china.a new pathogenic theileria species transmitted by haemaphysalis qinghaiensis was identified in the northwestern part of china and was shown to be highly pathogenic for small ruminants. the present article aimed at identifying merozoite antigens that might be suitable for developing diagnostic methods and designing a potential vaccine. absence of other theilerial or babesial infections was confirmed by reverse line blot in all antigen samples used. extensive western blot analyses using serum from ...200617135547
the host responses in sheep artificially infected with theileria sp. (china).studies on host responses in sheep artificially infected with theileria sp. (china) were discussed and summarized mainly on typical high fever periods, merozoits and schizoon observation, antibody response.200617135550
identification of homologous genes of t. annulata proteins in the genome of theileria sp. (china).homologues to previously described theileria (t.) annulata genes (t. annulata surface protein [tasp], putative t. annulata membrane protein [tad]) were successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from theileria sp. (china) merozoite cdna, with 88% identity to tad; tcsp partial cdna, 94% identity to tasp. moreover, homologues to a secretory protein of t. annulata (tase), with a sequence identity of 99% on the cdna level (tcse partial cdna) and to a potential membrane protein of t. l ...200617135551
phylogenetic position of small-ruminant infecting piroplasms.theileria and babesia are tick-transmitted protozoa that cause great economical losses in livestock. recently, interest has risen in sheep-infecting piroplasms and a number of previously unidentified pathogens were described, particularly in china. to address the phylogenetic relationship of theileria and babesia species infecting sheep, the complete sequences of the 18 s small subunit ribosomal rna genes of a panel of piroplasm isolates, including t. lestoquardi, t. ovis, t. separata, b. ovis, ...200617135558
experimental transmission of theileria sp. (china 1) infective for small ruminants by haemaphysalis longicornis and haemaphysalis qinghaiensis.the experimental transmission of a recently identified new theileria (china 1) species pathogenic for sheep and goats in northern china is described. haemaphysalis qinghaiensis nymphs and adults developed from larvae and nymph engorged on sheep infected with theileria sp. (china 1) were able to respectively transmit the theileria sp. to splenectomized sheep. meanwhile, h. longicornis nymphs and adults developed from larvae and nymphs engorged on sheep infected with theileria sp. (china 1) were a ...200717370090
molecular identification, genetic diversity and distribution of theileria and babesia species infecting small ruminants.detection and identification of theileria and babesia species in 920 apparently healthy small ruminants in eastern turkey, as well as parasite genetic diversity, was investigated using a specifically designed reverse line blot (rlb) assay. the hypervariable v4 region of the 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene was amplified and hybridized to a membrane onto which catchall and species-specific oligonucleotide probes were covalently linked. three theileria and one babesia genotype were identified. compar ...200717490817
detection of theileria and babesia species in ticks collected from cattle.the present study was carried out to detect tick species that infest cattle, and theileria and babesia species transmitted by these ticks in kayseri province (turkey). a total of 300 cattle were examined for tick infestations. of the 300 cattle, 117 (39%) were infested with ticks. a total of 1160 ticks belonging to 11 ixodid genera were collected from the infested animals and their shelters. the most prevalent tick species was boophilus annulatus 26.37% (306/1160) followed by hyalomma marginatum ...200717614205
molecular detection of theileria sp. in ticks and naturally infected healthy sheep and 10 sheep diagnosed with piroplasmosis based on clinical signs were tested for the presence of babesiae and theileriae. using the molecular techniques, two species of theileriae were detected and characterized. theileria ovis was present mostly in healthy sheep and in rhipicephalus ticks collected from infected sheep. theileria sp. ot3 parasite was detected mostly in ill animals which represent additional evidence to the possible pathogenic nature of theileria sp. ot3. the ...200818158215
evaluation of a pcr and comparison with rlb for detection and differentiation of theileria sp. mk and other theileria and babesia species of small ruminants.theileria sp. mk in sheep and goats were detected first time by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and detection limit of pcr and reverse line blotting (rlb) were compared. a part of 18s ssu rrna gene was amplified from blood samples that were taken from sheep and goats naturally infected with theileria sp. mk by pcr. detection limit of both pcr and rlb methods was one infected cell in 10(7) sheep erythrocytes. nine hundred twenty field samples that had been tested previously by rlb were evaluated ...200818421476
