spinturnicid mites (gamasida: spinturnicidae) associated with bats in central brazil.the results of a survey of spinturnicid mites (gamasida: spinturnicidae) infesting bats near brasília, d.f., brazil, are presented. one hundred twenty-five bats were collected, representing three families and 15 species. seven species of spinturnicid mites (genus periglischrus) were collected from nine species of bats (family phyllostomidae). each of the following six species of periglischrus was associated with a single species of bat: periglischrus acutisternus machado-allison and p. torrealba ...19892795621
examination of type material of two species of litomosoides (filarioidea: onchocercidae), parasites from bats; taxonomic consequences.type material of litomosoides hamletti sandground, 1934 from glossophaga soricina soricina in brazil and l. penai jiménez-quirós & arroyo, 1960 from carollia perspicillata azteca in costa rica, was examined. the morphology of the spicules shows that these species belong to the carinii group. their synonymy with l. guiterasi pérez vigueras, 1934, from artibeus jamaicensis yucatanicus in cuba, does not appear justified because they are distinct in several characters (body length, width of female, ...200314535160
nitrogen stress causes unpredictable enrichments of 15n in two nectar-feeding bat species.we estimated the effect of nitrogen stress on the nitrogen isotope enrichments in wing membrane and blood of two nectar-feeding bats (glossophaga soricina and leptonycteris curasoae) by offering a nitrogen-poor diet with a high delta(15)n and delta(13)c. before the experiment, bats were sustained on a normal diet with a low delta(15)n and delta(13)c. under this first food regime, the fractionation of nitrogen isotopes averaged 3.1 per thousand delta(15)n for blood and 4.4 per thousand delta(15)n ...200415073206
bat flies (diptera: streblidae, nycteribiidae) parasitic on bats (mammalia: chiroptera) at parque estadual da cantareira, são paulo, brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations.a total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families nycteribiidae and strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (molossidae, phyllostomidae, and vespertilionidae) from parque estadual da cantareira (são paulo, brazil), between january, 2000 and january, 2001. eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on anoura geoffroyi (anastrebla caudiferae), glossophaga soricina (a. caudiferae), sturnira lilium (trichobius phyllostomae, t. furmani, and paraeuctenodes similis), artibeus lituratu ...200515867959
experimental transmission of the parasitic flagellates trypanosoma cruzi and trypanosoma rangeli between triatomine bugs or mice and captive neotropical bats.trypanosoma cruzi and trypanosoma rangeli-like trypanosomes have been found in a variety of neotropical bat species. in this study, bats (artibeus lituratus, carollia perspicillata, desmodus rotundus, glossophaga soricina, molossus molossus, phyllostomus hastatus) were maintained under controlled conditions, and experiments were conducted to determine how they might become infected naturally with trypanosomes. all bats were first screened for existing infections by hemoculture and the examinatio ...200717710299
bat eyes have ultraviolet-sensitive cone photoreceptors.mammalian retinae have rod photoreceptors for night vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and colour vision. for colour discrimination, most mammals possess two cone populations with two visual pigments (opsins) that have absorption maxima at short wavelengths (blue or ultraviolet light) and long wavelengths (green or red light). microchiropteran bats, which use echolocation to navigate and forage in complete darkness, have long been considered to have pure rod retinae. here we use opsin i ...200919636375
hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16s rdna) of amblyomma dubitatum (acari: ixodidae).we supply information about hosts and distribution of amblyomma dubitatum. in addition, we carry out an analysis of genetic divergence among specimens of a. dubitatum from different localities and with respect to other neotropical amblyomma species, using sequences of 16s rdna gene. although specimens of a. dubitatum were collected on several mammal species as cattle horse, tapirus terrestris, mazama gouazoubira, tayassu pecari, sus scrofa, cerdocyon thous, myocastor coypus, allouata caraya, glo ...201020084537
flower bats (glossophaga soricina) and fruit bats (carollia perspicillata) rely on spatial cues over shapes and scents when relocating food.natural selection can shape specific cognitive abilities and the extent to which a given species relies on various cues when learning associations between stimuli and rewards. because the flower bat glossophaga soricina feeds primarily on nectar, and the locations of nectar-producing flowers remain constant, g. soricina might be predisposed to learn to associate food with locations. indeed, g. soricina has been observed to rely far more heavily on spatial cues than on shape cues when relocating ...201020520841
rabies diagnosis and serology in bats from the state of são paulo, brazil.bats are one of the most important reservoirs and vectors of the rabies virus in the world.201121468481
bat-species richness in the pantanal floodplain and its surrounding uplands.we studied the bat fauna of the pantanal floodplain and its surrounding plateaus in mato grosso do sul, brazil, based on the scientific collection at universidade anhanguera-uniderp and on the projeto morcegos do pantanal data bank at ufms, comprising 9,037 captures of 56 species recorded from 1994 to 2007. the pantanal surveys were carried out in the nhecolândia, aquidauana, miranda, and paraguai sub-regions; the uplands surveys took place in the maracaju, bodoquena, and urucum formations. bat ...201121537604
serologic evidence of flavivirus infection in bats in the yucatan peninsula of mexico.we captured 140 bats of seven species in merida city in the yucatan peninsula of mexico in 2010. serum was collected from each bat and assayed by plaque reduction neutralization test (prnt) using six flaviviruses: west nile virus, st. louis encephalitis virus, and dengue viruses 1-4. flavivirus-specific antibodies were detected in 26 bats (19%). the antibody-positive bats belonged to three species: the pallas's long-tongued bat (glossophaga soricina), jamaican fruit bat (artibeus jamaicensis), a ...023778622
dengue virus in bats from southeastern identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (denv) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of denv from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two biosphere reserves: calakmul (campeche) and montes azules (chiapas) in southern mexico. spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four denv serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) protocols. six bats (4.1%) tested positive for denv-2: fo ...201424752688
