pneumocystis and histoplasma infections in wild animals from the amazon region of brazil.routine examination of tissues from wild forest rodents from amapá, north brazil, revealed pneumocystis carinii in lung smears from a newly captured oryzomys capito (cricetidae). acute, fatal infections with this parasite are also recorded in a number of captive "coatimundis", nasua narica (carnivora: procyonidae) and a sloth, bradypus tridactylus (edentata). pneumocystis was also encountered in lung smears from a newly captured and apparently healthy sloth, choloepus didactylus. the presence of ...19751084602
cutaneous leishmaniasis of man due to leishmania (viannia) shawi lainson, de souza, póvoa, ishikawa & silveira, in pará state, brazil.leishmania (viannia) shawi lainson, braga, de souza, póvoa, ishikawa & silveira, 1989, was originally recorded from monkeys (cebus apella and chiropotes satanas), sloths (choloepus didactylus and bradypus tridactylus) and coatis (nasua nasua) and the sandfly, lutzomyia whitmani. with a panel of leishmania specific monoclonal antibodies, it was found that 30.5% of the leishmania strains from patients, who had contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis in pará state, were similar, but not identical to l. ...19911822654
leishmania (viannia) shawi sp. n., a parasite of monkeys, sloths and procyonids in amazonian brazil.leishmania (viannia) shawi sp. n., is described from the monkeys cebus apella and chiropotes satanus, the sloths choloepus didactylus and bradypus tridactylus, the procyonid nasua nasua, and the phlebotomine sandfly lutzomyia whitmani, all from primary forest in the state of pará, north brazil. l. (v.) shawi is variably distinguished from all other known species within the subgenus viannia by a combination of biological, biochemical and serological characters, as revealed by studies on morpholog ...19892504099
isolation of leishmania species from wild mammals in french guiana.between 1981 and 1987, 486 wild mammals collected from 13 sites in french guiana were examined for leishmania. eleven of 31 two-toed sloths, choloepus didactylus, were infected, 4 of the isolates being identified as l. braziliensis guyanensis. this species was also found in 2 didelphis marsupialis and 2 proechimys sp. l. mexicana amazonensis was isolated from 3 proechimys sp., 2 of which were p. cuvieri. the role of these mammals in the life cycles of the 2 anthropotropic species of leishmania e ...19892617621
[babesia choloepi n. sp. (apicomplexa, piroplasmida), a parasite of the two-toed sloth, choloepus didactylus (linnaeus, 1758) (xenarthra, bradypodidae), in french guiana].a two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus) from french guiana showed an erythrocytic parasite morphologically related to the babesiidae family, and described as babesia choloepi. it is the first babesia species described in the edentata order.19883400959
distribution of histoplasma capsulatum in amazonian a survey of 296 sylvatic animals captured from virgin forests in the north-eastern and south-western amazon of brazil, histoplasma capsulatum was isolated, via the indirect hamster inoculation method, from the liver and spleen of four common opossums didelphis marsupialis and two pacas agouti paca. the infected animals did not show any clinical symptoms or histopathology. the known amazonian mammalian species with natural histoplasmosis now total five, the previously reported species being th ...19853990770
toxoplasmosis of the two-toed sloth, choloepus didactylus, in brazil. 19734687496
hosts of sandfly vectors of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the central amazon of brazil.the blood meals of 2,569 phlebotomine sandflies from areas endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central amazon of brazil were tested by the microcapillary precipitin method to determine their vertebrate hosts. the two-toed sloth, choloepus didactylus, was the predominant host of two incriminated vectors of leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the region, lutzomyia umbratilis and lu. anduzei (64.0% and 63.6%, respectively). the lu. "shannoni" group, a complex of several species in which fe ...19827072886
dermal leishmaniasis in french guiana: the sloth (choloepus didactylus) as a reservoir host. 19817324144
enzyme polymorphism in endotrypanum and numerical analysis of isoenzyme this study, we have analysed enzyme polymorphism among a group of protozoan parasites of the genus endotrypanum (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae). seventeen stocks of endotrypanum spp. isolated from sloths (choloepus didactylus and c. juruanus) in the amazon region of brazil were analysed by enzyme electrophoresis, and their electromorphic profiles were compared with reference strains reported previously. the 16 enzymic loci were analysed, and the strains were classified into zymodemes, each ...19968710413
gender determination of the linne's two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus) using sry amplified from hair.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of a partial fragment of the sex determining region y (sry) gene was used for sexing a young linne's two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus), a species in which gender determination from the external genitalia is difficult. dna was extracted from hairs of a 5-month-old sloth as well as the dam and sire as external controls. a sry fragment (216 bases) was pcr-amplified both from the offspring and the sire, but not amplified from the dam. the dna sequenc ...19968996696