molecular detection of tick-borne protozoal and ehrlichial infections in domestic dogs in south africa.a total of 1,138 blood specimens were collected over a 6-year period (2000-2006) from domestic dogs in south africa. specimens from domestic dogs were obtained from the onderstepoort veterinary academic hospital (ovah) in pretoria, the society for the prevention of cruelty to animals (johannesburg, durban, east london and bloemfontein) and private practices from four provinces (gauteng, mpumalanga, kwazulu-natal and western cape). all specimens were screened for babesia, theileria, hepatozoon an ...200818502588
the development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) method for detection of babesia spp. infective to sheep and goats in china.the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) reaction is a method that amplifies with high sensitivity, efficiency, and rapidity, deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) under isothermal condition in simple incubators. two primer sets for the lamp method were designed using the nucleotide sequences of 18s rrna gene of babesia sp. bq1 (lintan) and babesia sp. xinjiang-2005 isolated in china. the primers were used to detect parasite dna extracted from infected blood and purified parasites by lamp. the sp ...200818504039
development and evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction test for the detection of theileria parva infections in cape buffalo (syncerus caffer) and cattle.corridor disease, caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasite theileria parva, is a controlled disease in south africa. the cape buffalo is the reservoir host and uninfected buffalo have become sought-after by the game industry in south africa, particularly for introduction into corridor disease-free areas. a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) test for detection of t. parva dna in buffalo and cattle was developed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the official diagnostic test p ...200818514421
detection of a theileria species in dogs in south africa.a theileria species was detected by pcr in blood samples collected from dogs in the pietermaritzburg area and was also found in dogs presented at the outpatients clinic of the onderstepoort veterinary academic hospital (ovah), in the pretoria area, south africa. in the pietermaritzburg area, 79 of the 192 samples were positive, while 3 out of 1137 of the onderstepoort samples were positive. three positive samples from pietermaritzburg were co-infected with ehrlichia canis. pcr positive samples w ...200818687528
hemoprotozoa of domestic animals in france: prevalence and molecular characterization.very limited information is available on epizootiology of haematozoan infections in french domestic animals. in an attempt to address this issue, prevalence of piroplasmida was studied in carnivores and ruminants, whereas prevalence of hepatozoon spp. was only investigated in carnivores. in total, 383 animals were included in the survey (namely 116 cats, 108 dogs, 91 sheep and 68 cows). parasite diagnosis was carried out using molecular methods such as pcr and sequencing of the 18s rrna gene. in ...200919013719
immune response of theileria sp.-infected sheep to recombinant theileria proteins.sheep and goats in northwest china suffer from theileriosis from infection with theileria sp. (china), resulting in large economic losses. to investigate the immune response to infection with theileria sp. (china), parameters of cellular and humoral immunity of experimentally infected sheep against two recombinantly expressed theileria proteins were investigated. the in vitro proliferative response of blood mononuclear cells to a recombinant t. annulata membrane protein and a recombinant theiler ...200819120207
small-scale expressed sequence tag analysis of theileria uilenbergi: identification of a gene family encoding potential antigenic proteins.recently, theileria sp. (china) has been designated as t. luwenshuni[formerly theileria sp. (china 1)] and t. uilenbergi[formerly theileria sp. (china 2)]. a cdna library of t. uilenbergi merozoites was constructed and subjected to random sequencing. among the obtained sequences were three highly identical cdna clones, indicating a gene family. bioinformatic analyses indicated these genes contain signal peptides and encode potential immunogenic proteins. the presence of tandemly arranged and add ...200819120214
development of fluorogenic probe-based pcr assays for the detection and quantification of bovine piroplasmids.this paper reports two new quantitative pcr (qpcr) assays, developed in an attempt to improve the detection of bovine piroplasmids. the first of these techniques is a duplex taqman assay for the simultaneous diagnosis of babesia bovis and b. bigemina. this technique is ideal for use in south america where bovids harbour no theilerids. the second technique, which is suitable for the diagnosis of both babesiosis and theileriosis worldwide, involves fluorescence resonance energy transfer (fret) pro ...200919376655