first record of leishmania braziliensis presence detected in bats, mato grosso do sul, southwest brazil.leishmaniasis, a zoonotic disease caused by parasites of the genus leishmania, has expanded beyond its natural range and is becoming increasingly urban. using pcr and pcr-rflp, we detected leishmania (viannia) braziliensis in two bats (chiroptera) in mato grosso do sul, brazil, an endemic area. this is the first record of l. (v.) braziliensis in bats. it is also the first record of any leishmania sp. in bats in the state. the animals testing positive were found in both a rural site and an urban ...201323886850
toxoplasma gondii in domestic and wild animals from forest fragments of the municipality of natal, northeastern brazil.toxoplasmosis stands out as a global disease that has felines as definitive hosts. in the municipality of natal, rio grande do norte state, brazil, two parks are notable for their ecological and social importance. this study aimed to investigate the presence of toxoplasma gondii in short hair cats, bats and small non-volant mammals in these two ecological reserves. altogether, biological samples were obtained from 154 mammals, 92 wild animals from both areas and 62 domestic cats of the parque da ...201725517529
neotropical bats from costa rica harbour diverse coronaviruses.bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (covs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. for analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from costa rican bats were screened for cov rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus pcr. six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. the detection rate for cov was 1%. individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (artibeus ja ...201525653111
phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host phylogeny and feeding strategies.the members of the phyllostomidae, the new-world leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including insectivory, as the ancestral trait, followed by appearance of carnivory and plant-based diets such as nectarivory and frugivory. here we explore the microbiome composition of different feeding specialists: insectivore macrotus waterhousii, sanguivore desmodus rotundus, nectarivores leptonycteris yerbabuenae and glossophaga soricina, and frugi ...201526042099
drinking and flying: does alcohol consumption affect the flight and echolocation performance of phyllostomid bats?in the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. to understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. we predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed co ...201020126552
richness, infestation and specificity of spinturnicid mites (acari: spinturnicidae) on bats in southern oaxaca, mexico.studies of mites on bats in the mexican state oaxaca are scarce. our objective was therefore to evaluate the richness, infestation, and specificity of spinturnicid mites on bats in southern oaxaca, mexico. bats were monthly captured from april 2010 to february 2011, in four sites using four mist-nets; also, we visited natural (crevices) and artificial roosts (tunnel). of each bat we account the number of spinturnicid mites, considering the area of the body where they were collected. mites were p ...201627431824
meiotic analysis of xx/xy and neo-xx/xy sex chromosomes in phyllostomidae by cross-species chromosome painting revealing a common chromosome 15-xy rearrangement in stenodermatinae.we analyzed the meiotic behavior of the sex chromosomes of the bats glossophaga soricina (xx/xy), artibeus cinereus and uroderma magnirostrum (neo-xx/xy) using multicolor fish. the x chromosome and pair 15 autosome probes are from phyllostomus hastatus and the y from carollia brevicauda. on both species with the neo-xx/xy system, the autosome translocated to the sex chromosomes is the pair 15 in p. hastatus, a synapomorphy. the analysis of meiosis confirms that the x and y have a pseudo-autosoma ...201020635197
review of external morphology of chirorhynchobiidae (acari: sarcoptoidea) with description of a new species.two species of chirorhynchobiidae, chirorhynchobia glossophaga sp. n. and chirorhynchobia matsoni yunker, 1970 are described and redescribed, respectively. the male of c. glossophaga and the tritonymph of c. matsoni are the first to be described in the family. the mites are ectoparasites living on the wing membrane of phyllostomid bats glossophaga soricina (pallas) from peru and anoura geoffroyi gray from several localities. females of the new species differ from those of c. matsoni by the short ...200818402134
distributions of the endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of nectarivorous and sanguivorous bats: a comparative immunocytochemical study.the present study was conducted to clarify the influence of feeding habits on regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells secreting cholecystokinin (cck), gastrin (gas), serotonin (5-ht) and enteroglucagon (gluc) in the nectarivorous anoura geoffroyi and glossophaga soricina and the sanguivorous desmodus rotundus bats of the phyllostomidae family, by specific immunohistochemical methods. the regional distribution and frequency of the different types of endocrine cells varied ...200919135221
chromosomal evolution among leaf-nosed nectarivorous bats--evidence from cross-species chromosome painting (phyllostomidae, chiroptera).new world leaf-nosed bats, phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. there are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented.201324369737
group a rotavirus in brazilian bats: description of novel t15 and h15 genotypes.this study aimed to survey for group a rotaviruses (rva) in bats from brazil and to perform phylogenetic inferences for vp4, vp7, nsp3, nsp4 and nsp5 genes. rva was found in 9.18 % (28/305) of tested samples. the partial genotype constellation of a molossus molossus rva strain was g3-p[3]-ix-rx-cx-mx-ax-nx-t3-e3-h6, and that of a glossophaga soricina rva strain was g20-p[x]-ix-rx-cx-mx-ax-nx-t15-ex-h15. these findings demonstrate an important role of bats in rva epidemiology and provide evidence ...201627518402
potential sympatric vectors and mammalian hosts of venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in southern mexico.arboviruses are important zoonotic agents with complex transmission cycles and are not well understood because they may involve many vectors and hosts. we studied sympatric wild mammals and hematophagous mosquitoes having the potential to act as hosts and vectors in two areas of southern mexico. mosquitoes, bats, and rodents were captured in calakmul (campeche) and montes azules (chiapas), between november 2010 and august 2011. spleen samples from 146 bats and 14 rodents were tested for molecula ...201728384059
coccidioides posadasii infection in bats, analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of histoplasma capsulatum in brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. although h. capsulatum was not isolated, coccidioides posadasii was recovered from carollia perspicillata bat lungs. immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in glossophaga soricina and desmodus rotundus bats.201222469192