comparison of injectable anesthetic combinations in free-ranging two-toed sloths in french guiana.immobilization was studied in 202 free-ranging two-toed sloths (choloepus didactylus). all the sloths were in good condition with a body weight > 2 kg, and were anesthetized for a variety of minor clinical procedures. intramuscular anesthetic combinations included 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine + 10 mg/kg ketamine (a/k, n = 30), 1 mg/kg xylazine + 10 mg/kg ketamine (x/k, n = 89), 10 mg/kg tiletamine/zolazepam (t/z, n = 37), and 0.04 mg/kg medetomidine + 3 mg/kg ketamine (m/k, n = 46) antagonized by 0.2 ...19989706565
hematological and serum chemistry profiles of free-ranging southern two-toed sloths in french southern two-toed sloths (choloepus didactylus) were translocated during the flooding of a forest at a hydroelectric dam site in french guiana. over an 11 mo period blood samples were collected from 90 sloths (38 males, 52 females) in order to determine hematological and serum chemistry reference values. mean values and range of values were calculated for 13 hematological and 21 serum chemistry parameters. variations associated with sex, age and reproductive status were identified. ...199910479087
trypanosomatidae from wild mammals in the neotropical rainforest of french guiana.the initial filling of the reservoir behind the petit saut hydro-electric dam, on the sinnamary river in french guiana, threatened the terrestrial and arboreal animals living in the neotropical rainforest being flooded. during a rescue programme between 24 october and 12 november in 1994, many of these animals were checked for infection with trypanosomatids. overall, 45 blood samples and 54 skin biopsies were collected from 53 mammals (of 13 species representing five orders) and blood samples we ...200111299122
[edentalges choloepi sp.n., a subcutaneous acarid of the two-toed sloth choloepus didactylus (l.) (psoroptidae:sarcoptiformes)]. 196414332981
a survey for the microfilariae of the canine heartworm, dirofilaria immitis, in the calgary region of southern alberta.a blood survey for the prevalence of the microfilariae of the canine heartworm, dirofilaria immitis was conducted in the calgary area of southern alberta between november 1977 and august 1979. a total of 514 blood samples was examined by the modified knott's test. all of the samples were negative for d. immitis microfilariae. wright's stained blood smears taken from 19 animals at the calgary zoo also proved negative. one smear from a male two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus) contained sheathles ...198417422347
disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis in a southern two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus).a southern two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus), originally acquired from french guiana, died while maintained in quarantine in a pet store in monterrey, mexico. large yeast cells with multiple buds compatible with paracoccidioides brasiliensis were observed in disseminated granulomatous lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen and kidney. transmission electron microscopical examination supported the diagnosis. this is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in a two-toed sloth.201020961559
functional morphology and three-dimensional kinematics of the thoraco-lumbar region of the spine of the two-toed sloth.given the importance of thoraco-lumbar spine movements in the locomotion of mammals, it is surprising that in vivo three-dimensional (3-d) data on the intervertebral movement of the mammalian thoraco-lumbar vertebral column during symmetrical gaits is limited to horses and dogs. to test whether kinematic patterns similar to those published for these cursorial species are also present during a contrasting mode of quadrupedalism, we quantified thoraco-lumbar intervertebral movements, the resulting ...201021113010
three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the pectoral girdle during upside-down locomotion of two-toed sloths (choloepus didactylus, linné 1758).theria (marsupials and placental mammals) are characterized by a highly mobile pectoral girdle in which the scapula has been shown to be an important propulsive element during locomotion. shoulder function and kinematics are highly conservative during locomotion within quadrupedal therian mammals. in order to gain insight into the functional morphology and evolution of the pectoral girdle of the two-toed sloth we here analyze the anatomy and the three-dimensional (3d) pattern of shoulder kinemat ...201020619000
low rate of genomic repatterning in xenarthra inferred from chromosome painting data.comparative cytogenetic studies on xenarthra, one of the most basal mammalian clades in the placentalia, are virtually absent, being restricted largely to descriptions of conventional karyotypes and diploid numbers. we present a molecular cytogenetic comparison of chromosomes from the two-toed (choloepus didactylus, 2n = 65) and three-toed sloth species (bradypus tridactylus, 2n = 52), an anteater (tamandua tetradactyla, 2n = 54) which, together with some data on the six-banded armadillo (euphra ...200516235115