ticks and tick-borne pathogens from wildlife in the free state province, south africa.eight ixodid tick species, associated with 59 free-ranging mammals belonging to 10 species, were collected at five different localities in the free state province, south africa. four of the study areas were nature reserves (willem pretorius, sandveld, tussen-die-riviere, and soetdoring), and one site was a private farm located in senekal district. the collection was performed from march 2006 until june 2006. ticks (n=569) and tissues from animals (n=52) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction ...200919395753
theileria-infected cell line from an african buffalo (syncerus caffer).mononuclear cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of a buffalo infected with a theileria sp. using density gradient centrifugation, and the cells were put into culture flasks covered by a monolayer of bovine endothelial cells. twenty days after culture initiation, cells containing macroschizonts were detected in giemsa-stained smears. the first subculture was carried out on day 45 of culture propagation. subsequently, infected cells were subcultured twice a week, and each time 1 to 2 x 1 ...200919430815
high prevalence of theileria sp. in wild chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus) in south korea.wild chinese water deer exist in large numbers in northeast asia, including south korea. the deer population is so widespread that they are common even in urban areas, resulting in increased contact with humans and domestic animals. the purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of theileria sp. infection in wild chinese water deer in south korea. using biomolecular techniques, blood samples taken from 18 wild chinese water deer were examined. thirteen of the 18 samples (72%) tested pos ...200919577370
in vitro cultivation of a theileria species from a roan antelope (hippotragus equinus).here we describe the in vitro isolation, propagation, and characterization of a theileria species from roan antelope (hippotragus equinus). cultures were initiated using parts of a prescapular lymph node of an infected roan antelope. after 16 days of culture propagation, the first subculture was carried out; thereafter, subcultures were carried out twice a week. standard methods for the cultivation of theileria macroschizonts were applied. dna was extracted from culture material and a partial po ...200919685077
molecular detection of theileria sp. in wild chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus).two cases of theileria sp. infection in wild chinese water deer (hydropotes inermis argyropus) were diagnosed by microscopic examination of thin blood smears and by molecular typing. two wild chinese water deer were referred to the veterinary medical center of chungbuk national university in south korea, presumably the result of traffic accidents. thin blood smears, which were stained with giemsa, revealed intraerythrocytic parasites; however, the deer had no remarkable findings on physical exam ...200919901400
haemolytic anaemia in cattle in nsw associated with theileria infections.several outbreaks of anaemia, jaundice, abortion and mortality in cattle in new south wales were attributed to the intracellular parasite, theileria buffeli. disease occurred predominantly in periparturient animals that had been moved from inland to coastal areas. diagnosis was made via exclusion of other causes of haemolytic anaemia and observation of the parasite in blood smears. treatments included both registered and non-registered products. there is a possibility of a new strain of theileri ...201020148827
molecular and serologic evidence for babesia bovis-like parasites in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in south texas.the current study was undertaken to determine if white-tailed deer in south texas harbor babesia bovis, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis. blood samples from free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) on two ranches in lasalle and webb counties were screened for b. bovis and other hemoparasites by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to detect the piroplasm 18s rdna. serology was conducted on selected samples to detect antibody activity to b. bovis by the immunofluorescent antib ...201020605333
theileria ovis discovered in china.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using 989/990 primers was conducted to identify a newly isolated theileria sp. in xinjiang province of china. the target dna fragments of the complete 18s rrna gene were cloned and sequenced. the phylogenetic relationship of newly isolated theileria spp. was inferred based on the 18s rrna gene. the results showed that the new theileria sp. belonged to the cluster of theileria ovis. moreover, the findings were confirmed by t. ovis species-specific pcr. an expecte ...201120619262
molecular detection of theileria annae and hepatozoon canis in foxes (vulpes vulpes) in epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of croatia. spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and subsequent sequencing. the investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely theileria annae, theileria sp. 3182/05 and hepatozoon canis. t. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), theil ...201020646832