bat flies on phyllostomid hosts in the cerrado region: component community, prevalence and intensity of parasitism.streblidae flies are specialised parasites of bat hosts, mainly phyllostomids. there is a high richness of streblids in the savannah-like cerrado region; however, there is little quantitative data available in parasitological indices. here, we describe the component community, prevalence and intensity of a streblid infestation on a phyllostomid bat assemblage in serra da bodoquena, a cerrado region in southwest brazil. we conducted surveys by capturing and inspecting bat hosts during the seven-m ...201121655813
[ectoparasitic flies (diptera: streblidae) of bats (mammalia: chiroptera) from são luís, maranhão, brazil: infestation rates and the host-parasite association].this study reports the first records of the parasitism rates of the association among ectoparasitic flies of the family streblidae found in phyllostomid bats in the state of maranhão. specimens were collected in patches of secondary forest and borders of mangrove in the village of quebra pote, located in the south portion of the island of são luís. a total of 201 flies of 15 species and eight genera [aspidoptera falcata wenzel, a. phyllostomatis (perty), mastoptera minuta costa lima, megistopoda ...200919943006
enteric co-innervation of esophageal striated muscle fibers: a phylogenetic study.enteric co-innervation of striated muscle fibers in the esophagus occurs in several mammalian species including humans. however, the functional significance is still unknown. phylogenetic data may be instrumental in gaining further insight. we examined the bat glossophaga soricina and the shrew suncus murinus as representatives for phylogenetically old mammals. as ruminants the antelope tragelaphus imberbis, the he-goat capra falconeri and the sheep ovis aries were selected. as non-mammals the c ...200919748835
bats go head-under-heels: the biomechanics of landing on a ceiling.bats typically roost head-under-heels but they cannot hover in this position, thus, landing on a ceiling presents a biomechanical challenge. to land, a bat must perform an acrobatic flip that brings the claws of the toes in contact with the ceiling and do so gently enough as to avoid injury to its slender hindlimbs. in the present study, we sought to determine how bats land, to seek a link between landing kinematics and ceiling impact forces, and to determine whether landing strategies vary amon ...200919282491
the intake responses of three species of leaf-nosed neotropical bats.flower-visiting bats encounter nectars that vary in both sugar composition and concentration. because in the new world, the nectars of bat-pollinated flowers tend to be dominated by hexoses, we predicted that at equicaloric concentrations, bats would ingest higher volumes of hexoses than sucrose-containing nectars. we investigated the intake response of three species of neotropical bats, leptonycteris curasoae, glossophaga soricina and artibeus jamaicensis, to sugar solutions of varying concentr ...200818183405
foraging in a complex naturalistic environment: capacity of spatial working memory in flower bats.memory systems have evolved under selection pressures, such as the need to remember the locations of resources or past events within spatiotemporally dynamic natural environments. the full repertoire of complex behaviours exhibited by animals in dynamic surroundings are, however, difficult to elicit within simply structured laboratory environments. we have developed a computer-controlled naturalistic environment with 64 feeders for simulating dynamic patterns of water or food resource availabili ...200515671342
dyssochroma viridiflorum (solanaceae): a reproductively bat-dependent epiphyte from the atlantic rainforest in brazil.few neotropical plant species seem to depend on the same animal type both for pollination and seed dispersal, and the known instances refer mostly to birds as the agents in these two phases of a plant reproductive cycle. dyssochroma viridiflorum (solanaceae), an epiphyte endemic to the atlantic rainforest in south-eastern brazil, was found to be visited by phyllostomid bats for nectar as well as for fruits, with the pollination and seed dispersal of the plant ensured by these flying mammals. the ...200314500325
reproductive patterns and feeding habits of three nectarivorous bats (phyllostomidae: glossophaginae) from the brazilian cerrado.the reproductive patterns and feeding habits of three sympatric nectarivorous bats, glossophaga soricina, anoura caudifera, and a. geoffroyi were studied in the pousada das araras natural reserve, located in central brazil. the bats were captured with mist nets from august 2000 to july 2001. reproductive condition was determined by external analyses of the specimens and feeding habits from fecal samples. glossophaga soricina was the most abundant species (65%), followed by a. geoffroyi (30%) and ...200312914427
effects of habitat disruption on the activity of nectarivorous bats (chiroptera: phyllostomidae) in a dry tropical forest: implications for the reproductive success of the neotropical tree ceiba the tropical dry forest of the central pacific coast of mexico the pollination and reproductive success of the bombacaceous tree ceiba grandiflora was negatively affected by habitat disruption. two of the three bat species that function as effective pollinators for this species ( glossophaga soricina and musonycteris harrisoni) visited flowers found in trees in disturbed habitats significantly less than trees found in undisturbed habitats. a similar pattern was observed for the effective bat ...200312721830
validation of a non-invasive blood-sampling technique for doubly-labelled water experiments.two techniques for bleeding small mammals have been used in doubly-labeled water (dlw) studies, including vena puncture and the use of starved nymphal stages of hematophagous reduviid bugs (reduviidae, hemiptera). in this study, we tested the validity of using reduviid bugs in doubly-labeled water experiments. we found that the isotope enrichment in initial blood samples collected with bugs was significantly lower compared to isotope enrichment in blood samples obtained using vena puncture. we t ...200312658714
low turnover rates of carbon isotopes in tissues of two nectar-feeding bat species.stable isotopes of carbon are commonly used to characterize dietary preferences in animals. because turnover rates of carbon isotopes are related to metabolic rate, we wanted to determine the rates at which carbon isotopes are exchanged in tissues of two species of nectar-feeding bats (leptonycteris curasoae and glossophaga soricina), both of which have relatively high mass-specific metabolic rates. to test the hypothesis that isotope turnover is higher in nectar-feeding bats, because of their h ...200312624176