mitogenomics phylogenetic relationships of the current sloth's genera and species (bradypodidae and megalonychidae).we sequenced the complete mitogenome of 39 sloths (19 bradypus variegatus, 4 b. tridactylus, 1 b. pygmaeus, 1 b. torquatus, 4 choloepus didactylus, and 10 c. hoffmanni). a bayesian tree (bi) indicated a temporal split between bradypus and choloepus around 31 million years ago (mya, oligocene) and the other major splits within each genera during the miocene and pliocene. a haplotype network (mjn) estimated a lower temporal split between the sloth genera (around 23.5 mya). both methods detected th ...201728129732
functional morphology of the muscular sling at the pectoral girdle in tree sloths: convergent morphological solutions to new functional demands?recent phylogenetic analyses imply a diphyly of tree sloths and a convergent evolution of their obligatory suspensory locomotion. in mammals the extrinsic shoulder musculature forms a 'muscular sling' to support the trunk in quadrupedal postures. in addition, the extrinsic pectoral muscles are responsible for moving the proximal forelimb elements during locomotion. due to the inverse orientation of the body in regard to the gravitational force, the muscular sling as configured as in pronograde m ...201121615397
the complete mitochondrial genome of the hoffmann's two-toed sloth (choloepus hoffmanni).the hoffmann's two-toed sloth (choloepus hoffmanni), a member of folivora suborder, is found in the rainforest canopy of south america. both the hoffmann's two-toed sloth and human belong to eutheria subclass. in this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of c. hoffmanni is reported . the whole mitochondrial genome is 16 466 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer rna genes and 2 ribosomal rna genes. comparison between the mitochondrial genome of the c. hoffmanni and that ...201626404730
digestive physiology, metabolism and methane production of captive linné's two-toed sloths (choloepus didactylus).sloths are renowned for their low metabolic rate, low food intake and low defecation frequency. we investigated factors of digestive physiology and energy metabolism in four captive individuals (mean body mass 10.0 ± sd 3.7 kg) of a hitherto mostly unstudied sloth species, linné's two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus), in a 2-week digestion recording and 23-h respiration experiment on animals fed a standard zoo diet of vegetables and starchy components. dry matter intake, defecation frequency an ...201626122705
endocrine pregnancy monitoring in the two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus): "pregnant or not pregnant".progesterone (p4), pregnanediol glucuronide (pdg), estradiol-17β (e2), and estrone sulfate (e1s) were measured in the feces of four female two-toed sloths (choloepus didactylus) for early pregnancy diagnosis. for individual feces assignment, the examined female sloths were fed with a turquoise food colorant every second day. fecal samples were collected one to four times per week, depending on the defecation rate throughout the pregnancies and the postpartum periods. the complete course of pregn ...201525850609
chronic renal disease in a captive two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus) with concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma.a 13-yr-old female two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus) with a prolonged history of worsening azotemia was necropsied shortly after euthanasia. on necropsy, the sloth had poor body condition, bilaterally shrunken kidneys, and a large neoplastic mass replacing the right liver lobe. histologic examination demonstrated chronic renal disease with metastatic mineralization as the cause of morbidity. the liver mass was not associated with any known clinical signs and was diagnosed as a solitary and w ...201425000707
characterization of the ovarian cycle in the two-toed sloths (choloepus didactylus): an innovative, reliable, and noninvasive method using fecal hormone analyses.little is known about reproductive physiology in the two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus). therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain detailed information about the ovarian cycle. measurements of reliable gonadal steroids in the feces of this species were undertaken. for this purpose, fecal samples were collected one to three times per week from nonpregnant captive females (n = 2) over a 16-month period. before assay analysis, the fecal samples were extracted with methanol. radioimmunoassay ...201323743067
environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.environmental enrichment (ee) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. this study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, dasypus novemcinctus; senegal bush babies, galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at paignton zoo environmental ...201621387395