occurrence of theileria parva and other haemoprotozoa in cattle at the edge of hluhluwe-imfolozi park, kwazulu-natal, south africa.theileria parva, the most important bovine theilerial species in sub-saharan africa, causes widespread mortality and morbidity in endemic areas. a survey was conducted using buffy-coat specimens from 60 apparently healthy adult communally herded nguni-type cattle at the northeastern edge of the hluhluwe-imfolozi park to determine, by means of pcr and reverse line blot (rlb) hybridisation, the occurrence of theileria and babesia species. the presence of trypanosoma species was determined using pc ...201020649154
detection and molecular characterization of theileria sp. in fallow deer (dama dama) and ticks from an italian natural preserve.the prevalence of piroplasms in a closed population of fallow deer (dama dama l.) living in the italian preserve of "bosco della mesola" - ferrara (mesola wood) was investigated. blood samples and ticks were collected from 62 fallow deer. on microscopic observation, 28 (45.0%) blood samples were positive for piroplasms while pcr provided evidence for piroplasms infection in 47 (75.8%) fallow deer. the 67 ticks, collected from positive and negative animals, were identified as ixodesricinus l., 17 ...201020810139
theileria parva genetic diversity and haemoparasite prevalence in cattle and wildlife in and around lake mburo national park in uganda.wildlife, especially cape buffalo (syncerus caffer), are thought to act as a reservoir for many of the important tick-borne pathogens of cattle. in this study, we have determined the prevalence of the most significant tick-borne haemoparasites in wildlife (buffalo, impala, eland and bushbuck) as well as in cattle grazing inside and neighbouring lake mburo national park (lmnp) in uganda. a high percentage of buffalo were carriers of theileria parva, theileria mutans, theileria velifera, theileria ...201120827491
detection of babesia and theileria species infection in cattle from portugal using a reverse line blotting method.babesiosis and theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. in portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of babesia and theileria sp. identified: rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, ixodes ricinus and haemaphysalis punctata. all these potential babesia and theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in portugal, although they are predominant in the sout ...201021036481
tick-borne blood parasites in nyala (tragelaphus angasii, gray 1849) from kwazulu-natal, south africa.a total of 97 blood samples of nyala (tragelaphus angasii, gray 1849) from south africa were tested for the presence of tick-borne haemoparasites by means of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization. the majority of blood samples contained several different haemoparasites, often in combination. prevalent haemoparasites were theileria sp. (kudu), t. buffeli, theileria sp. (sable), t. bicornis, ehrlichia sp. omatjenne, anaplasma marginale and a. bovis. this serves ...201021145660
evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis.ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. the infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups accordi ...201121301875
detection of theileria and babesia in brown brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) and marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus) in the state of minas gerais, brazil.intraerythrocytic protozoan species of the genera theileria and babesia are known to infect both wild and domestic animals, and both are transmitted by hard-ticks of the family ixodidae. the prevalences of hemoprotozoa and ectoparasites in 15 free-living mazama gouazoubira, two captive m. gouazoubira and four captive blastocerus dichotomus from the state of minas gerais, brazil, have been determined through the examination of blood smears and the use of nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr). t ...201021354704
haemoprotozoa of cattle in northern kerala, india.a cross-sectional study was conducted using 150 blood samples collected from apparently normal / healthy crossbred cattle of northern kerala, south india, for detection of haemoprotozoan infections using staining techniques (giemsa and acridine orange) and specific pcr. theileria like piroplasms and babesia bigemina were the only protozoan organisms detected in blood smears. polymerase chain reaction using specific primers revealed amplification of products specific for trypanosoma evansi (34.6% ...201121602771
occurrence of blood-borne tick-transmitted parasites in common tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus) antelope in northern cape province, south africa.blood samples were collected from 71 tsessebes relocated from the deproclaimed vaalbos national park to mokala national park, south africa. dna was extracted from the samples and the reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization technique was used to detect and identify any haemoparasites present. six samples hybridized to the theileria/babesia genus-specific probe, the theileria genus-specific probe and the theileria sp. (sable) probe, while 3/6 also hybridized to the theileria separata probe. full-len ...201121764218