the comparative phylogeography of neotropical mammals: patterns of intraspecific mitochondrial dna variation among bats contrasted to nonvolant small mammals.the major aim of this study was to compare the phylogeographic patterns of codistributed bats and small nonvolant neotropical mammals. cytochrome b sequences (mitochondrial dna) were obtained for a total of 275 bats representing 17 species. the tissue samples were collected in coastal brazil, and were available from mexico and the guyana. the study concentrates on four species (artibeus lituratus, carollia perspicillata, sturnira lilium and glossophaga soricina) which were well represented. the ...200010972770
zoo-fish analysis in a species of the order chiroptera: glossophaga soricina (phyllostomidae).glossophaga soricina is a flower-visiting bat which lives in the neotropics. the diploid chromosome number is 2n = 32 with a fundamental number of autosomal arms, fn, of 60. g. soricina belongs to the microchiroptera which have a lower diploid dna content and a higher at composition in their dna compared with other mammals. by zoo-fish analysis with human chromosome-specific dna probes, the human autosomes were found conserved in 41 segments. this is an arrangement similar to other mammals which ...199910219733
intestinal disaccharidases in five species of phyllostomoid bats.1. intestinal disaccharidases were studied in nectarivorous (leptonycteris curasoae and glossophaga soricina), frugivorous (artibeus jamaicensis and sturnira lilium), and insectivorous (pteronotus personatus) adult bats. 2. adult bats lacked measurable lactase activity. with the exception of trehalase activity, which was present only in p. personatus, nectar- and fruit-eating bats exhibited higher disaccharidase activities standardized by intestinal nominal area than insect-eating p. personatus. ...19921451428
identification of cortical germ cells in adult ovaries from three phyllostomid bats: artibeus jamaicensis, glossophaga soricina and sturnira is generally considered that, in mammals, the ovary is endowed with a finite number of oocytes at the time of birth. however, studies concerning rodents, lemurs and humans suggest the existence of stem cells from the germline that may be involved in germ-cell renewal, maintaining postnatal follicle development. this type of work on wild species is scarce; therefore the objective of this study was to determine ovarian morphology and the presence of progenitor cells from the germline of three s ...201322953782
absent or low rate of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus of bats (chiroptera).bats are the only flying mammals and have well developed navigation abilities for 3d-space. even bats with comparatively small home ranges cover much larger territories than rodents, and long-distance migration by some species is unique among small mammals. adult proliferation of neurons, i.e., adult neurogenesis, in the dentate gyrus of rodents is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning, as indicated by lesion studies and recordings of neurons active during spatial beha ...200717520014
sonar detection of jittering real targets in a free-flying bat.the auditory system measures time with exceptional precision. echolocating bats evaluate the time delay between call and echo to measure object range. an extreme and disputed result on ranging acuity was found in the virtual delay jitter experiments. in these studies, echoes with alternating delays were played back to bats, which detected a jitter down to 10 ns, corresponding to a ranging acuity of 1.7 microm. the current study was designed to measure the ranging acuity of the nectarivorous bat ...201020815481
flight muscle enzymes and metabolic flux rates during hovering flight of the nectar bat, glossophaga soricina: further evidence of convergence with hummingbirds.given their high metabolic rates, nectarivorous diet, and ability to directly fuel their energetically-expensive flight using recently-ingested sugar, we tested the hypothesis that pallas long tongued nectar bats (glossophaga soricina) possess flight muscles similar to those of hummingbirds with respect to enzymatic flux capacities in bioenergetic pathways. in addition, we compared these biochemical capacities with flux rates achieved in vivo during hovering flight. rates of oxygen consumption ( ...200919535035
[population dynamics, roost selection and reproductive patterns of some cave bats from western of mexico].population dynamics, roost selection and reproductive patterns of some cave bats from western of mexico. almost half of bat species that occur in mexico use caves as permanent or temporal roosts. however, the ecological studies about cave bat communities are scarce. in this work we studied the population dynamics, roost selection and reproductive patterns of some bats present in el salitre cave, colima, mexico. we carried out monthly samplings between august 2003-march 2005 using a harp trap for ...201223025105
morphophysiology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bats carollia perspicillata, glossophaga soricina and phyllostomus discolor (chiroptera: phyllostomidae).the male reproductive accessory glands (rags) are important organs that contribute to the secretion of different substances that composed the ejaculate. despite this important function, their composition, anatomy and function vary widely between species. thus, the rags of three species of phyllostomid bats were morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized and compared in this study. the rags of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (bg). ...201627425652
comparative analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of bat species from the five brazilian subfamilies of the family phyllostomidae (chiroptera).this study aimed to morphologically characterize and compare the male reproductive accessory glands (rags) of bats belonging to the five brazilian subfamilies of the family phyllostomidae (carollia perspicillata-carollinae; desmodus rotundus-desmodontinae; glossophaga soricina-glossophaginae; phyllostomus discolor-phyllostominae and platyrrhinus lineatus-stenodermatinae). the study demonstrated that the rags of phyllostomid bats were comprised of a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands an ...201525471705
the rod pathway of the microbat retina has bistratified rod bipolar cells and tristratified aii amacrine cells.we studied the retinal rod pathway of carollia perspicillata and glossophaga soricina, frugivorous microbats of the phyllostomid family. protein kinase cα (pkcα) immunolabeling revealed abundant rod bipolar cells (rbcs) with axon terminals in the innermost sublamina of the inner plexiform layer (ipl), which is typical for mammals. extraordinarily, the rbc axons showed additional synaptic contacts in a second sublamina further out in the ipl. dye injections of pkcα-prelabeled rbcs of c. perspicil ...201323325239