limb kinematics during locomotion in the two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus, xenarthra) and its implications for the evolution of the sloth locomotor order to gain insight into the function of the extant sloth locomotion and its evolution, we conducted a detailed videoradiographic analysis of two-toed sloth locomotion (xenarthra: choloepus didactylus). both unrestrained as well as steady-state locomotion was analyzed. spatio-temporal gait parameters, data on interlimb coordination, and limb kinematics are reported. two-toed sloths displayed great variability in spatio-temporal gait parameters over the observed range of speeds. they increas ...201020637572
neocortical neuron types in xenarthra and afrotheria: implications for brain evolution in mammals.interpreting the evolution of neuronal types in the cerebral cortex of mammals requires information from a diversity of species. however, there is currently a paucity of data from the xenarthra and afrotheria, two major phylogenetic groups that diverged close to the base of the eutherian mammal adaptive radiation. in this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution and morphology of neocortical neurons stained for nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein, calbindin, calretinin ...200919011898
asymptomatic cystic calculus in a two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus). 200616905738
ganglion cell size and distribution in the retina of the two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus l.).the distribution of ganglion cell densities and sizes was studied in nissl-stained flat-mount retinae of the two-toed sloth. the area centralis, a weak specialization with low ganglion cell density, is located in the temporal retina close to the center of the eye. the presence of a visual streak was noted. the distribution of different ganglion cell sizes was approximately equal throughout the retina. although the retinal organization differs from that of the closely related three-toed sloth, th ...19892790292
[a new filaria, chabfilaria jonathani n.gen, n.sp., an onchocercid parasite of edentates].chabfilaria jonathani n. gen., n. sp. is described from choloepus didactylus (family bradypodidae) from french guyana. this species and c. freitaslenti (yeh, 1957) n. comb., constitute a genus interesting because of its primitive characters, which could represent a link between the onchocercinae and the setariinae. eleven species of filaria are known from the xenarthra. they are primitive members of the onchocercinae, the dirofilariinae and if our notions on chabfilaria are correct, the setariin ...19836673644
hematological studies on the two-toed sloth, choloepus didactylus. 196314111870
serologic response to canine distemper vaccination in captive linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( choloepus didactylus) after a fatal canine distemper virus outbreak.canine distemper virus (cdv) affects many wild and captive, nondomestic species worldwide but has not been previously reported in xenarthra. paucity of information on vaccination safety and efficacy presents challenges for disease prevention in captive collections. cdv infections and subsequent mortalities in five captive linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( choloepus didactylus) in eastern tennessee are reported. clinical signs included oculonasal discharge, oral ulcerations, and diarrhea, and the diag ...201729297815
identification and characterization of satellite dnas in two-toed sloths of the genus choloepus (megalonychidae, xenarthra).choloepus, the only extant genus of the megalonychidae family, is composed of two living species of two-toed sloths: choloepus didactylus and c. hoffmanni. in this work, we identified and characterized the main satellite dnas (satdnas) in the sequenced genomes of these two species. satcho1, the most abundant satdna in both species, is composed of 117 bp tandem repeat sequences. the second most abundant satdna, satcho2, is composed of ~ 2292 bp tandem repeats. fluorescence in situ hybridization i ...202033154538
sloths host anhanga virus-related phleboviruses across large distances in time and space.sloths are genetically and physiologically divergent mammals. phleboviruses are major arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) causing disease in humans and other animals globally. sloths host arboviruses, but virus detections are scarce. a phlebovirus termed anhanga virus (anhv) was isolated from a brazilian linnaeus's two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus) in 1962. here, we investigated the presence of phleboviruses in sera sampled in 2014 from 74 hoffmann's two-toed (choloepus hoffmanni, n = 65) ...202031420970
renal evaluation in choloepus species.two species of sloths in the family megalonychidae, hoffmann's (choloepus hoffmanni) and linnaeus's (choloepus didactylus) two-toed sloths, are commonly held in zoological institutions. despite frequent published reports of urinary tract disease in these species, reports of diagnostics are mostly limited to descriptions of hematology and serum chemistry. in this study, repeated urinalysis, urinary chemistry, serum chemistry, and radiographs were collected opportunistically from six hoffmann's an ...202031926532
brain anatomy of two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus, linnaeus, 1758): a comparative gross anatomical study of extant xenarthrans.the neural system plays an important role in understanding some features of animals. anatomical complexity correlates with the increase of functional capacity. xenarthrans include anteaters (vermilingua), armadillos (cingulata) and sloths (folivora). this group is the base of eutherian mammals, and understanding the anatomy of its neural system could provide data for functional and evolutionary interpretations. the gross anatomy of the xenarthran brain is recorded. four extant families of pilosa ...202031588601