detection of theileria orientalis in iran by semi-nested order to identify and differentiate theileria orientalis in cattle which may be infected with theileria annulata simultaneously, a semi-nested pcr was performed. thus, 160 blood samples were collected from apparently healthy native cattle in golestan province of northern iran, during 2009 to 2011. the tbs-s/tbs-a primer set derived from the 18s rrna encoding gene was used for first pcr amplification, and the amplified sequence weight by this primer set for theileria sp. was 426-430 bp. then, ...201121755408
identification of theileria parva and theileria sp. (buffalo) 18s rrna gene sequence variants in the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in southern africa.theileria parva is the causative agent of corridor disease in cattle in south africa. the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in south africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. a t. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) test based on the small subunit ribosomal rna (18s rrna) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle ...201121700394
DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF THEILERIA INFECTION IN SIKA DEER (CERVUS NIPPON) IN CHINA.Abstract The sika deer (Cervus nippon) is a first-grade state protected animal in China and designated a threatened species by the World Conservation Union. To detect hemoparasite infection of sika deer, blood samples were collected from 24 animals in Hubei province Deer Center. Genomic DNA was extracted and the V4 hypervariable region encoding 18S rRNA was analyzed by reverse line blot hybridization assay. PCR products hybridized with Babesia/Theileria genus-specific probes, but failed to hyb ...201122128777
prevalence of theileria infections in goats and sheep in southeastern china.theileriosis is an important tick-borne hemoprotozoan disease, which can cause severe economic loss in animal husbandry. in this paper, one hundred peripheral blood samples of goats and sheep from southeastern china were examined for the theileria infection. a region of theileria 18s rrna gene was amplified by nested pcr in 26 samples. all the nested pcr amplicons were cloned and sequenced. alignment analysis has shown that these sequences are highly homologus to each other with identities from ...201122178410
Molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis causing fatal infection in crossbred adult bovines of South India.The disease condition attributed to have been caused by Theileria orientalis is generally benign. However, it is also thought that the parasite, at least some strains of it, can cause fatal disease. The present communication deals with the clinical signs, postmortem lesions and diagnosis of a fatal disease due to T. orientalis which caused mortality in crossbred adult bovines of South India. High body temperature, lacrimation, nasal discharge, swollen lymph nodes and haemoglobinuria were the sym ...201121871972
DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF THEILERIA INFECTION IN SIKA DEER (CERVUS NIPPON) IN CHINA.Abstract The sika deer (Cervus nippon) is a first-grade state protected animal in China and designated a threatened species by the World Conservation Union. To detect hemoparasite infection of sika deer, blood samples were collected from 24 animals in Hubei province Deer Center. Genomic DNA was extracted and the V4 hypervariable region encoding 18S rRNA was analyzed by reverse line blot hybridization assay. PCR products hybridized with Babesia/Theileria genus-specific probes, but failed to hyb ...201122176533
a study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (theileria and babesia) in the east black sea region of this study, the frequency of theileria and babesia species was assessed via reverse line blotting and blood smear-based diagnostic methods in small ruminants. a total of 201 apparently healthy animals from 26 randomly selected herds located in 4 locations (artvin, giresun, gumushane, and tokat) of east black sea region of turkey were investigated for the blood protozoans. in a polymerase chain reaction (pcr), the hypervariable v4 region of the 18s ribosomal rna gene was amplified with a set o ...201222231266
theileriosis (cytauxzoonosis) in roan antelope (hippotragus equinus): field exposure to infection and identification of potential vectors.four hand-reared, naïve roan antelope, 4 months of age, were exposed to naturally infected pasture on a game farm in mpumalanga province, south africa, where roan are known to die from theileriosis. various clinical parameters were recorded during this period. the predominant ticks parasitising these animals at the time (january to february), were rhipicephalus appendiculatus and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi adults. after a period of 5 weeks the animals developed signs of clinical theileriosis ...201223327309
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