sucrose hydrolysis does not limit food intake by pallas's long-tongued bats.nectarivorous bats include very dilute nectar in their natural diet, and recent work with pallas's long-tongued bat glossophaga soricina showed that sugar (energy) intake rate decreased at dilute sucrose solutions. however, chiropterophillous nectar is composed mainly of the hexoses glucose and fructose. because bats fed hexose nectar would save the delay of hydrolyzing sucrose, we hypothesized that sugar intake rate should be higher on this diet than on sucrose nectar. we compared intake respon ...200818040979
cryptic species? patterns of maternal and paternal gene flow in eight neotropical bats.levels of sequence divergence at mitochondrial loci are frequently used in phylogeographic analysis and species delimitation though single marker systems cannot assess bi-parental gene flow. in this investigation i compare the phylogeographic patterns revealed through the maternally inherited mitochondrial coi region and the paternally inherited 7(th) intron region of the dby gene on the y-chromosome in eight common neotropical bat species. these species are diverse and include members of two fa ...201121814545
intraspecific scaling of flight power in the bat glossophaga soricina (phyllostomidae).aerodynamic theory predicts that power output during flight should vary with body mass by an exponent of 1.56 when wing morphology remains constant (within an individual), and by an exponent of 1.19 when wing morphology changes with body mass (within a species or between species). i tested these predictions by estimating the power input during horizontal flight in three pregnant and two subadult glossophaga soricina using a multivariate regression model. this analysis yielded power input during ...200011083523
effect of diet quality and ambient temperature on the use of torpor by two species of neotropical nectar-feeding bats.neotropical bats use torpor as a strategy to save energy when they experience a low energy intake and/or low ambient temperature (ta). digestive physiology limits the energy intake of several glossophaginid bats, and could play an important role in the onset of torpor in these tropical animals. we measured the effect that diet quality and ta had on the use of torpor by the nectar-feeding bats glossophaga soricina and leptonycteris yerbabuenae captive bats were fed with 5% (low) or 35% (high) suc ...201728250178
prevalence and intensity of streblidae in bats from a neotropical savanna region in brazil.bats of the family phyllostomidae are common hosts to streblids known as bat flies. here, we discuss the component community, prevalence and intensity of infection with species of streblidae on an assemblage of phyllostomid bats in the cafuringa environmental protection area (apa cafuringa) in the core area of the cerrado in central brazil. a total of 1 841 streblid individuals of 24 species occurred on 752 bats of 14 species. ten species of streblids infected glossophaga soricina (pallas), wher ...201627507561
learning where to feed: the use of social information in flower-visiting pallas' long-tongued bats (glossophaga soricina).social learning is a widespread phenomenon among vertebrates that influences various patterns of behaviour and is often reported with respect to foraging behaviour. the use of social information by foraging bats was documented in insectivorous, carnivorous and frugivorous species, but there are little data whether flower-visiting nectarivorous bats (phyllostomidae: glossophaginae) can acquire information about food from other individuals. in this study, we conducted an experiment with a demonstr ...201626497984
weber's law, the magnitude effect and discrimination of sugar concentrations in nectar-feeding's law quantifies the perception of difference between stimuli. for instance, it can explain why we are less likely to detect the removal of three nuts from a bowl if the bowl is full than if it is nearly empty. this is an example of the magnitude effect - the phenomenon that the subjective perception of a linear difference between a pair of stimuli progressively diminishes when the average magnitude of the stimuli increases. although discrimination performances of both human and animal sub ...201324040189
interval timing behavior in pallas's long-tongued bat (glossophaga soricina).timing behavior in animals and its underlying mechanisms have been investigated extensively in the peak procedure, a variant of fixed interval procedures. in such experiments, individuals typically start responding with high frequency after an initial inactive time interval and continue their responses after peak time if rewards are omitted. this begs the so far unexplored question as to how timing behavior is influenced when such continuous responses are suppressed. here, we present results fro ...201323875922
kinematics of flight and the relationship to the vortex wake of a pallas' long tongued bat (glossophaga soricina).to obtain a full understanding of the aerodynamics of animal flight, the movement of the wings, the kinematics, needs to be connected to the wake left behind the animal. here the detailed 3d wingbeat kinematics of bats, glossophaga soricina, flying in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (1-7 m s(-1)) was determined from high-speed video. the results were compared with the wake geometry and quantitative wake measurements obtained simultaneously to the kinematics. the wingbeat kinematics v ...201020511529
specialized bat tongue is a hemodynamic nectar mop.nectarivorous birds and bats have evolved highly specialized tongues to gather nectar from flowers. here, we show that a nectar-feeding bat, glossophaga soricina, uses dynamic erectile papillae to collect nectar. in g. soricina, the tip of the tongue is covered with long filamentous papillae and resembles a brush or mop. during nectar feeding, blood vessels within the tongue tip become engorged with blood and the papillae become erect. tumescence and papilla erection persist throughout tongue re ...201323650382
nitrogen and amino acids in nectar modify food selection of nectarivorous bats.1. chiropterophilic flowers secrete sugar nectar with low-nitrogen (n hereafter) content and small amounts of amino acids, which may function to attract animals; nevertheless, the role that micronutrients have on the foraging decisions of neotropical nectarivorous bats is unknown. 2. we offered the nectar specialist leptonycteris yerbabueanae and the omnivore glossophaga soricina pairs of experimental diets mimicking either the n content or the relative abundance of 17 amino acids found in the f ...201323550633
sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar selection in two species of neotropical nectar-eating bats.nectar-feeding bats play an important role in natural communities acting as pollinators; however, the characteristics that affect their food selection are unclear. here we explore the role that sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar concentration play on sugar selection of glossophaga soricina and leptonycteris yerbabuenae. we offered bats paired feeders containing sugar solutions of sucrose (s), glucose (g) or fructose (f) vs. pure water, and sucrose vs. 1:1 equicaloric solutions of glucose-fruct ...201323085289