vertical stratification of sand fly diversity in relation to natural infections of leishmania sp. and blood-meal sources in jamari national forest, rondônia state, brazil.almost 1000 cases of american cutaneous leishmaniasis have been registered yearly in rondônia state, brazil. little is known about the leishmania transmission cycle (vectors and reservoirs) in the state. this study aimed to evaluate sand fly fauna from two vertical stratification layers in order to identify potential vectors and their blood-meal sources.202032807221
genetic characteristics of canine distemper viruses circulating in wildlife in the united states.canine distemper virus (cdv) is a highly contagious disease of wild and domestic mammals. maintenance of cdv among wildlife plays an important role in the disease epidemiology. wild animals, including raccoons (procyon lotor) and gray foxes (urocyon cinereoargenteus), serve as reservoirs of cdv and hamper the control of the disease. recently, we discovered that at least three different cdv lineages (america-3 [edomex], america-4, and america-5] that are genetically different from the available v ...202031926508
bifidobacteria in two-toed sloths (choloepus didactylus): phylogenetic characterization of the novel taxon bifidobacterium choloepi sp. bifidobacterial strains were isolated from the faeces of two adult males of the two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus) housed in parco natura viva, in italy. comparative sequence analysis of 16s rrna and of five housekeeping (hsp60, rpob, clpc, dnaj, dnag) genes revealed that these strains were classified into two clusters. on the basis of 16s rrna gene sequence similarity, the type strain of bifidobacterium catenulatum subsp. kashiwanohense dsm 21854t (95.4 %) was the closest neighbour to ...202033052806
first record of infestation of a pet sloth in japan with the exotic tick amblyomma geayi (acari: ixodidae).on december 11, 2018, a single unengorged adult tick was found on the body surface of the trunk of an imported wild-caught linnaeus's two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus) during a routine health check in an animal clinic in tokyo, japan. the tick was identified as amblyomma geayi based on the morphological and molecular characteristics. this is the first case of the introduction of an amblyomma species to japan via an imported pet sloth. the present study highlights the current loopholes in jap ...202032534954
natural canine distemper virus infection in linnaeus's 2-toed sloths (choloepus didactylus).an outbreak of canine distemper virus in a private zoo in eastern tennessee in july 2016 led to fatal clinical disease in 5 adult, wild-caught linnaeus's 2-toed sloths (choloepus didactylus). clinical signs included hyporexia, lethargy, mucopurulent nasal discharge, and oral and facial ulcers. at necropsy, affected animals had crusts and ulcers on the lips, nose, tongue, and oral cavity. microscopically, all sloths had widespread, random, hepatic necrosis; lymphoid depletion; and bronchointersti ...202032079498
urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma and carcinomatosis in a linnaeus's two-toed sloth, choloepus didactylus.a 19-yr-old female linnaeus's two-toed sloth (choloepus didactylus) with a history of urinary incontinence, ascites, and behavioral changes was euthanized after diagnostic imaging revealed a large bladder mass. on gross necropsy, the sloth had a severely thickened bladder mucosa, partial urinary obstruction, and nonseptic exudate in the peritoneal cavity. histopathology showed a malignant and highly invasive transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma with transmural and intra-abdominal invasion an ...201931120692
a suspensory way of life: integrating locomotion, postures, limb movements, and forces in two-toed sloths choloepus didactylus (megalonychidae, folivora, pilosa).over the last decade, we have learned much about the anatomy, evolutionary history, and biomechanics of the extant sloths. however, most of this study has involved studying sloths in controlled conditions, and few studies have explored how these animals are behaving in a naturalistic setting. in this study, we integrate positional activities in naturalistic conditions with kinematic and kinetic observations collected on a simulated runway to best capture the biomechanical behavior of linnaeus's ...201830129260
wildlife species, ixodid fauna and new host records for ticks in an amazon forest area, rondônia, brazil.the objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity of ticks associated with free-living animals and to investigate new host records for ticks. ticks were collected from animals rescued during the flood of the jamari river in the municipality of ariquemes, state of rondônia, north region of brazil. a total of 39 animals were captured, out of which 10 were amphibians, 19 were reptiles and 10 were mammals. a total of 127 ticks of the amblyomma genus were collected from these animals, distribu ...201929846452
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