isolation and characterization of 10 microsatellite loci for pallas' long-tongued bat glossophaga soricina (phyllostomidae).glossophaga soricina is a widespread neotropical nectarivorous bat. we characterized 10 microsatellite loci isolated from a shotgun genomic library. we analyzed tissues from wing membrane of 67 individuals collected from two populations of central brazil (brasília and alto paraíso). the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 20, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.015 to 0.666 and from 0.016 to 0.915, respectively. the high combined probability of genetic identity ...201223079846
morphological specialization influences nectar extraction efficiency of sympatric nectar-feeding bats.mammals frequently use nectar as a supplementary food, while a predominantly nectarivorous lifestyle with morphological specializations for this feeding mode is rare within the class. however, neotropical flower-visiting bats largely depend on nectar resources and show distinct adaptations to a nectar diet. glossophagine bats form local guilds of 2-6 species that may differ distinctly in skull morphology. it is still unknown how and to what extent this morphological diversity influences the effi ...201222899529
karyotypic variation in rhinophylla pumilio peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of phyllostomidae (chiroptera).the family phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. in this work, we present data of chromosome banding (g, c and ag-nor) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) for representatives of rhinophylla pumilio peters, 1865 collected in four states of brazil (amazonas, bahia, mato grosso and pará). two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, fn=6 ...201224260663
relationship between spatial working memory performance and diet specialization in two sympatric nectar bats.behavioural ecologists increasingly recognise spatial memory as one the most influential cognitive traits involved in evolutionary processes. in particular, spatial working memory (swm), i.e. the ability of animals to store temporarily useful information for current foraging tasks, determines the foraging efficiency of individuals. as a consequence, swm also has the potential to influence competitive abilities and to affect patterns of sympatric occurrence among closely related species. the pres ...201121931612
foraging behavior adjustments related to changes in nectar sugar concentration in phyllostomid bats.nectar-feeding bats regulate their food ingestion in response to changes in sugar concentration as a way to achieve a constant energy intake. however, their digestive capability to assimilate sugars can limit their total energy intake, particularly when sugar concentration in nectar is low. our experimental study evaluated the effect that changes in sugar concentration of nectar have on the foraging behavior of the nectar-feeding bats glossophaga soricina and leptonycteris yerbabuenae in captivi ...201121664982
high activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.high blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. we investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ...201121490011
seasonal intake responses in the nectar-feeding bat glossophaga intake in nectar-feeding animals is affected by food quality, their energetic demands, and the environmental conditions they face. these animals increase their food intake in response to a decrease in food quality, a behavior named "intake response". however, their capacity to achieve compensatory feeding, in which they maintain a constant flux of energy, could be constrained by physiological processes. here we evaluated how both a seasonal change in environmental conditions and physiologic ...200919151980
a nectar-feeding mammal avoids body fluid disturbances by varying renal maintain water and electrolyte balance, nectar-feeding vertebrates oscillate between two extremes: avoiding overhydration when feeding and preventing dehydration during fasts. several studies have examined how birds resolve this osmoregulatory dilemma, but no data are available for nectar-feeding mammals. in this article, we 1) estimated the ability of pallas's long-tongued bats (glossophaga soricina; phyllostomidae) to dilute and concentrate urine and 2) examined how water intake affected th ...200818945828
dietary sugar as a direct fuel for flight in the nectarivorous bat glossophaga is thought that the capacity of mammals to directly supply the energetic needs of exercising muscles using recently ingested fuels is limited. humans, for example, can only fuel about 30%, at most, of exercise metabolism with dietary sugar. using indirect calorimetry, i.e. measurement of rates of o(2) consumption and co(2) production, in combination with carbon stable isotope techniques, we found that nectarivorous bats glossophaga soricina use recently ingested sugars to provide approximatel ...200818203985
the near and far wake of pallas' long tongued bat (glossophaga soricina).the wake structures of a bat in flight have a number of characteristics not associated with any of the bird species studied to this point. unique features include discrete vortex rings generating negative lift at the end of the upstroke at medium and high speeds, each wing generating its own vortex loop, and a systematic variation in the circulation of the start and stop vortices along the wingspan, with increasing strength towards the wing tips. here we analyse in further detail some previously ...200818775928
biomechanics of the bat limb skeleton: scaling, material properties and mechanics.wing skeletons of bats are uniquely specialized for flight, reflecting both evolutionary history and the need to maintain structural integrity while generating aerodynamic forces.200818160803
a physiological perspective on nectar-feeding adaptation in phyllostomid bats.nectar-feeding animals increase their food intake when nectar sugar concentration decreases. however, some species present physiological constraints that limit their energy intake when nectar is diluted. we hypothesized that gut capacities of bats affect the ability of these animals to acquire and store energy, modifying how they use food resources in the field. we measured the food intake and changes in body mass of the members of an assemblage of nectar-feeding bats (choeronycteris mexicana, l ...201121897083
energetic cost of hovering flight in nectar-feeding bats (phyllostomidae: glossophaginae) and its scaling in moths, birds and bats.three groups of specialist nectar-feeders covering a continuous size range from insects, birds and bats have evolved the ability for hovering flight. among birds and bats these groups generally comprise small species, suggesting a relationship between hovering ability and size. in this study we established the scaling relationship of hovering power with body mass for nectar-feeding glossophagine bats (phyllostomidae). employing both standard and fast-response respirometry, we determined rates of ...199910093905
the cost of hovering and forward flight in a nectar-feeding bat, glossophaga soricina, estimated from aerodynamic expenditure during flight in animals can best be understood and quantified when both theoretical and empirical approaches are used concurrently. this paper examines one of four methods that we have used to estimate the cost of flight in a neotropical nectar-feeding bat glossophaga soricina (phyllostomidae), namely the use of kinematic and morphological data and aerodynamic theory to estimate the mechanical power requirements (power output) for hovering and horizontal forward flight. a hot ...19938228780
the basal or indifferent cell and the ciliary vacuole in the oviducal epithelium of the long-tongued bat, glossophaga soricina. 19725046645
seasonal changes in the diets of migrant and non-migrant nectarivorous bats as revealed by carbon stable isotope analysis.three species of nectar-feeding bats migrate from tropical and subtropical mexico into the sonoran and chihuahuan deserts during the spring and summer months. we examined geographic and seasonal changes in the diet of one migrant species, leptonycteris curasoae, using carbon stable isotope techniques to determine the relative importance of c3 and cam (cactaceae, agavaceae) plants in its diet. we also examined the diet of a non-migratory nectar-feeding bat, glossophaga soricina, from southern mex ...199328313861
differential transport of embryos and degenerating ova by the oviducts of the long-tongued bat, glossophaga soricina.female long-tongued bats which had been maintained in sexually segregated groups in captivity for more than 8 months were bred and killed at various intervals between days 1 and 25 post coitum. their reproductive tracts were then examined histologically. in 20 of the 28 bats carrying tubal embryos the remnants of 1-4 other ova were also observed in the oviductal ampullae. these remnants consisted of intact zonae pellucidae containing cellular debris, empty zonae, and/or zona fragments. since lon ...1979439066
weight loss and temperature regulation in clustered versus individual glossophaga soricina. 19762420
reproduction in the long-tongued bat, glossophaga soricina. ii. implantation and early embryonic development. 19744810014
polarized ovaries of the long-tongued bat, glossophaga soricina: a novel model for studying ovarian development, folliculogenesis, and ovulation.glossophaga soricina is a spontaneously ovulating, monovular, polyestrous bat with a simplex uterus, exhibiting true menstruation. studies conducted on reproductively active, captive-maintained animals established that g. soricina also has polarized ovaries, with the ovarian surface epithelium (ose) restricted to the medial side of the ovary, and primordial follicles limited to an immediately adjacent zone. follicles selected for further development are recruited from the medullary side of this ...200717929278
care and management of the long-tongued bat, glossophaga soricina (chiroptera: phyllostomatidae), in the laboratory, with observations on estivation induced by food deprivation. 19734706247
reproduction in the long-tongued bat, glossophaga soricina. i. preimplantation development and histology of the oviduct. 19724118051
how to budget metabolic energy: torpor in a small neotropical mammal.neotropical nectar-feeding bats (glossophaginae) are highly specialized in the exploitation of floral nectar and have one of the highest mass-specific metabolic rates among mammals. nevertheless, they are distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics over a wide elevational range, and thus encounter many extreme and energetically challenging environmental conditions. depressing their otherwise high metabolic rate, e.g., in situations of food restriction, might be an important adaptive physio ...200717487493
lack of generalization of object discrimination between spatial contexts by a bat.discrimination and generalization are important elements of cognition in the daily lives of animals. nectar-feeding bats detect flowers by olfaction and probably vision, but also use echolocation and echo-perception of flowers in immediate target surroundings. the echo received from an interference-rich flower corolla is a function of a bat's own relative position in space. this raises the question how easily a free-flying bat will generalize an echo stimulus from a learning situation to a new s ...200617114412
psychometric function for nectar volume perception of a flower-visiting bat.for foraging pollinators one aspect of floral quality is the volume of nectar available. thus, nectar-feeding animals should be able to estimate volumes of received nectar. in this study, we determined the psychometric function for nectar volume discrimination of a neotropical flower-visiting bat glossophaga soricina. for this, we examined the ability of bats to discriminate between two nectar volumes in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. we used a bayesian inference approach to determine ...200717106703
wing beat kinematics of a nectar-feeding bat, glossophaga soricina, flying at different flight speeds and strouhal numbers.high-speed film analysis showed that the wing beat kinematics in glossophaga soricina change gradually with increasing flight speed, indicating that there is no sudden gait change at any particular, critical, flight speed. the flight of two adult specimens was studied over a range of flight speeds (1.23-7.52 ms(-1)) in a 30 m long flight tunnel. during the upstroke in hovering and slow flight there is a tip-reversal or supination of the handwings, which thus produce a backward flick. this backwa ...200616985205
size discrimination of hollow hemispheres by echolocation in a nectar feeding bat.nectar feeding bats use echolocation to find their flowers in the dense growth of tropical rainforests, and such flowers have evolved acoustic features that make their echo more conspicuous to their pollinators. to shed light on the sensory and cognitive basis of echoacoustic object recognition we conducted a size discrimination experiment with the nectarivorous bat glossophaga soricina and compared the bats' behavioural performance with the echoic features of the training objects. we chose a si ...200616943500
ammonia excretion increased and urea excretion decreased in urine of a new world nectarivorous bat with decreased nitrogen intake.we determined the effect of water and nitrogen intake on nitrogenous waste composition in the nectarivorous pallas's long-tongued bat glossophaga soricina (phyllostomidae) to test the hypothesis that bats reduce excretion of urea nitrogen and increase the excretion of ammonia nitrogen as nitrogen intake decreases and water intake decreases. because changes in urine nitrogen composition are expected only in animals whose natural diets are low in nitrogen and high in water content, we also measure ...201316826506
effect of diet quality on carbon and nitrogen turnover and isotopic discrimination in blood of a new world nectarivorous composition of carbon and nitrogen (c:n) could affect diet-tissue isotopic discrimination and elemental turnover rate in consumers but studies that test the nature of these changes are scarce. we compared carbon and nitrogen isotopic discrimination and turnover rates in individuals of pallas' long-tongued bats glossophaga soricina fed diets with protein soya isolate or amaranth grains as their main source of protein. diets were of similar protein biological value but the soya diet had highe ...200616424104
physiological constraint to food ingestion in a new world nectarivorous bat.we investigated the intake response of the nectarivorous pallas's long-tongued bat glossophaga soricina to different nectar concentrations to test the hypothesis that bats show compensatory feeding. bats were offered sucrose solutions between 146 and 1,168 mmol l(-1). contrary to our expectations, long-tongued bats did not show compensatory feeding, suggesting that volumetric food intake is physiologically constrained. energy intake was lower at the most dilute solutions (146-584 mmol l(-1)) and ...200616228942
blood-sucking bugs as a gentle method for blood-collection in water budget studies using doubly labelled water.during doubly-labelled water (dlw) experiments, blood collection by venous puncture may traumatize animals and consequently affect the animals' behaviour and energy budget. recent studies have shown that blood-sucking bugs (triatominae; heteroptera) can be used instead of conventional needles to obtain blood from animals. in this paper, we validate the bug method in captive nectar-feeding bats, glossophaga soricina, for water budget analysis by comparing the daily water flux estimated with the d ...200516146702
the power requirements (glossophaginae: phyllostomidae) in nectar-feeding bats for clinging to flowers.nectar-feeding bats are the heaviest pollinators exploiting flowers in a hovering foraging mode. as hovering flight is considered to be energetically costly, clinging to flowers would be beneficial from an energetic perspective. i examined the rate of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide release during clinging flower visitation in two 10-g glossophaga soricina (glossophinae: phyllostomidae) to evaluate the potential energetic benefit of clinging versus hovering. in addition, i measured the dur ...200415316726
the north-east-brazilian liana, adenocalymna dichilum (bignoniaceae) pollinated by bats.of the set of syndromes displayed by specialized (euphilic) flowers, adaptation to pollination by bats (chiropterophily) is the least known. accumulated new evidence reveals that this pollination mode plays a considerable role in tropical communities, especially in the neotropics. one family in which bat-pollinated species are known in several genera is the bignoniaceae. here is reported, for the first time, bat pollination and floral ecology in adenocalymna dichilum (tribe bignonieae).200415037447
ultraviolet vision in a bat.most mammals, with the exception of primates, have dichromatic vision and correspondingly limited colour perception. ultraviolet vision was discovered in mammals only a decade ago, and in the few rodents and marsupials where it has been found, ultraviolet light is detected by an independent photoreceptor. bats orient primarily by echolocation, but they also use vision. here we show that a phyllostomid flower bat, glossophaga soricina, is colour-blind but sensitive to ultraviolet light down to a ...200314534585
reproductive energetics of the nectar-feeding bat glossophaga soricina (phyllostomidae).pregnancy and lactation are energetically demanding periods for female mammals. unique amongst mammals, bats have to allocate considerable amounts of energy into their offspring because juveniles cannot be weaned until they are capable of flying at almost adult size. similar to other bat species, female nectar-feeding bats should increase their energy intake after parturition to meet the energy demands of offspring growth. however, previous studies have shown that nectar-feeding bats differ from ...200312592446
sulphur-containing "perfumes" attract flower-visiting bats.we tested the attractiveness of individual scent compounds of bat-pollinated flowers to their pollinators, small flower-visiting bats of the genus glossophaga (phyllostomidae). twenty compounds belonging to four different chemical substance classes were tested, both in the laboratory and in the field. in the laboratory, the bats (glossophaga soricina) approached odour sources spontaneously and without preceding experience. without ever receiving any reward they preferred the scent of a sulphur-c ...200010707312
flight speed and body mass of nectar-feeding bats (glossophaginae) during foraging.aerodynamic theory predicts that minimum power (vmp) and maximum range (vmr) flight speeds increase when the body mass of an individual animal increases. to evaluate whether foraging bats regulate their flight speed within a fixed speed category relative to vmp or vmr, i investigated how the natural daily changes in body mass caused by feeding affected the flight speed of neotropical nectar-feeding bats (phyllostomidae: glossophaginae) within a strictly defined, stereotyped behavioural context. ...199910377273
energetic cost of hovering flight in a nectar-feeding bat measured with fast-response respirometry.hover-feeding glossophagine bats provide, in addition to the hummingbirds, a second vertebrate model for the analysis of hovering flight based on metabolic measurement and aerodynamic theory. in this study, the power input of hovering glossophaga soricina bats (11.9 g) was measured by standard respirometry and fast-response (< 0.2 s) oxygen analysis. bats needed 5-7 s after a rest-to-flight transition to return to a respiratory steady state. therefore, only hovering events preceeded by a 7-s fli ...19989747523
gas exchange during hovering flight in a nectar-feeding bat glossophaga soricina.glossophagine nectar-feeding bats exploit flowers while hovering in front of them. aerodynamic theory predicts that power output for hovering flight in glossophaga soricina is 2.6 times higher than during horizontal flight. we tested this prediction by measuring rates of gas exchange during hover-feeding. five individuals of glossophaga soricina (mean mass 11.7 g) were trained to feed from a nectar dispenser designed as a flow-through respirometry mask. single hover-feeding events lasted for up ...19989405311
atlantic bats: a dataset of bat communities from the atlantic forests of south america.bats are the second most diverse mammal order and they provide vital ecosystem functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient flux in caves) and services (e.g., crop pest suppression). bats are also important vectors of infectious diseases, harboring more than 100 different virus types. in the present study, we compiled information on bat communities from the atlantic forests of south america, a species-rich biome that are highly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. atlantic ...201728875505
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